Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Mice, Inbred BALB CHIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (1/44698)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. (2/44698)

Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (3/44698)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (4/44698)

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

Linear peptide specificity of bovine antibody responses to p67 of Theileria parva and sequence diversity of sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes: implications for a vaccine. (5/44698)

A stage-specific surface antigen of Theileria parva, p67, is the basis for the development of an anti-sporozoite vaccine for the control of East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle. By Pepscan analysis with a series of overlapping synthetic p67 peptides, the antigen was shown to contain five distinct linear peptide sequences recognized by sporozoite-neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies. Three epitopes were located between amino acid positions 105 to 229 and two were located between positions 617 to 639 on p67. Bovine antibodies to a synthetic peptide containing one of these epitopes neutralized sporozoites, validating this approach for defining immune responses that are likely to contribute to immunity. Comparison of the peptide specificity of antibodies from cattle inoculated with recombinant p67 that were immune or susceptible to ECF did not reveal statistically significant differences between the two groups. In general, antipeptide antibody levels in the susceptible animals were lower than in the immune group and neither group developed high responses to all sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes. The bovine antibody response to recombinant p67 was restricted to the N- and C-terminal regions of p67, and there was no activity against the central portion between positions 313 and 583. So far, p67 sequence polymorphisms have been identified only in buffalo-derived T. parva parasites, but the consequence of these for vaccine development remains to be defined. The data indicate that optimizations of the current vaccination protocol against ECF should include boosting of relevant antibody responses to neutralizing epitopes on p67.  (+info)

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (6/44698)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite pellicle antigen recognized by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody is a beta-mannosylated glycolipid. (7/44698)

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is an important cause of diarrhea in humans, calves, and other mammals worldwide. No approved vaccines or parasite-specific drugs are currently available for the control of cryptosporidiosis. To effectively immunize against C. parvum, identification and characterization of protective antigens are required. We previously identified CPS-500, a conserved, neutralization-sensitive antigen of C. parvum sporozoites and merozoites defined by monoclonal antibody 18.44. In the present study, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular location of CPS-500 were determined. CPS-500 was chloroform extractable and eluted with acetone and methanol in silicic acid chromatography, consistent with being a polar glycolipid. Following chloroform extraction and silicic acid chromatography, CPS-500 was isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography for glycosyl analysis, which indicated the presence of mannose and inositol. To identify which component of CPS-500 comprised the neutralization-sensitive epitope recognized by 18.44, the ability of the monoclonal antibody to bind CPS-500 treated with proteases, or with alpha- or beta-glycosidases, was determined. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 did not bind antigen treated with beta-D-mannosidase but did bind antigen treated with alpha-D-mannosidase, other alpha- or beta-glycosidases, or a panel of proteases. These data indicated that the target epitope was dependent on terminal beta-D-mannopyranosyl residues. By immunoelectron microscopy, 18.44 binding was localized to the pellicle and an intracytoplasmic tubulovesicular network in sporozoites. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 also bound to antigen deposited and released onto substrate over the course travelled by gliding sporozoites and merozoites. Surface localization, adhesion and release during locomotion, and neutralization sensitivity suggest that CPS-500 may be involved in motility and invasion processes of the infective zoite stages.  (+info)

Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (8/44698)

The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.  (+info)

