Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody C225 inhibits angiogenesis in human transitional cell carcinoma growing orthotopically in nude mice. (1/5340)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates the growth and progression of human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. We have shown that therapy targeting EGFR inhibited the growth of human TCC established orthotopically in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether EGFR-directed therapy affects angiogenesis associated with the growth and metastasis of human TCC. We determined the cytostatic effect and the effect on production of angiogenic factors after in vitro treatment of the human TCC cell line 253J B-V with MAb C225, a chimerized monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. The 253J B-V cells were implanted orthotopically into athymic nude mice, and established tumors (4 weeks) were treated with i.p. MAb C225. Expression of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ mRNA hybridization analyses and correlated with microvessel density evaluated after immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD31. In vitro treatment with MAb C225 inhibited mRNA and protein production of VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF by 253J B-V cells in a dose-dependent manner. MAb C225 therapy of nude mice with established TCCs growing orthotopically resulted in inhibition of growth and metastasis compared with controls (P <0.0005). VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF expression was significantly lower in treated tumors than in controls. The down-regulation of these angiogenic factors preceded the involution of blood vessels. These studies indicate that therapy with anti-EGFR MAb C225 has a significant antitumor effect mediated, in part, by inhibition of angiogenesis.  (+info)

A sialoglycoprotein, gp20, of the human capacitated sperm surface is a homologue of the leukocyte CD52 antigen: analysis of the effect of anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody (CAMPATH-1) on capacitated spermatozoa. (2/5340)

In this study we performed N-terminal sequence analysis of gp20, a 20 kDa sialoglycoprotein on the human sperm surface previously identified by radiolabelling of the sialic acid residues of sperm surface. We found 100% identity with the N-terminus of CD52, an antigen expressed on almost all human leukocytes. We also show that, like CD52, gp20 behaves as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and that anti-gp20 antiserum reacts with an antigen on leukocytes of the same molecular weight as CD52. Using CAMPATH-1, the monoclonal antibody against CD52, in fluorescent staining of capacitated spermatozoa, Western blot analysis and the zona-free hamster egg penetration test, we found that the effect of this antibody was different from that of our anti-gp20. Western blot analysis revealed a well-defined 20 kDa band with anti-gp20, whereas a 14-20 kDa band was detected with CAMPATH-1. Anti-gp20 stained the equatorial region of the sperm head, whereas CAMPATH-1 stained the tail in immunofluorescence analysis of capacitated spermatozoa. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect was seen with CAMPATH-1, similar to that previously detected with anti-gp20, in a zona-free hamster egg penetration test. However, with CAMPATH-1 agglutination of motile spermatozoa was detected, and this was not present with anti-gp20. This suggests that the epitopes recognized by the two antibodies are different.  (+info)

Elimination of the immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies. (3/5340)

The immunogenicity of therapeutic Abs limits their long-term use. The processes of complementarity-determining region grafting, resurfacing, and hyperchimerization diminish mAb immunogenicity by reducing the number of foreign residues. However, this does not prevent anti-idiotypic and anti-allotypic responses following repeated administration of cell-binding Abs. Classical studies have demonstrated that monomeric human IgG is profoundly tolerogenic in a number of species. If cell-binding Abs could be converted into monomeric non-cell-binding tolerogens, then it should be possible to pretolerize patients to the therapeutic cell-binding form. We demonstrate that non-cell-binding minimal mutants of the anti-CD52 Ab CAMPATH-1H lose immunogenicity and can tolerize to the "wild-type" Ab in CD52-expressing transgenic mice. This finding could have utility in the long-term administration of therapeutic proteins to humans.  (+info)

Cooperative inhibitory effect of novel mixed backbone oligonucleotide targeting protein kinase A in combination with docetaxel and anti-epidermal growth factor-receptor antibody on human breast cancer cell growth. (4/5340)

Type I protein kinase A (PKAI) is overexpressed in the majority of human tumors and plays a relevant role in neoplastic transformation, conveying mitogenic signals of different growth factors and oncogenes. Inhibition of PKAI by antisense oligonucleotides targeting its RIalpha regulatory subunit results in cancer cell growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo. We have recently shown that a mixed backbone oligonucleotide targeting RIalpha can cooperatively inhibit human cancer cell growth when combined with selected cytotoxic drugs. In the present study, we have used HYB 165, a novel DNA/RNA hybrid mixed backbone oligonucleotide that exhibits improved pharmacokinetic and bioavailability properties in vivo and is presently undergoing Phase I trials. We have shown that HYB 165 exhibits a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ZR-75-1 cells and a cooperative activity with docetaxel, a cytotoxic drug active in breast cancer. The antiproliferative activity is accompanied by increased apoptosis, as compared with each single agent. On the basis of our previous demonstration of a structural and functional relation between PKAI and epidermal growth factor receptor, we have performed a double blockade of these pathways using HYB 165 in combination with monoclonal antibody (MAb) C225, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor chimeric MAb. The two compounds determined a cooperative growth inhibitory effect on ZR-75-1 cells and increased apoptosis. To study whether different biological agents and cytotoxic drugs can interact together, low doses of HYB 165, MAb C225, and docetaxel were combined causing an even greater cooperative effect toward growth inhibition. Finally, we have demonstrated that each single agent is able to induce bcl-2 phosphorylation and that the three agents, used in combination at suboptimal doses, determine a greater degree of bcl-2 phosphorylation and cause apoptosis of the majority of ZR-75-1 cells. These findings provide the basis for a novel strategy of treatment of breast cancer patients because both HYB 165 and MAb C225 are presently under clinical evaluation.  (+info)

Antitumor activity of sequential treatment with topotecan and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody C225. (5/5340)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related proteins such as transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) control cancer cell growth through autocrine and paracrine pathways. Overexpression of TGF-alpha and/or its receptor (EGFR) has been associated with a more aggressive disease and a poor prognosis. The blockade of EGFR activation has been proposed as a target for anticancer therapy. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) C225 is an anti-EGFR humanized chimeric mouse MAb that is presently in Phase II clinical trials in cancer patients. Previous studies have suggested the potentiation of the antitumor activity of certain cytotoxic drugs, such as cisplatin and doxorubicin, in human cancer cell lines by treatment with anti-EGFR antibodies. We have evaluated in human ovarian, breast, and colon cancer cell lines, which express functional EGFR, the antiproliferative activity of MAb C225 in combination with topotecan, a cytotoxic drug that specifically inhibits topoisomerase I and that has shown antitumor activity in these malignancies. A dose-dependent supraadditive increase of growth inhibition in vitro was observed when cancer cells were treated with topotecan and MAb C225 in a sequential schedule. In this respect, the cooperativity quotient, defined as the ratio between the actual growth inhibition obtained by treatment with topotecan followed by MAb C225 and the sum of the growth inhibition achieved by each agent, ranged from 1.2 to 3, depending on drug concentration and cancer cell line. Treatment with MAb C225 also markedly enhanced apoptotic cell death induced by topotecan. For example, in GEO colon cancer cells, 5 nM topotecan, followed by 0.5 microg/ml MAb C225, induced apoptosis in 45% cells as compared with untreated cells (6%) or to 5 nM topotecan-treated cells (22%). Treatment of mice bearing established human GEO colon cancer xenografts with topotecan or with MAb C225 determined a transient inhibition of tumor growth because GEO tumors resumed the growth rate of untreated tumors at the end of the treatment period. In contrast, an almost complete tumor regression was observed in all mice treated with the two agents in combination. This determined a prolonged life span of the mice that was significantly different as compared with controls (P < 0.001), to MAb C225-treated group (P < 0.001), or to the topotecan-treated group (P < 0.001). All mice of the topotecan plus MAb C225 group were the only animals alive 14 weeks after tumor cell injection. Furthermore, 20% of mice in this group were still alive after 19 weeks. The combined treatment with MAb C225 and topotecan was well tolerated by mice with no signs of acute or delayed toxicity. These results provide a rationale for the evaluation of the anticancer activity of the combination of topoisomerase I inhibitors and anti-EGFR blocking MAbs in clinical trials.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor receptor blockade with C225 modulates proliferation, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. (6/5340)

We examined effects of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody C225 on proliferation, cell cycle phase distribution, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines derived from head and neck cancer patients. Exposure to C225 in culture inhibits SCC proliferation in a time-dependent manner, and the degree of growth inhibition, compared to controls, ranges from 20 to 75%. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrates that C225 treatment induces accumulation of cells in G1, which is accompanied by a 2-3-fold decrease in the percentage of cells in S phase. C225 exposure also induces apoptosis in SCC populations, as demonstrated by flow cytometry analysis using dual stainings of merocyanine 540 and Hoechst 33342. Western blot analysis indicates that C225 exposure induces accumulation of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein and increases expression of p27KIP1. An increase in Bax expression and concurrent decrease in Bcl-2 expression are observed when SCC cells are exposed to C225. Examination of C225 effects on radiation response in SCCs demonstrates enhancement in radiosensitivity and amplification of radiation-induced apoptosis. These effects are observed in both single-dose and fractionated radiation experiments. C225 represents a promising growth-inhibitory agent that can influence cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity in SCCs of the head and neck.  (+info)

Safety and pharmacokinetics of an intramuscular monoclonal antibody (SB 209763) against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants and young children at risk for severe RSV disease. (7/5340)

We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of a humanized monoclonal antibody against a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein (SB 209763) to evaluate its safety, pharmacokinetics, and fusion inhibition and neutralization titers. Forty-three infants who were either delivered prematurely (+info)

Inhibitory effects of combinations of HER-2/neu antibody and chemotherapeutic agents used for treatment of human breast cancers. (8/5340)

Previous studies have demonstrated a synergistic interaction between rhuMAb HER2 and the cytotoxic drug cisplatin in human breast and ovarian cancer cells. To define the nature of the interaction between rhuMAb HER2 and other classes of cytotoxic drugs, we applied multiple drug effect/combination index (CI) isobologram analysis to a variety of chemotherapeutic drug/rhuMAb HER2 combinations in vitro. Synergistic interactions at clinically relevant drug concentrations were observed for rhuMAb HER2 in combination with cisplatin (CI=0.48, P=0.003), thiotepa (CI=0.67, P=0.0008), and etoposide (CI=0.54, P=0.0003). Additive cytotoxic effects were observed with rhuMAb HER2 plus doxorubicin (CI=1.16, P=0.13), paclitaxel (CI=0.91, P=0.21), methotrexate (CI=1.15, P=0.28), and vinblastine (CI=1.09, P=0.26). One drug, 5-fluorouracil, was found to be antagonistic with rhuMAb HER2 in vitro (CI=2.87, P=0.0001). In vivo drug/rhuMAb HER2 studies were conducted with HER-2/neu-transfected, MCF7 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice. Combinations of rhuMAb HER2 plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, methotrexate, etoposide, and vinblastine in vivo resulted in a significant reduction in xenograft volume compared to chemotherapy alone (P<0.05). Xenografts treated with rhuMAb HER2 plus 5-fluorouracil were not significantly different from 5-fluorouracil alone controls consistent with the subadditive effects observed with this combination in vitro. The synergistic interaction of rhuMAb HER2 with alkylating agents, platinum analogs and topoisomerase II inhibitors, as well as the additive interaction with taxanes, anthracyclines and some antimetabolites in HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells demonstrates that these are rational combinations to test in human clinical trials.  (+info)

Maintenance therapy is associated with improved survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but few studies have compared active agents in this setting. In a phase III trial (AVAPERL trial) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Fabrice Barlesi, MD, PhD, of Aix Marseille University-Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille, and colleagues, patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC who had disease control after first-line treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (Avastin) had significantly prolonged progression-free survival with maintenance bevacizumab/pemetrexed (Alimta) compared with bevacizumab alone.1 Toxicity was increased with bevacizumab/pemetrexed, although no new safety signals were observed.. Study Details. In this open-label multicenter trial, 376 patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC received first-line bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg, cisplatin 75 mg/m2, and pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks for four cycles. Of these, 269 (72%) achieved disease control ...
This approval is based on results from the Phase 3 iLLUMINATE study (PCYC-1130). At a median follow-up of 31 months, Imbruvica plus obinutuzumab showed a significant improvement in Independent Review Committee (IRC)-evaluated progression-free survival compared with chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab (median not evaluable [NE] vs. 19 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0.23; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.37; P,0.0001), with a 77 percent reduction in risk of progression or death. Patients with high-risk disease (17p deletion/TP53 mutation, 11q deletion, or unmutated IGHV) treated with Imbruvica plus obinutuzumab experienced an 85 percent reduction in risk of progression or death (HR 0.15; 95 percent CI: 0.09-0.27). The IRC-evaluated overall response rate was 89 percent in the Imbruvica plus obinutuzumab arm versus 73 percent in the chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab arm. The data were recently presented in an oral session at the 2018 American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and ...
The primary objective of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy of the dose level/regimen of everolimus recommended from the Phase I with trastuzumab and paclitaxel (PT) therapy in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer whose disease progressed on/after trastuzumab mono-and/or combination therapy based on the evaluation of objective response rate (ORR) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Objective response rate (ORR) was defined as the proportion of patients with a best overall response (BOR) of complete response (CR) or partial response (PR). Only patients with measurable disease (the presence of at least one measurable lesion) at baseline were included in the study. CR = Disappearance of all target lesions; PR = At least a 30% decrease in the sum of the longest diameter of all target lesions, taking as reference the baseline sum of the longest diameters ...
