Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Mice, Inbred BALB CHIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.

Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody C225 inhibits angiogenesis in human transitional cell carcinoma growing orthotopically in nude mice. (1/5340)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates the growth and progression of human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. We have shown that therapy targeting EGFR inhibited the growth of human TCC established orthotopically in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether EGFR-directed therapy affects angiogenesis associated with the growth and metastasis of human TCC. We determined the cytostatic effect and the effect on production of angiogenic factors after in vitro treatment of the human TCC cell line 253J B-V with MAb C225, a chimerized monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. The 253J B-V cells were implanted orthotopically into athymic nude mice, and established tumors (4 weeks) were treated with i.p. MAb C225. Expression of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ mRNA hybridization analyses and correlated with microvessel density evaluated after immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD31. In vitro treatment with MAb C225 inhibited mRNA and protein production of VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF by 253J B-V cells in a dose-dependent manner. MAb C225 therapy of nude mice with established TCCs growing orthotopically resulted in inhibition of growth and metastasis compared with controls (P <0.0005). VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF expression was significantly lower in treated tumors than in controls. The down-regulation of these angiogenic factors preceded the involution of blood vessels. These studies indicate that therapy with anti-EGFR MAb C225 has a significant antitumor effect mediated, in part, by inhibition of angiogenesis.  (+info)

A sialoglycoprotein, gp20, of the human capacitated sperm surface is a homologue of the leukocyte CD52 antigen: analysis of the effect of anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody (CAMPATH-1) on capacitated spermatozoa. (2/5340)

In this study we performed N-terminal sequence analysis of gp20, a 20 kDa sialoglycoprotein on the human sperm surface previously identified by radiolabelling of the sialic acid residues of sperm surface. We found 100% identity with the N-terminus of CD52, an antigen expressed on almost all human leukocytes. We also show that, like CD52, gp20 behaves as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and that anti-gp20 antiserum reacts with an antigen on leukocytes of the same molecular weight as CD52. Using CAMPATH-1, the monoclonal antibody against CD52, in fluorescent staining of capacitated spermatozoa, Western blot analysis and the zona-free hamster egg penetration test, we found that the effect of this antibody was different from that of our anti-gp20. Western blot analysis revealed a well-defined 20 kDa band with anti-gp20, whereas a 14-20 kDa band was detected with CAMPATH-1. Anti-gp20 stained the equatorial region of the sperm head, whereas CAMPATH-1 stained the tail in immunofluorescence analysis of capacitated spermatozoa. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect was seen with CAMPATH-1, similar to that previously detected with anti-gp20, in a zona-free hamster egg penetration test. However, with CAMPATH-1 agglutination of motile spermatozoa was detected, and this was not present with anti-gp20. This suggests that the epitopes recognized by the two antibodies are different.  (+info)

Elimination of the immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies. (3/5340)

The immunogenicity of therapeutic Abs limits their long-term use. The processes of complementarity-determining region grafting, resurfacing, and hyperchimerization diminish mAb immunogenicity by reducing the number of foreign residues. However, this does not prevent anti-idiotypic and anti-allotypic responses following repeated administration of cell-binding Abs. Classical studies have demonstrated that monomeric human IgG is profoundly tolerogenic in a number of species. If cell-binding Abs could be converted into monomeric non-cell-binding tolerogens, then it should be possible to pretolerize patients to the therapeutic cell-binding form. We demonstrate that non-cell-binding minimal mutants of the anti-CD52 Ab CAMPATH-1H lose immunogenicity and can tolerize to the "wild-type" Ab in CD52-expressing transgenic mice. This finding could have utility in the long-term administration of therapeutic proteins to humans.  (+info)

Cooperative inhibitory effect of novel mixed backbone oligonucleotide targeting protein kinase A in combination with docetaxel and anti-epidermal growth factor-receptor antibody on human breast cancer cell growth. (4/5340)

Type I protein kinase A (PKAI) is overexpressed in the majority of human tumors and plays a relevant role in neoplastic transformation, conveying mitogenic signals of different growth factors and oncogenes. Inhibition of PKAI by antisense oligonucleotides targeting its RIalpha regulatory subunit results in cancer cell growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo. We have recently shown that a mixed backbone oligonucleotide targeting RIalpha can cooperatively inhibit human cancer cell growth when combined with selected cytotoxic drugs. In the present study, we have used HYB 165, a novel DNA/RNA hybrid mixed backbone oligonucleotide that exhibits improved pharmacokinetic and bioavailability properties in vivo and is presently undergoing Phase I trials. We have shown that HYB 165 exhibits a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ZR-75-1 cells and a cooperative activity with docetaxel, a cytotoxic drug active in breast cancer. The antiproliferative activity is accompanied by increased apoptosis, as compared with each single agent. On the basis of our previous demonstration of a structural and functional relation between PKAI and epidermal growth factor receptor, we have performed a double blockade of these pathways using HYB 165 in combination with monoclonal antibody (MAb) C225, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor chimeric MAb. The two compounds determined a cooperative growth inhibitory effect on ZR-75-1 cells and increased apoptosis. To study whether different biological agents and cytotoxic drugs can interact together, low doses of HYB 165, MAb C225, and docetaxel were combined causing an even greater cooperative effect toward growth inhibition. Finally, we have demonstrated that each single agent is able to induce bcl-2 phosphorylation and that the three agents, used in combination at suboptimal doses, determine a greater degree of bcl-2 phosphorylation and cause apoptosis of the majority of ZR-75-1 cells. These findings provide the basis for a novel strategy of treatment of breast cancer patients because both HYB 165 and MAb C225 are presently under clinical evaluation.  (+info)

Antitumor activity of sequential treatment with topotecan and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody C225. (5/5340)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related proteins such as transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) control cancer cell growth through autocrine and paracrine pathways. Overexpression of TGF-alpha and/or its receptor (EGFR) has been associated with a more aggressive disease and a poor prognosis. The blockade of EGFR activation has been proposed as a target for anticancer therapy. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) C225 is an anti-EGFR humanized chimeric mouse MAb that is presently in Phase II clinical trials in cancer patients. Previous studies have suggested the potentiation of the antitumor activity of certain cytotoxic drugs, such as cisplatin and doxorubicin, in human cancer cell lines by treatment with anti-EGFR antibodies. We have evaluated in human ovarian, breast, and colon cancer cell lines, which express functional EGFR, the antiproliferative activity of MAb C225 in combination with topotecan, a cytotoxic drug that specifically inhibits topoisomerase I and that has shown antitumor activity in these malignancies. A dose-dependent supraadditive increase of growth inhibition in vitro was observed when cancer cells were treated with topotecan and MAb C225 in a sequential schedule. In this respect, the cooperativity quotient, defined as the ratio between the actual growth inhibition obtained by treatment with topotecan followed by MAb C225 and the sum of the growth inhibition achieved by each agent, ranged from 1.2 to 3, depending on drug concentration and cancer cell line. Treatment with MAb C225 also markedly enhanced apoptotic cell death induced by topotecan. For example, in GEO colon cancer cells, 5 nM topotecan, followed by 0.5 microg/ml MAb C225, induced apoptosis in 45% cells as compared with untreated cells (6%) or to 5 nM topotecan-treated cells (22%). Treatment of mice bearing established human GEO colon cancer xenografts with topotecan or with MAb C225 determined a transient inhibition of tumor growth because GEO tumors resumed the growth rate of untreated tumors at the end of the treatment period. In contrast, an almost complete tumor regression was observed in all mice treated with the two agents in combination. This determined a prolonged life span of the mice that was significantly different as compared with controls (P < 0.001), to MAb C225-treated group (P < 0.001), or to the topotecan-treated group (P < 0.001). All mice of the topotecan plus MAb C225 group were the only animals alive 14 weeks after tumor cell injection. Furthermore, 20% of mice in this group were still alive after 19 weeks. The combined treatment with MAb C225 and topotecan was well tolerated by mice with no signs of acute or delayed toxicity. These results provide a rationale for the evaluation of the anticancer activity of the combination of topoisomerase I inhibitors and anti-EGFR blocking MAbs in clinical trials.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor receptor blockade with C225 modulates proliferation, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. (6/5340)

We examined effects of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody C225 on proliferation, cell cycle phase distribution, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines derived from head and neck cancer patients. Exposure to C225 in culture inhibits SCC proliferation in a time-dependent manner, and the degree of growth inhibition, compared to controls, ranges from 20 to 75%. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrates that C225 treatment induces accumulation of cells in G1, which is accompanied by a 2-3-fold decrease in the percentage of cells in S phase. C225 exposure also induces apoptosis in SCC populations, as demonstrated by flow cytometry analysis using dual stainings of merocyanine 540 and Hoechst 33342. Western blot analysis indicates that C225 exposure induces accumulation of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein and increases expression of p27KIP1. An increase in Bax expression and concurrent decrease in Bcl-2 expression are observed when SCC cells are exposed to C225. Examination of C225 effects on radiation response in SCCs demonstrates enhancement in radiosensitivity and amplification of radiation-induced apoptosis. These effects are observed in both single-dose and fractionated radiation experiments. C225 represents a promising growth-inhibitory agent that can influence cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity in SCCs of the head and neck.  (+info)

