Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Mice, Inbred BALB CHIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (1/44698)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. (2/44698)

Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (3/44698)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (4/44698)

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

Linear peptide specificity of bovine antibody responses to p67 of Theileria parva and sequence diversity of sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes: implications for a vaccine. (5/44698)

A stage-specific surface antigen of Theileria parva, p67, is the basis for the development of an anti-sporozoite vaccine for the control of East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle. By Pepscan analysis with a series of overlapping synthetic p67 peptides, the antigen was shown to contain five distinct linear peptide sequences recognized by sporozoite-neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies. Three epitopes were located between amino acid positions 105 to 229 and two were located between positions 617 to 639 on p67. Bovine antibodies to a synthetic peptide containing one of these epitopes neutralized sporozoites, validating this approach for defining immune responses that are likely to contribute to immunity. Comparison of the peptide specificity of antibodies from cattle inoculated with recombinant p67 that were immune or susceptible to ECF did not reveal statistically significant differences between the two groups. In general, antipeptide antibody levels in the susceptible animals were lower than in the immune group and neither group developed high responses to all sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes. The bovine antibody response to recombinant p67 was restricted to the N- and C-terminal regions of p67, and there was no activity against the central portion between positions 313 and 583. So far, p67 sequence polymorphisms have been identified only in buffalo-derived T. parva parasites, but the consequence of these for vaccine development remains to be defined. The data indicate that optimizations of the current vaccination protocol against ECF should include boosting of relevant antibody responses to neutralizing epitopes on p67.  (+info)

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (6/44698)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite pellicle antigen recognized by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody is a beta-mannosylated glycolipid. (7/44698)

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is an important cause of diarrhea in humans, calves, and other mammals worldwide. No approved vaccines or parasite-specific drugs are currently available for the control of cryptosporidiosis. To effectively immunize against C. parvum, identification and characterization of protective antigens are required. We previously identified CPS-500, a conserved, neutralization-sensitive antigen of C. parvum sporozoites and merozoites defined by monoclonal antibody 18.44. In the present study, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular location of CPS-500 were determined. CPS-500 was chloroform extractable and eluted with acetone and methanol in silicic acid chromatography, consistent with being a polar glycolipid. Following chloroform extraction and silicic acid chromatography, CPS-500 was isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography for glycosyl analysis, which indicated the presence of mannose and inositol. To identify which component of CPS-500 comprised the neutralization-sensitive epitope recognized by 18.44, the ability of the monoclonal antibody to bind CPS-500 treated with proteases, or with alpha- or beta-glycosidases, was determined. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 did not bind antigen treated with beta-D-mannosidase but did bind antigen treated with alpha-D-mannosidase, other alpha- or beta-glycosidases, or a panel of proteases. These data indicated that the target epitope was dependent on terminal beta-D-mannopyranosyl residues. By immunoelectron microscopy, 18.44 binding was localized to the pellicle and an intracytoplasmic tubulovesicular network in sporozoites. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 also bound to antigen deposited and released onto substrate over the course travelled by gliding sporozoites and merozoites. Surface localization, adhesion and release during locomotion, and neutralization sensitivity suggest that CPS-500 may be involved in motility and invasion processes of the infective zoite stages.  (+info)

Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (8/44698)

The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.  (+info)

*CD154

Seth Lederman at Columbia University generated a murine monoclonal antibody, 5c8 that inhibited contact-dependent T cell helper ... The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ... As a result of this stimulation, the B cell can undergo rapid cellular division to form a germinal center where antibody ... Randolph Noelle at Dartmouth Medical School generated an antibody that bound a 39 kDa protein on murine T cells and inhibited ...

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

... is a form of immunotherapy that uses monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to bind monospecifically to ... Antigen 5T4 Immunotherapy Immunoconjugate Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies List of monoclonal antibodies, including ... are therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. This rapid growth in demand for monoclonal antibody production has been well ... The advent of monoclonal antibody technology has made it possible to raise antibodies against specific antigens presented on ...

*Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies

... are monoclonal antibodies engineered so that the oligosaccharides in the Fc region of the ... Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies overcome this problem through improved FcγIIIa binding. The use of afucosylated monoclonal ... AstraZeneca's MEDI-551 antibody is an afucosylated antibody that targets CD19 GlaxoSmithKline's GSK2831781 monoclonal antibody ... Roche manufactures afucosylated monoclonal antibodies in CHO cells lines, where the cell has been engineered to overexpress an ...

*Monoclonal antibody

... mechanism List of monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal antibody therapy Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies Polyclonal antibodies ... "Proprietary antibody platform". "Naturally optimized human antibodies". "Proprietary antibody platform". "Proprietary antibody ... Monoclonal Antibodies, from John W. Kimball's online biology textbook Monoclonal antibodies at the US National Library of ... The Story of César Milstein and Monoclonal Antibodies: Making monoclonal antibodies Riechmann L, Clark M, Waldmann H, Winter G ...

*Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies

... "murine monoclonal antibody targeting CD3". List of monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal antibody therapy "AMA (USAN) Monoclonal ... All monoclonal antibody names end with the stem -mab. Unlike most other pharmaceuticals, monoclonal antibody nomenclature uses ... The nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies is a naming scheme for assigning generic, or nonproprietary, names to monoclonal ... The suffix -pab shows it is a polyclonal antibody. The monoclonal antibody muromonab-CD3, approved for clinical use in 1986, ...

*Bispecific monoclonal antibody

... entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms Bispecific antibodies at the US ... this method allows the antibody to target intracellular targets not usually accessible by traditional monoclonal antibody ... A bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb, BsAb) is an artificial protein that can simultaneously bind to two different types of ... This format retains the traditional monoclonal antibody (mAb) structure of two Fab arms and one Fc region, except the two Fab ...

*List of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

See the list of FDA approved therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in the Monoclonal antibody therapy page. "United Therapeutics 10 ... single-domain antibody Bispecific monoclonal antibodies: 3funct: trifunctional antibody BiTE: bi-specific T-cell engager This ... This is a list of therapeutic, diagnostic and preventive monoclonal antibodies, antibodies that are clones of a single parent ... The remaining syllables of the INNs, as well as the column Source, are explained in Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies. The ...

*Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody

List of monoclonal antibodies Herold KC, Taylor L. (2003). "Treatment of Type 1 diabetes with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody: ... An anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is one that binds to CD3 on the surface of T cells. They are immunosuppresive drugs. The first ... Newer monoclonal antibodies with the same mechanism of action include otelixizumab, teplizumab and visilizumab. They are being ... "Use of Anti-CD3 Monoclonal Antibody to Induce Immune Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences ...

*Creative Diagnostics

The initial business is antibody-monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Later, various kinds of antibody, viral antigens, ... Matched antibody pairs Anti-idiotypic Antibodies HBV Core Antigen Antibody Isotyping Kits Protein Antigen Expression Service ... "The Way We Take Care of Antibody Purification". APSence. Retrieved December 16, 2014. "Molecular detection of hepatitis B virus ... Creative Diagnostics is an American biotechnology company that specializes in research and manufacture of antibodies, viral ...

*Biopharmaceutical

Monoclonal antibodies. These are similar to the antibodies that the human immune system uses to fight off bacteria and viruses ... The cost of treatment with a typical monoclonal antibody therapy for relatively common indications is generally in the range of ... examples of such monoclonal antibodies for use in various diseases are given in the table below. Receptor constructs (fusion ... Monoclonal antibodies (Various) Additional products (tumour necrosis factor, therapeutic enzymes) Research and development ...

*Fcab

Antibody Fragments Monoclonal antibodies. ... This antibody fragment is part of the modular antibody ... Fcabs are antibodies fragments engineered from the constant region of an antibody (Fc). In naturally occurring antibodies (such ... This type of antibodies are therefore able to recognise two different antigens, one at their Fab region and a second one at the ... Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties.". Protein Eng Des. 23 (4): 289-297. PMID 20150180 ...

*Immunogenicity

recombinant protein, or monoclonal antibody). This reaction leads to production of anti-drug-antibodies (ADAs) inactivating the ... "Immunotoxicity of monoclonal antibodies". MAbs. 1 (2): 104-111. doi:10.4161/mabs.1.2.7909. PMC 2725414 . PMID 20061816. The ... Anti-drug antibodies (ADA) may neutralize the therapeutic effects of the drug and/or alter its pharmacokinetics. B cells are ... certainly involved in this immune response when IgG class ADA are observed, because antibody isotype switching is a hallmark of ...

*ITGB7

"Anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies". Journal of Cell Science. 122 (Pt 22): 4009-11. doi:10.1242/jcs.056770. PMC 3329622 . PMID ...

*Human anti-mouse antibody

These types of antibodies are typically called monoclonal antibodies because they are created to target one specific antigen. ... Human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) is an antibody found in humans which reacts to immunoglobins found in mice. Antibody treatment ... Monoclonal antibodies can be generated for human use without mice by using in vitro techniques. MAbs manufactured using these ... For several decades, and until recently, mice were used extensively in the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). But the ...