  • The custom generation and manufacturing of rat monoclonals is mastered by the SynAbs team since several years, as demonstrated by our 100+ references catalog. (synabs.be)
  • The correlation between Le(a) phenotype and reactivity of MOv2 antibody in a serum assay among healthy blood donors also supports these results. (elsevier.com)
  • Last but not least, the generated antibodies are at least as stable and productive than the mouse ones, due to our proprietary rat IR fusion cell line, generating very stable fully rat (rat x rat) hybridoma's. (synabs.be)
  • MABp1, a first-in-class true human antibody targeting interleukin-1α in refractory cancers: an open-label, phase 1 dose-escalation and expansion study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By attaching a radionuclide (radioactive molecule) to the antibody, small amounts of radiation can be applied directly to tumors. (lymphomainfo.net)
  • Since the antibodies will automatically bind the cancer cells, the radiation is delivered to tumors and the damage to healthy cells is minimized. (lymphomainfo.net)
  • In our ongoing investigations to use E48 for clinical tumor detection and therapy, fundamental aspects of the antigen have to be elucidated and practical applications of the antibody have to be tested in a preclinical model. (jamanetwork.com)
  • 4. The isolated cell of claim 3 , wherein said isolated cell is selected from the group consisting of an immortalized B cell, a hybridoma and a recombinant cell comprising one or more exogenous nucleic acid molecules that encode said antibody or antigen-binding fragment of said antibody. (google.ca)
  • To date, it's been assumed that 2D NMR could not be practically applied to monoclonal antibodies because it's too insensitive, too time intensive and too expensive for analyzing anything other than much smaller drug molecules," Brinson explains. (eurekalert.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are protein molecules made in the laboratory from hybridoma cells (stable cell lines derived by fusing antibody‐producing cells from immunised animals with cells that confer immortality and high‐yield antibody production) or by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology. (els.net)
  • The antibodies, which have demonstrated affinity for a variety of molecules containing o-phosphotyrosine residues, were prepared using a synthetic analog, p-azobenzyl phosphonate (ABP) covalently linked to a carrier protein, as the antigen. (google.ca)
  • The P E G RabMAb ELISA kit (ab215546) operates on the basis of competition between the enzyme (HRP) conjugated PEG and PEG labeled molecules for a limited number of binding sites on the surface of 96-wells coated with Anti-PEG rabbit monoclonal antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Currently have been approved a large amount of monoclonal antibodies and several number of molecules are undergoing clinical evaluation. (medigraphic.com)
  • In a recently published article, Inovio demonstrated that a single administration in mice of a highly optimized dMAb ® DNA, which targets HIV, generated antibody molecules in the bloodstream that possessed desirable functional activity including high antigen-binding and HIV-neutralization capabilities against diverse strains of HIV viruses. (cnbc.com)
  • Using this newly patented approach, Inovio published that a single administration of a highly optimized DNA-based monoclonal antibody targeting HIV virus in mice generated antibody molecules in the bloodstream possessing desirable functional activity including high antigen-binding and HIV-neutralization capabilities against diverse strains of HIV viruses. (cnbc.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced molecules engineered to enhance or mimic the immune system's attack on cancer cells. (uspharmacist.com)
  • To mount a successful monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based discovery and development program for cancer, whether developing therapeutic antibodies or antibody drug conjugates, you need technologies that allow rapid identification and characterization of candidate molecules to identify those with superior target reactivity and optimized functionality. (sartorius.com)
  • Neu 5 and several antibodies to rat neural cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) show similar, although not identical, immunohistochemical staining patterns. (jneurosci.org)
  • NEW YORK-The best treatment for young, fit, transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma patients is three, not four drugs, but the incorporation of new monoclonal antibodies into four-drug regimens has myeloma experts talking about a potential cure, according to experts at the Lymphoma & Myeloma International Conference here. (lww.com)
  • SAN FRANCISCO-Are anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies the next blockbusters in treating multiple myeloma? (lww.com)
  • I think these CD38 antibodies are the new blockbuster drugs for multiple myeloma," said Thomas G. Martin III, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine in the Adult Leukemia and Bone Marrow Transplantation Program and Associate Director of the Myeloma Program at the University of California, San Francisco. (lww.com)
  • Martin explained that there are currently three anti-CD38 antibodies under investigation for multiple myeloma-daratumumab, SAR650984, and MOR202. (lww.com)
  • The introduction of CD38-targeting monoclonal antibodies (CD38 MoABs), daratumumab and isatuximab, has significantly impacted the management of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Outcomes of patients with MM refractory to CD38 MoABs have not been described. (nature.com)
  • In this article we will give an overview of monoclonal antibody patenting, briefly review the Janssen case, discuss the 'antibody exception,' and then provide some possible strategic directions for antibody patenting going forward, focusing on the critical issue of the interplay between the post-Janssen antibody exception and the recently enacted America Invents Act. (fenwick.com)
  • Synthetic Biologics, Inc., a developer of synthetic biologics and innovative medicines for unmet medical needs, and Intrexon Corporation (Intrexon), a synthetic biology company that utilizes its proprietary technologies to provide control over cellular function, entered into a second worldwide exclusive channel collaboration through which Synthetic Biologics intends to develop and commercialize a series of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies for the treatment of certain infectious diseases not adequately addressed by existing therapies. (synbioproject.org)