Safety and pharmacokinetics of an intramuscular monoclonal antibody (SB 209763) against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants and young children at risk for severe RSV disease. (7/5340)

We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of a humanized monoclonal antibody against a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein (SB 209763) to evaluate its safety, pharmacokinetics, and fusion inhibition and neutralization titers. Forty-three infants who were either delivered prematurely (+info)

Inhibitory effects of combinations of HER-2/neu antibody and chemotherapeutic agents used for treatment of human breast cancers. (8/5340)

Previous studies have demonstrated a synergistic interaction between rhuMAb HER2 and the cytotoxic drug cisplatin in human breast and ovarian cancer cells. To define the nature of the interaction between rhuMAb HER2 and other classes of cytotoxic drugs, we applied multiple drug effect/combination index (CI) isobologram analysis to a variety of chemotherapeutic drug/rhuMAb HER2 combinations in vitro. Synergistic interactions at clinically relevant drug concentrations were observed for rhuMAb HER2 in combination with cisplatin (CI=0.48, P=0.003), thiotepa (CI=0.67, P=0.0008), and etoposide (CI=0.54, P=0.0003). Additive cytotoxic effects were observed with rhuMAb HER2 plus doxorubicin (CI=1.16, P=0.13), paclitaxel (CI=0.91, P=0.21), methotrexate (CI=1.15, P=0.28), and vinblastine (CI=1.09, P=0.26). One drug, 5-fluorouracil, was found to be antagonistic with rhuMAb HER2 in vitro (CI=2.87, P=0.0001). In vivo drug/rhuMAb HER2 studies were conducted with HER-2/neu-transfected, MCF7 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice. Combinations of rhuMAb HER2 plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, methotrexate, etoposide, and vinblastine in vivo resulted in a significant reduction in xenograft volume compared to chemotherapy alone (P<0.05). Xenografts treated with rhuMAb HER2 plus 5-fluorouracil were not significantly different from 5-fluorouracil alone controls consistent with the subadditive effects observed with this combination in vitro. The synergistic interaction of rhuMAb HER2 with alkylating agents, platinum analogs and topoisomerase II inhibitors, as well as the additive interaction with taxanes, anthracyclines and some antimetabolites in HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells demonstrates that these are rational combinations to test in human clinical trials.  (+info)

Maintenance therapy is associated with improved survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but few studies have compared active agents in this setting. In a phase III trial (AVAPERL trial) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Fabrice Barlesi, MD, PhD, of Aix Marseille University-Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille, and colleagues, patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC who had disease control after first-line treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (Avastin) had significantly prolonged progression-free survival with maintenance bevacizumab/pemetrexed (Alimta) compared with bevacizumab alone.1 Toxicity was increased with bevacizumab/pemetrexed, although no new safety signals were observed.. Study Details. In this open-label multicenter trial, 376 patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC received first-line bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg, cisplatin 75 mg/m2, and pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks for four cycles. Of these, 269 (72%) achieved disease control ...
The primary objective of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy of the dose level/regimen of everolimus recommended from the Phase I with trastuzumab and paclitaxel (PT) therapy in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer whose disease progressed on/after trastuzumab mono-and/or combination therapy based on the evaluation of objective response rate (ORR) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Objective response rate (ORR) was defined as the proportion of patients with a best overall response (BOR) of complete response (CR) or partial response (PR). Only patients with measurable disease (the presence of at least one measurable lesion) at baseline were included in the study. CR = Disappearance of all target lesions; PR = At least a 30% decrease in the sum of the longest diameter of all target lesions, taking as reference the baseline sum of the longest diameters ...
This open-label, multicenter study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of obinutuzumab [RO5072759 (GA101)] in combination with CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, Prednisone) chemotherapy in patients with advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Patients will receive 8 cycles of obinutuzumab (1000 mg intravenously on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle, during Cycle 1 obinutuzumab will also be infused on Days 8 and 15) in combination with CHOP chemotherapy on Day 1 of cycles 1 to 6. A substudy will investigate the drug-drug interaction of obinutuzumab with CHOP chemotherapy agents. For the substudy, an additional cohort of approximately 15 patients are planned to be enrolled at a subset of investigational sites ...
Escalation to weekly dosing recaptures response in adalimumab-treated patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis.
Read about guidelines issued by team of neurologists for the monitoring of MS patients on natalizumab treatment and at risk of developing PML.
06 Dec 2017. A combination of pembrolizumab and trastuzumab, tested in patients with trastuzumab-resistant advanced HER2-positive breast cancer, was well tolerated and had clinical benefit in patients whose tumors were positive for a biomarker for pembrolizumab, according to data presented from the phase Ib/II PANACEA trial at the 2017 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 5-9.. "We wanted to investigate if immunotherapy approaches can work in patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer that is resistant to trastuzumab," said Sherene Loi, MD, PhD, associate professor at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne, Australia, working with the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG).. It is estimated that approximately 20 percent of invasive breast cancers are HER2-positive, and some of these patients develop resistance to trastuzumab, a HER2-specific monoclonal antibody utilized for treatment of the disease.. Loi and colleagues hypothesized that immunotherapy may help to ...
Trastuzumab is a drug used for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients. Due to blockage of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 signaling in cardiac myocytes, cardiotoxicity has been observed. There are many studies that investigated risk factors for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity, but no study has been published for factors on the time to cardiotoxicity. This study aimed to investigate the factors for the time to occur trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity. From January 2014 to December 2015, a retrospective study was performed with breast cancer patients who were treated with trastuzumab. Associations between presence of and time to cardiotoxicity and various factors were analyzed. Based on multivariate models, it was found that baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 62.5% (AHR 5.96, 95% CI 2543-13.95) and anthracycline-based chemotherapy (AHR 7.90, 95% CI 1.05-59.71) were significant factors for time to cardiotoxicity after adjusting other confounding ...
Obinutuzumab is a cancer medication that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. Obinutuzumab is used in combination with another cancer medicine called chlorambucil to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Obinutuzumab is also used in combination with a cancer medicine called bendamustine to...
SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO -- Genentech has given compounding pharmacies a months reprieve from its plan to stop selling them bevacizumab (Avastin), which they repackage as a low-cost alternative to ranibiz
1. Ross JS, Slodkowska EA, Symmans WF, Pusztai L, Ravdin PM, Hortobagyi GN. The HER-2 receptor and breast cancer: ten years of targeted anti-HER-2 therapy and personalized medicine. Oncologist 2009;14:320-368. 2. Nahta R, Hung MC, Esteva FJ. The HER-2-targeting antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab synergistically inhibit the survival of breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2004;64:2343-2346. 3. Scheuer W, Friess T, Burtscher H, Bossenmaier B, Endl J, Hasmann M. Strongly enhanced antitumor activity of trastuzumab and pertuzumab combination treatment on HER2-positive human xenograft tumor models. Cancer Res 2009;69:9330-9336. 4. Baselga J, Cortes J, Kim SB, et al. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;366:109-119. 5. Swain SM, Kim SB, Cortes J, et al. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (CLEOPATRA study): overall survival results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet ...
Corneal expression levels of the proinflammatory and pro(lymph)angiogenic cytokines IL-1β, TNFα, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were analyzed by real-time PCR after suture placement and treatment with serum eyedrops, bevacizumab eyedrops, or a combination of both. After 2 days of treatment, only bevacizumab affected IL-1β expression (serum mean of 95.6%, n.s.; bevacizumab mean of 74.3%, P , 0.01; and serum and bevacizumab mean of 96.4%, n.s.), whereas after 7 days of treatment, all treatment groups had significantly reduced IL-1β expression (serum mean of 48.4%, P , 0.001; bevacizumab mean of 58.9%, P , 0.001; and serum and bevacizumab mean of 53.2%, P , 0.001) (Fig. 5, top left). After 2 days of treatment, TNFα expression was significantly impaired only by bevacizumab (serum mean of 106.1%, n.s.; bevacizumab mean of 68.4%, P , 0.05; and serum and bevacizumab mean of 93.0%, n.s.), while after 7 days of treatment, the combination of serum and bevacizumab also showed considerable inhibition of ...
Isabelle Laure Ray-Coquard, MD, PhD, of the Centre Leon Bérard, discusses phase III study findings in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer who received olaparib plus first-line bevacizumab maintenance treatment. Compared with placebo plus bevacizumab, olaparib improved progression-free survival, with the greatest benefit in women with BRCA mutations and positive homologous recombination deficiency status (Abstract LBA2).. ...