*Biosimilar

Monoclonal antibody technology combined with recombinant DNA technology has paved the way for tailor-made and targeted ... Consequently, EMA has granted a marketing authorisation for only a few biosimilars since 2006 including a monoclonal antibody ... Declerck PJ (February 2013). "Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies: a science-based regulatory challenge". Expert Opin Biol Ther. ... Wang, X. (June 1, 2014). "Higher-Order Structure Comparability: Case Studies of Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies". BioProcess ...

*Chromatolysis

A study with monoclonal antibodies". Pathological and Immunopathological Research. 6 (4): 273-83. PMID 3129706. Tanridag, T; ...

*BioDrugs

... monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments; cytokines and cytokine receptors; recombinant DNA and gene regulation technology ...

*Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody-dependent cell-mediated ... Sanchez, L; Wang, Y; Siegel, DS (2016). "Daratumumab: a first-in-class CD38 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple ... The effects against solid tumors of trastuzumab and rituximab monoclonal antibodies have been shown in experiments with mice to ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ...

*Male breast cancer

Its activity can be increased in active cancer cells and helps determine if monoclonal antibody therapy (i.e. Trastuzumab) may ... monoclonal antibody therapy). Hormonal options include: Orchiectomy.[citation needed] Gonadotropin hormone releasing hormone ...

*RPLP0

1982). "Monoclonal antibodies against eucaryotic ribosomes. Use to characterize a ribosomal protein not previously identified ...

*Regeneron

Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Transgenic Mice. Chapter 13 in Human Monoclonal Antibodies: Methods and Protocols Ed. Michael ... Fully Human Monoclonal Antibodies: Regeneron has developed a suite (VelociSuite) of patented technologies, including ... fully human antibodies drug candidates addressing these targets. Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in the New York ...

*Alder Biopharmaceuticals

Their best known drug is the monoclonal antibody eptinezumab, which is now in its second phase III trial for migraine ... Alder specializes in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. The company was founded by Randall C. Schatzman, John A. Latham, and ... They have a second monoclonal antibody drug for migraine, ALD-1910, currently in pre-clinical development. Alder licensed ... an anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody to Vitaeris, Inc. for worldwide marketing. "Technologies - Alder Biopharmaceuticals". alderbio ...

*Alirocumab

Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Transgenic Mice. Chapter 13 in Human Monoclonal Antibodies: Methods and Protocols Ed. Michael ... It is a human monoclonal antibody that belongs to a novel class of anti-cholesterol drugs, known as PCSK9 inhibitors, and it ... Alirocumab is a human monoclonal antibody of the IgG1 isotype. It is made of two disulfide-linked human heavy chains, each ... Regeneron and Amgen had each filed for patent protection on their monoclonal antibodies and the companies ended up in patent ...

*Efalizumab

As implied by the suffix -zumab, it is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody administered once weekly by subcutaneous ... Berger JR, Houff SA, Major EO (2009). "Monoclonal antibodies and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy". mAbs. 1 (6): 583- ...

*Roledumab

... is a monoclonal antibody. It binds to RHD, the Rhesus factor antigen. World Health Organization (2010). " ...

*Phage display

"A large array of human monoclonal antibodies to type 1 human immunodeficiency virus from combinatorial libraries of ... Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ... The invention of antibody phage display revolutionised antibody drug discovery. Initial work was done by laboratories at the ...