  • In the event of a pandemic, the antibodies could be used in combination with antiviral therapies to contain the outbreak until a vaccine became available. (disabled-world.com)
  • vii) carrying out screening assays with antigen selected from cross-linked fibrin derivative or extract containing same or fibrinogen and fibrinogen degradation product so as to isolate hybridoma cells which produce a monoclonal antibody having the essential characteristic of reactivity with D-dimer and other cross-linked fibrin derivatives and non-reactivity with fibrinogen or fibrinogen degradation products inclusive of fragment D and fragment E. (epo.org)
  • Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma. (jci.org)
  • The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined. (spie.org)
  • Schlom J., Wunderlich D., Teramoto Y.A.: Generation of human monoclonal antibodies reactive with human mammary carcinoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Taylor-Papadimitriou J., Peterson J.A., Arklie J., Burchell J., Ceriani R.L., Bodmer W.F.: Monoclonal antibodies to epithelium-specific components of the human milk fat globule membrane: production and reaction with cells in culture. (springer.com)
  • Mènard S., Tagliabue E., Canevari S., Fossati G., Colnaghi M.I.: Generation of monoclonal antibodies reacting with normal and cancer cells of human breast. (springer.com)
  • Serum from a Lewis rat immunized with this partially purified estradiol-receptor complex contained antiestrophilin antibodies that reacted not only with nuclear and extranuclear estradiol-receptor complexes from MCF-7 cells but also with estrophilin from rat, calf, and monkey uterus, hen oviduct, and human breast cancers. (pnas.org)
  • These monoclonal antibodies should prove useful in the study of estrogen receptors of human reproductive tissues, in particular for the radioimmunochemical assay and immunocytochemical localization of receptors in breast cancers. (pnas.org)
  • 6. The antibody or antigen-binding fragment of claim 5 wherein said antibody or antigen-binding fragment further comprises a human framework region. (google.ca)
  • A monoclonal antibody that recognises a structurally continuous and extracellularly-located epitope of human P-glycoprotein is described. (google.com)
  • 1. A monoclonal antibody that recognizes a structurally continuous and extracellularly-located epitope of human P-glycoprotein consisting of a continuous amino acid sequence, and which has a binding affinity for P-glycoprotein such that it is capable of staining greater than 90% of live CEM-VBL10 cells when tested in a flow cytometry experiment. (google.com)
  • 2. A monoclonal antibody of claim 1 in which the said amino acid sequence is located on the fourth extracellular loop of human P-glycoprotein. (google.com)
  • 9. A method of claim 8 in which a peptide corresponding to a structurally continuous extracellular domain of human P-glycoprotein or a part thereof is used to screen for the desired monoclonal antibody. (google.com)
  • 11. An immunological diagnostic kit containing as specific reagent a monoclonal antibody according to either of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 for the detection of human multidrug-resistant cells or human P-glycoprotein. (google.com)
  • More particularly, the invention relates to monoclonal antibodies to an extracellular epitope of human Pgp and to their preparation and diagnostic and clinical uses. (google.com)
  • c) humanised antibody (murine complementarity‐determining regions on a human framework) and (d) completely human antibody. (els.net)
  • 1998) Double‐blind randomised controlled trial of monoclonal antibody to human tumour necrosis factor in treatment of septic shock. (els.net)
  • Accordingly, they are useful as antibodies that recognize human Integrin. (google.com)
  • Both the standard somatic hybridization technique and recombinant techniques, including the use of phage libraries, for the preparation of rodent and human monoclonal antibodies are described. (waterstones.com)
  • 1. A continuous cell line which produces human anti-exotixin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a human peripheral blood lymphocyte immunized by a toxin, or an imunogenic fragment thereof, or a toxoid prepared from an exotoxin, or an immunogenic fragment thereof, and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the antibodies are capable of neutralizing exotoxin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. A continuous cell line which produces human anit-tetanus toxin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a tetanus toxin-immunized or toxoid-immunized human peripheral blood lymphocyte and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the anitbodies are capable of neutralizing tetanus toxin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Studies are under way adding the investigational human IgG1k monoclonal antibody daratumumab to bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone or to bor-te-zomib-melphalan-prednisone. (lww.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies have been applied clinically to the diagnosis and therapy of an array of human disorders, including cancer and infectious diseases, and have been used for the modulation of immune responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Both engineered antibodies, in combination with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, elicited antibody-dependent cytotoxic responses in accordance with the level of p185HER2 expression. (nih.gov)
  • Since this cytotoxic activity is independent of sensitivity to mumAb 4D5, the engineered monoclonal antibodies expand the potential target population for antibody-mediated therapy of human cancers characterized by the overexpression of p185HER2. (nih.gov)
  • Eli Lilly and Co. (NYSE: LLY) has received a potential $375M contract from the departments of Defense and Health and Human Services to initially supply 300K doses of bamlanivimab, an investigational monoclonal antibody drug for COVID-19. (govconwire.com)