Genetic parameters are established prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with chemoimmunotherapy but less well studied with novel compounds. We assessed IGHV mutation status, common genomic aberrations and gene mutations in 421 untreated patients within the CLL14 trial (NCT02242942) comparing obinutuzumab+chlorambucil (GClb) vs. obinutuzumab+venetoclax (VenG). The incidences of genomic aberrations considering the hierarchical model were del(17p) 7%, del(11q) 18%, +(12) 18% and del(13q) 35%, while IGHV was unmutated in 60% of patients. NOTCH1 mutations were most common (23%), followed by SF3B1 (16%), ATM (13%) and TP53 (10%). While the overall response rate (ORR) for GClb was lower in patients with del(17p), del(11q), mutated TP53, ATM and BIRC3, none of these parameters reduced complete remission (CR) and ORR with VenG. At a median follow-up of 28 months, del(17p) and mutated TP53 were the only abnormalities with impact on PFS for both treatment arms, GClb (HR 4.6, ...
Learn how Avastin® (bevacizumab) is designed to work for the treatment of cervical cancer (CC) Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC) Avastin is approved to treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) for: First- or second-line treatment in combination with intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy Second-line treatment when used with fluoropyrimidine-based (combined with irinotecan or oxaliplatin) chemotherapy after cancer progresses following a first-line treatment that includes Avastin. Avastin is not approved for use after the primary treatment of colon cancer that has not spread to other parts of the body. Glioblastoma (GBM) Avastin is approved to treat glioblastoma (GBM) when taken alone in adult patients whose cancer has progressed after prior treatment (recurrent or rGBM). The effectiveness of Avastin in rGBM is based on tumor response. Currently, no data have shown whether or not Avastin improves disease-related symptoms or survival in people with rGBM. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered: Allergies- Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children- Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of obinutuzumab injection in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established. Older adults- Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of obinutuzumab injection in the elderly. Breast-feeding- There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk ...
In the TML trial, patients with good performance status and metastatic colorectal cancer who progressed on regimens containing bevacizumab received second-line therapy consisting of a different chemotherapy regimen with or without bevacizumab.67 This study met its primary end point, with patients continuing on bevacizumab having a modest improvement in overall survival (11.2 vs. 9.8 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.94; P=.0062).. The continuation of bevacizumab after progression on bevacizumab was also studied in a community oncology setting through a retrospective analysis of 573 patients from the US Oncology iKnowMed electronic medical record system.68 Bevacizumab beyond progression was associated with a longer overall survival (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61-0.95) and a longer postprogression overall survival (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.93) on multivariate analysis.. Overall, the panel believes that these data (along with those from the VELOUR trial, discussed later) show that the ...
Herceptin (trastuzumab) is a monoclonal antibody. It belongs to a group of drugs made in the laboratory that are designed to attack specific cancer cells. Herceptin is given intravenously (by injection into a blood vessel) to treat some breast cancers. Genentech Inc., located in South San Francisco, manufactures Herceptin.. Herceptin targets cancer cells that overexpress, or make too much of, a protein called HER-2 or erb B2, which is found on the surface of cancer cells. Herceptin slows or stops the growth of these cells. Herceptin is used only to treat cancers that overexpress the HER-2 protein. Approximately 25 percent of breast cancers overexpress HER-2. These tumors tend to grow faster and are generally more likely to recur (come back) than tumors that do not overproduce HER-2. The amount of HER-2 protein in the tumor is measured in the laboratory using a scale from 0 (negative) to 3+ (strongly positive). The result helps the doctor determine whether a patient might benefit from treatment ...
Avastin eye medication, genentech avastin news, xeloda oxaliplatin avastin, avastin ovarian cancer trial 2008 and avastin use for macular degeneration. Folfox avastin regimen, avastin cost of therapy, avastin odac gbm and avastin and brain cancer or avastin drug class.
Background: HER2 amplification is found in 5% of RAS wild type (RASWT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Dual HER2 blockade with trastuzumab (T) and lapatinib (L), but not treatment with either drug alone, led to remarkable inhibition of tumor growth in patient-derived tumorgrafts of HER2-amplified mCRC. CRC-specific criteria for HER2 positivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) were defined retrospectively in 256 CRC paraffin embedded samples (HERACLES DGX criteria). The ensuing diagnostic algorithm was utilised to screen 1299 HER2-positive tumors for therapeutic targeting in patients in the HERACLES phase 2 trial.. Methods: HERACLES was conducted at 4 Italian centres. Eligibility criteria were: RASWT exon 2, HER2 positivity, refractoriness to standard of care (including cetuximab or panitumumab), PS-ECOG , 1, and measurable. HER2 positivity was defined by IHC and ISH according to HERACLES DGX criteria. Patients (PTS) received T i.v. at 4 mg/kg loading dose ...
Background. The CHER-LOB randomized phase II study showed that the combination of lapatinib and trastuzumab plus chemotherapy increases the pathologic complete re- mission (pCR) rate compared with chemotherapy plus either trastuzumab or lapatinib. A biomarker program was prospectively planned to identify potential predictors of sensitivity to different treatments and to evaluate treatment effect on tumor biomarkers. Materials and Methods. Overall, 121 breast cancer patients positive for human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) were randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastu- zumab, lapatinib, or both trastuzumab and lapatinib. Pre-and post-treatment samples were centrally evaluated for HER2, p95- HER2, phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), phosphatase and tensin homolog, Ki67, apoptosis, and PIK3CA mutations. Fresh-frozen tissue samples were collected for genomic analyses. Results. A mutation in PIK3CA exon 20 or 9 was documented in 20% of cases. Overall, the pCR rates were similar in PIK3CA ...
Purpose: This phase Ib study was designed to determine the MTD, safety, preliminary efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of the HER3 (ErbB3) mAb SAR256212 in combination with the oral PI3K inhibitor SAR245408 for patients with metastatic or locally advanced solid tumors.. Experimental Design: Patients received the combination of intravenous SAR256212 and oral SAR245408 in a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design until occurrence of disease progression or dose-limiting toxicity. Objective response rate, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and PIK3CA mutational status were also evaluated.. Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Thirteen of 20 patients tested (65%) had a hotspot-activating mutation in PIK3CA in their tumor. The MTD was determined to be SAR256212 at 40 mg/kg loading dose followed by 20 mg/kg weekly, plus SAR245408 200 mg daily. Dose-limiting toxicities included rash and hypotension; the most frequent treatment-related side effect was diarrhea (66.7%). Twenty-three patients were evaluable for ...
The University of California, San Francisco, and Genentech, Inc., have signed an agreement to discover drug candidates for neurodegenerative diseases. Genentech will provide funding and will collaborate with the UCSF team to identify small molecules at the UCSF Small Molecule Discovery Center. Genentech has recently begun making overtures into the ALS space, including a license and option agreement with NeuroNova for the use of VEGF as a potential ALS treatment.. Click here to read more.. Share this ...
Why is my heart being monitored while Im on Herceptin?. Herceptin (trastuzumab) can cause heart problems, including an inability to pump blood effectively, irregular heartbeats, high blood pressure, disabling heart failure, weakening of the heart muscle, and sudden loss of heart function leading to death. Herceptin may cause reduced heart function even if there are no symptoms. Before taking your first dose of Herceptin, your doctor should check to see if you have any health conditions that may increase your chance of having serious heart problems. This includes a review of your health history and tests to see how well your heart muscle is working. These tests may include an echocardiogram, which is an ultrasound image of the heart, or a MUGA scan, which takes a moving picture of your heart pumping blood following an injection of a radioactive substance.. In addition, you should be frequently monitored for decreasing heart function during the time you are receiving Herceptin and after your last ...
[Adalimumab treatment in infliximab-resistant pediatric patient with Crohns disease].: Treatment with the chimeric monoclonal antibody (infliximab) is highly e
Preoperative bevacizumab may predominantly benefit breast cancer patients with a high baseline microvessel density, according to a new study.
This phase I/IIa study is investigating the safety and activity of gemcitabine plus trastuzumab and pertuzumab in patients with metastatic human epidermal
Interim analysis of a phase III study finds that adding the new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab to standard bendamustine chemotherapy significantly delays progression of indolent...
Phase III IMpower150 Study Showed Tecentriq (atezolizumab) and Avastin (bevacizumab) Plus Chemotherapy Reduced the Risk of Disease Worsening or Death by 38 Percent for People with a Type of Advanced Lung Cancer
The aim of the LORENA study was to describe the clinical features, prognosis factors and safety of bevacizumab and chemotherapy treatment for MBC in routine
Chicago, IL-In the phase 3 CLL14 trial, fixed-duration therapy with the combination of venetoclax (Venclexta) plus obinutuzumab (Gazyva) was superior to the combination of chemotherapy with chlorambucil plus obinutuzu-mab as front-line therapy in older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and comorbidities. Kirsten Fischer, MD, Center for Integrated Oncology Cologne-Bonn, University Hospital, Germany, presented the study results at ASCO 2019 and were published simultaneously (Fischer K, et al. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:2225-2236).
Professional guide for Obinutuzumab. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.