*Testicular immunology

A monoclonal antibody-based study". Eur Urol. 14 (3): 226-235. PMID 3289938. Tompkins AB, Hutchinson P, de Kretser DM, Hedger ... Since anti-sperm antibodies can cause infertility, it is important that antibody-producing B-lymphocytes are kept separated ... Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10-30% of infertile couples. ASA production are ... The lack of B-lymphocytes in the testis is significant, since these are the antibody-producing cells of the immune system. ...
Buy anti-Vaccinia Virus A27L Protein antibody, Vaccinia Virus A27L Protein Monoclonal Antibody (Clone B1496M) (MBS313199) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: ELISA (EIA), Immunofluorescence (IF)
Mouse Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus 1 HSV-1 gE Envelope Protein Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 9H3 from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.,HSV-1 gE Envelope Protein (9H3),biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel activating anti-β1 integrin monoclonal antibody binds to the cysteine-rich repeats in the β1 chain. AU - Faull, Randall J.. AU - Wang, Jian. AU - Leavesley, David I.. AU - Puzon, Wilma. AU - Russ, Graeme R.. AU - Vestweber, Dietmar. AU - Takada, Yoshikazu. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - The functional status of an integrin depends on the conformation of its extracellular domain, which is controlled by the cell expressing that receptor. The transmission of regulatory signals from within the cell is considered to be via propagated conformational changes from the receptors cytoplasmic tails to the extracellular ligand binding pocket. The end result is increased accessibility of the ligand binding pocket in the high affinity (active) form of integrins. We report a novel monoclonal antibody (QE.2E5) that binds within the cysteine-rich repeats in the integrin β1 chain and induces high affinity binding of fibronectin to the integrin α5β1. The QE.2E5 epitope is located ...
• We recently produced the monoclonal antibody E48 as a specific reagent for squamous cell carcinomas. In our ongoing investigations to use E48 for clinical tum
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Human BCL-10 (B Cell Lymphoma) Antibodies MA-20003 Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Human BCL-10 (B Cell Lymphoma) Antibodies MA-20003
... ,This antibody detects an ~92 kDa protein corresponding to the apparent molecular mass of the beta subunit of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1beta) on Western blots.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Monoclonal Antibody (mAB) Therapy is a type of immunotherapy. It employs specific antibodies to target cancer cells for removal from the body. This type of therapy relies on the bodys own immune system to fight the cancer, rather than attacking the cells with damaging chemotherapy and radiation.. To understand how this therapy works, you must understand what antigens and antibodies are. Antigens are cell markers that are produced in every type of cell - the cells of your body, bacteria, and viruses. These markers are different in every cell type, so your body can tell them apart. Antibodies are designed to bind to antigens, like fitting two puzzle pieces together. Monoclonal antibodies are large groups of antibodies that only bind to one antigen.. In monoclonal antibody therapy, doctors inject patients with antibodies that bind to the antigens on cancer cells. In this way, they are "tagging" the bad cells. When cells are tagged with these antibodies, they are marked for removal by immune cells. ...
Using immunoblotting techniques, the antigen that binds the monoclonal antibody M27 has been clearly defined in terms of apparent molecular mass and distribution. In reducing conditions it has an apparent mass of 178K (K = 10(3) Mr) and is present in the cytoplasm and membranes of all mammalian tissue culture cells so far examined. It is absent from lines derived from avian, piscine and amphibian sources. It is also absent from foetal liver of both rat and mouse, but subsequently appears after cultivation in vitro. Similarly, it can be detected on rat lymphocytes only after mitogenic stimulation. However, it is found on both hepatoma and lymphoma cells in vitro, and on in vivo tumours from murine sources. It thus appears to be associated with cell proliferation. ...
A rat monoclonal antibody that catalyses the hydrolysis of a nitrophenyl-beta-lactam We report the first example of a monoclonal antibody-catalysed hydrolysis of a P-lactam where the antibodies were generated by a simple transition-state analogue. A rat monoclonal antibody (1/91c/4d/26) generated by using an acyclic 4- nitrophenylphosphate immunogen catalysed the hydrolysis of corresponding 4-nitrophenyl carbonates but, more importantly. also catalysed the hydrolysis of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-azetidinone at pH 8 with k(cat) = 8.7 x 10(-6) s(-1) and K-M = 35 muM. This is the first example of a rat monoclonal catalytic antibody. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.. ...
Buy anti-CD11b antibody, Rat CD11b Monoclonal Antibody (Clone M1/70.15)-P05555.2 (MBS210514) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Flow cytometry (FC/FACS)
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human PDGFA peptide using ARM Technology. A synthetic peptide of human PDGFA is used for rabbit immunization.Customer or Abnova will decide on the preferred peptide sequence. (H00005154-K) - Products - Abnova
The rat IgG2a isotype control antibody clone ES26-15B7.3 is specific for keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). This protein is not expressed on mammalian cells or cell lines. Therefore, the antibody clone ES26-15B7.3 can be used as a negative control to distinguish specific from non-specific binding of rat IgG2a fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies to human and mouse cells, for example, via Fc receptors, or due to interactions of the fluorochrome with the cell surface. - 대한민국
Read Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies From Bench to Clinic by with Rakuten Kobo. 70-chapter authoritative reference that covers therapeutic monoclonal antibody discovery, development, and clinical app...
Characterization of aggregation information of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is gaining importance because an increasing number of mAb-based therapeutics are entering clinical studies and gaining marketing approval. dye concentration. Inset: Double reciprocal representation.20 (B) Temperature-dependence of mAb unfolding studied with ANS binding. Dye binding rates were decided … We also measured kinetic rates of the conformational change of monomer at the PD98059 elevated temperatures (Desk 1) with an empirical sigmoid function suit through the ANS fluorescence modification (see Supporting Details) (Fig. 2B). The mAb was incubated at raised temperature ranges (63C70C) at 0.2 mg/mL concentrations up to 6 h and 20 M ANS was added soon after the incubation, held in ice drinking water for 2 h. The aggregate amounts in these biopharmaceuticals are usually suprisingly low during long-term storage space conditions also at high proteins concentrations. We examined the aggregate amounts at different mAb ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The antitumor monoclonal antibody MOv2 recognizes the Lewis A hapten. AU - Leoni, F.. AU - Magnani, J. L.. AU - Miotti, S.. AU - Canevari, S.. AU - Pasquali, M.. AU - Sonnino, S.. AU - Colnaghi, M. I.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - Monoclonal antibody MOv2, produced against ovarian carcinoma, was previously found to bind a carbohydrate epitope (CAMOv2) present on mucins, glycoproteins and a neutral glycolipid. In this paper, the structure of the carbohydrate epitope is determined by immunological reactivity with purified glycolipids and oligosaccharides. Using solid-phase radioimmunoassay and immunostaining of thin layer chromatograms, MOv2 binds strongly to Le(a)-active pentasaccharide ceramide. A smaller neutral glycolipid also weakly binds MOv2. Fifty percent inhibition of binding to Le(a)-active pentasaccharide ceramide is achieved with approximately 8 μM concentration of lacto-N-fucopentaose II (LNF II). Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) also partially inhibits at about 103 times higher ...
Monoclonal antibodies are a unique class of biological agents that have been developed for autoimmune disease, antitumor and antiplatelet therapy to name a few. Antibodies produced by the body in response to an infection are polyclonal antibodies, meaning the antibodies produced are not identical. Monoclonal antibodies are immunoglobulins that are identical and bind to the same antigenic surface marker, thus the term targeted therapy. The naming of monoclonal antibodies is based on the target of the antibody (e.g. tumor, viral) and the source from which the antibody was produced (e.g. murine, human), followed by the "mab" suffix. While monoclonal antibodies have a wide therapeutic benefit, they have limitations including inability to cross the blood brain barrier and cost.. This presentation will review the history, types and immunogenicity of each type of monoclonal antibody. The nurse will understand the naming nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies and will be able to recognize the action of ...
Single cell cloning and recombinant monoclonal antibodies generation from RA synovial B cells reveal frequent targeting of citrullinated histones of NETs ...
Rabbit monoclonal antibody generation with Single Plasma Cell Interrogation (SPIN®) technology. Higher affinity and broaden diversity of antibodies obtained.
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Serum levels of HAHAs were detected by a newly developed radioimmunoassay, a specific assay measuring high avid antibodies against adalimumab, similar to that described for rituximab.4. HAHAs were present after cessation of treatment for the planned surgical procedure, whereas serum levels of adalimumab were undetectable (fig 1). As levels of HAHAs increased, levels of adalimumab dropped and disease activity increased.. Our patient developed HAHAs to adalimumab despite the fact that adalimumab is a human monoclonal antibody. Infliximab is a chimeric antibody and can induce an immunogenic reaction in the form of human antichimeric antibodies. The development of HACAs to infliximab is associated with a reduced response to treatment,5 and so far such relationships have not been described for adalimumab.. In our patient, the anti-rheumatic drug-free period may have influenced the development of HAHAs. The absence of the protective role of methotrexate may have stimulated the formation of HAHAs. ...
Genentech is developing an anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody for the treatment of cancer. A phase I open-label study (IGF4233g) of the antibody is underway in the
Monoclonal antibodies on MOUSE Tissue - posted in Immunology: Heres a question for the ages..Does anyone have a CLUE as to whether a protocol exists to use mouse monoclonal antibodies on mouse tissues without the outrageous background staining?? All suggestions are welcome. Thanx.
A human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-1 alpha (IL1a) with potential A human IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 alpha (IL1a) with potential antineoplastic, anti-cachectic and anti-angiogenic activities. Anti-IL1a monoclonal antibody MABp1 targets and binds to IL1a and prevents IL1a activity. This prevents IL1a-mediated tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. In addition, MABp1 abrogates IL1a-mediated cachexia. IL1a, an inflammatory mediator expressed on monocytes, platelets and overexpressed by certain tumors, plays a key role in the promotion of tumor cell growth, metastasis and invasion. In addition, IL1a stimulates metabolic activity in the central nervous system.
Epitope Mapping of Conformational V2-specific Anti-HIV Human Monoclonal Antibodies Reveals an Immunodominant Site in V2. . Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