This open-label, multicenter study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of obinutuzumab [RO5072759 (GA101)] in combination with CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, Prednisone) chemotherapy in patients with advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Patients will receive 8 cycles of obinutuzumab (1000 mg intravenously on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle, during Cycle 1 obinutuzumab will also be infused on Days 8 and 15) in combination with CHOP chemotherapy on Day 1 of cycles 1 to 6. A substudy will investigate the drug-drug interaction of obinutuzumab with CHOP chemotherapy agents. For the substudy, an additional cohort of approximately 15 patients are planned to be enrolled at a subset of investigational sites ...
Escalation to weekly dosing recaptures response in adalimumab-treated patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of neoplasm-related death in the United States. Several studies analyzed the efficacy of bevacizumab combined with different chemotherapy regimens consisting on drugs such as 5-FU, capecitabine, irinotecan and oxaliplatin. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab versus chemotherapy alone in patients with previously untreated advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Several databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CENTRAL. The primary endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival. Data extracted from the studies were combined by using hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). The final analysis included 9 trials comprising 3,914 patients. Patients who received the combined treatment (chemotherapy + bevacizumab) had higher response rates (RR =
Read about guidelines issued by team of neurologists for the monitoring of MS patients on natalizumab treatment and at risk of developing PML.
Trastuzumab (Herceptin; Genentech/Roche, South San Francisco, CA, USA), the first available HER2-targeted therapy, is a humanized murine IgG monoclonal antibody that binds to the HER2 ECD. Its antitumor activity has not been completely ascertained, however, it is thought to result from a combination of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, inhibition of cleavage of the ECD of the HER2 (8), decreased DNA repair, decreased intracellular signal transduction and anti-angiogenic effects (9,10). Trastuzumab-based treatment strategy has established a milestone in the therapy of HER2-positive breast cancer with attractive clinical benefits in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, as well as adjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy.. Adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) was based on the pivotal phase III trial in which 469 women with HER2-positive MBC were randomized to receive standard chemotherapy ...
06 Dec 2017. A combination of pembrolizumab and trastuzumab, tested in patients with trastuzumab-resistant advanced HER2-positive breast cancer, was well tolerated and had clinical benefit in patients whose tumors were positive for a biomarker for pembrolizumab, according to data presented from the phase Ib/II PANACEA trial at the 2017 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 5-9.. We wanted to investigate if immunotherapy approaches can work in patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer that is resistant to trastuzumab, said Sherene Loi, MD, PhD, associate professor at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne, Australia, working with the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG).. It is estimated that approximately 20 percent of invasive breast cancers are HER2-positive, and some of these patients develop resistance to trastuzumab, a HER2-specific monoclonal antibody utilized for treatment of the disease.. Loi and colleagues hypothesized that immunotherapy may help to ...
In this report, we describe the unexpected finding that cetuximab-based therapy is associated with an increase in CTLA-4+Foxp3+ Treg in the circulation and in the microenvironment in treated patients with HNSCC from two independent clinical trial cohorts. Indeed, higher levels of Treg correlated with worse prognosis in cetuximab-treated patients with HNSCC, as recently seen in lung cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (31). For the first time, we also show that intratumoral NK cell activation and cytotoxicity occurs during cetuximab therapy, which is primarily inhibited by Treg-derived TGFβ1, providing a mechanism for their suppressive effect and impact on clinical course of the disease. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NK cells can selectively eliminate intratumoral Treg in the presence of ipilimumab, which induces recovery of cetuximab ADCC activity from Treg suppression. Importantly, the suppressive effect of these Treg could be substantially abrogated by ipilimumab-mediated NK cell ...
Trastuzumab is a drug used for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients. Due to blockage of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 signaling in cardiac myocytes, cardiotoxicity has been observed. There are many studies that investigated risk factors for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity, but no study has been published for factors on the time to cardiotoxicity. This study aimed to investigate the factors for the time to occur trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity. From January 2014 to December 2015, a retrospective study was performed with breast cancer patients who were treated with trastuzumab. Associations between presence of and time to cardiotoxicity and various factors were analyzed. Based on multivariate models, it was found that baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 62.5% (AHR 5.96, 95% CI 2543-13.95) and anthracycline-based chemotherapy (AHR 7.90, 95% CI 1.05-59.71) were significant factors for time to cardiotoxicity after adjusting other confounding ...
Rituximab plus polychemotherapy is standard of care in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). GAINED trial compares obinutuzumab to rituximab. GAINED (NCT01659099) is an open-label, randomized phase 3 trial. Transplant-eligible patients (18-60yrs) with untreated aged-adjusted international prognostic index (aaIPI) ≥1 DLBCL were randomized (1:1) between obinutuzumab or rituximab. Patients were stratified by aaIPI (1; 2-3) and chemotherapy regimen (ACVBP; CHOP). Consolidation treatment was determined according to response assessed by centrally reviewed interim semi-quantitative PET. Responders after cycle 2 and 4 (PET2-/PET4-) received planned immuno-chemotherapy consolidation. Responders only after cycle 4 (PET2+/4-) received high-dose methotrexate plus transplantation. The primary objective was an 8% improvement (HR=0.73; 80% power; alpha risk 2.5%; one-sided) in 2-year event-free survival (EFS) in the obinutuzumab arm. Events included death, progression, PET 2 or 4 positivity, modification of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combination of Two Targeted Medications (Bevacizumab Plus Cetuximab) Improve the Therapeutic Response of Pancreatic Carcinoma. AU - Tai, Cheng Jeng. AU - Huang, Ming Te. AU - Wu, Chih Hsiung. AU - Wang, Chien Kai. AU - Tai, Chen Jei. AU - Chang, Chun Chao. AU - Hsieh, Cheng I.. AU - Chang, Yu Jia. AU - Wu, Chang Jer. AU - Kuo, Li Jen. AU - Wei, Po Lei. AU - Chen, Ray Jade. AU - Chiou, Hung Yi. PY - 2016/4/1. Y1 - 2016/4/1. N2 - The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of the targeted medications, bevacizumab and cetuximab, in combination with cytostatic drugs in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. In this retrospective phase 2 study, a total of 59 patients with pancreatic cancer were recruited and received conventional (gemcitabine, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) or targeted regimen (conventional plus bevacizumab and cetuximab for the first cycle) in 2-week intervals for four cycles. The primary end-point for this study ...
Obinutuzumab is a cancer medication that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. Obinutuzumab is used in combination with another cancer medicine called chlorambucil to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Obinutuzumab is also used in combination with a cancer medicine called bendamustine to...
It is reported that pertuzumab and trastuzumab bind to different domains of HER2. A previous study showed that pertuzumab and trastuzumab were oriented at different angles with respect to HER2 after binding to HER2, by using a 3D structure model of the Fab region of pertuzumab and trastuzumab and p185HER2 (27). As shown in Figure 1A, binding of whole IgG to HER2 ECD protein, pertuzumab would not interfere with the binding of trastuzumab on HER2, even though both antibodies are displayed in their whole IgG conformation. This result indicates that pertuzumab and trastuzumab could have combination effects on antitumor activity.. We examined the efficacy of pertuzumab and trastuzumab in vivo. The reason for in vivo study is that the in vivo models indicate the efficacy of this antitumor activity more accurately because trastuzumab or pertuzumab have a mechanism through ADCC activity. We used NCI-N87 and 4-1ST as HER2-positive models. NCI-N87 and 4-1ST were determined as HER2 2+ and 3+, respectively ...
A translational research project aiming to identify predictive markers for response to bevacizumab treatment in HER2-negative breast cancer from GeparQuinto study has been published in Clinical Cancer Research.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trastuzumab-Induced Cardiomyopathy. AU - Guglin, Maya. AU - Cutro, Raymond. AU - Mishkin, Joseph D.. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - Trastuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of advanced breast cancer. It improves survival and increases response to chemotherapy. The major side effect of trastuzumab is cardiotoxicity manifesting as a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, either asymptomatic or with signs and symptoms of heart failure. Although reversible in most cases, cardiotoxicity frequently results in the discontinuation of trastuzumab. The objective of this review is to summarize facts about trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity and to highlight the areas of future investigations. We searched PubMed for trials involving trastuzumab used as an adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, including the metastatic breast cancer setting, and focused on cardiotoxicity.. AB - Trastuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody used ...
SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO -- Genentech has given compounding pharmacies a months reprieve from its plan to stop selling them bevacizumab (Avastin), which they repackage as a low-cost alternative to ranibiz
1. Ross JS, Slodkowska EA, Symmans WF, Pusztai L, Ravdin PM, Hortobagyi GN. The HER-2 receptor and breast cancer: ten years of targeted anti-HER-2 therapy and personalized medicine. Oncologist 2009;14:320-368. 2. Nahta R, Hung MC, Esteva FJ. The HER-2-targeting antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab synergistically inhibit the survival of breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2004;64:2343-2346. 3. Scheuer W, Friess T, Burtscher H, Bossenmaier B, Endl J, Hasmann M. Strongly enhanced antitumor activity of trastuzumab and pertuzumab combination treatment on HER2-positive human xenograft tumor models. Cancer Res 2009;69:9330-9336. 4. Baselga J, Cortes J, Kim SB, et al. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;366:109-119. 5. Swain SM, Kim SB, Cortes J, et al. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (CLEOPATRA study): overall survival results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet ...
Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as HER-2/neu), is indicated for the treatment of women with either early stage or metastatic HER2+ breast cancer. It kills tumor cells by several mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Strategies that enhance the activity of ADCC effectors, including NK cells, may improve the efficacy of trastuzumab. Here, we have shown that upon encountering trastuzumab-coated, HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, human NK cells become activated and express the costimulatory receptor CD137. CD137 activation, which was dependent on NK cell expression of the FcγRIII receptor, occurred both in vitro and in the peripheral blood of women with HER2-expressing breast cancer after trastuzumab treatment. Stimulation of trastuzumab-activated human NK cells with an agonistic mAb specific for CD137 killed breast cancer cells (including an intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant cell line) ...
Corneal expression levels of the proinflammatory and pro(lymph)angiogenic cytokines IL-1β, TNFα, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were analyzed by real-time PCR after suture placement and treatment with serum eyedrops, bevacizumab eyedrops, or a combination of both. After 2 days of treatment, only bevacizumab affected IL-1β expression (serum mean of 95.6%, n.s.; bevacizumab mean of 74.3%, P , 0.01; and serum and bevacizumab mean of 96.4%, n.s.), whereas after 7 days of treatment, all treatment groups had significantly reduced IL-1β expression (serum mean of 48.4%, P , 0.001; bevacizumab mean of 58.9%, P , 0.001; and serum and bevacizumab mean of 53.2%, P , 0.001) (Fig. 5, top left). After 2 days of treatment, TNFα expression was significantly impaired only by bevacizumab (serum mean of 106.1%, n.s.; bevacizumab mean of 68.4%, P , 0.05; and serum and bevacizumab mean of 93.0%, n.s.), while after 7 days of treatment, the combination of serum and bevacizumab also showed considerable inhibition of ...
Isabelle Laure Ray-Coquard, MD, PhD, of the Centre Leon Bérard, discusses phase III study findings in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer who received olaparib plus first-line bevacizumab maintenance treatment. Compared with placebo plus bevacizumab, olaparib improved progression-free survival, with the greatest benefit in women with BRCA mutations and positive homologous recombination deficiency status (Abstract LBA2).. ...
Genetic parameters are established prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with chemoimmunotherapy but less well studied with novel compounds. We assessed IGHV mutation status, common genomic aberrations and gene mutations in 421 untreated patients within the CLL14 trial (NCT02242942) comparing obinutuzumab+chlorambucil (GClb) vs. obinutuzumab+venetoclax (VenG). The incidences of genomic aberrations considering the hierarchical model were del(17p) 7%, del(11q) 18%, +(12) 18% and del(13q) 35%, while IGHV was unmutated in 60% of patients. NOTCH1 mutations were most common (23%), followed by SF3B1 (16%), ATM (13%) and TP53 (10%). While the overall response rate (ORR) for GClb was lower in patients with del(17p), del(11q), mutated TP53, ATM and BIRC3, none of these parameters reduced complete remission (CR) and ORR with VenG. At a median follow-up of 28 months, del(17p) and mutated TP53 were the only abnormalities with impact on PFS for both treatment arms, GClb (HR 4.6, ...
Learn how Avastin® (bevacizumab) is designed to work for the treatment of cervical cancer (CC) Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC) Avastin is approved to treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) for: First- or second-line treatment in combination with intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy Second-line treatment when used with fluoropyrimidine-based (combined with irinotecan or oxaliplatin) chemotherapy after cancer progresses following a first-line treatment that includes Avastin. Avastin is not approved for use after the primary treatment of colon cancer that has not spread to other parts of the body. Glioblastoma (GBM) Avastin is approved to treat glioblastoma (GBM) when taken alone in adult patients whose cancer has progressed after prior treatment (recurrent or rGBM). The effectiveness of Avastin in rGBM is based on tumor response. Currently, no data have shown whether or not Avastin improves disease-related symptoms or survival in people with rGBM. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
The Food and Drug Administration has approved obinutuzumab in combination with chemotherapy, followed by obinutuzumab alone in those who responded, for people w
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered: Allergies- Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children- Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of obinutuzumab injection in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established. Older adults- Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of obinutuzumab injection in the elderly. Breast-feeding- There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk ...