Genentech today announced that FDA has approved Phesgo, a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of Perjeta® (pertuzumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab) with hyaluronidase, administered by subcutaneous (SC, under the skin) injection in combination with intravenous (IV) chemotherapy, for the treatment of early and metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer.
Why is my heart being monitored while Im on Herceptin?. Herceptin (trastuzumab) can cause heart problems including an inability to pump blood effectively, irregular heartbeats, high blood pressure, disabling heart failure, weakening of the heart muscle, and sudden loss of heart function leading to death. Herceptin may cause reduced heart function even if there are no symptoms. Before taking your first dose of Herceptin, your doctor should check to see if you have any health conditions that may increase your chance of having serious heart problems. This includes a review of your health history and tests to see how well your heart muscle is working. These tests may include an echocardiogram, which is an ultrasound image of the heart, or a MUGA scan, which takes a moving picture of your heart pumping blood following an injection of a radioactive substance. In addition, you should be frequently monitored for decreasing heart function during the time you are receiving Herceptin and after your last ...
SILVER SPRING, MARYLAND-At an emotional hearing here today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) argued that a drug that it approved just 3 years ago for breast cancer, Avastin, doesnt help patients after all and should be withdrawn. It was the first day of an unprecedented 2-day hearing granted to Avastins maker, Genentech of South San Francisco, California, giving it the chance to basically beg FDA to rescind the withdrawal decision of 6 months ago and permit Avastin to remain easily available to breast cancer patients. Day 1 was FDAs reiterating its case against Avastin; tomorrow will be Genentechs turn to present the defense. The judge and jury is a six-member advisory committee that offers input on cancer drugs, although FDA will have the final say. Avastin is approved for a number of other cancers, so no matter whats decided, the drug will stay on the market. But being stripped of its approval for breast cancer would mean that many insurance plans likely wouldnt pay for it, ...
To our knowledge, the phase II BRAIN study represents the first prospective study of bevacizumab in patients with nonsquamous NSCLC and untreated brain metastases.. The primary endpoint of 6-month PFS rate met the protocol-defined criteria for first-line treatment (B + CP). The overall safety profile was consistent with that of patients with NSCLC without brain metastases (19-21). In the ECOG 4599 study, the treatment scheme was similar (first-line bevacizumab plus paclitaxel and carboplatin) and resulted in a median OS of 12.3 months and a median PFS of 6.2 months (19) compared with 16.0 and 6.7 months, respectively, in the BRAIN B + CP arm. The favorable outcomes in BRAIN compared with E4599, may be due to differences in baseline characteristics, including the increased number of patients with ECOG PS 0, as these patients could be more likely to respond well to treatment.. In patients with brain metastases, the current standard of care, WBRT, results in a median survival of 4.0 months from ...
Decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) have been reported with HER2 inhibitors, including pertuzumab; however, the rate of cardiotoxicity has not been increased compared with placebo in studies of pertuzumab/trastuzumab/ docetaxel. Patients who received prior anthracycline therapy or chest irradiation may be at an increased risk for cardiotoxicity, and LVEF should be evaluated prior to initiation of pertuzumab as well as at regular intervals during treatment (eg, every 3 months). Pertuzumab and trastuzumab treatment should be withheld for at least 3 weeks for a drop in LVEF to less than 40% or LVEF of 40% to 45% with a 10% or greater absolute decrease below pretreatment values. Pertuzumab may be resumed if the LVEF has recovered to greater than 45% or to 40% to 45% associated with less than a 10% absolute decrease below pretreatment values.1,2 ...
Anthony P. Adamis, MD, Vice President, Global Head of Ophthalmology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases at Genentech and former Genentech scientist, Napoleone Ferrera, MD, have been acknowle…
Reardon, D.A., Desjardins, A., Peters, K.B., Vredenburgh, J.J., Gururangan, S., Sampson, J.H., McLendon, R.E., Herndon II, J.E., Coan, A., Threatt, S., Friedman, A.H. and Friedman, H.S. (2011) Phase 2 Study of Carboplatin, Irinotecan, and Bevacizumab for Recurrent Glioblastoma after Progression on Bevacizumab Therapy. Cancer, 117, 5351-5358.
A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of chemotherapy plus trastuzumab plus placebo vs. chemotherapy plus trastuzumab plus
...Lugano-CH Brussels-BE 2 May 2013 -- A study that aimed to understand...The study showed a statistically non-significant benefit in clinical r...Prof Mario Campone Principal Investigator at Institut Cancerologie de... As more targeted cancer drugs are developed the challenge is to iden...,Study,confirms,everolimus,can,overcome,trastuzumab,resistance,in,HER-2,positive,early,breast,cancer,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
May 16, 2008 - Genentech, Inc. (NYSE DNA) today provided an overview of several clinical studies of Avastin(R) in multiple types of cancer that will be presente
Bevacizumab is a cancer medicine that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. Bevacizumab is used to treat a certain type of brain tumor, and certain types of cancers of the kidney, lung, colon, rectum, cervix, ovary, or fallopian tube. Bevacizumab is also used to treat cancer of the membrane...
Atezolizumab (Tecentriq®) plus bevacizumab and paclitaxel-carboplatin is FDA approved for the 1st-line treatment of EGRF-/ALK- metastatic non-squamous NSCLC
Genentech, a member of the Roche Group (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY), today announced that results from a number of studies across its growing breast c
FDA started the Breakthrough Therapy Designation program in 2012. Since then, Genentech has garnered 15 designations, more than any other company.
SUMMARY Global Markets Directs, Genentech, Inc. - Product Pipeline Review - 2016, provides an overview of the Genentech, Inc.s pharmaceutical
Genentech has multiple products on the market for serious or life-threatening medical conditions. Access information and resources on each of our medicines
After the FDA revoked its approval of Avastin for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, the drug maker says it will initiate new trials.
Relative quantification was done using Ct measurements R547 741713-40-6 on SYBR Green based fluores cence readings with HPRT as a housekeeping gene. Mea surements were done in triplicate. Flow cytometry Protein expression of receptors on the tumor cell sur face was determined by flow cytometry. Cells were harvested using Accutase solution after 24 hours of normoxia, hypoxia and hyp oxia with bevacizumab treatment. Cells were labeled for Neuropilin1 with CD304 and VEGFR2 with CD309 APC conjugated antibodies and measured by a BD FACS Canto II flow cytometer. HUVEC were used Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries as a control. Analysis was done using FlowJo software to determine the percentages of positive cells. Results represent averaged percentages from two biological repetitions. Propidium iodide stained cells were prepared by fixing the cells in 80% ice cold ethanol for up to 48 hours.. Cells were then washed with PBS and resuspended and incubated for 30 minutes in 38 mM sodium citrate, 24 ug ml ...
Learn about Herceptin (Trastuzumab) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Genentech, a member of the Roche Group (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY), today announced that the Phase III IMpower150 study met its co-primary endpoint o
Trastuzumab, - Herceptin 150 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion: Breast cancer Metastatic breast cancer Herceptin is indic
6. All women eligible for adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab, including those diagnosed and treated within the last six months, must be considered for such treatment prior to being offered participation in this study. Participation in this study will be allowed only if the physician and patient have considered and discussed at length the advantages of trastuzumab, but have mutually decided against initiating trastuzumab therapy. Clear documentation of such a decision must appear in the Electronic Case Report Form (eCRF ...
The primary aim of the study is to assess the safety, pharmacology and preliminary efficacy of MPDL3280A [a monoclonal antibody that targets programmed
Erbitux: emerging data at ASCO reveal potential to further exploit benefits of the targeted EGFR therapy in mCRC : Pharmaceutical feature | PharmiWeb.com
Researchers have found that subcutaneous trastuzumab has a similar safety profile and similar event-free survival rate with intravenous trastuzumab.
This Adalimumab ELISA is a rapid and easy method for the quantitative determination of Adalimumab in human serum, plasma and cell culture supernatant.
This Adalimumab ELISA is a rapid and easy method for the quantitative determination of Adalimumab in human serum, plasma and cell culture supernatant.
Approval based on Phase 3 trial which showed atezolizumab with bevacizumab decreased relative risk of death by 42% and reduced relative risk of the cancer getting worse or death by 41%, compared with sorafenib. Potential for a UK license extension is currently unknown.
ImClone Systems has posted a loss for the third quarter, hit by a $50 million charge relating to patent litigation, but its cancer drug Erbitux is showing promising signs of growth again. - News - PharmaTimes
According to pSivida, the ability to control the duration of sustained delivery of antibodies through pore size is significant. By varying the pore size, which controls the release rate of antibodies loaded into Tethadur, sustained delivery of antibodies such as bevacizumab could be permitted ...
The value of bevacizumab in the treatment of many cancers has been questioned, given that it has been approved mostly on the basis of progression-free, and not overall, survival benefits.
The combination of atezolizumab (Tecentriq) and bevacizumab (Avastin) improved progression-free survival compared with sunitinib (Sutent, Pfizer) as ...
AMBICA PHARMA - Manufacturer,Supplier,Exporter of Adalimumab 40mg from India. We offer best quality of products at a best price rate.