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Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human FCGR3A peptide using ARM Technology. A synthetic peptide of human FCGR3A is used for rabbit immunization.Customer or Abnova will decide on the preferred peptide sequence. (H00002214-K) - Products - Abnova
This Anti-Amyloid beta fibrils, clone M98, Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody is validated for use in Dot Blot and Western Blotting and Immunohistochemistry for the detection of Amyloid beta fibrils. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) rabbit monoclonal antibodies for pharmacokinetics and detection of PEGylated molecules in ELISA, WB, IHC..
Despite twenty years of scientific research, systemically administered radiolabelled MAbs have failed to demonstrate any significant therapeutic benefit. The fundamental barrier to success, in brain tumours, is the low percentage of the injected antibody taken up per gram of tumour (, 0.001%). This study builds on these experiences but utilises modern advances in stereotactic neurosurgery and computer graphics. It investigates the role of intralesional administration in an attempt to increase local uptake at first in experimental tumours and then in patients whose symptoms and eventual outcome are dictated by their local tumour. In the laboratory, the percentage of the injected activity taken up per gram of tumour (%ID/g) was three times greater following intralesional (IL) rather than systemic administration (Students t-test, p=0.012). Whereas, doses to the systemic organs were significantly lower following IL administration (Students t-test, p=0.041). Antibody specificity was found to be an ...
http://www.springbio.com - Spring Bioscience focuses on rabbit monoclonal antibodies for IHC. The goal from our inception has been to provide the reliability th...
... ; Antibody Type: Mouse Monoclonal antibody; Quality Control: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) positive to endogenous target protein.
Polyclonal antibodies are a pool of antibodies originating from different B cells in a host animal that recognize more than one epitope on the same protein or antigen. In contrast, a monoclonal antibody is an antibody originating from a single B cell in a host animal that recognizes only one epitope or binding site on a protein or other antigen. Polyclonal antibodies are usually purified from the serum of an immunized host animal such as a rabbit, chicken or goat. Whereas monoclonal antibodies are usually purified from cell culture media supernatant from the growth of a hybridoma cell line. Monoclonal antibodies are divalent but monospecific. Polyclonal antibodies are also divalent but consist of a pool of antibodies with multiple epitope specificities.. ...
Monoclonal antibody drugs are cancer treatments that enlist natural immune system functions to fight cancer. These drugs may be used in combination with other cancer treatments.. If you and your doctor are considering using a monoclonal antibody drug as part of your cancer treatment, find out what to expect from this therapy. Together you and your doctor can decide whether a monoclonal antibody treatment may be right for you.. The immune system is composed of a complex team of players that detect and destroy disease-causing agents, such as bacteria and viruses. Similarly, this system may eliminate damaged or abnormal cells, such as cancer cells.. One factor in the immune system is the work of antibodies. An antibody attaches itself to a specific molecule (antigen) on the surface of a problematic cell. When an antibody binds to the antigen, it serves as a flag to attract disease-fighting molecules or as a trigger that promotes cell destruction by other immune system processes.. Cancer cells may ...
This product contains sepharose beads coated with mouse anti-human IgG. Mouse anti-human IgG is affinity purified and conjugated to the beads at 1-1.5 mg/ml ratio. The beads may be used for purification of human IgG class of antibodies or proteins. The be
Highlights: • A human monoclonal antibody against influenza virus was produced from a volunteer. • The antibody was generated from the PBMCs of the volunteer using the fusion method. • The antibody neutralized heterosubtypically group 1 influenza A viruses (H1 and H9). • The antibody targeted a novel epitope in globular head region of the hemagglutinin. • Sequences of the identified epitope are highly conserved among H1 and H9 subtypes. - Abstract: Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong ...
The present invention relates to anti-TNF Alpha antibodies preparation of a kind of stabilization and application thereof, specifically the preparation includes:(i) the anti-TNF Alpha antibodies of therapeutically effective amount;(ii) buffer system of 0.8 6.2mg/ml histidines is contained;(iii) osmotic pressure regulator;And (iv) surfactant, wherein, the pH of the preparation is 5.5 6.5.The preparation of the present invention can not only effectively reduce the chemical degradation reaction rate of anti-TNF alpha monoclonal antibodies, improve the chemical stability of antibody, extend the shelf life of product, and can eliminate or mitigate the injection site side reaction of patient, improve the medication comfort level of patient.In addition, the invention also discloses a kind of method of stabilization of antibodies and the purposes of said preparation.
Ozato, K; Epstein, S L.; Henkart, P; Hansen, T H.; and Sachs, D H., "Studies on monoclonal antibodies to mouse mhc products." (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 1766 ...
Monoclonal antibodies that target T cells offer an alternative to conventional immunosuppressive drugs in the management of autoimmune disease. Humanisation of such monoclonal antibodies makes their clinical use less likely to be prone to the risk of cross-species sensitisation than treatment with rodent antibodies. We describe humanised monoclonal antibody therapy in four patients with severe systemic vasculitis unresponsive to immunosuppressive drugs. Substantial and sustained benefit was seen in three of the four patients, although one of these three patients developed anti-idiotypic antibodies that had to be removed by plasma exchange.
The present invention relates to the monoclonal antibody e20 or a functional fragment thereof as a medicament for the therapeutic treatment and prevention of HCV infections. The e20 antibody is able to bind all of the known HCV genotypes and exhibits a strong neutralising activity against the virus, in particular towards genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, and 4. A pharmaceutical composition is also described for the treatment or prevention of HCV infections, which comprises the monoclonal antibody e20 or a functional fragment thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, carriers or diluents.
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Hybridoma technology has been used successfully to generate monoclonal-antibody probes against protoplast membrane antigens. Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies that either inhibit or stimulate a putative plasma-membrane marker enzyme, (K+ + Mg2+)-stimulated pH 6.5 ATPase, have been identified and cloned. The specificity of monoclonal-antibody probes on the activity of other phosphate-hydrolysing enzymes has also been examined. The production and identification of monospecific antibodies capable of immunoreacting with particular component proteins in a complex plant membrane mixture highlight the usefulness of hybridoma methodology for the enzymologist, especially since such monoclonal antibodies can be used in the purification of proteins by immunoaffinity techniques. ...
Analyses of the reactivity and patterns of synthesis of infected cell polypeptides (ICPs) specified by herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2 and by HSV-1 X HSV-2 recombinants indicated that monoclonal antibody H1183 reacted with HSV-1 alpha ICP0, whereas monoclonal antibody H1113 reacted with both HSV-1 and HSV-2 alpha ICP27. H1083 and H1113 and a monoclonal antibody to ICP4 (H640) similar to one previously described (D. K. Braun et al., J. Virol. 46:103-112.) were then used to study the properties of these alpha proteins. The results were as follows: alpha ICP0, ICP4, and ICP27 accumulated primarily in the nuclei of infected cells. ICP4 and ICP27 were poorly soluble in nondenaturing buffer solutions. ICP0 was considerably more soluble than ICP4 and ICP27. ICP0, ICP4, and ICP27 were readily partially purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from lysates of infected cells solubilized with denaturing agents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. ICP0 and ICP27 were phosphorylated in cells overlaid with ...
Over recent decades, there has been a steady improvement in treatment outcome of patients with ALL. This progress is due to factors including intensification of chemotherapy and risk-adapted therapy, as well as better supportive care.1 As a result, cure rates now approach 90% and 40% for pediatric and adult ALL, respectively.2 While the risk of relapse is much lower in the pediatric population, both pediatric and adult patients face significantly inferior outcomes if the disease recurs. Less than one third of children and few adults with relapsed ALL survive, despite the use of aggressive salvage regimens and stem cell transplantation.3,4 Novel therapies are, therefore, needed that have both activity against ALL and a toxicity profile distinct from conventional chemotherapy. Targeted therapy using monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab and trastuzumab has become an integral part of standard treatment for certain malignancies.5,6 For ALL, there is pre-clinical and early clinical experience with ...
OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of yttrium Y 90 monoclonal antibody m170 (Y90 MOAB m170).. Patients receive filgrastim (G-CSF) subcutaneously (SC) daily for 4 days prior to apheresis which continues daily for a maximum of 5 days. A minimum of 6 million CD34+ cells/kg must be harvested.. Patients receive oral cyclosporine every 12 hours on days -3 to 25. Patients receive unlabeled monoclonal antibody (MOAB) m170 IV followed by a tracer dose of indium In 111 MOAB m170 IV on day 0. On day 7, patients receive unlabeled MOAB m170 IV followed by Y90 MOAB m170 IV. Patients in cohorts 2-4 also receive paclitaxel IV over 3 hours on day 9.. If needed, patients undergo autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation on day 21 and receive G-CSF SC daily until blood counts recover.. Cohorts of 3-6 patients receive escalating doses of Y90 MOAB m170 until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is determined. The MTD is defined as the dose preceding that at which 2 of 3 or 2 of 6 patients experience ...
Monoclonal antibodies, shown here binding to a cell, are monospecific antibodies (these are antibodies that have an affinity for the same antigen) - mAB or moAb, as they are abbreviated, are the same because they are created by identical immune cells that are clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies are created to specifically bind to a substance so they can detect or purify that particular substance. In medications the non-proprietary drug name ends in -mab. Typically, monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing myeloma cells with the spleen cells from a mouse and recently, as a result of advances, from rabbit B-cells. Monoclonals can be used as therapies for various serious diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and - Stock Image C009/4806
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of the immunoreactive fraction of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies directed against intracellular antigens. AU - Haisma, Hidde J.. AU - Pinedo, H. M.. AU - Silva, Carlos A.. AU - Boven, Epie. PY - 1992/9/18. Y1 - 1992/9/18. N2 - For investigations involving monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against cellular antigens cell binding assays are routinely used to determine the immunoreactive fraction after radiolabeling. In general, surface antigens are targets for radioimmunodetection, but recent studies indicate that intracellular determinants may also prove useful for this purpose. Thus, there is a need to adapt the regular cell binding assay for use with antibodies directed against cytoplasmic antigens. Here we describ a fixation method which permits such mAbs to bind to cell surfaces as well as to intracellular determinants. Moreover, the procedure may be used for antigens that are sensitive to the commonly used aldehyde fixatives. The method is illustrated with two ...