  • Human human anatomy includes hundreds of tens and thousands of different bright body cells called "T lymphocytes", each effective at producing one form of antibody and each showing web sites on their membrane that'll join with a certain antigen. (dailystrength.org)
  • A: C-myc - IHC on FFPE human colonic adenocarcinoma using anti-c-Myc RabMAb primary antibody (ab32072). (abcam.com)
  • One key issue with regard to the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies has been the response of the human immune system to xenogeneic antibodies. (google.co.uk)
  • This occurs by inserting the antigen-specific variable domain of a mouse antibody on the constant domains of a human antibody, producing antibodies that are up to 65% humanized [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Dana-Farber), Burnham Institute for Medical Research (Burnham) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have reported the identification of human monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that neutralize an unprecedented range of influenza A viruses, including avian influenza A (H5N1) virus, previous pandemic influenza viruses, and some seasonal influenza viruses. (disabled-world.com)
  • There are clear settings where human monoclonal antibodies can be used strategically for both the prevention and early treatment of influenza infection and disease," said Wayne A. Marasco, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of medicine at Dana-Farber and Harvard Medical School. (disabled-world.com)
  • Our human monoclonal antibody protected mice from the lethal H5N1 virus even when injected three days after infection. (disabled-world.com)
  • But he and his colleagues are excited both by the apparent potency of the antibody and its potential to help them explore new possibilities for treating related viruses that are more prolific causes of human disease and death. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The human immune system would clear out these foreign antibodies quickly, so when they had identified a potent antibody, scientists at Macrogenics clipped out the genetic material that controls the antibody's targeting and cloned it into a human antibody. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The "humanized" antibody should be less likely to induce an adverse human immune system response. (rxpgnews.com)
  • These non-human antibodies are recognized as foreign by the human immune system and may be rapidly cleared from the body, provoke an allergic reaction, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • To avoid this, parts of the antibody can be replaced with human amino acid sequences, or pure human antibodies can be engineered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the human/mouse chimeric antibody basiliximab ends in -ximab just as does the human/macaque antibody gomiliximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • A: CD38 - FACS on HuT-78 cells using anti-CD38 RabMAb primary antibody (red) (ab108403) and a rabbit IgG (negative) (green). (abcam.com)
  • b) one or more ancillary reagents suitable for detecting the presence of a complex between said antibody or antigen-binding fragment and said HMGB1 polypeptide or said portion thereof. (google.ca)
  • B: AMPK alpha 1 (phospho S496) - IF on HeLa cells using anti-Phospho-AMPK alpha 1 (pS496) RabMAb primary antibody (ab92701). (abcam.com)
  • A: MCM2 - WB on (1) MCF-7, (2) Ramos, (3) SW480, (4) Molt-4, (5) Jurkat, and (6) HeLa cell lysates using anti-MCM2 RabMAb primary antibody (ab108935). (abcam.com)
  • B: Histone H3 (phospho S10) - IF on HeLa using anti-Histone H3 (phospho S10) RabMAb primary antibody (ab32107). (abcam.com)
  • B: Ki67 (Alexa Fluor® 488) - IF on HeLa cells using anti-Ki67 RabMAb primary antibody (ab154201). (abcam.com)
  • Positive results for other antibodies in various stages of clinical development provide hope that anticancer antibodies will have an effect on clinical oncology practice in the next 10 years. (nih.gov)
  • AIDS Clinical Trials Group (1997) MSL‐109 adjuvant therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: the monoclonal antibody cytomegalovirus retinitis trial. (els.net)
  • Finally protocols are given for the use of monoclonal antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, tissue typing, detecting DNA modified during chemotherapy, and in the clinical analysis of transplantation samples for malignancy. (waterstones.com)
  • An authoritative team of investigators brings together a series of concise and proven methods used in their laboratories and laboratories around the world, which can be used by both basic scientists working in the field of cell and molecular biology as well as clinical researchers interested in the clinical application of monoclonal antibodies. (waterstones.com)
  • For undergraduate and graduate students this inexpensive book is a good source of information on methods, which are shown in the form of concise protocols and well referenced, and general use of monoclonal antibodies in research and clinical laboratories. (waterstones.com)
  • Accurate serotyping and rapid identification of CT producing strains of V. cholerae by using monoclonal antibody based immunoassays are critical in clinical service due to the threat of the disease. (sbir.gov)
  • Other studies explore rituximab's expandingtherapeutic indications for other lymphoid malignancies, review the role ofCAMPATH-1H, and introduce the different therapeutic conjugated antibody options,such as the iodine-131-labeled anti-CD22 antibody epratuzumab (hLL2[LymphoCide]), tositumomab/iodine-131 tositumomab (Bexxar), and theyttrium-labeled anti-CD20 antibody ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin). (cancernetwork.com)
Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies eBook by  - 9781118210260 | Rakuten Kobo
Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies eBook by - 9781118210260 | Rakuten Kobo (kobo.com)
Clinical Applications of Monoclonal Antibodies, Book by Ron Hubbard (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.ca
Clinical Applications of Monoclonal Antibodies, Book by Ron Hubbard (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.ca (chapters.indigo.ca)
Application of Monoclonal Antibodies against Bioactive Natural Products: Eastern Blotting and Preparation of Knockout Extract :...
Application of Monoclonal Antibodies against Bioactive Natural Products: Eastern Blotting and Preparation of Knockout Extract :... (hindawi.com)