At 450,000 -sq.-ft., the expansion makes Genentechs facility the largest biotechnology fermentation facility of its kind in the world.
The FDA requires all potential medication risks for OCREVUS (ocrelizumab injection) be disclosed to consumers, no matter how rare. Here are the warnings and precautions for OCREVUS.
Genentech scientist Jeff Settleman explains biomarkers and their potential for identifying which patients may benefit from certain treatments.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase I study of alpelisib (BYL-719) and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) after trastuzumab and taxane therapy. AU - Jain, Sarika. AU - Shah, Ami N.. AU - Santa-Maria, Cesar A.. AU - Siziopikou, Kalliopi. AU - Rademaker, Alfred. AU - Helenowski, Irene. AU - Cristofanilli, Massimo. AU - Gradishar, William J.. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Purpose: Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is an important resistance mechanism to anti-HER2 therapies. This study aimed to assess the safety and activity of alpelisib (a PI3Kα isoform-specific inhibitor) with T-DM1 in trastuzumab- and taxane-resistant HER2-positive MBC. Methods: Patients with HER2-positive MBC that had progressed on trastuzumab-based therapy were treated with alpelisib daily and T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), adverse events, overall response rate (ORR), and clinical benefit rate (CBR = CR + ...
Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is a novel antibodyCdrug conjugate, made up of a potent cytotoxic medication connected with a steady linker towards the anti-HER2 antibody, trastuzumab, mainly targeting chemotherapy delivery to cells overexpressing the HER2 receptor thus. of proteins is normally involved in marketing cell development through activation from the PI3K/Akt/mTOR as well as the Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK pathways [2]. Amplification of HER2 is normally predictive of intense phenotype and poorer final result unless treated with anti-HER2 therapy Rabbit Polyclonal to BAIAP2L1. [3]. Summary of the marketplace Trastuzumab, a humanized anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, is among the most set up gold regular treatment for HER2-amplified breasts cancer because it was first authorized by the united states FDA in 1998 [4,5]. Subsequently, two additional HER2-targeted agents have already been authorized for the treating HER2-positive metastatic breasts cancer, pertuzumab and lapatinib. Lapatanib, an dental ...
While approval of trastuzumab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against HER2, along with a diagnostic kit to detect breast cancers which are positive for HER2 overexpression, has advanced a new era of stratified and personalized medicine, it also created several challenges to our scientific and clinical practice. These problems include trastuzumab resistance and trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity. In this review, we will summarize data from the literature regarding mechanisms of trastuzumab resistance and trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity and present some promising model systems that may advance our understanding of these mechanisms. Our discussion will include development of circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA for monitoring tumor burden, of patient-derived xenograft models for preclinical testing of novel therapies, and of novel therapeutic strategies for trastuzumab-resistance and possible integration of these strategies in the design of co-clinical studies for testing in
Simplicity is enormously complex in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. In terms of survival, life expectancy of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer improved substantially from 3 to 6 months in the 1980s when only 5-fluorouracil was available, to more than 20 months today with the availability of various new chemotherapeutic and targeted agents. The use of chemotherapeutic agents - including fluoropyrimidines, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin - has been refined through decades of clinical experience. Maximal exposure, irrespective of sequence, is simply the principle of treating patients through progression with chemotherapy. Targeted therapy has emerged in the past decade, and adds complexity to the treatment principle: survival benefit has been shown with both anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies in individual lines of treatment, but controversy exists as to the best sequence of application. Adding to this complexity, ...
Clinical trial for Relapsed/Refractory Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma , A Study Comparing Obinutuzumab and BGB-3111 Versus Obinutuzumab Alone in Treating R/R Follicular Lymphoma
The combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapeutic agents is a well established approach for treatment of HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer. Preclinical models and subsequent clinical data have demonstrated an additive or synergistic effect of the combination with platinum salts, paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinorelbine or more than one drugs [15-18].. Unfortunately, the success of these combinations in responding patients is compromised by the development of acquired resistance [4]. The mechanism of resistance to trastuzumab in animal models is the consequence of heritable genetic alterations and involved different, independent mechanisms [19]. The opportunity, in patients with progressive disease, of continuing trastuzumab combined with a non cross resistant chemotherapeutic regimen is a crucial question regarding trastuzumab strategy. Data on restored efficacy of trastuzumab with further associations after failure are limited, although some activity was recently reported in patients with ...
Learn how Avastin® (bevacizumab) is designed to work for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC) Avastin is approved to treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) for: First- or second-line treatment in combination with intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy Second-line treatment when used with fluoropyrimidine-based (combined with irinotecan or oxaliplatin) chemotherapy after cancer progresses following a first-line treatment that includes Avastin. Avastin is not approved for use after the primary treatment of colon cancer that has not spread to other parts of the body. Glioblastoma (GBM) Avastin is approved to treat glioblastoma (GBM) when taken alone in adult patients whose cancer has progressed after prior treatment (recurrent or rGBM). The effectiveness of Avastin in rGBM is based on tumor response. Currently, no data have shown whether or not Avastin improves disease-related symptoms or survival in people with rGBM. Non-Small Cell Lung
In the current multicentre retrospective study among the Chinese patients with breast cancer, over 70% were heavily pretreated with anti-HER2 agents as well as cytotoxic chemotherapy. The efficacy results are consistent with previous findings from the TH3RESA study.9 The latter involved over 600 HER2+ patients with advanced breast cancer who had received two or more anti-HER2-containing regimens, including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and previous taxane therapy. At a median follow-up of 6.5 months, the TH3RESA study reported that among the T-DM1-treated patients, the objective response rate was 31%, the median duration of response was 9.7 months, the median PFS was 6.2 months, and the median OS was not reached.9 Similarly, the safety profile in the current study was consistent with the reported clinical trials, where grade 3 or worse thrombocytopenia was the most commonly reported adverse event (13.5%), followed by raised alanine transaminase (8.1%), anaemia (5.4%), and hypokalaemia (2.7%). ...
Background We designed the randomized phase III LEA study of first-line bevacizumab in combination with endocrine therapy, to address the hypothesis that anti-VEGF treatment can prevent resistance to endocrine therapy in patients (pts) with advanced breast cancer sensitive to such treatment.. Methods A multicentre, binational, randomised, open label, phase III study investigated the addition of Bevacizumab (B) 15mg/kg every 3 weeks to an endocrine therapy (ET) with letrozole or fulvestrant (250mg/4 weeks) as first-line therapy in metastatic breast cancer. Postmenopausal pts with HER2-negative and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer were eligible. The primary objective was to compare progression-free survival (PFS) in the treatment arms. Secondary objectives were overall survival, time to treatment failure, overall response rate, response duration, clinical benefit rate and safety. The recruitment was completed in September 2011. Efficacy analysis will be triggered after 270 events.. Results ...
HER-2 is a 185-kDa orphan transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. Dimerization of HER-2 with ligand- bound HER-3 or HER-4 receptor activates signaling pathways inside the cell. Activated HER-2 signaling stimulates cell proliferation and survival via activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. Collectively these signaling pathways result in uncontrolled growth of the tumor. Several studies suggested that the overexpression/amplification of HER-2 may lead to the development and progression of pre-malignant breast disease and also tumor metastasis. Therefore, the association of HER-2 in breast cancer as well as its involvement in tumor aggressiveness makes this receptor an appropriate target for tumor-specific therapies. Several strategies have been developed to inhibit HER-2 signaling. These include a tyrosine kinase inhibitor called lapatinib and a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody called trastuzumab (Herceptin®). In this post I will focus only on trastuzumab mediated therapy in ...
Background. Somatic mutations in the K-Ras gene, leading to constitutive activation of the Ras/MAPK signalling cascade, represent a strong predictive biomarker for resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in colorectal and pancreatic cancer patients. We previously demonstrated that a novel Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist currently under clinical development, IMO, has a strong in vivo activity in colorectal cancer models interfering with EGFR-related signalling, synergizing with the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab and boosting its ADCC activity.. Methods. In this study, we investigated IMO antitumor effect in colon and pancreatic cancer models with resistance to EGFR inhibitors due to K-Ras mutations. We evaluated the in vitro activity of IMO, alone or in combination with cetuximab, on growth, survival and EGFR-dependent signal transduction of cetuximab-sensitive and cetuximab-resistant colon and pancreatic cancer cells. We also investigated the antitumor ...
Background CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in Canada. Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanised monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to human vascular endothelial growth factor, is approved and funded for first line mCRC use in Canada. A substudy has also confirmed its effectiveness in KRAS wild-type patients. Recent evidence has also shown clinical benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor treatments panitumumab and cetuximab in these patients. Objective: We assessed cost-effectiveness of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy (FBC) alone and in combination with bevacizumab, panitumumab or cetuximab for first line treatment of KRAS wild-type mCRC patients.. Methods Cost-effectiveness to the Canadian health care system was estimated using separately reported trial survival and adverse event results for each comparator. We used a Markov model calibrated to progression-free/overall survival, and calculated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Health-state resource utilization was ...