Background: Identification and validation of a targeted therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), that is, breast cancers negative for oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and HER2 amplification, is currently one of the most urgent problems in breast cancer treatment. EGFR is one of the best-validated driver genes for TNBC. EGFR is normally activated following the release of ligands such as TGF alpha, mediated by the two MMP-like proteases ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase)-10 and ADAM-17. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumour effects of a monoclonal antibody against ADAM-17 on an in vitro model of TNBC. Methods: We investigated an inhibitory cross-domain humanised monoclonal antibody targeting both the catalytic domain and the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM17-D1(A12) in the HCC1937 and HCC1143 cell lines. Results: D1(A12) was found to significantly inhibit the release of TGFa, and to decrease downstream EGFR-dependent cell signalling. D1(A12) treatment ...
The global monoclonal antibody therapeutics market will be worth US$245.8 bn by 2024 from US$86.7 bn in 2015. During the forecast years of 2016 and 2024, the global monoclonal antibody therapeutics market is expected to rise at a CAGR of 12.6%.
Most adverse experiences (AEs) were transient grade 1 or 2 events occurring during the treatment period. Clinically significant myelosuppression was not observed; hematologic toxicity was generally mild and reversible. No patient developed human antichimeric antibodies after treatment. The type, frequency, and severity of AEs in this study were not apparently different from those reported in the phase III trial of rituximab. The overall response rate in 57 assessable patients was 40% (11% complete response and 30% partial responses). Median time to progression (TTP) in responders and median duration of response (DR) have not been reached, but Kaplan-Meier estimated medians are 17.8 months (range, 5.4+ to 26.6 months) and 16.3 months (range, 3.7+ to 25.1 months), respectively. These estimated medians are longer than the medians achieved in the patients prior course of rituximab (TTP and DR of 12.4 and 9.8 months, respectively, P: ,.1) and in a previously reported phase III trial (TTP in ...
Abbkine Scientific Co. Ltd is known for making quality life science products and tools and it recently announced the official launch of its new antibody - the Anti-Plant Actin Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (3T3).. The antibody otherwise known as AT3G12110 antibody is a Plant Actin Antibody, which is an essential component of cell cytoskeleton. The substance also plays a critical role in the streaming of cytoplasmic, determination of cell shape, cell division and extension growth.. The product is available in a liquid solution and hosted by mouse hence, Plant Actin Mouse mAb. The antibody is also a Recombinant Protein immunogen, with plant reactivity. The antibody like many of its other counterparts is affinity-purified from mouse ascites using specific immunogen by affinity-chromatography.. The Anti-Plant Actin Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (3T3) is made solely for research purpose and not intended for clinical or human use. It can also be stored for as long as one year at -20°C from date of ...
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a form of immunotherapy that uses monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to bind monospecifically to certain cells or proteins. The objective is that this treatment will stimulate the patients immune system to attack those cells. Alternatively, in radioimmunotherapy a radioactive dose localizes a target cell line, delivering lethal chemical doses. More recently antibodies have been used to bind to molecules involved in T-cell regulation to remove inhibitory pathways that block T-cell responses. This is known as immune checkpoint therapy. It is possible to create a mAb that is specific to almost any extracellular/cell surface target. Research and development is underway to create antibodies for diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers disease, Ebola and different types of cancers). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are large heterodimeric molecules, approximately 150 kDa and are composed of two kinds of polypeptide chain, called the heavy ...
Two-site immunometric assays for multideterminant antigens are described in which the antigen is reacted with an immobilized monoclonal antibody directed against one antigen determinant and a second monoclonal antibody that is directed against a distinct antigenic determinant and is of a different class or subclass than the immobilized monoclonal antibody. The second monoclonal antibody is labeled in direct versions of the assay and is reacted with a labeled antibody against it in indirect versions of the assay. The immobilizing medium and classes (subclasses) of the antibodies may be selected so as to reduce the likelihood of nonspecific binding enhance sensitivity and/or permit signal amplification.
There are 19 IL7R alpha / CD127 antibodies which are validated in multiple tissues with various applications, including IHC-P, ELISA, FCM, WB. There are 1 IL7R alpha / CD127 antibody for IHC-P, 10 IL7R alpha / CD127 antibody for ELISA, 9 IL7R alpha / CD127 antibody for FCM, 1 IL7R alpha / CD127 antibody for WB. Among all these IL7R alpha / CD127 antibodies, there are 7 anti-IL7R alpha / CD127 rabbit polyclonal antibodies , 1 anti-IL7R alpha / CD127 mouse monoclonal antibodies , 11 anti-IL7R alpha / CD127 rabbit monoclonal antibodies . All the IL7R alpha / CD127 anbodies are produced in house and all are in stock. IL7R alpha / CD127 antibody customerized service is available. ...
Blog on Mouse Anti-Human IgG2 (gamma 2 chain specific) secondary antibody product: The Mouse Anti-Human IgG2 (gamma 2 chain specific) n/a (Catalog #MBS674046) is a Secondary Antibody produ...
Rabbit ,200 µg/ml of Ab Purified from Bioreactor Concentrate by Protein A/G. Prepared in 10mM PBS with 0.05% BSA & 0.05% azide. Also available WITHOUT BSA & azide at 1.0mg/ml.AB2, 36-3502
Monoclonal Antibody Production Service (Taiwan) Start Order Immediately by Completing the Inquiry Form.. I. Hybridoma fusion and screening service: 16 weeks (USD 5,100). II. MAP Immunogen monoclonal antibody production: Total 19 weeks (USD 5,800). III. LAE antigen monoclonal antibody production: Total 20 weeks (USD 6,600). IV. Optional Services. I Hybridoma fusion and screening service: 16 weeks. ...
Wuhan, China - 14th May, 2017 - DDDDK antibody is a new antibody produced by Abbkine Scientific Company Limited and the launch is set to revolutionize the science world especially in the area of research and investigation. Announcing the launch of the product, Abbkine Scientific reiterated the features and benefits of the Anti-DDDDK Tag Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (1B10), otherwise known as Flag antibody.. The monoclonal antibody is designed to be used for affinity chromatography and the subsequent separation of recombinant, over expressed protein from wild-type protein expressed by the host organism. This is in addition to being a polypeptide protein tag that can be added to a protein by using recombinant DNA technology.. Hosted in mouse, the antibody can also be used in the isolation of protein complexes that have multiple subunits.. Available in a liquid solution, the antibody was affinity-purified from mouse ascites by affinity-chromatography using specific immunogen, which is one of the ...
Our hybridoma bank contains over 20 murine hybridomas. Moreover, we have extensive experience in the purification and characterization of numerous murine monoclonal antibodies for in vitro and in vivo use. We have also generated monoclonal antibodies de novo by in vivo immunization and subsequent in vitro fusion of heterologous fusion partners from Chinese hamsters and rats, and produced IgA-secreting hybridomas de novo. Depending on the quantity of monoclonal antibodies required, hybridomas are propagated in either static flat tissue culture flasks or in roller bottle cultures. Monoclonal antibodies are purified by affinity column chromatography using protein G charged columns. The affinity purified monoclonal antibodies are dialyzed against deionized water, concentrated on a vacuum concentrator, resuspended in sterile PBS, and the protein concentration determined by BCA. The purity of the monoclonal antibodies is confirmed by western blotting with commercial anti-mouse IgG or IgM, antibodies, ...
RATIONALE: Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies can locate tumor cells and deliver radioactive tumor-killing substances to them without harming normal cel
RATIONALE: Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies can locate tumor cells and deliver tumor-killing substances to them without harming normal cells. This may
In a previous study employing conventional immunological marker analysis we found that 17% of high grade malignant lymphomas were devoid of cytoplasmic and membrane immunoglobulin and also sheep erythrocyte receptors. Cryostat sections from 24 of these cases (four of low grade and 20 of high grade malignancy) were stained with a panel of 30 monoclonal antibodies and six polyclonal antisera using a sensitive immunoperoxidase method. All tumours expressed the leucocyte common antigen (detected by monoclonal antibody 2D1) and all lacked epithelial cytokeratin (monoclonal antibody LE61), confirming their haematopoietic origin. All but one of the lymphomas expressed antigens characteristic of either B cells (17 cases) or T cells (six cases), while one case (morphologically a centroblastic lymphoma) had an unusual dual phenotype in which strong staining for T6 (marker of immature T cells) was associated with expression of the pan B lymphocyte antigens detectable with To15, anti-B1, anti-Leu12. This ...
The REA Control (I) antibody clone REA293 is a universal isotype control that can be used with all recombinant engineered antibodies (REAfinity™ Antibodies) that recognize intracellular antigens. REAfinity Antibodies have been engineered for their high specificity and contain human IgG1 parts for constant regions. Unspecific interactions of the fluorochrome can be controlled for with conjugated versions of clone REA293. For intracellular stainings however the isotype control staining should be combined with other negative controls (e.g. staining of unstimulated cells). - USA
Monoclonal human IgG1 antibody against human CD20 Anti-hCD20-hIgG1 features the constant region of the human IgG1 isotype and the variable region of rituximab. Rituximab is a mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen found on the surface of malignant and normal B lymphoc
Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), produced in the laboratory, are derived from the antibodies that the human body produces in the natural course to fight intruders that threaten health. The discovery of these antibodies have radically transformed our understanding of how diseases progress, and how they can be more quickly, accurately, and cheaply diagnosed, and thus substantially expanded the horizons of treatment for more than 50 major ailments. The importance of Mabs can be estimated from the fact that today a majority of the most commercially-successful drugs are Mab-derived, and Mab-drugs are projected to clock sales of US$125 billion annually by 2020.. Mabs in Cancer Treatment Cancer is unarguably one of the fields where monoclonal antibodies have had the strongest impact. The biggest advantage of Mabs is that they are able to avoid the healthy cells while specifically targeting the cancer cells. This translates to the patient experiencing fewer side effects than conventional radiotherapy or ...