PURPOSE: The addition of bevacizumab to cytotoxic chemotherapy has demonstrated a progression-free survival (PFS) benefit in the first-line and second-line treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, the addition of bevacizumab to capecitabine in heavily pretreated MBC patients did not show a PFS benefit (AVF2119g phase III trial). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of novel putative biomarkers as predictors of benefit from bevacizumab in retrospective subset analyses of the AVF2119g trial. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In the AVF2119g trial, 462 patients with MBC were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine or capecitabine plus bevacizumab. Primary tumor tissue and outcome data were available for 223 patients. Biomarker expression was assessed by in situ hybridization (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, thrombospondin-2 and Flt4) or immunohistochemistry (VEGF-C, PDGF-C, neuropilin-1, delta-like ligand (Dll) 4, Bv8, p53 and thymidine phosphorylase) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded
In the TML trial, patients with good performance status and metastatic colorectal cancer who progressed on regimens containing bevacizumab received second-line therapy consisting of a different chemotherapy regimen with or without bevacizumab.67 This study met its primary end point, with patients continuing on bevacizumab having a modest improvement in overall survival (11.2 vs. 9.8 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.94; P=.0062).. The continuation of bevacizumab after progression on bevacizumab was also studied in a community oncology setting through a retrospective analysis of 573 patients from the US Oncology iKnowMed electronic medical record system.68 Bevacizumab beyond progression was associated with a longer overall survival (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61-0.95) and a longer postprogression overall survival (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.93) on multivariate analysis.. Overall, the panel believes that these data (along with those from the VELOUR trial, discussed later) show that the ...
Herceptin (trastuzumab) is a monoclonal antibody. It belongs to a group of drugs made in the laboratory that are designed to attack specific cancer cells. Herceptin is given intravenously (by injection into a blood vessel) to treat some breast cancers. Genentech Inc., located in South San Francisco, manufactures Herceptin.. Herceptin targets cancer cells that overexpress, or make too much of, a protein called HER-2 or erb B2, which is found on the surface of cancer cells. Herceptin slows or stops the growth of these cells. Herceptin is used only to treat cancers that overexpress the HER-2 protein. Approximately 25 percent of breast cancers overexpress HER-2. These tumors tend to grow faster and are generally more likely to recur (come back) than tumors that do not overproduce HER-2. The amount of HER-2 protein in the tumor is measured in the laboratory using a scale from 0 (negative) to 3+ (strongly positive). The result helps the doctor determine whether a patient might benefit from treatment ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse effects of bevacizumab and their management in solid tumors. AU - Arriaga, Yull. AU - Becerra, Carlos R.. PY - 2006/7. Y1 - 2006/7. N2 - Bevacizumab is the first successful example of targeting the vasculature for the treatment of solid tumors. Although generally well tolerated in combination with different chemotherapy regimens, bevacizumab has side effects that are unique to this class of agents. In this review, we discuss the side effects associated with bevacizumab and potential treatments to ameliorate these toxicities.. AB - Bevacizumab is the first successful example of targeting the vasculature for the treatment of solid tumors. Although generally well tolerated in combination with different chemotherapy regimens, bevacizumab has side effects that are unique to this class of agents. In this review, we discuss the side effects associated with bevacizumab and potential treatments to ameliorate these toxicities.. KW - Bleeding. KW - Gastrointestinal ...
Background: HER2 amplification is found in 5% of RAS wild type (RASWT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Dual HER2 blockade with trastuzumab (T) and lapatinib (L), but not treatment with either drug alone, led to remarkable inhibition of tumor growth in patient-derived tumorgrafts of HER2-amplified mCRC. CRC-specific criteria for HER2 positivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) were defined retrospectively in 256 CRC paraffin embedded samples (HERACLES DGX criteria). The ensuing diagnostic algorithm was utilised to screen 1299 HER2-positive tumors for therapeutic targeting in patients in the HERACLES phase 2 trial.. Methods: HERACLES was conducted at 4 Italian centres. Eligibility criteria were: RASWT exon 2, HER2 positivity, refractoriness to standard of care (including cetuximab or panitumumab), PS-ECOG , 1, and measurable. HER2 positivity was defined by IHC and ISH according to HERACLES DGX criteria. Patients (PTS) received T i.v. at 4 mg/kg loading dose ...
Background. The CHER-LOB randomized phase II study showed that the combination of lapatinib and trastuzumab plus chemotherapy increases the pathologic complete re- mission (pCR) rate compared with chemotherapy plus either trastuzumab or lapatinib. A biomarker program was prospectively planned to identify potential predictors of sensitivity to different treatments and to evaluate treatment effect on tumor biomarkers. Materials and Methods. Overall, 121 breast cancer patients positive for human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) were randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastu- zumab, lapatinib, or both trastuzumab and lapatinib. Pre-and post-treatment samples were centrally evaluated for HER2, p95- HER2, phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), phosphatase and tensin homolog, Ki67, apoptosis, and PIK3CA mutations. Fresh-frozen tissue samples were collected for genomic analyses. Results. A mutation in PIK3CA exon 20 or 9 was documented in 20% of cases. Overall, the pCR rates were similar in PIK3CA ...
Purpose: This phase Ib study was designed to determine the MTD, safety, preliminary efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of the HER3 (ErbB3) mAb SAR256212 in combination with the oral PI3K inhibitor SAR245408 for patients with metastatic or locally advanced solid tumors.. Experimental Design: Patients received the combination of intravenous SAR256212 and oral SAR245408 in a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design until occurrence of disease progression or dose-limiting toxicity. Objective response rate, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and PIK3CA mutational status were also evaluated.. Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Thirteen of 20 patients tested (65%) had a hotspot-activating mutation in PIK3CA in their tumor. The MTD was determined to be SAR256212 at 40 mg/kg loading dose followed by 20 mg/kg weekly, plus SAR245408 200 mg daily. Dose-limiting toxicities included rash and hypotension; the most frequent treatment-related side effect was diarrhea (66.7%). Twenty-three patients were evaluable for ...
The University of California, San Francisco, and Genentech, Inc., have signed an agreement to discover drug candidates for neurodegenerative diseases. Genentech will provide funding and will collaborate with the UCSF team to identify small molecules at the UCSF Small Molecule Discovery Center. Genentech has recently begun making overtures into the ALS space, including a license and option agreement with NeuroNova for the use of VEGF as a potential ALS treatment.. Click here to read more.. Share this ...
Why is my heart being monitored while Im on Herceptin?. Herceptin (trastuzumab) can cause heart problems, including an inability to pump blood effectively, irregular heartbeats, high blood pressure, disabling heart failure, weakening of the heart muscle, and sudden loss of heart function leading to death. Herceptin may cause reduced heart function even if there are no symptoms. Before taking your first dose of Herceptin, your doctor should check to see if you have any health conditions that may increase your chance of having serious heart problems. This includes a review of your health history and tests to see how well your heart muscle is working. These tests may include an echocardiogram, which is an ultrasound image of the heart, or a MUGA scan, which takes a moving picture of your heart pumping blood following an injection of a radioactive substance.. In addition, you should be frequently monitored for decreasing heart function during the time you are receiving Herceptin and after your last ...
[Adalimumab treatment in infliximab-resistant pediatric patient with Crohns disease].: Treatment with the chimeric monoclonal antibody (infliximab) is highly e
Preoperative bevacizumab may predominantly benefit breast cancer patients with a high baseline microvessel density, according to a new study.
This phase I/IIa study is investigating the safety and activity of gemcitabine plus trastuzumab and pertuzumab in patients with metastatic human epidermal
Interim analysis of a phase III study finds that adding the new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab to standard bendamustine chemotherapy significantly delays progression of indolent...
Phase III IMpower150 Study Showed Tecentriq (atezolizumab) and Avastin (bevacizumab) Plus Chemotherapy Reduced the Risk of Disease Worsening or Death by 38 Percent for People with a Type of Advanced Lung Cancer
The aim of the LORENA study was to describe the clinical features, prognosis factors and safety of bevacizumab and chemotherapy treatment for MBC in routine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase I study of alpelisib (BYL-719) and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) after trastuzumab and taxane therapy. AU - Jain, Sarika. AU - Shah, Ami N.. AU - Santa-Maria, Cesar A.. AU - Siziopikou, Kalliopi. AU - Rademaker, Alfred. AU - Helenowski, Irene. AU - Cristofanilli, Massimo. AU - Gradishar, William J.. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Purpose: Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is an important resistance mechanism to anti-HER2 therapies. This study aimed to assess the safety and activity of alpelisib (a PI3Kα isoform-specific inhibitor) with T-DM1 in trastuzumab- and taxane-resistant HER2-positive MBC. Methods: Patients with HER2-positive MBC that had progressed on trastuzumab-based therapy were treated with alpelisib daily and T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), adverse events, overall response rate (ORR), and clinical benefit rate (CBR = CR + ...
Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is a novel antibodyCdrug conjugate, made up of a potent cytotoxic medication connected with a steady linker towards the anti-HER2 antibody, trastuzumab, mainly targeting chemotherapy delivery to cells overexpressing the HER2 receptor thus. of proteins is normally involved in marketing cell development through activation from the PI3K/Akt/mTOR as well as the Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK pathways [2]. Amplification of HER2 is normally predictive of intense phenotype and poorer final result unless treated with anti-HER2 therapy Rabbit Polyclonal to BAIAP2L1. [3]. Summary of the marketplace Trastuzumab, a humanized anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, is among the most set up gold regular treatment for HER2-amplified breasts cancer because it was first authorized by the united states FDA in 1998 [4,5]. Subsequently, two additional HER2-targeted agents have already been authorized for the treating HER2-positive metastatic breasts cancer, pertuzumab and lapatinib. Lapatanib, an dental ...
While approval of trastuzumab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against HER2, along with a diagnostic kit to detect breast cancers which are positive for HER2 overexpression, has advanced a new era of stratified and personalized medicine, it also created several challenges to our scientific and clinical practice. These problems include trastuzumab resistance and trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity. In this review, we will summarize data from the literature regarding mechanisms of trastuzumab resistance and trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity and present some promising model systems that may advance our understanding of these mechanisms. Our discussion will include development of circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA for monitoring tumor burden, of patient-derived xenograft models for preclinical testing of novel therapies, and of novel therapeutic strategies for trastuzumab-resistance and possible integration of these strategies in the design of co-clinical studies for testing in
Simplicity is enormously complex in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. In terms of survival, life expectancy of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer improved substantially from 3 to 6 months in the 1980s when only 5-fluorouracil was available, to more than 20 months today with the availability of various new chemotherapeutic and targeted agents. The use of chemotherapeutic agents - including fluoropyrimidines, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin - has been refined through decades of clinical experience. Maximal exposure, irrespective of sequence, is simply the principle of treating patients through progression with chemotherapy. Targeted therapy has emerged in the past decade, and adds complexity to the treatment principle: survival benefit has been shown with both anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies in individual lines of treatment, but controversy exists as to the best sequence of application. Adding to this complexity, ...
Clinical trial for Relapsed/Refractory Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma , A Study Comparing Obinutuzumab and BGB-3111 Versus Obinutuzumab Alone in Treating R/R Follicular Lymphoma
The combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapeutic agents is a well established approach for treatment of HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer. Preclinical models and subsequent clinical data have demonstrated an additive or synergistic effect of the combination with platinum salts, paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinorelbine or more than one drugs [15-18].. Unfortunately, the success of these combinations in responding patients is compromised by the development of acquired resistance [4]. The mechanism of resistance to trastuzumab in animal models is the consequence of heritable genetic alterations and involved different, independent mechanisms [19]. The opportunity, in patients with progressive disease, of continuing trastuzumab combined with a non cross resistant chemotherapeutic regimen is a crucial question regarding trastuzumab strategy. Data on restored efficacy of trastuzumab with further associations after failure are limited, although some activity was recently reported in patients with ...
Although trastuzumab provides significant clinical benefit for HER2-positive breast cancers, responses are limited by the emergence of resistance. Recent evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. However, the regulatory mechanism of lncRNAs in trastuzumab resistance is not well established to date. In this research, we identified the differentially expressed lncRNA and investigated its regulatory role in trastuzumab resistance of breast cancer. LncRNA microarray and qRT-PCR were performed to identify the dysregulated lncRNAs. Transmission electron microscopy, differential ultracentrifugation and qRT-PCR were used to verify the existence of exosomal AFAP1-AS1 (actin filament associated protein 1 antisense RNA 1). Bioinformatics prediction, RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH) and immunoprecipitation assays were performed to identify the direct interactions between AFAP1-AS1 and other associated targets, such as AU-binding
Learn how Avastin® (bevacizumab) is designed to work for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC) Avastin is approved to treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) for: First- or second-line treatment in combination with intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy Second-line treatment when used with fluoropyrimidine-based (combined with irinotecan or oxaliplatin) chemotherapy after cancer progresses following a first-line treatment that includes Avastin. Avastin is not approved for use after the primary treatment of colon cancer that has not spread to other parts of the body. Glioblastoma (GBM) Avastin is approved to treat glioblastoma (GBM) when taken alone in adult patients whose cancer has progressed after prior treatment (recurrent or rGBM). The effectiveness of Avastin in rGBM is based on tumor response. Currently, no data have shown whether or not Avastin improves disease-related symptoms or survival in people with rGBM. Non-Small Cell Lung
In the current multicentre retrospective study among the Chinese patients with breast cancer, over 70% were heavily pretreated with anti-HER2 agents as well as cytotoxic chemotherapy. The efficacy results are consistent with previous findings from the TH3RESA study.9 The latter involved over 600 HER2+ patients with advanced breast cancer who had received two or more anti-HER2-containing regimens, including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and previous taxane therapy. At a median follow-up of 6.5 months, the TH3RESA study reported that among the T-DM1-treated patients, the objective response rate was 31%, the median duration of response was 9.7 months, the median PFS was 6.2 months, and the median OS was not reached.9 Similarly, the safety profile in the current study was consistent with the reported clinical trials, where grade 3 or worse thrombocytopenia was the most commonly reported adverse event (13.5%), followed by raised alanine transaminase (8.1%), anaemia (5.4%), and hypokalaemia (2.7%). ...