Serum levels of HAHAs were detected by a newly developed radioimmunoassay, a specific assay measuring high avid antibodies against adalimumab, similar to that described for rituximab.4. HAHAs were present after cessation of treatment for the planned surgical procedure, whereas serum levels of adalimumab were undetectable (fig 1). As levels of HAHAs increased, levels of adalimumab dropped and disease activity increased.. Our patient developed HAHAs to adalimumab despite the fact that adalimumab is a human monoclonal antibody. Infliximab is a chimeric antibody and can induce an immunogenic reaction in the form of human antichimeric antibodies. The development of HACAs to infliximab is associated with a reduced response to treatment,5 and so far such relationships have not been described for adalimumab.. In our patient, the anti-rheumatic drug-free period may have influenced the development of HAHAs. The absence of the protective role of methotrexate may have stimulated the formation of HAHAs. ...
Obinutuzumab is an immunotherapy medicine used in the treatment of CLL and Non Hodgkin lymphoma and works by binding to a protein on the surface of certain white cells known as B lymphocytes .By bonding to this protein the abnormal growth in the B lymphocyte is stopped therefore decreasing the number of cancer cells in the body.. Once attached to the CD20 protein Obinutuzumab helps the immune system destroy the CLL cells and also destroys the CLL cells on its own by directly killing them. Obinutuzumab is the only monoclonal antibody with proven superiority to rituximab for the treatment for CLL when used in combination with chlorambucil as proven in clinical trials.. Obinutuzumab is given by intravenous infusion which means it goes directly into the vein through a needle in your arm or through a central line if you have one in place. Obinutuzumab is given every week for 3 weeks then once every four weeks in combination with chlorambucil depending on your subtype of lymphoma.. Obinutuzumab may ...
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Cetuximab, an antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, is an effective clinical therapy for patients with colorectal, head and neck, and non-small cell lung cancer, particularly for those with KRAS and BRAF wild-type cancers. Treatment in all patients is limited eventually by the development of acquired resistance, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we show that activation of ERBB2 signaling in cell lines, either through ERBB2 amplification or through heregulin up-regulation, leads to persistent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling and consequently to cetuximab resistance. Inhibition of ERBB2 or disruption of ERBB2/ERBB3 heterodimerization restores cetuximab sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. A subset of colorectal cancer patients who exhibit either de novo or acquired resistance to cetuximab-based therapy has ERBB2 amplification or high levels of circulating heregulin. Collectively, these findings identify two distinct resistance ...
Background: The treatment of recurrent anaplastic glioma (AG) like all high-grade gliomas (HGG) is problematic, as only partially effective therapeutic modalities are available and there is a lack of a standard therapy for recurrence. Methods: A literature review of the use of bevacizumab for recurrent HGG including five studies involving recurrent AG. Results: In the 5 studies of bevacizumab for the treatment of recurrent AG (n=140 patients) neuroradiographic response rates were as follows; complete response 0-20%, partial response 34-68% (median 52%), and stable disease 5-59% (median 16%). Median overall survival was 28 weeks (range 18-35 weeks) and progression free survival at 6- and 12-months was 55% (range 32-68%) and 23% (16-39%) respectively. Conclusions: Bevacizumab therapy appears to increase response of recurrent AG by 2-fold and 6- month progression free survival by 1.5 fold without a clear benefit with respect to overall survival. Toxicity of bevacizumab therapy is manageable and ...
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important target forthe treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Clinical strategies to tar...
Adding the mTOR inhibitor everolimus to conventional therapy slowed the progression of trastuzumab-resistant advanced breast cancer, and in the process, provided clues to the origin of trastuzumab resistance.
The phase II faSScinate Study was the first double-blind, randomised controlled trial to show evidence of a potential disease-modifying effect in patients with SSc. By week 48, at the end of the double-blind period of the study, treatment with tocilizumab was associated with clinically relevant, though not statistically significant, improvements in skin thickness measured by mRSS and lung function measured by %pFVC.18 It has been suggested that tocilizumab may be the first efficient, molecularly targeted treatment for patients with SSc.22 Results from the open-label period of the faSScinate trial show that patients originally assigned to receive placebo in the double-blind period who transitioned to open-label tocilizumab at week 48 experienced improvements in mRSS by week 96 that were similar to those of patients who received tocilizumab throughout the study. Furthermore, patients originally assigned to receive tocilizumab during the double-blind period maintained and continued the improvements ...
Introduction: Rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) remains the standard of care for patients with previously untreated DLBCL. Approximately 40% of patients are not cured with R-CHOP; thus, new therapies are needed. Obinutuzumab (GA101, G) is a glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with improved direct cell death and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity compared to rituximab, and may have improved outcomes in certain patient subsets (Vitolo, ASH 2016). In addition, polatuzumab vedotin (pola) is an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) designed to deliver the potent microtubule inhibitor MMAE to cells expressing CD79b. Thus, pola has the potential to replace vincristine with a targeted agent (Tilly, ICML 2017). The dose escalation phase established a recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of pola at 1.8 mg/kg. We report updated results for this multicenter, open-label Phase Ib/II study of pola combined G-CHP at the RP2D (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01992653). Methods: In the dose escalation phase of this ...
Trastuzumab is by far the drug of choice for treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) overexpressing breast cancer patients. However, frequently, the therapy remains ineffective...
Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug according to findings from a large, randomized clinical trial. The clinical trial, known as GOG240, was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health, and conducted by a network of researchers led by the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Genentech, South San Francisco, Calif., the drug manufacturer, provided support for the trial under the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with NCI for the clinical development of bevacizumab.. The study met its primary endpoint of demonstrating improved overall survival in patients who received bevacizumab, which also means that it delayed the chance of dying from the disease.. "The findings in this clinical trial are important because they are likely to change clinical practice and provide ...
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Monoclonal antibody. Type. Whole antibody. Source. Humanized. Target. FR-alpha. Clinical data. ... This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Farletuzumab (MORAb-003) is a monoclonal antibody[1] which is being investigated for the treatment of ovarian cancer.[2][3] ...
... (formerly EMD 72000) is a humanized monoclonal antibody for the treatment of cancer. It binds to the epidermal growth ... 2004). "Phase I study of the humanized antiepidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody EMD72000 in patients with ... Murthy, U.; Basu, A; Rodeck, U.; Herlyn, M.; Ross, A.H.; Das, M. (1987). "Binding of an antagonistic monoclonal antibody to an ... Schmiedel, J.; Blaukat, A.; Li, S.; Knochel, T.; Ferguson, K.M. (2008). "A molecular view of anti-ErbB monoclonal antibody ...
Chemically, it is a humanized monoclonal antibody. The substance acts by blocking interleukin 17, reducing inflammation. The ... Ixekizumab is a complete monoclonal antibody of the subclass IgG4, consisting of two light chains and two heavy chains linked ... an interleukin-17A specific monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of biologic-naive patients with active psoriatic arthritis: ... The antibody has affinity to the homodimer IL-17A and the heterodimer IL-17A/F, but not to other members of the interleukin 17 ...
Zumab is the suffix for humanized monoclonal antibody. Monoclonal antibodies by definition contain only a single antibody clone ... In the case of solanezumab, the antibody is designed to bond to the amyloid-β peptides which make up protein plaques on the ... "Antibody Production (Immunogen Preparation)". www.piercenet.com. Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, Merriam ...
"anti-IL-13 humanized monoclonal antibody TNX-650". NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 10 December 2009. ... Lebrikizumab (INN) is a humanized monoclonal antibody and an experimental immunosuppressive drug for the treatment of asthma ...
humanized monoclonal antibody HER2/neu (erbB2) antagonist ustekinumab Stelara psoriasis humanized monoclonal antibody IL-12 and ... Monoclonal antibodies. These are similar to the antibodies that the human immune system uses to fight off bacteria and viruses ... monoclonal antibody TNF antagonist alefacept Amevive chronic plaque psoriasis immunoglobin G1 fusion protein incompletely ... monoclonal antibody TNF antagonist trastuzumab Herceptin breast cancer ...
... is a recombinant DNA-derived humanized IgG1k monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to free human ... Scheinfeld N (2005). "Omalizumab: a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgE-blocking antibody". Dermatol. Online J. 11 (1): 2. ... anti-IgE monoclonal antibody with the binding specificity similar to that of CGP51901 and subsequently humanized the antibody ( ... A a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgE blocking antibody". Dermatology Online Journal. 11 (1). "CTRI". www.ctri.nic.in. " ...
Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against IgE. It acts by binding free IgE at the same site that IgE ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody being developed by Genentech. As of November 2009[update], it is being ...
T1h is a novel humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks CD6. In clinical trials in the autoimmune segment, T1h is the only ... Chronic plaque psoriasis: itolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the CD6 protein, became available to physicians ... Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbs): These are one of the fastest growing categories of the biopharmaceuticals industry with sales ... In 2006, Biocon launched BIOMAb EGFR the first indigenously developed humanised monoclonal antibody for head-and-neck cancer. ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for oncology indications. Samalizumab was developed by Alexion ...