In this study, we detail the generation and thorough characterization of three monoclonal antibodies that recognizes a peptide epitope associated with MHC class I. This type of antibody is known as a TCR-like monoclonal antibody (TCR-like mAb) in that it has the same specificity as a cytotoxic T-cell receptor. The three antibodies characterizd target epitopes derived from the EBV latent gene products LMP-1, LMP-2A, and EBNA-1. We demonstrate that these monoclonal antibodies exhibit specific high affinity binding to their respective HLA-A0201/peptide complexes and determined sites within peptides that affect antibody binding. We also investigate the effects of HLA-A02 subtypes and clinical peptide variants for antibody binding. These antibodies are used to visualize EBV latent epitopes in infected humanized NOD-scid IL2Rgammanull mice and NPC biopsies. In addition, we describe the quantity and expression hierarchy of these EBV latent epitopes in EBV infected HLA-A0201 positive tumor cell lines ...
TNF alpha antibody [MAB0856] (tumor necrosis factor) for Neut. Anti-TNF alpha mAb (GTX52438) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The MD Anderson Monoclonal Antibody Core Facility provides custom monoclonal antibody production and purification to researchers at MD Anderson and beyond. Learn more.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To estimate the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of 90Y-BC8-DOTA (anti-cluster of differentiation [CD]45) (yttrium-90 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8) that can be delivered prior to autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), T-cell NHL (T-NHL), and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To optimize the protein dose (antibody [Ab]) to deliver a favorable biodistribution in the majority of patients.. II. To describe the impact of rituximab concentrations, B-cell depletion, and disease burden on CD20 and CD45 targeting.. III. To describe response rates and remission durations in relapsed B-NHL, T-NHL, and HL following administration of myeloablative doses of 90Y-BC8-DOTA prior to autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT).. IV. To assess the correlation of lymphoma biomarkers with outcomes.. OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of yttrium-90 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8.. Patients receive ...
To my knowledge, there isnt anyone on this forum that has ever taken remicade during pregnancy, but I do recall several people on the crohns forum. One lady had two successful pregnancies while on remicade. I know for a fact that enbrel, another tnf-inhibitor, is a category b drug for pregnancy--safe, in other words. Not sure about remicade. The following website gives great information about drugs during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Theres not a whole of info. about remicade, though. Go with your GI and OBs opinions. You may note that according to the following website, remicade is a category C drug, and not recommended during pregnancy. However, I have met several women who have taken remicade during pregnancy--I believe cd is one of those conditions where the benefits outweigh the risks.. http://www.safefetus.com/Search.asp. Camama is right about breastfeeding. I think its wonderful that you want to breastfeed. If it doesnt work out, though, whether its due to medication or other ...
In vitro experiments using purified rat CD4+ T cells in primary and secondary mixed leukocyte cultures (MLC) have been carried out to explore the mechanism of inhibition of cell-mediated autoimmune disease in the rat by a nondepleting monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD4. Previous work has shown that W3/25, a mouse anti-rat CD4 mAb of immunoglobulin G1 isotype, completely prevents the development of the paralysis associated with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats, but does so without eliminating the encephalitogenic T cells. The in vitro experiments described in this study have shown that when CD4+ T cells were activated in the presence of the anti-CD4 mAb in a primary MLC, the synthesis of interferon (IFN) gamma, but not interleukin (IL) 2, was completely inhibited. After secondary stimulation, now in the absence of the mAb, the synthesis of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA was greatly enhanced compared with that observed from CD4+ T cells derived from primary cultures in which the mAb ...
ZytuxTM is a biosimilar product with the generic name of Rituximab. It is a genetically engineered human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody produced by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in suspension. It is a fusion of the light and heavy chain variable domains of a murine monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody and human kappa light-chain and gamma 1 heavy-chain constant regions. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20 antigens presents on surface of lymphocyte cells. Rituximab binds to the target CD20 antigen via the variable murine regions, while the remainder of the antibody interacts with human immune-effector mechanisms to kill the target cells. Zytux™ is used for treatment of ...
Integral Molecular, the industry leader in the discovery of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against membrane proteins, and Merus N.V. (Nasdaq:MRUS), a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company developing innovative bispecific antibody therapeutics, announced that they have entered into a collaboration on multiple undisclosed targets.
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are made by identical immune cells and target one particular epitope by monovalent or monospecific affinity. The high affinity and selective binding of MAbs to epitopes in target antigens makes them highly potent tools for use in biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine. The first working method described for the isolation of monoclonal antibodies was hybridoma technology, based on forming hybrid cell lines (hybridomas) by fusing an antibody-producing B-cell with a myeloma cell [1]. The antibodies produced by a particular hybridoma clone share the same specificity. Thus, individual clones can be screened for the production of an antibody with the desired affinity. However, hybridoma technology has shortcomings: it takes a relatively long time (on the order of months) and has not been widely applied to organisms other than mice. Moreover, antibody sequence information is unavailable by this method. Thus, when a hybridoma-screened antibody is selected for further ...
Contamination of the peripheral blood stem-cell (PBSC) graft with lymphoma and residual disease remaining in the patient after high-dose therapy are two potential causes of relapse after autologous transplantation. Using a tumor-specific monoclonal antibody may be one way to purge the stem-cell graft in vivo and increase the efficacy of the preparative regimen. Rituximab (Rituxan) is an IgG1 kappa chimeric mouse/human antibody containing murine light- and heavy-chain variable regions and human gamma 1 heavy-chain and light-chain constant regions. The antibody reacts specifically with the CD20 antigen found on the surface of malignant and normal B-cells. 1
This randomized phase III trial studies how well combination chemotherapy with or without ganitumab works in treating patients with newly diagnosed Ewing sarcoma that has spread to other parts of the body. Monoclonal antibodies, such as ganitumab, may block tumor growth in different ways by targeting certain cells. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as vincristine sulfate, doxorubicin hydrochloride, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and etoposide, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. It is not yet known whether combination chemotherapy is more effective with or without ganitumab in treating patients with newly diagnosed Ewing sarcoma ...
Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT; Melbourn, Cambridgeshire), producer of fully human monoclonal antibodies using phage technology, has reported encouraging results from a phase Ib/IIa trial of an anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The antibody, when administered either intravenously or by self injection subcutaneously, reduced the severity of the arthritis for periods of up to six months and allowed repeated injections of the antibody without the development of immunological reactions. Phage technology is a radically different procedure from conventional monoclonal antibody manufacture and CAT currently holds a phage library containing in the region of 100 billion human antibodies. Using high throughput techniques, CAT can produce information on 1000 target peptide antigens each month and with a further proprietary technique, CAT then has methods to determine whether the targeted antigen is relevant to initiation or progression of the disease or is merely ...
Quality Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies manufacturers & suppliers - buy Purified Anti - Oxycodone Mouse Monoclonal Antibody 9.2mg/mL from China manufacturer.
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal EGFR antibody [E235] validated for WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 1 publication.
Patent ?Recombinant monoclonal antibody with high affinity to the bacterial antigen of native and functional structure, a way of obtaining monoclonal antibodies and the application of recombinant monoclonal antibodies? ? submitted to the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland December 31, 2010, submission number P.393508 (Kapusta J, Kęsik-Brodacka M, Cecuda-Adamczewska V, Sączyńska V, Bociąg P, Brodzik R, Wolko B, Bartoszcze M, Płucienniczak G, Płucienniczak A ...
|p|Mouse Anti-Human IL-17F Clone B-G46 azide free Monoclonal Antibody.|/p| |p|This mAb can be used as a capture antibody in a human IL-17F sandwich Immunoassay to detect human IL-17F in combination with biotinylated human IL-17F Clone B-F60 biotinylated
Compositions and methods for diagnosing high-grade cervical disease in a patient sample are provided. The compositions include novel monoclonal antibodies, and variants and fragments thereof, that specifically bind to MCM6 or MCM7. Monoclonal antibodies having the binding characteristics of an MCM6 or MCM7 antibody of the invention are further provided. Hybridoma cell lines that produce an MCM6 or MCM7 monoclonal antibody of the invention are also disclosed herein. The compositions find use in practicing methods for diagnosing high-grade cervical disease comprising detecting overexpression of MCM6, MCM7, or both MCM6 and MCM7 in a cervical sample from a patient. Kits for practicing the methods of the invention are further provided. Polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence for an MCM6 or an MCM7 epitope and methods of using these polypeptides in the production of antibodies are also encompassed by the present invention.
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Monoclonal antibodies to prostatic cells, are produced by a hybridoma formed by fusing mouse lymphocytes and mouse myeloma cells. The monoclonal antibodies show specificity for a non-soluble, membrane associated, organ specific antigenic determinant limited in its distribution to normal and neoplastic, human prostate epithelial cells. The monoclonal antibodies, specifically 7E11-C5 monoclonal antibodies, may be suitable for diagnostic uses.
Monoclonal antibodies are substances produced in a lab that attach to certain proteins in the body (like a key in a lock). The antibodies can boost your bodys natural defenses against disease or can be used to kill cancer cells or slow the progress of a disease. Monoclonal antibodies are given through an intravenous...
Materials. PE-conjugated anti-mouse antibodies against Sca-1, c-kit, CD34, CD11b (clone M1/70), CD14, Gr-1, Thy-1, and B220; allophycocyanin-conjugated (APC-conjugated) anti-mouse CD45 antibody; and APC- and PE-labeled isotype-matched control antibodies were purchased from BD Biosciences. APC-conjugated monoclonal CD45.2 (clone 104-2) antibodies were purchased from Abcam. Rabbit polyclonal anti-GFP, anti-UCP-1, anti-perilipin A, and anti-CD11b antibodies were purchased from Abcam. Polyclonal antibodies against leptin, C/EBPα, and PPARγ were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc. Polyclonal antibodies against adiponectin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, antibodies against β3-AR were purchased from Alpha Diagnostic International, and antibodies against FABP were purchased from Cayman Chemical. Mitotracker Red 580- and Alexa Fluor 594- and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibodies were from Invitrogen. Validated PCR primer sets for PPARγ, C/EBPα, UCP-1, adiponectin, FABP, ...