Background We designed the randomized phase III LEA study of first-line bevacizumab in combination with endocrine therapy, to address the hypothesis that anti-VEGF treatment can prevent resistance to endocrine therapy in patients (pts) with advanced breast cancer sensitive to such treatment.. Methods A multicentre, binational, randomised, open label, phase III study investigated the addition of Bevacizumab (B) 15mg/kg every 3 weeks to an endocrine therapy (ET) with letrozole or fulvestrant (250mg/4 weeks) as first-line therapy in metastatic breast cancer. Postmenopausal pts with HER2-negative and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer were eligible. The primary objective was to compare progression-free survival (PFS) in the treatment arms. Secondary objectives were overall survival, time to treatment failure, overall response rate, response duration, clinical benefit rate and safety. The recruitment was completed in September 2011. Efficacy analysis will be triggered after 270 events.. Results ...
On February 15, 2017, Genentech filed litigation accusing Amgen of violating the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (BPCIA), 42 U.S.C. § 262. A dispute arose between the parties during the first step of the patent dance for Amgens bevacizumab product (ABP 215), a proposed biosimilar to Genentechs Avastin®.. Amgen announced in November 2016, that it submitted a biologics license application to FDA for bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (Anti-VEGF) specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits formation of new blood vessels and is used to slow the growth of tumors related to several types of cancers. Avastin® is indicated for treatment of conditions related to metastatic colon cancer, lung cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.. The litigation concerns the scope of the information, if any, in addition to a copy of the 351(k) application, that an applicant must provide to the reference product sponsor at the beginning of the patent dance ...
HER-2 is a 185-kDa orphan transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. Dimerization of HER-2 with ligand- bound HER-3 or HER-4 receptor activates signaling pathways inside the cell. Activated HER-2 signaling stimulates cell proliferation and survival via activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. Collectively these signaling pathways result in uncontrolled growth of the tumor. Several studies suggested that the overexpression/amplification of HER-2 may lead to the development and progression of pre-malignant breast disease and also tumor metastasis. Therefore, the association of HER-2 in breast cancer as well as its involvement in tumor aggressiveness makes this receptor an appropriate target for tumor-specific therapies. Several strategies have been developed to inhibit HER-2 signaling. These include a tyrosine kinase inhibitor called lapatinib and a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody called trastuzumab (Herceptin®). In this post I will focus only on trastuzumab mediated therapy in ...
Overexpression of the HER2/Neu (ErbB2) proto-oncogene is associated with breast cancer progression and poor patient prognosis. Herceptin (trastuzumab) is a humanized IgG1 against the ectodomain of the HER2 receptor. In combination with chemotherapy, it induces regression of HER2-overexpressing metas …
Background CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in Canada. Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanised monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to human vascular endothelial growth factor, is approved and funded for first line mCRC use in Canada. A substudy has also confirmed its effectiveness in KRAS wild-type patients. Recent evidence has also shown clinical benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor treatments panitumumab and cetuximab in these patients. Objective: We assessed cost-effectiveness of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy (FBC) alone and in combination with bevacizumab, panitumumab or cetuximab for first line treatment of KRAS wild-type mCRC patients.. Methods Cost-effectiveness to the Canadian health care system was estimated using separately reported trial survival and adverse event results for each comparator. We used a Markov model calibrated to progression-free/overall survival, and calculated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Health-state resource utilization was ...
Serum levels of HAHAs were detected by a newly developed radioimmunoassay, a specific assay measuring high avid antibodies against adalimumab, similar to that described for rituximab.4. HAHAs were present after cessation of treatment for the planned surgical procedure, whereas serum levels of adalimumab were undetectable (fig 1). As levels of HAHAs increased, levels of adalimumab dropped and disease activity increased.. Our patient developed HAHAs to adalimumab despite the fact that adalimumab is a human monoclonal antibody. Infliximab is a chimeric antibody and can induce an immunogenic reaction in the form of human antichimeric antibodies. The development of HACAs to infliximab is associated with a reduced response to treatment,5 and so far such relationships have not been described for adalimumab.. In our patient, the anti-rheumatic drug-free period may have influenced the development of HAHAs. The absence of the protective role of methotrexate may have stimulated the formation of HAHAs. ...
Obinutuzumab is an immunotherapy medicine used in the treatment of CLL and Non Hodgkin lymphoma and works by binding to a protein on the surface of certain white cells known as B lymphocytes .By bonding to this protein the abnormal growth in the B lymphocyte is stopped therefore decreasing the number of cancer cells in the body.. Once attached to the CD20 protein Obinutuzumab helps the immune system destroy the CLL cells and also destroys the CLL cells on its own by directly killing them. Obinutuzumab is the only monoclonal antibody with proven superiority to rituximab for the treatment for CLL when used in combination with chlorambucil as proven in clinical trials.. Obinutuzumab is given by intravenous infusion which means it goes directly into the vein through a needle in your arm or through a central line if you have one in place. Obinutuzumab is given every week for 3 weeks then once every four weeks in combination with chlorambucil depending on your subtype of lymphoma.. Obinutuzumab may ...
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Background Studies suggest a relationship between hypertension and outcome in bevacizumab-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We performed a retrospective analysis of two phase II studies (BECA and BECOX) to determine if hypertension and proteinuria predict outcome in elderly patients with mCRC treated with bevacizumab. Patients and Methods Patients ≥70 years of age received either capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 bid days 1-14 + bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg day 1 every 21 days (BECA study) or capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 bid days 1-14 with bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 day 1 (BECOX study). The primary objective was to correlate hypertension and proteinuria with overall response rate (ORR), time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). Secondary objectives included identification of risk factors associated with the development of hypertension and proteinuria and determining whether development of hypertension or proteinuria in the first 2 cycles was related to ORR, ...
Cetuximab, an antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, is an effective clinical therapy for patients with colorectal, head and neck, and non-small cell lung cancer, particularly for those with KRAS and BRAF wild-type cancers. Treatment in all patients is limited eventually by the development of acquired resistance, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we show that activation of ERBB2 signaling in cell lines, either through ERBB2 amplification or through heregulin up-regulation, leads to persistent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling and consequently to cetuximab resistance. Inhibition of ERBB2 or disruption of ERBB2/ERBB3 heterodimerization restores cetuximab sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. A subset of colorectal cancer patients who exhibit either de novo or acquired resistance to cetuximab-based therapy has ERBB2 amplification or high levels of circulating heregulin. Collectively, these findings identify two distinct resistance ...
Background: The treatment of recurrent anaplastic glioma (AG) like all high-grade gliomas (HGG) is problematic, as only partially effective therapeutic modalities are available and there is a lack of a standard therapy for recurrence. Methods: A literature review of the use of bevacizumab for recurrent HGG including five studies involving recurrent AG. Results: In the 5 studies of bevacizumab for the treatment of recurrent AG (n=140 patients) neuroradiographic response rates were as follows; complete response 0-20%, partial response 34-68% (median 52%), and stable disease 5-59% (median 16%). Median overall survival was 28 weeks (range 18-35 weeks) and progression free survival at 6- and 12-months was 55% (range 32-68%) and 23% (16-39%) respectively. Conclusions: Bevacizumab therapy appears to increase response of recurrent AG by 2-fold and 6- month progression free survival by 1.5 fold without a clear benefit with respect to overall survival. Toxicity of bevacizumab therapy is manageable and ...
Several adverse events have been associated with the use of bevacizumab during the treatment of neoplasms such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and renal cell carcinoma. The present case demonstrates how focal neurological symptoms lead to the magnetic resonance imaging-based differential diagnosis between focal parenchymal metastases and microischemic phenomena, with crucial implications for patient management. We describe the case of a 37-year-old Italian Caucasian woman with metastatic colon cancer who developed focal neurological symptoms during a chemotherapy regimen involving the use of bevacizumab. Brain magnetic resonance imaging examination revealed millimetric lesions with restricted diffusion without perilesional edema or contrast enhancement after gadodiamide intravenous injection, suggestive of acute microischemic phenomena. This complication is very rare but clinically significant. The differential diagnosis in patients with cancer
Monoclonal antibody. Type. Whole antibody. Source. Humanized. Target. FR-alpha. Clinical data. ... This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Farletuzumab (MORAb-003) is a monoclonal antibody[1] which is being investigated for the treatment of ovarian cancer.[2][3] ...
Monoclonal antibody. Type. Whole antibody. Source. Humanized. Target. CALCA, CALCB. Clinical data. ... This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ... It is a monoclonal antibody that targets calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP) alpha and beta.[3][4] It is administered by ... Other anti-migraine antibodies blocking the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway *Erenumab ...
... (formerly EMD 72000) is a humanized monoclonal antibody for the treatment of cancer. It binds to the epidermal growth ... 2004). "Phase I study of the humanized antiepidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody EMD72000 in patients with ... Murthy, U.; Basu, A; Rodeck, U.; Herlyn, M.; Ross, A.H.; Das, M. (1987). "Binding of an antagonistic monoclonal antibody to an ... Schmiedel, J.; Blaukat, A.; Li, S.; Knochel, T.; Ferguson, K.M. (2008). "A molecular view of anti-ErbB monoclonal antibody ...
humanized monoclonal antibody HER2/neu (erbB2) antagonist ustekinumab Stelara psoriasis humanized monoclonal antibody IL-12 and ... Monoclonal antibodies. These are similar to the antibodies that the human immune system uses to fight off bacteria and viruses ... monoclonal antibody TNF antagonist alefacept Amevive chronic plaque psoriasis immunoglobin G1 fusion protein incompletely ... monoclonal antibody TNF antagonist trastuzumab Herceptin breast cancer ...
Majority of these monoclonal antibodies are humanized IgG1. This therapy may also be soon used for protection against ... These days, several monoclonal antibodies neutralizing IL-17A have potential for the treatment of autoimmune diseases in humans ... Jeon C, Sekhon S, Yan D, Afifi L, Nakamura M, Bhutani T (October 2017). "Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting IL-12, -23, and -17 ... March 2012). "Anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody ixekizumab in chronic plaque psoriasis". The New England Journal of ...
"anti-IL-13 humanized monoclonal antibody TNX-650". NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 10 December 2009. ... Lebrikizumab (INN) is a humanized monoclonal antibody and an experimental immunosuppressive drug for the treatment of asthma ...
Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against IgE. It acts by binding free IgE at the same site that IgE ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody being developed by Genentech. As of November 2009[update], it is being ...
... (planned trade name LymphoCide) is a humanized monoclonal antibody. Potential uses may be found in oncology and in ... September 2003). "Epratuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CD22: characterization of in vitro properties". ... humanized anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody, epratuzumab". Clinical Cancer Research. 11 (14): 5215-22. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05 ...
... (proposed INN, trade name Numax) is a humanized monoclonal antibody. It is being investigated by MedImmune (today a ... when compared to the already available monoclonal antibody Palivizumab. In December 2010, AstraZeneca in a stock market ...
Retrieved 2012-06-23.; "Humanized monoclonal antibodies binding to IgE-bearing B cells but not basophils". Archived from the ... Omalizumab is a recombinant DNA-derived humanized IgG1k monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to free human ... Scheinfeld N (2005). "Omalizumab: a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgE-blocking antibody". Dermatol. Online J. 11 (1): 2. ... anti-IgE monoclonal antibody with the binding specificity similar to that of CGP51901 and subsequently humanized the antibody ( ...
... is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody directed against calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP) alpha and beta. ... Fremanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody. It is produced using recombinant DNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells Other ... It is the only approved anti-CGRP monoclonal antibody that can be given with a quarterly interval. After subcutaneous injection ... antibodies blocking the CGRP pathway: Eptinezumab Erenumab Galcanezumab "Fremanezumab (Ajovy) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com ...
Other anti-CD20 monoclonals[edit]. The efficacy and success of Rituximab has led to some other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies ... ocrelizumab, humanized (90%-95% human) B cell-depleting agent.. *ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) a fully human B cell-depleting agent.[ ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[55] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
... is a humanized, nonfucosylated IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets Siglec-8. Siglec-8 is an inhibitory receptor ... Lirentelimab (sold under the brand name AK002) is a humanized nonfucosylated monoclonal antibody that targets sialic acid- ... 2019). "AK002, a Humanized Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-Like Lectin-8 Antibody that Induces Antibody-Dependent Cell- ... August 2020). "An anti-siglec-8 antibody depletes sputum eosinophils from asthmatic subjects and inhibits lung mast cells". ...
tocilizumab (a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor). This drug is used when the patients ... Examined in a 12-year-old patient). Canakinumab is a long acting monoclonal antibody which is directed against IL-1β has shown ... A beneficial effect of human monoclonal anti-TNFα antibody adalimumab was seen in a small number of MKD patients. Most MKD ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of cancers. Dalotuzumab was developed by Merck & Co ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody that acts on the cardiovascular system. It binds to integrin αIIbβ3, a ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of cancers. Ficlatuzumab was developed by AVEO ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody intended for the treatment of cancer. It binds to FAP In 2003 it failed a phase ... February 2003). "Stromal antigen targeting by a humanised monoclonal antibody: an early phase II trial of sibrotuzumab in ... a novel therapeutic monoclonal antibody, in cancer patients". Investigational New Drugs. 22 (1): 39-52. doi:10.1023/B:DRUG. ...
... was a humanized monoclonal antibody and an immunosuppressive drug. Possible indications included treatment of antibody-mediated ... A causal connection could not be proven, but since the same adverse effects were seen in trials with a similar antibody (hu5C8 ...