... (planned trade name LymphoCide) is a humanized monoclonal antibody. Potential uses may be found in oncology and in ... Other SLE therapies destroy B-cells which compromises the immune system.) Epratuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody ... Humanized Anti-CD22 Monoclonal Antibody, Epratuzumab Clinical Cancer Research Vol. 11, July 15, 2005 free full text Epratuzumab ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against PD-1. It prevents PD-1 from binding to the ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 ... Combined with PD-1 Antibody Tislelizumab (BGB-A317) ... Dec 2017 BeiGene Initiates Global Phase 3 Trial of Anti-PD-1 Antibody ... ASCO 2016 BeiGene (BGNE) Commences Pivotal Trial of PD-1 Antibody BGB-A317 in China in Patients with Urothelial Cancer. July ... Study Showing Anti-Cancer Activity in Range of Solid Tumors July 2016 Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Anti-PD-1 Antibody ...
... (proposed INN, trade name Numax) is a humanized monoclonal antibody. It is being investigated by MedImmune (today a ... when compared to the already available monoclonal antibody Palivizumab. In December 2010, AstraZeneca in a stock market ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to an CD20 epitope that overlaps partially with the epitope to which ... Ocrelizumab (trade name Ocrevus) is a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. It targets CD20 marker on B lymphocytes and ... Hutas, G (2008). "Ocrelizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD20 for inflammatory disorders and B-cell malignancies ... Ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) a fully human antibody that is directed against CD20 BIIB033 (Anti-LINGO-1): another monoclonal ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody for the treatment of asthma. A Phase II clinical trial in patients with ... a humanized anti-interleukin-4 antibody with therapeutic potential in asthma". Clinical and experimental immunology. 130 (1): ...
Other anti-CD20 monoclonals[edit]. The efficacy and success of Rituximab has led to some other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies ... ocrelizumab, humanized (90%-95% human) B cell-depleting agent.. *ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) a fully human B cell-depleting agent.[ ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[55] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of cancer. This drug was developed by Emergent ...
tocilizumab (a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor). This drug is used when the patients ... Examined in a 12-year-old patient). Canakinumab is a long acting monoclonal antibody which is directed against IL-1β has shown ... A beneficial effect of human monoclonal anti-TNFα antibody adalimumab was seen in a small number of MKD patients. Most MKD ...
... (tentative trade name Nuvion, PDL BioPharma Inc.) is a humanized monoclonal antibody. It is being investigated for ... "Radiolabeled Humanized Anti-CD3 Monoclonal Antibody Visilizumab for Imaging Human T-Lymphocytes". Journal of Nuclear Medicine. ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of cancers. Dalotuzumab was developed by Merck & Co ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody that acts on the cardiovascular system. It binds to integrin αIIbβ3, a ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody against human interleukin-5(IL 5). Reslizumab binds specifically to IL 5, a key ... cloning and expression of humanized monoclonal antibodies against ... - Google Patents". Google.com. Retrieved 2016-11-22. " ... Reslizumab is an interleukin-5 antagonist monoclonal antibody. IL-5 is the major cytokine responsible for the growth and ... Reslizumab is degraded by enzymatic proteolysis into small peptides and amino acids, as are other monoclonal antibodies. ...
... is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of cancer. Onartuzumab was developed by Genentech, ...
... an immunostimulatory humanized monoclonal antibody against SLAMF7 (also known as CD319). It is FDA-approved for the treatment ... the majority of the antibodies are ineffective monoclonal antibodies from the clonal plasma cell. A selected group of patients ... Myeloma cells produce monoclonal proteins of varying types, most commonly immunoglobulins (antibodies) and free light chains, ... Willrich MA, Murray DL, Kyle RA (2017). "Laboratory testing for monoclonal gammopathies: Focus on monoclonal gammopathy of ...
It may be possible to design treatments cheaper than monoclonal antibodies (for instance, small molecule drugs) that use a ... humanized antibody, quilizumab, is in phase IIb clinical trial.[32][33] In 2002, researchers at The Randall Division of Cell ... "Antibodies specific for a segment of human membrane IgE deplete IgE-producing B cells in humanized mice". J. Clin. Invest. 120 ... "Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.. *^ Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE ...
In this informative article, I can give a brief introduction about custom antibody.... ... when some one mentions the word custom antibody, few people know it. ... Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Solutions in Neoplastic Disease. However, when some one mentions the word custom antibody, few ... Each antibody has a unique "paratope" that may tag the precise "epitope" on the antigen. Under this holding system, an antibody ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized [Drug Class] (3 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. ...
Murine monoclonal antibody 1G8 binds to PSCA with nanomolar affinity, but its efficacy as a therapeutic agent is limited by the ... These humanized antibodies bind PSCA with high affinity and specificity, and have been shown to reduce human bladder tumor take ... The present invention discloses humanized 1G8 antibodies in which the majority of the mouse-derived epitopes have been removed ... These characteristics make the humanized antibodies of the present invention attractive agents for the treatment and detection ...
Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for CD44. Suping Zhang, Christina C ... Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for CD44 ... We found that a humanized mAb specific for CD44 (RG7356) was directly cytotoxic for leukemia B cells, but had little effect on ...
Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus.. Oliphant T1, Engle M, ... Development of a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody with Therapeutic Potential against West Nile Virus ... Development of a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody with Therapeutic Potential against West Nile Virus ... Development of a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody with Therapeutic Potential against West Nile Virus ...
PBEF Neutralizing Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies As Novel Therapeutic Approaches. Printer-friendly version ... and propose to generate therapeutic humanized neutralizing anti-PBEF monoclonal antibodies to treat patients with acute lung ... We therefore propose to generate humanized ant-PBEFmonoclonal antibodies (P- BEFizumab) that can be used as both prophylactic ... Once the credibility of these antibodies in treating patients with ALI/VILI is established, we believe that these antibodies ...
Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Second Generation Monoclonal Antibodies, and Humanized Carcinomas. A Notice by the ... "Variants of Humanized Anti-Carcinoma Monoclonal Antibody CC49" to IDEC Pharmaceutical Corporation of San Diego, California. The ... constituents and/or humanized variants thereof, and excluding bispecific monoclonal antibodies, which are directly conjugated ... U.S. Patent 5,512,443 claims various "second generation" monoclonal antibodies, including CC49, which have binding specificity ...
Kyowa Hakko and Amgen Enter Licensing Agreement for Anti-CCR4 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody KW-0761 Studies Underway in ... Kyowa Hakko and Amgen Enter Licensing Agreement for Anti-CCR4 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody. KW-0761 Studies Underway in ... KW-0761 is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CCR4 utilizing the POTELLIGENT(R) technology platform for the development ... Kyowa Hakko and Amgen Enter Licensing Agreement for Anti-CCR4 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody ...
Although murine components of this humanized monoclonal antibody were almost exclusively limited to the antibody combining ... 1997) Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody (MEDI-493) with potent in vitro and in vivo activity against respiratory ... Phase I/II, open-label multi-dose escalation trial of a humanized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) monoclonal antibody (MEDI- ... Palivizumab, a Humanized Respiratory Syncytial Virus Monoclonal Antibody, Reduces Hospitalization From Respiratory Syncytial ...
Clinical Assessment of Safety and Tolerability of the New Monoclonal Humanized Antibody CaCP29. The safety and scientific ... The novel humanized monoclonal antibody CaCP29 was developed to control the inflammatory response to various stimuli in humans ... Intervention Details: Biological: CaCP29, a humanized monoclonal antibody CaCP29 or placebo single i.v. infusion in ascending ... Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the New Humanized Monoclonal Antibody CaCP29. ...
... a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody with a better side effects profile for the treatment of psoriasis Roshni Menon, Brinda ... Itolizumab - a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody with a better side effects profile for the treatment of psoriasis. ... Itolizumab, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, is a new molecule that acts by immunomodulating the CD6 molecule. CD6 is ... Keywords: Itolizumab, CD6, psoriasis, monoclonal antibody, biologicals. Corrigendum for this paper has been published.. ...
A Phase 1/2, Multi-center, Open-label, Dose-escalation Study of Elotuzumab(Humanized Anti-CS1 Monoclonal IgG1 Antibody) and ... A Phase 1/2, Multi-center, Open-label, Dose-escalation Study of Elotuzumab(Humanized Anti-CS1 Monoclonal IgG1 Antibody) and ... Nitrogen mustard agents, melphalan, or monoclonal antibodies within 6 weeks of the first dose of elotuzumab. ... Incidence of elotuzumab-specific antidrug antibodies. *Evaluate the pharmacodynamics of elotuzumab in combination with ...