Catalog Number: 87-KH011. Category: Monoclonal Antibody. Supplier: Sceti. To order Anti C mL Monoclonal Antibody Clone Cms from Sceti Contact [email protected] ...
LONDON, April 11, 2014 /PRNewswire/ --. ThioBridge™ linker to attach different payloads to a range of antibodies PolyTherics Limited ("PolyTherics"), a provider of technologies and services to enable the development of better biopharmaceuticals, today announced an extension to its ThioBridge™ antibody drug conjugate ("ADC") collaboration with MacroGenics Inc (NASDAQ: MGNX), a US biotechnology company developing innovative medicines utilizing its next generation antibody technologies.. PolyTherics has developed ThioBridge™ for site-specific conjugation of cytotoxic payloads to antibodies to provide more stable and less heterogeneous ADCs. MacroGenics has two antibody technology platforms, a Dual-Affinity Re-Targeting (DART™) bi-specific platform, in which a single recombinant molecule is able to target two different antigens, and Fc-optimized antibodies with improved effector function.. The collaboration was extended following the successful outcome of a research programme undertaken in ...
|p|Mouse Anti-Human IL-17F Clone B-F60 Biotin Detection mAb|/p| |p|This antibody can be used as the detection antibody in a Human IL-17F sandwich Immunoassay to detect Human IL-17F in combination with Human IL-17F capture antibody Clone B-G46 (Cat No |a
Co-developed by Amgen and Abgenix, panitumumab is an investigational product in a novel class of targeted cancer treatments called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) inhibitors. Panitumumab (formerly ABX-EGF) is the first fully human monoclonal antibody directed against EGFr and is being evaluated as both a monotherapy and in combination with other agents for the treatment of various types of cancer, including colorectal, lung and kidney. Panitumumab was generated with Abgenixs XenoMouse(R)(1) technology, which creates a fully human monoclonal antibody that contains no murine (mouse) protein ...
Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 4D5 was used to analyze the phosphorylation of p185HER2, the gene product of c-erbB-2/HER2, in SK-BR-3 cells. Culture in the continuous presence of 4D5 reduced the in vivo steady-state levels of p185HER2 phosphorylation by 80% in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that MAb 4D5 may have interfered with the activation of phosphorylation of p185HER2. The observed MAb-mediated reduction of p185HER2 phosphorylation could not be completely accounted for by down-regulation. When cultures were grown under serum-free conditions, the steady-state levels of p185HER2 phosphorylation were reduced by 56%, and addition of 4D5 further inhibited phosphorylation to 20% of steady-state levels. With continuous exposure to increasing concentrations of newborn calf serum in these cultures, there was a linear increase in tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of p185HER2, reaching a 5.4-fold increase with 10% newborn calf serum. Phosphorylation of p185HER2 in the presence of newborn calf serum ...
In hybridoma screening, quantitative kinetic evaluation is difficult since the concentration of each antibody in the hybridoma supernatant is unknown. From modeling calculations, we hypothesized that the ratio of two different antigen-antibody concentrations might allow discrimination of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies irrespective of the antibody concentration. Using anti-alpha-fetoprotein monoclonal antibodies of known affinity, we set the signal ratio of a time-resolved assay at |0.1, in which the antigen concentrations were 10 and 100 ng/mL. From anti-alpha-fetoprotein hybridoma screening with this assay, it was possible to effectively select high-affinity monoclonal antibodies with KD values below 1x10(-8) M. High-sensitivity sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which detects domain III of alpha-fetoprotein has been established using selected high-affinity monoclonal antibodies. This screening method is useful for selection of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies of potential diagnostic
A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; a method for the production of the aforementioned monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody specific to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the product of fusion a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent and as an adsorbent.
Panitumumab is the first human combinatorial antibody for the treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Dermatologic toxicity of all grades occurs in more than 90% of patients. However, there are few reports of purpura induced by anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. Renal failure is also uncommon as an adverse event of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. A 67-year-old Japanese man with advanced colon cancer received monotherapy with panitumumab. General malaise, bilateral edema of his legs, and bilateral purpura of his forearms developed 2 days after the second cycle of panitumumab. A skin biopsy was performed to evaluate the purpuric lesions on his left leg and leukocytoclastic vasculitis was diagnosed. Blood tests showed grade III acute renal failure with a blood urea nitrogen level of 33.8 mg/dL and a creatinine level of 3.10 mg/dL. This is the first reported case of leukocytoclastic vasculitis followed by purpura and acute renal failure associated with panitumumab.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organization and development of horizontal cells in the goldfish retina, I. T2 - The use of monoclonal antibody AT101. AU - Lam, Dominic Man Kit. AU - Peng, You Wei. PY - 1991/4. Y1 - 1991/4. N2 - We have produced and characterized a monoclonal antibody, AT101, which selectively labels both viable and formaldehyde-fixed horizontal cell axon terminals, but not their somas or axons, of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina. The antigen recognized by AT101 appears to be a cell surface glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 35,000 Daltons, and is present exclusively or predominantly in nervous tissues of all vertebrate species examined. We have used AT101 as a probe to analyze immunocytochemically the organization of horizontal cell axon terminals (HCATs) in the adult goldfish retina, and the emergence and maturation of these terminals during retinal development. Because of continued growth at the retinal margin in adult goldfish, there is a peripheral-to-central gradient in ...
1) We have prepared murine monoclonal antibodies to the membrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein (band 3). (2) All of these antibodies react with regions of the protein located at the cytoplasmic surface of the red cell. (3) One of the antibodies reacts with an epitope present on a cytoplasmic loop of the protein located between the C-terminus and a point 168 amino acids from the C-terminus. The other antibodies recognize different epitopes on the C-terminal tail of the protein and the sequences likely to be involved in these epitopes are defined. (4) Our results show that the C-terminus of the red-cell anion transport protein is located on the cytoplasmic side of the red-cell membrane. (5) None of the antibodies inhibited sulphate exchange transport when introduced into resealed red-cell membranes; however, the bivalent form of one of the antibodies reduced the inhibitory potency of 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene disulphonate on sulphate exchange transport in ...
A bispecific monoclonal antibody is made up of two different monoclonal antibodies that bind to two different substances and kills cancer cells. Bispecific monoclonal antibody therapy is used in the treatment of Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) block signals that tumors need to grow. Some TKIs also keep tumors from growing by preventing the growth of new blood vessels to the tumors. Other types of kinase inhibitors, such as crizotinib, are being studied for childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma.. Immunotoxins can bind to cancer cells and kill them. Denileukin diftitox is an immunotoxin used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.. Targeted therapy is being studied for the treatment of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma that has recurred (come back).. See Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma for more information.. Other drug therapy. Retinoids are drugs related to vitamin A. Retinoid therapy with bexarotene is used to treat ...
Abstract In this manuscript, a clinical case of a patient treated with adalimumab for Behcets disease develops lichen planopilaris. A variety of mucocutaneous lichenoid eruptions have recently been described in association with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. The authors briefly discuss the clinical and pathological presentation of lichen planopilaris as well as a potential pathogenesis of cutaneous adverse effects seen as the result of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy. They review all case reports of lichen planopilaris occurring on tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and suggest its classification as a fourth recognized pattern on this therapy. (J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2015;8(6):45-49.). The systemic adverse effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) inhibitors are well known. Recently, attention has been directed to the potential and often paradoxical cutaneous adverse effects seen in association with TNF alpha inhibitors including lichen planus-like eruptions, ...
Abstract: We performed a prospective pilot study on 12 patients to evaluate the efficacy of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in relapsed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Inclusion criteria were relapse of ITP with a thrombocyte count ,20 000 µL−1 and unsuccessful corticosteroid treatment. Eleven patients had a previous splenectomy, five patients had unsuccessful cytotoxic treatment, and six patients were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulins before rituximab therapy. Response criteria were as follows. Complete remission (CR): normalization of thrombocyte count for at least 30 d. Partial remission (PR): an increase of thrombocytes to above 30 000 µL−1 for at least 30 d. Minor response (MR): any increase above 30 000 µL−1 for less than 30 d but more than 10 d. No response (NR): failure to achieve any of the above responses. Treatment plan: We administered 375 mg m−2 of rituximab once weekly on up to four consecutive weeks, unless there was early CR. Five ...
Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is one of the main antigens of the 4-component meningococcus B (4CMenB) multicomponent vaccine against disease caused by serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB). fHbp binds the complement down-regulating protein human factor H (hfH), thus resulting in immune evasion. fHbp exists in 3 variant groups with limited cross-protective responses. Previous studies have described the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting variant-specific regions of fHbp. Here we report for the first time the functional characterization of two mAbs that recognize a wide panel of fHbp variants and subvariants on the MenB surface and that are able to inhibit fHbp binding to hfH. The antigenic regions targeted by the two mAbs were accurately mapped by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), revealing partially overlapping epitopes on the N terminus of fHbp. Furthermore, while none of the mAbs had bactericidal activity on its own, a synergistic effect was observed for