It is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets sclerostin. Research shows the drug increases bone formation and decreases ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kaplon H, Muralidharan M, Schneider Z, Reichert JM (2020). "Antibodies to watch in 2020 ...
October 2009). "Radiolabeled humanized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody visilizumab for imaging human T-lymphocytes" (PDF). Journal ... Visilizumab (tentative trade name Nuvion, PDL BioPharma Inc.) is a humanized monoclonal antibody. It is being investigated for ...
PRO 140, a humanized form of a PA14 antibody, is a chemokine-receptor CCR5 monoclonal antibody and can inhibit CCR5 tropic HIV- ... a monoclonal CCR5 antibody. AIDSmap.com. 21 Sept 2007. Liz Highleyman. Monoclonal Antibody CCR5 Inhibitor PRO 140 Produces Long ... Li, Lun; Tian, Jin Hui; Yang, KeHu; Zhang, Peng; Jia, Wen Qin (2014-07-26). "Humanized PA14 (a monoclonal CCR5 antibody) for ... Leronlimab (codenamed PRO 140, tentative trade name Vyrologix) is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeted against the CCR5 ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of solid tumors. Enavatuzumab was developed by Facet ...
... (INN) is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of cancer. It acts as an immunomodulator. This ...
Anon (2011). "The inventor of humanized monoclonal antibodies and cofounder of Cambridge Antibody Technology, Greg Winter, ... However, these monoclonal antibodies had limited application in human medicine, because mouse monoclonal antibodies are rapidly ... Winter then pioneered a technique to "humanise" mouse monoclonal antibodies; a technique that was used in the development of ... Humanised monoclonal antibodies form the majority of antibody-based drugs on the market today and include several blockbuster ...
Chemically, it is a form of a humanized monoclonal antibody. The substance acts by binding interleukin 17A and neutralizing it ... Ixekizumab is a complete monoclonal antibody of the subclass IgG4, consisting of two light chains and two heavy chains linked ... The antibody has affinity to the homodimer IL-17A and the heterodimer IL-17A/F, but not to other members of the interleukin 17 ... The antibody is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Clinical trials included a Phase II trial of patients with moderate to ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for oncology indications. Samalizumab was developed by Alexion ...
... (TRU‐016) is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of cancer. This drug was developed by ...
... (REGN1193) (INN) is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of diabetes. This drug was developed ...
... a humanized monoclonal anti-IL-5 antibodies which reduces excessive eosinophilia). This suggests CASS4 activity may be ...
It may be possible to design treatments cheaper than monoclonal antibodies (for instance, small molecule drugs) that use a ... humanized antibody, quilizumab, is in phase IIb clinical trial.[32][33] In 2002, researchers at The Randall Division of Cell ... "Antibodies specific for a segment of human membrane IgE deplete IgE-producing B cells in humanized mice". J. Clin. Invest. 120 ... "Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.. *^ Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE ...
Monoclonal antibody. Type. Single-chain variable fragment. Source. Humanized (from mouse). Target. Complement component 5. ... This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... It is a single chain variable fragment of a monoclonal antibody targeted against component 5 of the complement system.[4] ...
Chimeric antibody that responds to more than one antigen[2]. infliximab -zumab. humanized antibody[6]. natalizumab, bevacizumab ... Monoclonal antibodies[2]. trastuzumab, ipilimumab -ximab. ...
It was constructed from a fully human monoclonal antibody, while infliximab is a mouse-human chimeric antibody and etanercept ... Adalimumab was the first fully human monoclonal antibody approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[34] It was ... 1999: Preliminary results of early clinical trials with the fully human anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody D2E7[37] ... "Preliminary results of early clinical trials with the fully human anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody D2E7". Ann Rheum Dis. 58 (suppl ...
Hutas G (November 2008). "Ocrelizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD20 for inflammatory disorders and B-cell ... 20,0 20,1 Castillo J, Milani C, Mendez-Allwood D. Ofatumumab, a second-generation anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, for the ...
... is human or nonhuman blood serum containing monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies that is used to spread passive ... "Humanized Cobra Venom Factor: Structure, Activity, And Therapeutic Efficacy In Preclinical Disease Models." Molecular ... Antibodies in the antiserum bind the infectious agent or antigen.[8] The immune system then recognizes foreign agents bound to ... The existence of antibodies to the agent depends on an initial survivor whose immune system, by chance, discovered a ...
Since the antibodies are not humanized, they will elicit an immune response when used in human therapy. Humanizing antibodies ... Attempts have been made to outfit microbubbles with monoclonal antibodies that bind P-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1,[4] but the ... Currently, these ligands are monoclonal antibodies produced from animal cell cultures that bind specifically to receptors and ... "Novel single-chain antibody-targeted microbubbles for molecular ultrasound imaging of thrombosis: Validation of a unique non- ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Briakinumab (ABT-874) is a human monoclonal antibody being developed by Abbott Laboratories for the treatment of rheumatoid ... The candidate drug was discovered by Cambridge Antibody Technology in collaboration with Abbott.[3][4] ... This is the second candidate from a deal with Cambridge Antibody Technology that Abbott have taken to late-stage clinical ...
... ,[2] sold under the brand name Stelara, is a human monoclonal antibody used to treat psoriasis.[3] ... Humanized ("-lizu-"). *Immunosuppressive: Aselizumab. *Apolizumab§. *Benralizumab. *Camrelizumab†. *Cedelizumab. *Certolizumab ... "Repeated subcutaneous injections of IL12/23 p40 neutralising antibody, ustekinumab, in patients with relapsing-remitting ...
Seth Lederman at Columbia University generated a murine monoclonal antibody, 5c8 that inhibited contact-dependent T cell helper ... 1i9r: STRUCTURE OF CD40L IN COMPLEX WITH THE FAB FRAGMENT OF HUMANIZED 5C8 ANTIBODY ... As a result of this stimulation, the B cell can undergo rapid cellular division to form a germinal center where antibody ... The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Mavrilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody[1] that inhibits human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor ( ... Agent that Targets GM-CSF Shows Promise in RA - Novel monoclonal antibody was rapidly effective in mild-to-moderate disease. ... a human monoclonal antibody targeting GM-CSF receptor-α, in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind, ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ... Priliximab (cMT 412) is a human-mouse chimeric anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. It has been tested on patients with Crohn's ... "Treatment of multiple sclerosis with the monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody cM-T412: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo- ... Llewellyn-Smith N, Lai M, Miller D, Rudge P, Thompson A, Cuzner M (1997). "Effects of anti-CD4 antibody treatment on lymphocyte ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Ecromeximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody being developed for the treatment of malignant melanoma.[1][2] ... Humanized ("-tuzu-"). *Abituzumab§. *Alemtuzumab. *Bevacizumab. *Bivatuzumab mertansine§. *Brontictuzumab§. *Cantuzumab ...
Monoclonal antibodies have also raised high levels of interest. As of 2012 alemtuzumab, daclizumab, and CD20 monoclonal ... Their cost effectiveness as of 2012 is unclear.[75] In March 2017 the FDA approved ocrelizumab, a humanized anti-CD20 ... McGinley MP, Moss BP, Cohen JA (January 2017). "Safety of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis". ... Finally, a third kind of auto-antibodies is accepted. They are several anti-neurofascin auto-antibodies which damage the ...
... (trade name Antova) is a humanized monoclonal antibody intended for the treatment of rheumatic diseases like ... This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Technetium (99mTc) sulesomab (trade name LeukoScan) is a mouse monoclonal antibody[1] labelled with technetium-99m, a ... Humanized ("-lizu-"). *Immunosuppressive: Aselizumab. *Apolizumab§. *Benralizumab. *Camrelizumab†. *Cedelizumab. *Certolizumab ...
elotuzumab - an immunostimulatory humanized monoclonal antibody against SLAMF7 (also known as CD319) indicated in combination ... the majority of the antibodies are ineffective monoclonal antibodies from the clonal plasma cell. A selected group of people ... daratumumab - a monoclonal antibody against CD38 indicated in people who have received at least three prior lines of therapy ... isatuximab - a monoclonal antibody against CD38 indicated in combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment ...
... but is not a monoclonal antibody (it is instead a fusion of TNF-receptor and an antibody constant region).[29] ... They are monoclonal antibodies and have identical structures and affinities to the target. Because they are a combination of ... Other monoclonal antibodies targeting TNF-α are golimumab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol. Etanercept also binds and ... Infliximab is a purified, recombinant DNA-derived chimeric human-mouse IgG monoclonal antibody that consists of mouse heavy and ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) with the PD-1 and CD80 (B7.1) ... Humanized ("-lizu-"). *Immunosuppressive: Aselizumab. *Apolizumab§. *Benralizumab. *Camrelizumab†. *Cedelizumab. *Certolizumab ...
... monoclonal antibodies (see #Monoclonal antibody drugs) and vaccines (see #Vaccines). Don't worry about trying to fill in all ... Humanized [generic, use only if values above are not applicable] xizu/a, xizu/e, etc.. Chimeric/humanized hybrid (rat/human) ... linked to Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies, saving the need to explain how each monoclonal antibody has been named. ... Monoclonal antibody drugs[మార్చు]. Set the parameter type=mab. This form of the box uses a different subset of parameters, mab_ ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Burosumab (INN, trade name Crysvita) known as KRN23 is a human monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of X-linked ...
Etrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets he β7 subunit of integrins α4β7 and αEβ7. Etrolizumab decreases ... Specifically, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) are found in 70 percent of cases of UC.[17] Antibodies ... Elson CO, Cong Y, Weaver CT, Schoeb TR, McClanahan TK, Fick RB, Kastelein RA (2007). "Monoclonal anti-interleukin 23 reverses ... Specific antibody markers may be elevated in ulcerative colitis. ...
... is a monoclonal antibody for the prophylaxis of rabies.[1] It is under development by Sanofi/Crucell.[2] ... This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ...
2001). "Structure of CD40 ligand in complex with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing humanized antibody". Structure. 9 (4): 321- ... Dreker L, Schwarz J, Reichel W, Hilschmann N (1977). "[Rule of antibody structure. the primary structure of a monoclonal IgG1 ... Ponstingl H, Hilschmann N (1977). "[The rule of antibody structure. The primary structure of a monoclonal IgG1 immunoglobulin ( ... 1992). "Crystal structure of a chimeric Fab' fragment of an antibody binding tumour cells". J. Mol. Biol. 227 (1): 253-64. doi: ...
In this informative article, I can give a brief introduction about custom antibody.... ... when some one mentions the word custom antibody, few people know it. ... Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Solutions in Neoplastic Disease. However, when some one mentions the word custom antibody, few ... Each antibody has a unique "paratope" that may tag the precise "epitope" on the antigen. Under this holding system, an antibody ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized [Drug Class] (3 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. ...
Murine monoclonal antibody 1G8 binds to PSCA with nanomolar affinity, but its efficacy as a therapeutic agent is limited by the ... These humanized antibodies bind PSCA with high affinity and specificity, and have been shown to reduce human bladder tumor take ... The present invention discloses humanized 1G8 antibodies in which the majority of the mouse-derived epitopes have been removed ... These characteristics make the humanized antibodies of the present invention attractive agents for the treatment and detection ...
Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for CD44. Suping Zhang, Christina C ... Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for CD44 ... We found that a humanized mAb specific for CD44 (RG7356) was directly cytotoxic for leukemia B cells, but had little effect on ...
Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus.. Oliphant T1, Engle M, ... Development of a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody with Therapeutic Potential against West Nile Virus ... Development of a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody with Therapeutic Potential against West Nile Virus ... Development of a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody with Therapeutic Potential against West Nile Virus ...
PBEF Neutralizing Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies As Novel Therapeutic Approaches. Printer-friendly version ... and propose to generate therapeutic humanized neutralizing anti-PBEF monoclonal antibodies to treat patients with acute lung ... We therefore propose to generate humanized ant-PBEFmonoclonal antibodies (P- BEFizumab) that can be used as both prophylactic ... Once the credibility of these antibodies in treating patients with ALI/VILI is established, we believe that these antibodies ...
Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Second Generation Monoclonal Antibodies, and Humanized Carcinomas. A Notice by the ... "Variants of Humanized Anti-Carcinoma Monoclonal Antibody CC49" to IDEC Pharmaceutical Corporation of San Diego, California. The ... constituents and/or humanized variants thereof, and excluding bispecific monoclonal antibodies, which are directly conjugated ... U.S. Patent 5,512,443 claims various "second generation" monoclonal antibodies, including CC49, which have binding specificity ...
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Kyowa Hakko and Amgen Enter Licensing Agreement for Anti-CCR4 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody KW-0761 Studies Underway in ... Kyowa Hakko and Amgen Enter Licensing Agreement for Anti-CCR4 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody. KW-0761 Studies Underway in ... KW-0761 is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CCR4 utilizing the POTELLIGENT(R) technology platform for the development ... Kyowa Hakko and Amgen Enter Licensing Agreement for Anti-CCR4 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody ...
... ... Background: We describe immunomodulatory effects of FK734, a humanized version of a mouse anti-human CD28 mAb (clone TN228), in ...
We demonstrate here that administration of a CD154-specific monoclonal antibody (hu5C8) allows … ... Treatment with humanized monoclonal antibody against CD154 prevents acute renal allograft rejection in nonhuman primates Nat ... We demonstrate here that administration of a CD154-specific monoclonal antibody (hu5C8) allows for renal allotransplantation in ... Monkeys treated with antibody against CD154 remained healthy during and after therapy. The mechanism of action does not require ...