Biological: ACTINIUM-225-LABELED HUMANIZED ANTI-CD33 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY HuM195 A single infusion of 225Ac-HuM195 will be ... Phase I Trial of Targeted Atomic Nano-Generators (Actinium-225-Labeled Humanized Anti-CD33 Monoclonal Antibody HuM195) in ... Targeted Atomic Nano-Generators (Actinium-225-Labeled Humanized Anti-CD33 Monoclonal Antibody HuM195) in Patients With Advanced ... Biological: ACTINIUM-225-LABELED HUMANIZED ANTI-CD33 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY HuM195 Phase 1 ...
A Phase Ib Study of Humanized Anti-VEGF Monoclonal Antibody (Sevacizumab) Injection Plus FOLFIRI in Chinese Patients With ... A Phase Ib Study of Humanized Anti-VEGF Monoclonal Antibody (Sevacizumab) Injection Plus FOLFIRI in Chinese Patients With ... and pharmacokinetics of Humanized Anti-VEGF Monoclonal Antibody (Sevacizumab) Injection in combination with FOLFIRI in patients ...
Fremanezumab-A Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CGRP Antibody-Inhibits Thinly Myelinated (Aδ) But Not Unmyelinated (C) Meningeal ... Fremanezumab-A Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CGRP Antibody-Inhibits Thinly Myelinated (Aδ) But Not Unmyelinated (C) Meningeal ... Fremanezumab-A Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CGRP Antibody-Inhibits Thinly Myelinated (Aδ) But Not Unmyelinated (C) Meningeal ... Fremanezumab-A Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CGRP Antibody-Inhibits Thinly Myelinated (Aδ) But Not Unmyelinated (C) Meningeal ...
... a humanized, anti-endosialin monoclonal antibody, to confirm its tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics, and identify... ... Ontuxizumab is a humanized, anti-endosialin, IgG1κ monoclonal antibody with a structure comprising two heavy chains and two ... Background We conducted a first-in-Japanese, phase I study of ontuxizumab, a humanized, anti-endosialin monoclonal antibody, to ... A phase I study of ontuxizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting endosialin, in Japanese patients with solid tumors. ...
T1h, a novel humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CD6, a co-stimulatory receptor present on T cells, was evaluated as a ... Safety, Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of T1h, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, in moderate to severe chronic plaque ... Safety, Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of T1h, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, in moderate to severe chronic plaque ... Safety, Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of T1h, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, in moderate to severe chronic plaque ...
... and a full-length monoclonal antibody (GD-mAb) was developed based on the sequence encoding Ig VH and Ig VL from GD-scFv. Then ... and a full-length monoclonal antibody (GD-mAb) was developed based on the sequence encoding Ig VH and Ig VL from GD-scFv. Then ... In the present study, a single chain antibody against RSV (GD-scFv) was screened using phage display library panning technology ... In the present study, a single chain antibody against RSV (GD-scFv) was screened using phage display library panning technology ...
... neutralizing humanized monoclonal antibody, hE16, was previously shown to improve the survival of WNV-infected hamsters when it ... A potent anti-West Nile virus (anti-WNV)-neutralizing humanized monoclonal antibody, hE16, was previously shown to improve the ... Defining limits of treatment with humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibody for West Nile virus neurological infection in a ... Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage*, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, therapeutic use*. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic ...
Construction and characterization of a humanized anti-ganglioside GM2 monoclonal antibody, submitted for publication. ... Takamuku K., Akiyoshi T., Tsuji H. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity using a murine monoclonal antibody against ... A humanized anti-tumor necrosis factor-monoclonal antibody that acts as a partial, competitive antagonist of the template ... Antibody Treatment of Heterospheroids.. The heterospheroids (n = 10) were incubated with the humanized KM8969 from day 2 to day ...
Comparative analyses of Rebmab200 and MX35 monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that the two antibodies had similar specificity ... To overcome this impediment we developed a humanized antibody version named Rebmab200, expressed in human PER.C6® cells and ... The antibody had shown excellent targeting to ovarian cancer in several early phase clinical trials but being murine the ... Antibody-dependent cell-mediated toxicity functionality was confirmed in repeated assays using cancer cell lines derived from ...
TAK-701, a humanized monoclonal antibody to HGF, in combination with gefitinib inhibited the phosphorylation of MET, EGFR, ... TAK-701, a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody to Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Reverses Gefitinib Resistance Induced by Tumor-Derived ... TAK-701, a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody to Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Reverses Gefitinib Resistance Induced by Tumor-Derived ... TAK-701, a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody to Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Reverses Gefitinib Resistance Induced by Tumor-Derived ...
Abstract 3667: Reduction of in vivo tumor growth and angiogenesis by a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody to SEMA4D. Alan S. ... Abstract 3667: Reduction of in vivo tumor growth and angiogenesis by a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody to SEMA4D ... Abstract 3667: Reduction of in vivo tumor growth and angiogenesis by a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody to SEMA4D ... Abstract 3667: Reduction of in vivo tumor growth and angiogenesis by a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody to SEMA4D ...
... is capable of inducing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement-mediated lysis, and direct apoptosis of lymphoma ... The humanized monoclonal antibody apolizumab (Remitogen, Hu1D10), directed against a polymorphic determinant of HLA-DR ... The humanized monoclonal antibody apolizumab (Remitogen, Hu1D10), directed against a polymorphic determinant of HLA-DR ... A Phase II Study of Apolizumab, a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Follicular, Small ...
Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a Humanized Anti-HER2 Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, Inhibits Basal and Activated HER2 Ectodomain ... Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a Humanized Anti-HER2 Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, Inhibits Basal and Activated HER2 Ectodomain ... Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a Humanized Anti-HER2 Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, Inhibits Basal and Activated HER2 Ectodomain ... Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a Humanized Anti-HER2 Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, Inhibits Basal and Activated HER2 Ectodomain ...
  • One monoclonal antibody, E16, neutralized 10 different strains in vitro, and showed therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when administered as a single dose 5 d after infection. (nih.gov)
  • However, major causes of concern while using these drugs are risk of susceptibility to infection and development of anti-drug antibodies, which will affect the pharmacokinetic properties, efficacy, and safety profile of the drug. (dovepress.com)
  • To further improve the therapeutic efficacy of the anti-GM2 MAb in humans, we constructed a humanized anti-GM2 MAb, KM8969. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On the basis of trastuzumab clinical efficacy, this antibody was approved in 1998 for clinical use for HER2 overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the efficacy of Campath-1H in a xenograft ATL model when used alone and in combination with HAT (an anti-CD25 antibody) or with MEDI-507 (humanized antibody directed to CD2). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Efficacy of Urtoxazumab (TMA-15 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Specific" by Rodney A. Moxley, David H. Francis et al. (unl.edu)
  • We evaluated the efficacy of urtoxazumab (TMA-15, Teijin Pharma Limited), a humanized monoclonal antibody against Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 for the prevention of brain damage, dysfunction, and death in a piglet EHEC infection model. (unl.edu)
  • A first-in-human phase I study was conducted to characterize safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of lumretuzumab, a humanized and glycoengineered anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody, in patients with advanced cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both antibodies exhibited prophylactic efficacy in mice, however, VN04-2-huG1 performed better requiring only 1 mg/kg bodyweight for complete protection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The members of that panel cited several reasons for the decision, and many were concerned that "we're not looking at a product that has evidence of superiority in terms of efficacy" when compared to the already available monoclonal antibody Palivizumab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 6% of individuals receiving natalizumab have been found to develop persistent antibodies to the drug, which reduces its efficacy and produce reactions during the infusion of the drug, as well as hypersensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convalescent antibodies from individuals who had recovered from WNV infection also detected this epitope. (nih.gov)
  • This inhibitory effect of trastuzumab was not shared by 2C4, an antibody against a different epitope of the HER2 ectodomain. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antibody is used for high-specific efficient detection of soluble or membrane-bound proteins fused with 05-001 epitope-tag sequence. (icosagen.com)
  • However, while one cell line of the splenic stromal cells has been established (CF-1 cells) and its cytological characteristics have been studied, specific antibodies that recognize the surface antigens of these cells have never been prepared, nor have their characteristics been elucidated yet in any way. (google.com)
  • Antibodies are a key component of the adaptive immune response, playing a central role in both in the recognition of foreign antigens and the stimulation of an immune response to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, adverse reactions from these antibodies may occur because of long-lasting response to antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody reduced B-cell proliferation significantly but moderately, induced enhanced spontaneous and CXCL12-dependent migration together with changes in the expression of adhesion molecules, CD44, β7-integrin and CD62L, mainly of CD27 - naïve B cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recently antibodies have been used to bind to molecules involved in T-cell regulation to remove inhibitory pathways that block T-cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each antibody having on average 6.7 molecules of SN-38 attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of whole, natural antibodies as medicines presents many problems: they can only be produced by live cells and this process is difficult to control on an industrial scale, they are large molecules and following administration by injection, they do not diffuse easily from the blood to the tissues and other sites of infections where they are needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, only relatively small regions on antibody molecules are involved in the recognition and inactivation of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microantibodies are smaller, synthetic molecules that mimic these regions but do not have the larger regions on antibodies that induce an immune response. (wikipedia.org)