Antigenic Fingerprinting of H5N1 Avian Influenza Using Convalescent Sera and Monoclonal Antibodies Reveals Potential Vaccine...
Antigenic Fingerprinting of H5N1 Avian Influenza Using Convalescent Sera and Monoclonal Antibodies Reveals Potential Vaccine... (journals.plos.org)
Systemic CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Tumoricidal Effects by Intratumoral Treatment of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus with the...
Systemic CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Tumoricidal Effects by Intratumoral Treatment of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus with the... (journals.plos.org)
PLOS ONE: Rebmab200, a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Targeting the Sodium Phosphate Transporter NaPi2b Displays Strong Immune...
PLOS ONE: Rebmab200, a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Targeting the Sodium Phosphate Transporter NaPi2b Displays Strong Immune... (journals.plos.org)
Epitopes described in Function-blocking antithrombospondin-1 monoclonal antibodies. - Immune Epitope Database (IEDB)
Epitopes described in Function-blocking antithrombospondin-1 monoclonal antibodies. - Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) (iedb.org)
Anti-RHOA Mouse Monoclonal Antibody | VWR
Anti-RHOA Mouse Monoclonal Antibody | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-CD3 Rat Monoclonal Antibody | VWR
Anti-CD3 Rat Monoclonal Antibody | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-DAAM2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 1D8] | VWR
Anti-DAAM2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 1D8] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-HNF1B Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4000000000] | VWR
Anti-HNF1B Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4000000000] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-SLC22A18AS Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4B1] | VWR
Anti-SLC22A18AS Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4B1] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-GNA14 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 2H8] | VWR
Anti-GNA14 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 2H8] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-PPFIA3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 3B1] | VWR
Anti-PPFIA3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 3B1] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-IRAK4 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 2D3] | VWR
Anti-IRAK4 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 2D3] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-B4GALT5 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4B9] | VWR
Anti-B4GALT5 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4B9] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-CD38 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: HIT2] | VWR
Anti-CD38 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: HIT2] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-CK6B Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 1C4] | VWR
Anti-CK6B Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 1C4] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-ELA2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4000000000000] | VWR
Anti-ELA2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4000000000000] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-MYL6B Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4G11] | VWR
Anti-MYL6B Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4G11] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-AK1 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: M1] | VWR
Anti-AK1 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: M1] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-TFEB Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 1A9] | VWR
Anti-TFEB Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 1A9] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-PPP1R2P3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 2G11] | VWR
Anti-PPP1R2P3 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 2G11] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-MUSK Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4C12] | VWR
Anti-MUSK Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4C12] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-ALOX15B Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4A7] | VWR
Anti-ALOX15B Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4A7] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-ARRB2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 3G1] | VWR
Anti-ARRB2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 3G1] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-S100 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4C4.9] | VWR
Anti-S100 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4C4.9] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-MAP2K2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 8D10] | VWR
Anti-MAP2K2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 8D10] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-BrdU 0 Monoclonal Antibody [clone: MoBu-1] | VWR
Anti-BrdU 0 Monoclonal Antibody [clone: MoBu-1] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-VSIG1 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (Biotin) [clone: CT1] | VWR
Anti-VSIG1 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (Biotin) [clone: CT1] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-NFATC2IP Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 2D7-A10] | VWR
Anti-NFATC2IP Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 2D7-A10] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Anti-NUDT2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4A4-3C3] | VWR
Anti-NUDT2 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: 4A4-3C3] | VWR (us.vwr.com)
Innovent Announces First Patient Dosed In Phase I Clinical Trial Of Anti Cd47 Monoclonal Antibody In The Us - Barchart.com
Innovent Announces First Patient Dosed In Phase I Clinical Trial Of Anti Cd47 Monoclonal Antibody In The Us - Barchart.com (barchart.com)
Chain L, Crystal Structure Analysis Of The Anti-(4-Hydroxy-3- Nitrophenyl)-Acetyl Murine Germline Monoclonal Antibody Bbe6.12h3...
Chain L, Crystal Structure Analysis Of The Anti-(4-Hydroxy-3- Nitrophenyl)-Acetyl Murine Germline Monoclonal Antibody Bbe6.12h3... (pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)