Although murine components of this humanized monoclonal antibody were almost exclusively limited to the antibody combining ... 1997) Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody (MEDI-493) with potent in vitro and in vivo activity against respiratory ... Phase I/II, open-label multi-dose escalation trial of a humanized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) monoclonal antibody (MEDI- ... Palivizumab, a Humanized Respiratory Syncytial Virus Monoclonal Antibody, Reduces Hospitalization From Respiratory Syncytial ...
Palivizumab, a Humanized Respiratory Syncytial Virus Monoclonal Antibody, Reduces Hospitalization From Respiratory Syncytial ... Palivizumab, a Humanized Respiratory Syncytial Virus Monoclonal Antibody, Reduces Hospitalization From Respiratory Syncytial ... Palivizumab, a Humanized Respiratory Syncytial Virus Monoclonal Antibody, Reduces Hospitalization From Respiratory Syncytial ... Palivizumab, a Humanized Respiratory Syncytial Virus Monoclonal Antibody, Reduces Hospitalization From Respiratory Syncytial ...
Clinical Assessment of Safety and Tolerability of the New Monoclonal Humanized Antibody CaCP29. The safety and scientific ... The novel humanized monoclonal antibody CaCP29 was developed to control the inflammatory response to various stimuli in humans ... Intervention Details: Biological: CaCP29, a humanized monoclonal antibody CaCP29 or placebo single i.v. infusion in ascending ... Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the New Humanized Monoclonal Antibody CaCP29. ...
... a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody with a better side effects profile for the treatment of psoriasis Roshni Menon, Brinda ... Itolizumab - a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody with a better side effects profile for the treatment of psoriasis. ... Itolizumab, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, is a new molecule that acts by immunomodulating the CD6 molecule. CD6 is ... Keywords: Itolizumab, CD6, psoriasis, monoclonal antibody, biologicals. Corrigendum for this paper has been published.. ...
Characterization of ABT-806, a Humanized Tumor-Specific Anti-EGFR Monoclonal Antibody. Edward B. Reilly, Andrew C. Phillips, ... A phase 1 study of ABT-806, a humanized recombinant anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, in patients with advanced solid tumors. AACR ... Characterization of ABT-806, a Humanized Tumor-Specific Anti-EGFR Monoclonal Antibody ... a Humanized Tumor-Specific Anti-EGFR Monoclonal Antibody. Edward B. Reilly, Andrew C. Phillips, Fritz G. Buchanan, Gillian ...
A Phase 1/2, Multi-center, Open-label, Dose-escalation Study of Elotuzumab(Humanized Anti-CS1 Monoclonal IgG1 Antibody) and ... A Phase 1/2, Multi-center, Open-label, Dose-escalation Study of Elotuzumab(Humanized Anti-CS1 Monoclonal IgG1 Antibody) and ... Nitrogen mustard agents, melphalan, or monoclonal antibodies within 6 weeks of the first dose of elotuzumab. ... Incidence of elotuzumab-specific antidrug antibodies. *Evaluate the pharmacodynamics of elotuzumab in combination with ...
Biological: ACTINIUM-225-LABELED HUMANIZED ANTI-CD33 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY HuM195 A single infusion of 225Ac-HuM195 will be ... Phase I Trial of Targeted Atomic Nano-Generators (Actinium-225-Labeled Humanized Anti-CD33 Monoclonal Antibody HuM195) in ... Targeted Atomic Nano-Generators (Actinium-225-Labeled Humanized Anti-CD33 Monoclonal Antibody HuM195) in Patients With Advanced ... Biological: ACTINIUM-225-LABELED HUMANIZED ANTI-CD33 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY HuM195 Phase 1 ...
A Phase Ib Study of Humanized Anti-VEGF Monoclonal Antibody (Sevacizumab) Injection Plus FOLFIRI in Chinese Patients With ... A Phase Ib Study of Humanized Anti-VEGF Monoclonal Antibody (Sevacizumab) Injection Plus FOLFIRI in Chinese Patients With ... and pharmacokinetics of Humanized Anti-VEGF Monoclonal Antibody (Sevacizumab) Injection in combination with FOLFIRI in patients ...
Humanized Monoclonal Antibody 3F8 (Hu3F8). Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). 15-096. ... Humanized Monoclonal Antibody 3F8 (Hu3F8) With Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in the Treatment of ... A Phase II Study of Humanized Monoclonal Antibody 3F8 (Hu3F8) With Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in ... Experimental: humanized anti-GD2 antibody, hu3F8, when combined with GM-CSF One cycle consists of treatment with hu3F8 at a ...
Fremanezumab-A Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CGRP Antibody-Inhibits Thinly Myelinated (Aδ) But Not Unmyelinated (C) Meningeal ... Fremanezumab-A Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CGRP Antibody-Inhibits Thinly Myelinated (Aδ) But Not Unmyelinated (C) Meningeal ... Fremanezumab-A Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CGRP Antibody-Inhibits Thinly Myelinated (Aδ) But Not Unmyelinated (C) Meningeal ... Fremanezumab-A Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CGRP Antibody-Inhibits Thinly Myelinated (Aδ) But Not Unmyelinated (C) Meningeal ...
... a humanized, anti-endosialin monoclonal antibody, to confirm its tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics, and identify... ... Ontuxizumab is a humanized, anti-endosialin, IgG1κ monoclonal antibody with a structure comprising two heavy chains and two ... Background We conducted a first-in-Japanese, phase I study of ontuxizumab, a humanized, anti-endosialin monoclonal antibody, to ... A phase I study of ontuxizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting endosialin, in Japanese patients with solid tumors. ...
T1h, a novel humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CD6, a co-stimulatory receptor present on T cells, was evaluated as a ... Safety, Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of T1h, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, in moderate to severe chronic plaque ... Safety, Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of T1h, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, in moderate to severe chronic plaque ... Safety, Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of T1h, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, in moderate to severe chronic plaque ...
... and a full-length monoclonal antibody (GD-mAb) was developed based on the sequence encoding Ig VH and Ig VL from GD-scFv. Then ... and a full-length monoclonal antibody (GD-mAb) was developed based on the sequence encoding Ig VH and Ig VL from GD-scFv. Then ... In the present study, a single chain antibody against RSV (GD-scFv) was screened using phage display library panning technology ... In the present study, a single chain antibody against RSV (GD-scFv) was screened using phage display library panning technology ...
... neutralizing humanized monoclonal antibody, hE16, was previously shown to improve the survival of WNV-infected hamsters when it ... A potent anti-West Nile virus (anti-WNV)-neutralizing humanized monoclonal antibody, hE16, was previously shown to improve the ... Defining limits of treatment with humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibody for West Nile virus neurological infection in a ... Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage*, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, therapeutic use*. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic ...
Construction and characterization of a humanized anti-ganglioside GM2 monoclonal antibody, submitted for publication. ... Takamuku K., Akiyoshi T., Tsuji H. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity using a murine monoclonal antibody against ... A humanized anti-tumor necrosis factor-monoclonal antibody that acts as a partial, competitive antagonist of the template ... Antibody Treatment of Heterospheroids.. The heterospheroids (n = 10) were incubated with the humanized KM8969 from day 2 to day ...
Comparative analyses of Rebmab200 and MX35 monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that the two antibodies had similar specificity ... To overcome this impediment we developed a humanized antibody version named Rebmab200, expressed in human PER.C6® cells and ... The antibody had shown excellent targeting to ovarian cancer in several early phase clinical trials but being murine the ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated toxicity functionality was confirmed in repeated assays using cancer cell lines derived from ...
TAK-701, a humanized monoclonal antibody to HGF, in combination with gefitinib inhibited the phosphorylation of MET, EGFR, ... TAK-701, a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody to Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Reverses Gefitinib Resistance Induced by Tumor-Derived ... TAK-701, a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody to Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Reverses Gefitinib Resistance Induced by Tumor-Derived ... TAK-701, a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody to Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Reverses Gefitinib Resistance Induced by Tumor-Derived ...
Abstract 3667: Reduction of in vivo tumor growth and angiogenesis by a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody to SEMA4D. Alan S. ... Abstract 3667: Reduction of in vivo tumor growth and angiogenesis by a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody to SEMA4D ... Abstract 3667: Reduction of in vivo tumor growth and angiogenesis by a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody to SEMA4D ... Abstract 3667: Reduction of in vivo tumor growth and angiogenesis by a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody to SEMA4D ...
... is capable of inducing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement-mediated lysis, and direct apoptosis of lymphoma ... The humanized monoclonal antibody apolizumab (Remitogen, Hu1D10), directed against a polymorphic determinant of HLA-DR ... The humanized monoclonal antibody apolizumab (Remitogen, Hu1D10), directed against a polymorphic determinant of HLA-DR ... A Phase II Study of Apolizumab, a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Follicular, Small ...
  • Each antibody has a unique "paratope" that may tag the precise "epitope" on the antigen. (dailystrength.org)
  • Human human anatomy includes hundreds of tens and thousands of different bright body cells called "T lymphocytes", each effective at producing one form of antibody and each showing web sites on their membrane that'll join with a certain antigen. (dailystrength.org)
  • NO:7 and a heavy chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, wherein said humanized antibody binds prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and wherein administration of said humanized antibody to a subject diagnosed with prostate cancer decreases tumor growth to a greater extent than treatment with the murine 1G8 monoclonal antibody. (google.co.uk)
  • A humanized version of E16 was generated that retained antigen specificity, avidity and neutralizing activity. (nih.gov)
  • In the present article, we constructed a humanized anti-GM2 MAb, KM8969, and studied its antigen-binding affinity and effector functions such as CDC and ADCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine the in vivo characteristics of huA33, a CDR-grafted humanized antibody against the A33 antigen, we have conducted an open-label, dose escalation, biopsy-based phase I trial of huA33 in patients with colorectal carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antigen-dependent internalization is related to rapid elimination from plasma of humanized anti-HM1.24 monoclonal antibody. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Tumor targeting properties of monoclonal antibodies with different affinity for target antigen CD44V6 in nude mice bearing head-and-neck cancer xenografts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Monoclonal antibody working titer has to be established practically for each particular antigen and assay format. (icosagen.com)
  • In vivo, the production of these antibodies can be obtained by injecting a given antigen into the animal and then extracting them from the blood. (ahfad.org)
  • Among these cells are plasma cells secreting antibodies directed specifically against the chosen antigen. (ahfad.org)
  • After ten days, each well is checked for the presence of antibodies against the antigen used to immunize the mouse. (ahfad.org)
  • In light of the aforementioned findings relating to splenic stromal cells and the results of prior research, the present inventors have earnestly made further research aiming at developing specific antibodies that can recognize the splenic stromal cells, made efforts to prepare monoclonal antibodies using the aforementioned splenic stromal cell line as a sensitizing antigen, and finally succeeded in obtaining novel monoclonal antibodies. (google.com)
  • conducting a examine to find out the security and efficacy of instant peri-operative MVT-5873, a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody focusing on carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), in patients undergoing resections pancreatic most cancers, cholangiocarcinoma or metastatic colorectal most cancers to the liver. (gentaur-antibodies.com)
  • Lewis Y (Le(y)) is a blood group antigen with robust expression on the surface of epithelial tumors, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC), making it a potential target for antibody-based immunotherapy. (edu.au)
  • Antibodies act as flags to attract disease-fighting molecules by attaching to specific molecules (antigens) on the surface of cancer cells when the antibody binds to an antigen, or as a trigger to promote cancer cell destruction by other immune system processes. (openpr.com)
  • Rather, the protein sequence of a humanized antibody is essentially identical to that of a human variant, despite the non-human origin of some of its CDR segments responsible for the ability of the antibody to bind to its target antigen. (thefullwiki.org)
  • At least 11 members of the IgG antibodies against either the nucleocapsid (N) or G1 rodent-borne genus Hantavirus have been associated with glycoprotein antigen are present in most patients even in hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) or hemor- the prodrome phase (5). (cdc.gov)
  • Many sequences on the basis of the following serologic criteria: the pres- spanning this region have been examined from SNV iso- ence of IgM and IgG antibodies directed against the SNV lates from throughout the United States and Canada, and N antigen and the presence of IgG antibodies against the little variation has been detected (B. Hjelle, unpub. (cdc.gov)
  • A Phase 1/2, Multi-center, Open-label, Dose-escalation Study of Elotuzumab(Humanized Anti-CS1 Monoclonal IgG1 Antibody) and Bortezomib in Subjects With Multiple Myeloma Following One to Three Prior Therapies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • SCH 900105), a humanized IgG1κ HGF inhibitory monoclonal antibody, prevents HGF/c-Met pathway ligand-mediated activation. (ovid.com)
  • The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of a humanized anti-Factor IX IgG1 monoclonal antibody (SB 249417, FIX mAb) were studied in Cynomolgus monkeys. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Objective: Mepolizumab is certainly a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks individual IL-5 from binding towards the IL-5 receptor, which is expressed on eosinophils mainly. (expandingmarketing.com)
  • Mepolizumab is usually a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks human IL-5 from binding to the IL-5 receptor that is mainly expressed on eosinophils but is also present on basophils [11]. (expandingmarketing.com)
  • cDNA of antibody variable regions were isolated and cloned into the human IgG1 constant region-containing antibody expression vector. (icosagen.com)
  • Background: We report the safety profile, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of siplizumab, a humanized IgG1 anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody and potential agent for preventing renal allograft rejection, in a phase 1 study in renal allograft recipients. (umn.edu)
  • Murine monoclonal antibody 1G8 binds to PSCA with nanomolar affinity, but its efficacy as a therapeutic agent is limited by the generation of a HAMA response. (google.co.uk)
  • One key issue with regard to the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies has been the response of the human immune system to xenogeneic antibodies. (google.co.uk)
  • Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus. (nih.gov)
  • One monoclonal antibody, E16, neutralized 10 different strains in vitro, and showed therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when administered as a single dose 5 d after infection. (nih.gov)
  • In postexposure therapeutic trials in mice, a single dose of humanized E16 protected mice against WNV-induced mortality, and may therefore be a viable treatment option against WNV infection in humans. (nih.gov)
  • We therefore propose to generate humanized ant-PBEFmonoclonal antibodies (P- BEFizumab) that can be used as both prophylactic and therapeutic agents in patients with ALI/VILI. (sbir.gov)
  • We have shown PBEF as a major contributing factor, and propose to generate therapeutic humanized neutralizing anti-PBEF monoclonal antibodies to treat patients with acute lung injury. (sbir.gov)