Patente US4925787 - Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, method for production thereof, and ... - Google PatentesPatente US4925787 - Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, method for production thereof, and ... - Google Patentes

... and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent ... monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody specific to ... a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody ... propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US4925787

Anti-Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICONAnti-Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICON

These antibodies show extremely intense coarsely granular staining. No other nuclear staining or cytoplasmic staining can b, ... Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICON,Reacts with an early protein. Can detect ... Ab-1 Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lab Vision. 10. Rat Anti-Mouse F4 / 80 Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin ... Mouse Anti-HLA, Class II Antigen-DR+DP Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 236-14240 from Meridian Life Science, Inc.. 4. ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-products/Anti-Cytomegalovirus--28CMV-29-Immediate-Early-Antigen-Monoclonal-Antibody--Unconjugated--Clone-3G9-2-from-CHEMICON-2132-1/

2017-03: A Single-Arm, Open-label Study of Anti-Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule F7 (Anti-SLAMF7) Monoclonal Antibody ...2017-03: A Single-Arm, Open-label Study of Anti-Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule F7 (Anti-SLAMF7) Monoclonal Antibody ...

... Known allergies, hypersensitivity, or intolerance to monoclonal antibodies or human proteins or any of the study medications, ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03168100?term=

Monoclonal Antibodies | SpringerLinkMonoclonal Antibodies | SpringerLink

... the procedure developed by George Kohler and Cesar Milstein for immortalizing antibody producing B-lymphocytes (1) is ... the antibodies are monoclonal It is this property, together with the ability to produce unlimited amounts of antibody, that has ... Anderson, D V, Tucker, E M, Powell, J R, and Porter, P (1987) Bovine monoclonal antibodies to the FS (K99) pilus antigen of E ... Waldmann, H and Cobbold, S (1993) The use of monoclonal antibodies to achieve lmmunological tolerance Immunol Today 14, 247-251 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-59259-642-3_44

TNFRSF10C Antibody Monoclonal | DCR1 Antibody | ProSpecTNFRSF10C Antibody Monoclonal | DCR1 Antibody | ProSpec

Mouse Anti Human Monoclonal. Introduction. TRAIL Receptor-3, also known as TNFRSF10C belongs to the TNF-receptor super family. ... The antibody has been tested by ELISA, Western blot analysis, Flow cytometry and ICC/IF to assure specificity and reactivity. ... TNFRSF10C antibody was purified from mouse ascitic fluids by protein-A affinity chromatography. ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/tnfrsf10c_antibody

SERPINE1 Antibody Monoclonal | PLANH1 Antibody | ProSpecSERPINE1 Antibody Monoclonal | PLANH1 Antibody | ProSpec

SERPINE1 antibody has been tested by ELISA, Western blot analysis and ICC/IF to assure specificity and reactivity. Since ... Mouse Anti Human Monoclonal. Introduction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is the principal inhibitor of tissue plasminogen ... SERPINE1 antibody was purified from mouse ascitic fluids by protein-A affinity chromatography. ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/serpine1_antibody

monoclonal antibody western blotmonoclonal antibody western blot

Western blot assay carried out using monospecific antibodies produced in the supernatant of a cell line obtained by fusing a ... Western blot assay carried out using monospecific antibodies produced in the supernatant of a cell line obtained by fusing a ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/ols/ontologies/mi/terms?obo_id=MI%3A0072

Monoclonal Antibody QuantificationMonoclonal Antibody Quantification

The result of monoclonal antibody quantification in serum is an important indicator of the drugs pharmacokinetic properties ... Monoclonal Antibody Quantification. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/whitepaper/20190722/Monoclonal-Antibody- ... The growing market of biologic drugs, pushed by a flurry of success with monoclonal antibodies, creates a need for standard ... Antibody-directed competitive assay. Antigen. Serum with labeled competition antibody. SA-HRP. Low background. Additional ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/whitepaper/20190722/Monoclonal-Antibody-Quantification.aspx

Monoclonal Antibodies Against Breast Cancer | SpringerLinkMonoclonal Antibodies Against Breast Cancer | SpringerLink

... hybridoma technology to the study of human mammary carcinoma resulted in the generation of a variety of monoclonal antibodies ... Monoclonal antibodies to human breast cancer. In "Monoclonal Antibodies 82" - Elsevier Press, 1982.Google Scholar ... 1984) Monoclonal Antibodies Against Breast Cancer. In: Aaronson S.A., Frati L., Verna R. (eds) Genetic and Phenotypic Markers ... Nuti M., Teramoto Y.A., Mariani-Costantini R., Horan Hand P., Colcher D., Schlom J.: A monoclonal antibody (B.72.3) defines ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-4856-6_11

screening of monoclonal antibodiesscreening of monoclonal antibodies

... MYRIAM LOPEZ myriamlo at usmogi.pe Thu Mar 11 19:08:36 EST 1993 *Previous message: ... I suggest the reading of the Volume 121 Immunochemical techniques Part I hybridoma technology and Monoclonal antibodies in ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/1993-March/000283.html

Monoclonal Antibodies - National Cancer InstituteMonoclonal Antibodies - National Cancer Institute

Learn about monoclonal antibodies that can help turn the immune system against cancer, cancers that are treated with them, and ... Monoclonal antibodies are immune system proteins that are created in the lab and used to treat cancer. ... Like your bodys own antibodies, monoclonal antibodies recognize specific targets.. Many monoclonal antibodies are used to ... How do monoclonal antibodies work against cancer?. Monoclonal antibodies are immune system proteins that are created in the lab ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/immunotherapy/monoclonal-antibodies

Monoclonal Antibody News, ResearchMonoclonal Antibody News, Research

Monoclonal Antibody News and Research. RSS Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are produced from a single B cell clone and can bind to ... Understanding Monoclonal Antibody Unfolding and Aggregation A therapeutic monoclonal antibody and its Fab and Fc fragments were ... IONTAS Limited, a leader in antibody discovery and optimization of human monoclonal antibody libraries, today announced an ... MAbs are homogenous antibodies that cannot form lattices with monomeric proteins as they can bind to only a single epitope on ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Monoclonal+Antibody

Mouse monoclonal antibodyMouse monoclonal antibody

... Nanci E Donacki captainnanci at earthlink.net Wed Sep 11 15:46:47 EST 2002 *Previous message: Mouse ... I would like to know if it is possible to raise a mouse monoclonal antibody , , against a protein/peptide of rat. The thing is ... Yes, you will get antibodies to the protein as well, but you need to make sure your screening assays are specific for the ... highly antigenic carrier protein but then I will get an antibody against the , , carrier and not the peptide....Any suggestions ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/2002-September/017196.html

Monoclonal antibodies to human estrogen receptor | PNASMonoclonal antibodies to human estrogen receptor | PNAS

Monoclonal antibodies to human estrogen receptor. G L Greene, C Nolan, J P Engler, and E V Jensen ... These monoclonal antibodies should prove useful in the study of estrogen receptors of human reproductive tissues, in particular ... expanded in suspension culture and as ascites tumors in athymic mice to provide substantial quantities of monoclonal antibodies ... By growing the clone from Sp2/0 in the presence of [35S]methionine, radiolabeled monoclonal IgG has been prepared. ...
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Monoclonal Antibody (mAB) Therapy is a type of immunotherapy. It employs specific antibodies to target cancer cells for removal ... In monoclonal antibody therapy, doctors inject patients with antibodies that bind to the antigens on cancer cells. In this way ... Antibodies are designed to bind to antigens, like fitting two puzzle pieces together. Monoclonal antibodies are large groups of ... A non-radioactive monoclonal antibody. Zevalin. A radioactive mAB with an yttrium-90 radiolabel. Clinical Trial Locator. Follow ...
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SEARCH RESULTS for: Antibodies, Monoclonal [Drug Class] (7 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark & ...
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The Alachua, Fla.-based biopharmaceutical company said Monday it will explore the use of monoclonal antibodies as a potential … ...
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... including neutralizing antisera for strain typing and monoclonal antibodies. ... Antisera and Monoclonal Antibodies * Human Coxsackievirus A 22 (ATCC® VR-1030AS/MK™) ATCC® Number: VR-1030AS/MK™ Classification ... Mouse monoclonal antibody that binds to domain III of the envelope glycoprotein of dengue virus type 1 was purified from ... Product Format: frozen Each vial of VR-3217 contains approximately 130.0µg of purified monoclonal antibody in PBS. ...
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  • Monoclonal reagents with selected specificities are therefore available in increasing number, and their potential for applications in the diagnosis and characterization of breast cancer is under investigation. (springer.com)
  • However, although the entire surface of HEL is potentially antigenic, the mature immune response appears to be dominated by three functionally nonoverlapping antigenic regions, defined operationally by antibody complementation assays. (nih.gov)
  • ADCC is important in the efficacy of cancer antibodies, but with many approved cancer antibodies there is less ADCC that could be desired due to nonspecific IgG competing with the drugs for binding to FcγIIIa on natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By growing the clone from Sp2/0 in the presence of [35S]methionine, radiolabeled monoclonal IgG has been prepared. (pnas.org)
  • The current availability of six structurally defined antibody-lysozyme complexes presents excellent opportunities for comparative studies in order to understand the structural bases of affinity, specificity, and thermodynamic properties, as well as the interrelationships of functional, structural, and energetic epitopes. (nih.gov)
  • ProSci offers custom monoclonal antibody production services and understands researchers have varying needs for levels of involvement, depending on the target. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Mouse Anti Human Monoclonal. (prospecbio.com)
  • These monoclonal antibodies should prove useful in the study of estrogen receptors of human reproductive tissues, in particular for the radioimmunochemical assay and immunocytochemical localization of receptors in breast cancers. (pnas.org)
  • The effect of this overexpression is to block the formation of fucosylated oligosaccharides on the expressed antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional epitopes, defined by immunoassays, are generally only a subset of the structural epitope, the 14-17 amino acid residues which contact antibody in the X-ray structure of the complex. (nih.gov)
  • Antibody complex formation with HEL is enthalpically driven, and is accompanied by an unfavorable entropy change. (nih.gov)