  • MAb 806 is a novel EGFR antibody that selectively targets a tumor-selective epitope suggesting that a mAb 806-based therapeutic would retain antitumor activity without the on-target toxicities associated with EGFR inhibition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To further improve the therapeutic efficacy of the anti-GM2 MAb in humans, we constructed a humanized anti-GM2 MAb, KM8969. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antibody neutralization of SEMA4D thus may represent a new therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This Editorial aims to present the background to the recent authorization of tocilizumab, a humanized therapeutic monoclonal antibody to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), for hospitalized patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 and future combination therapies. (medscimonit.com)
  • The selective targeting of tumors with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) has emerged as an important therapeutic approach in cancer therapy ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have investigated the biological and therapeutic properties of a humanized anti-CD4 MoAb, hIgG1-CD4, in patients with refractory psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are widely used in biology and medicine, both as diagnostic tools and for therapeutic purposes. (ahfad.org)
  • The novel antibodies are useful as therapeutic agents for myeloid leukemia and lymphoid leukemia. (google.com)
  • The market for monoclonal antibodies is driven by persistent innovation in drug development and discovery, increasing incidences of chronic diseases, favorable regulatory policies, and high adoption rate of therapeutic antibodies in emerging economies. (pharmiweb.com)
  • A significant advance in this area is the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. (intechopen.com)
  • Not all monoclonal antibodies designed for human administration need be fully humanized since many therapies are short-term interventions (see list in combination with nomenclature to get an overview of the various types of antibodies developed for therapeutic administration in humans). (thefullwiki.org)
  • This is an open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of Humanized Anti-VEGF Monoclonal Antibody (Sevacizumab) Injection in combination with FOLFIRI in patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer. (centerwatch.com)
  • Background We conducted a first-in-Japanese, phase I study of ontuxizumab, a humanized, anti-endosialin monoclonal antibody, to confirm its tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics, and identify exploratory efficacy. (springer.com)
  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a humanized monoclonal antibody to factor IX in cynomolgus monkeys. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pharmacokinetics of humanized monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} antibody and its neonatal Fc receptor variants in mice and cynomolgus monkeys. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A phase I trial of humanized 3S193 (hu3S193) with dosing up to 40 mg/m2 demonstrated tumor targeting without serious toxicities or the development of human anti-human antibodies.We tested the targeting and pharmacokinetics of hu3S193 in patients with SCLC. (edu.au)
  • There are currently 17 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) approved by the FDA in the US. (google.co.uk)
  • As a new approach to migraine treatment, humanized anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (CGRP-mAbs) were developed to reduce the availability of CGRP, and were found effective in reducing the frequency of chronic and episodic migraine. (jneurosci.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recently, we reported that humanized CGRP monoclonal antibodies (CGRP-mAbs) prevent activation and sensitization of high-threshold (HT) but not wide-dynamic range trigeminovascular neurons by cortical spreading depression (CSD). (jneurosci.org)
  • Humanized MAbs contain about 10% murine origin residues and 90% human origin residues, and, thus, theoretically further reduction of the immunogenicity is achieved compared with chimeric MAbs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Positron-emitting nuclide (76)Br (T(1/2)=16.2 h) might be a possible candidate for labeling monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their fragments, provided that the appropriate labeling chemistry has been established. (diva-portal.org)
  • There are several types of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) - large protein molecules produced by white blood cells (WBCs) that seek out and destroy harmful foreign substances - on the market and in development. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • Previous studies have shown the potential of murine and chimeric anti-CD44v6 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (semanticscholar.org)
  • We demonstrate that total CD8 + CD45RC low/− Tregs can be efficiently expanded in the presence of anti-CD3/28 mAbs, high-dose IL-2 and IL-15 and that such expanded Tregs efficiently delay GVHD and human skin transplantation rejection in immune humanized mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize H5N1 virus could be used as prophylaxis and treatment to aid in the containment of such a pandemic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neutralizing mAbs against H5 hemagglutinin were humanized and introduced into C57BL/6 mice (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg bodyweight) one day prior to-, one day post- and three days post-lethal challenge with H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/04 virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two mAbs neutralizing for antigenically variant H5N1 viruses, A/Vietnam/1203/04 and A/Hong Kong/213/03 were identified and humanized without loss of specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prophylaxis and treatment using neutralizing humanized mAbs is efficacious against lethal challenge with A/Vietnam/1203/04, providing proof of principle for the use of passive antibody therapy as a containment option in the event of pandemic influenza. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KW-0761 is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CCR4 utilizing the POTELLIGENT(R) technology platform for the development of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity- (ADCC) enhanced antibodies. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The chimeric antiganglioside GM2 monoclonal antibody (MAb) KM966, which showed high effector functions such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), potently suppressed growth and metastases of GM2-positive human cancer cells inoculated into mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The humanized KM8969 was more efficient in supporting ADCC against GM2-positive human cancer cell lines than the chimeric KM966, whereas complement-dependent cytotoxicity was slightly reduced in the humanized KM8969. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T he humanized monoclonal antibody apolizumab (Remitogen, Hu1D10), directed against a polymorphic determinant of HLA-DR expressed on normal and malignant B cells, is capable of inducing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement-mediated lysis, and direct apoptosis of lymphoma cell lines ( Int J Cancer 93:556-565, 2001). (cancernetwork.com)
  • MVT-5873 demonstrated cell floor binding in sLe a constructive human tumor strains and has been proven to be potent in complement-dependent cytotoxicity assays and antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity assays. (gentaur-antibodies.com)
  • 3S193, an immunoglobulin G3 monoclonal antibody, has demonstrated superior specificity, affinity, and cytotoxicity over other anti-Le(y) antibodies. (edu.au)
  • After binding to CD22, epratuzumab's predominant antitumor activity appears to be mediated through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). (cancer.gov)
  • These humanized antibodies bind PSCA with high affinity and specificity, and have been shown to reduce human bladder tumor take in a nude mouse model. (google.co.uk)
  • In this study, our group developed a full-length monoclonal antibody (GD-mAb) and reported a high binding specificity of the RSV surface glycoproteins G. Moreover, GD-mAb effectively neutralized RSV in vitro , and significantly lowered the lung index and reduced the lung virus titer in an infected mouse lung, which suggests that GD-mAb may serve as an effective antiviral agent for RSV infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The advantage of using monoclonal antibodies for anti-cancer treatment lies in their specificity in destroying target cells. (ahfad.org)
  • Due to its specificity, monoclonal antibodies have the least side effects than other cancer treatments. (openpr.com)
  • The process must be "selective" to retain the specificity for which the antibody was originally developed. (thefullwiki.org)
  • They are large Protein molecules bright cells.Antibodies made by the immune system in the response to the presence of antigens in the human body. (dailystrength.org)
  • Manufacture of monoclonal antibodies against antigens carried by tumor cells in order to destroy them. (ahfad.org)
  • The monoclonal antibodies of this invention are antibodies that specifically recognize human Integrin Associated Protein, and the antigens that induce apoptosis of nucleated blood cells having human Integrin Associated Protein. (google.com)
  • However, while one cell line of the splenic stromal cells has been established (CF-1 cells) and its cytological characteristics have been studied, specific antibodies that recognize the surface antigens of these cells have never been prepared, nor have their characteristics been elucidated yet in any way. (google.com)
  • The road to individualized therapy goes through detecting specific targets (e.g., antigens), suitable for influence, and their selective targeting by using specially designed molecules (e.g., antibodies). (intechopen.com)
  • Only the part of the antibody that binds to the leukemia cells was kept from the mouse. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We selected a humanized IgG4 antibody that binds with high affinity to rat, mouse, primate, and human SEMA4D, and utilized several in vitro functional assays to demonstrate that this antibody blocks SEMA4D - PLXNB1 interactions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1. A humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds and neutralizes human Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Itolizumab, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, is a new molecule that acts by immunomodulating the CD6 molecule. (dovepress.com)
  • 4. Which manufacturer/vendor/players in the Cancer Monoclonal Antibodies Market was the market leader in 2018? (openpr.com)
  • The "Monoclonal Antibodies Market - Forecasts from 2018 to 2023" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Using syngeneic, xenograft and orthotopic tumor models we demonstrated that antibody mediated neutralization of SEMA4D in vivo inhibits tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In view of the long retention time of mAb A33 in tumors, high tumor uptake, and minimal gut toxicity observed in these trials, a humanized version of mAb A33 was constructed to enable repeated dosing without immunogenicity ( 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Phase I study of ontuxizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody recognizing endosialin/tumor endothelial marker1 (TEM1), in Japanese patients with so. (esmo.org)
  • These plasma cells are fused with tumor cells called myeloma cells (immortal cells) thanks to the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) which induces membrane fusion and thus makes it possible to obtain hybridomas which have the capacity to multiply faster than normal body cells produce antibodies and develop specific antibodies indefinitely. (ahfad.org)
  • The antibody serves in this case there, to bring towards the tumor cell the element which will destroy it. (ahfad.org)
  • Adalimumab is a completely humanized monoclonal tumor necrosis element (TNF)- antibody used to take care of various inflammatory illnesses, including ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis rheumatoid, and psoriasis1. (wirdahl.com)
  • A recombinant humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody, (h2E2), has shown potential in the preclinical phases for the treatment of cocaine abuse. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phase II study of weekly intravenous recombinant humanized anti-p185HER2 monoclonal antibody in patients with HER2/neu-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. (nature.com)
  • Recently, t he Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs) program's 'Recombinant Humanized anti-HER2 Monoclonal Antibody-Maytansine Conjugates for Injection' (BAT8001) was approved for clinical trials in China. (bio-thera.com)
  • A recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD22, a cell surface glycoprotein present on mature B-cells and on many types of malignant B-cells. (cancer.gov)
  • The research report by Transparency Market Research states that the global monoclonal antibody therapeutics market was worth US$86.7 bn in 2015 and is expected to reach US$245.8 bn by 2024. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • On the basis of application, the global monoclonal antibody therapeutics market is segmented into cancer, ophthalmological diseases, infection, autoimmune diseases, and hematological diseases among others. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The key players operating in the global monoclonal antibody therapeutics market are GlaxoSmithKline Plc. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • To track and analyze competitive developments such as joint ventures, strategic alliances, mergers and acquisitions, new product developments, and research and developments in the global monoclonal antibody therapy market. (medgadget.com)
  • The Global Monoclonal antibody Partnering Terms and Agreements 2010 to 2017: Deal trends, players, financials and forecasts report provides a detailed understanding and analysis of how and why companies enter monoclonal antibody partnering deals. (medgadget.com)
  • The global monoclonal antibody market is expected to grow 5.7% over the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • We describe immunomodulatory effects of FK734, a humanized version of a mouse anti-human CD28 mAb (clone TN228), in vitro and in a chimeric human-mouse model of allograft rejection. (nih.gov)
  • Successful treatment of renal allograft rejection with a humanized antilymphocyte monoclonal antibody. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Safety and Activity of Anti-C1s Humanized Monoclonal Antibody TNT009 in Late Antibody-Mediated Kidney Allograft Rejection - Results of a First-in-Human Phase 1 Trial. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Your body of the rabbit recognized the international protein and made antibodies - these antibodies were specific to individual proteins. (dailystrength.org)
  • Neutralization of West Nile virus (WNV) in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. (nih.gov)
  • Using random mutagenesis and yeast surface display, we defined individual contact residues of 14 newly generated monoclonal antibodies against domain III of the WNV E protein. (nih.gov)
  • Using a human liver-chimeric mouse model(6), we show that a monoclonal antibody specific for the TJ protein claudin-1 (ref. 7) eliminates chronic HCV infection without detectable toxicity. (ugent.be)
  • Figure 1: Western-Blot analysis of HIV-1 HAN subtype p17/24 protein using chimeric HIV-1 p24 antibody, clone 5. (icosagen.com)
  • Administration of humanized anti-human CD26 monoclonal antibody (mAb) decreased x-GVHD severity and prolonged survival in hu-PBL-NOG mice without loss of engraftment of human T cells, while increasing doses of CTLA4- immunoglobulin fusion protein diminished engraftment of human lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • 1 . A monoclonal antibody that induces apoptosis of nucleated blood cells having Integrin Associated Protein (IAP). (google.com)
  • 2 . A fragment, a peptide or a low molecular compound of a monoclonal antibody that induces apoptosis of nucleated blood cells having Integrin Associated Protein (IAP). (google.com)
  • This invention relates to novel monoclonal antibodies having the property of inducing apoptosis of nucleated blood cells with Integrin Associated Protein (IAP) as well as fragments of such monclonal antibodies, peptides or low molecular weight compounds, and to hybridoma that produce the monoclonal antibodies. (google.com)
  • A monoclonal antibody is a specialized immune system protein created in a lab. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Humanized antibodies are those whose protein sequences have been modified to increase their similarity to antibody variants produced naturally in humans. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The protein sequences of antibodies produced in this way are partially distinct from homologous antibodies occurring naturally in humans, and are therefore potentially immunogenic when administered to human patients (see also HAMA ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • The step involving recombinant DNA provides an intervention point that can be readily exploited to alter the protein sequence of the expressed antibody. (thefullwiki.org)
  • To investigate the effect of the humanized KM8969 on the biological function of GM2 in the condition physiologically mimicking formation and growth of cancer masses, the heterospheroids composed of normal human dermal fibroblasts and GM2-positive human lung cancer cells were developed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 18. A humanized mAb of claim 2 which neutralizes biological activities of HGF as well as L2G7 does. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The biological therapy used for treating various kinds of severe and chronic conditions are known as monoclonal antibodies. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are a type of biological therapy used in the treatment serious conditions such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, psoriasis, osteoporosis, systemic lupus erythematous, and others. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody therapy with biological agents, such as the immunotoxin gemtuzumab ozogamicin has been used to induce remission in relapsed patients. (ijbc.ir)
  • Antibodies are nanosize biological products that are part of the specific immune system. (hindawi.com)
  • This antibody inhibits HCV entry, cell-cell transmission and virus-induced signaling events. (ugent.be)
  • KTN0158 is a novel anti-KIT antibody that potently inhibits wild-type and mutant KIT. (cloudfront.net)
  • Development of an anti-human complement C6 monoclonal antibody that inhibits the meeting of membrane assault complexes. (gentaur-antibodies.com)
  • The monoclonal antibodies market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 6.34% to reach US$131.766 billion by 2023, from US$91.122 billion in 2017. (pharmiweb.com)
  • After each round, an increased percentage of DIII expressing yeast are recognized by the polyclonal anti-WNV E antibody but not by E24. (nih.gov)
  • We also carried out proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate that neutralizing polyclonal antibodies against PBEF when administered intratracheally and also intravenously has significant reduction in mouse model of ALI/VILI. (sbir.gov)
  • Comprehensive antibody services including monoclonal and polyclonal antibody. (bostonmolecules.com)
  • An antibody can be an immunoglobulin made by some sort of white body mobile, which will be called a lcd cell. (dailystrength.org)
  • The "chimeric" antibodies are obtained by grafting the constant parts of human immunoglobulin onto the variable parts of a mouse antibody. (ahfad.org)
  • Research shows that POTELLIGENT(R) technology significantly enhances the ADCC activity of antibodies in vitro, thereby increasing the potential for improved activity in vivo. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • In the present study a single chain antibody against RSV (GD-scFv) was screened using phage display library panning technology and a full-length monoclonal antibody (GD-mAb) was developed from GD-scFv based on the sequence encoding Ig V H and Ig V L . The anti-RSV potential of GD-mAb was evaluated in vitro and in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • The influence of the antibody on B-cell proliferation and migration was analyzed in vitro in detail. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The production of these antibodies in vitro is very difficult because of the short lifespan of the plasma cells. (ahfad.org)
  • The study was purposed to investigate the effects of humanized recombined CD25 monoclonal antibody (rhCD25MAb) on activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • Alemtuzumab (Campath-1H, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA) is a humanized CD52-specific monoclonal antibody that produces profound T-cell depletion in humans and reduces the need for maintenance immunosuppression after renal transplantation. (nebraska.edu)
  • Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Market is growing rapidly and it is expected to grow a huge amount of CAGR from 2016 to 2022. (medgadget.com)
  • 2. What will be the CAGR of Cancer Monoclonal Antibodies Market during the forecast period (2019-2025)? (openpr.com)
  • Of these, demand for treating autoimmune diseases with monoclonal antibody therapeutics is expected to remain at an all-time high in the coming years. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The growing awareness about diseases, improving accessibility to healthcare, widening range of monoclonal antibody therapeutics, and huge investments in research and development of these therapeutics are expected to propel the segment in the coming years. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Analysts predict that the North America monoclonal antibody therapeutics market is likely to lead due to several reasons. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • On the other hand, Europe monoclonal antibody therapeutics market is expected to thrive due to the increasing research and development in developing novel products. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The growing focus of governments in developing countries to improve the healthcare facilities is also expected to boost the demand for monoclonal antibody therapeutics in the coming years. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • By immunizing mice sequentially with six different V3 peptides we obtained a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) C25, and its humanized counterpart KD-247. (iospress.com)
  • Both antibodies exhibited prophylactic efficacy in mice, however, VN04-2-huG1 performed better requiring only 1 mg/kg bodyweight for complete protection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • humanized" antibodies are produced by microbial fermentation or by transgenic mice containing only part of the human genes that make the Antibodies. (ahfad.org)
  • Humanization can be necessary when the process of developing a specific antibody involves generation in a non-human immune system (such as that in mice). (thefullwiki.org)
  • The excellent targeting characteristics of this humanized antibody indicate potential for the targeted therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer in future trials. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Targeting CA 19-9 with a humanized monoclonal antibody at the time of surgery may decrease recurrence rates for patients undergoing resections for pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic colorectal cancer. (gentaur-antibodies.com)
  • The present invention is directed toward a humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibody to hepatocyte growth factor, a pharmaceutical composition comprising same, and methods of treatment comprising administering such a pharmaceutical composition to a patient. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Antibodies are proteins that are produced by the immune system and help the body to fight foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Globally North America is the largest market for monoclonal antibody therapy. (medgadget.com)
  • Thus, therapy with antibody against CD154 is a promising agent for clinical use in human allotransplantation. (nih.gov)
  • To enable clinical development, a humanized variant of mAb 806 designated ABT-806 was generated and is currently in phase 1 trials. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This humanized antibody has successfully completed IND-enabling toxicology testing and we anticipate the initiation of human clinical trials in early 2011. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are currently in clinical development or undergoing clinical trials to treat COVID-19. (medscimonit.com)
  • Initial clinical evaluation of radiolabeled MX-DTPA humanized BrE-3 antibody in patients with advanced breast cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We conclude that humanized M195 conjugated to recombinant gelonin has antileukemic activity and should be considered for clinical testing in Phase I trials. (elsevier.com)
  • The network is often dysregulated in cancer and lends credence to the mantra that molecular understanding yields clinical benefit: over 25,000 women with breast cancer have now been treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin®), a recombinant antibody designed to block the receptor ErbB2. (nature.com)
  • Likewise, small-molecule enzyme inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies to ErbB1 are in advanced phases of clinical testing. (nature.com)
  • First full report of clinical tests of an anti-ErbB2 antibody as a single agent. (nature.com)
  • Otelixizumab is an example of a humanized chimera currently in clinical trials for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus . (thefullwiki.org)
  • While four other etiologic viruses cause HCPS in such antibodies from the first day of clinical illness (6). (cdc.gov)
  • However, major causes of concern while using these drugs are risk of susceptibility to infection and development of anti-drug antibodies, which will affect the pharmacokinetic properties, efficacy, and safety profile of the drug. (dovepress.com)
  • Efficacy of Urtoxazumab (TMA-15 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Specific" by Rodney A. Moxley, David H. Francis et al. (unl.edu)
  • We evaluated the efficacy of urtoxazumab (TMA-15, Teijin Pharma Limited), a humanized monoclonal antibody against Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 for the prevention of brain damage, dysfunction, and death in a piglet EHEC infection model. (unl.edu)
  • A first-in-human phase I study was conducted to characterize safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of lumretuzumab, a humanized and glycoengineered anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody, in patients with advanced cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • however, human anti-mouse antibody precluded repeat dosing ( 15 - 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In summary, we demonstrate that an antibody targeting a virus receptor can cure chronic viral infection and uncover TJ proteins as targets for antiviral therapy. (ugent.be)
  • Antibody is used for high-specific efficient detection of soluble or membrane-bound proteins fused with 05-001 epitope-tag sequence. (icosagen.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of immunotherapy which requires monoclonal antibodies to bind specifically to certain type of cells and proteins which stimulates the immune system to attack those cells. (medgadget.com)
  • That is, gene segments capable of producing antibodies are isolated and cloned into cells that can be grown in a tank such that antibody proteins produced from the DNA of the cloned genes can be harvested en masse . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The monoclonal or monoclonal antibodies are identical because they are produced by a clone of specialized cells of the immune system (plamocytes). (ahfad.org)
  • Monoclonal antibody are target specific in action by not affect the other cells of the body thus restores the immune system. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody drugs used to treat cancer are involved in the functioning of the natural immune system to fight cancer. (openpr.com)
  • Rational design of peptides for identification of linear epitopes and generation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against DKK2 for cancer therapy. (gentaur-antibodies.com)
  • The antibody reduced B-cell proliferation significantly but moderately, induced enhanced spontaneous and CXCL12-dependent migration together with changes in the expression of adhesion molecules, CD44, β7-integrin and CD62L, mainly of CD27 - naïve B cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrate here that administration of a CD154-specific monoclonal antibody (hu5C8) allows for renal allotransplantation in outbred, MHC-mismatched rhesus monkeys without acute rejection. (nih.gov)
  • The classical pathway (CP) of complement may significantly contribute to antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • These characteristics make the humanized antibodies of the present invention attractive agents for the treatment and detection of tumors expressing PSCA. (google.co.uk)
  • The present invention provides humanized antibodies for use in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer with minimal HAMA response. (google.co.uk)
  • Defining limits of treatment with humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibody for West Nile virus neurological infection in a hamster model. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The median time to response was 106 days, with continued remission more than 400 days following antibody treatment. (cancernetwork.com)
  • In 2011, a humanized monoclonal antibody to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), tocilizumab, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and Castleman's disease. (medscimonit.com)
  • Antibody treatment reduces the number of HCV-infected hepatocytes in vivo, highlighting the need for de novo infection by means of host entry factors to maintain chronic infection. (ugent.be)
  • SACRAMENTO, CA - What are the complement depleting effects of humanized monoclonal antibodies and the impact of complement replacement on treatment response in patients with hard-to-treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia? (usmedicine.com)
  • Lebrikizumab (INN) is a humanized monoclonal antibody and an experimental immunosuppressive drug for the treatment of asthma that cannot be adequately controlled with inhalable glucocorticoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have developed a humanized monoclonal antibody YS110 against CD26 expressed in 85 % of MM cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have previously showed that the humanized anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody (mAb), YS110, exhibits inhibitory effects on various cancers. (elsevier.com)
  • Monkeys treated with antibody against CD154 remained healthy during and after therapy. (nih.gov)
  • The humanized KM8969, which can destroy the cancer cells via blocking functional GM2 on the cell surface as well as the effector functions, would have extraordinary potential in human cancer therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It thus may be a candidate antibody for the autoimmune disease therapy by modifying B cell functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Humanized anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody therapy of autoimmune and inflammatory disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To provide detail analysis of the market structure along with forecast for the next 7 years of the various segments and sub-segments of the monoclonal antibody therapy market. (medgadget.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody therapy market has been segmented on the basis of source which comprises of recombinant, chimeric, humanized, human, and other. (medgadget.com)
  • Furthermore Asia pacific market is expected to be the fastest growing market for monoclonal antibody therapy. (medgadget.com)
  • Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Market of Market Research Future comprises of extensive primary research along with the detail analysis of qualitative as well as quantitative aspects by various industry experts, key opinion leaders to gain the deeper insights of the market and industry performance. (medgadget.com)
  • Not all methods for deriving antibodies intended for human therapy require a humanization step (e.g. phage display ) but essentially all are dependent on techniques that similarly allow the "insertion" or "swapping-out" of portions of the antibody molecule. (thefullwiki.org)
  • However, when some one mentions the word custom antibody, few people know it. (dailystrength.org)
  • In this informative article, I can give a brief introduction about custom antibody. (dailystrength.org)
  • Convalescent antibodies from individuals who had recovered from WNV infection also detected this epitope. (nih.gov)
  • When used to treat infection VN04-2-huG1 was also completely protective, even when introduced three days post infection, although higher dose of antibody was required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because such a narrow window exists between presenta- antibody titers of 21 patients who had recovered from SNV tion and lethal outcome, improving the outcome will like- infection. (cdc.gov)
  • These results confirm that patients investigators have recently begun to use the term han- retain high titers of neutralizing antibodies long after recov- tavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) rather than the ery from SNV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, the total bioavailability from the SC path of administration, the known degrees of anti-mepolizumab antibodies as well as the protection and tolerability of mepolizumab had been assessed. (expandingmarketing.com)
  • Therefore, humanized monoclonal antibody BIWA 4 (bivatuzumab), with an intermediate affinity for CD44v6, was recently selected. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) towards complement part C5, is being utilized in the clinic to deal with illnesses during which MAC-mediated tissue injury is a major trigger. (gentaur-antibodies.com)
  • Antibody is derived from mouse anti-HIV-1 (HAN subtype) p17/24 monoclonal antoibody clone 5 expressing mouse hybridoma culture. (icosagen.com)
  • The development of the hybridoma technique by César Milstein and Georges köhler in 1975 made it possible to obtain a large quantity of antibodies at low cost and thus allow them to be used in numerous applications. (ahfad.org)
  • 3 . A hybridoma that produces a monoclonal antibody according to claim 1 . (google.com)
  • For internalizing antibodies, such as the humanized anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, radiobromine label should be residualizing, i.e., ensuring that radiocatabolites are trapped intracellularly after the proteolytic degradation of antibody. (diva-portal.org)
  • Reinfusion of unprocessed, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-stimulated whole blood allows dose escalation of 186Relabeled chimeric monoclonal antibody U36 radioimmunotherapy in a phase I dose escalation study. (semanticscholar.org)