Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunoglobulin Constant Regions: The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Immunoglobulin J-Chains: A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Immunoglobulin delta-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate: An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Denture, Partial, Temporary: A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.Compact Disks: Computer disks storing data with a maximum reduction of space and bandwidth. The compact size reduces cost of transmission and storage.Dental Restoration, Temporary: A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Whistleblowing: The reporting of observed or suspected PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT or incompetence to appropriate authorities or to the public.
... mu opioid receptor - mu-chain immunoglobulin - mucin - Muller's ratchet - multiresistance - muscarinic receptor - muscle - ... antibody - apoenzyme - apolipoprotein - apoptosis - aquaporin - archaea - arginine - argipressin - aromatic amine - aromatic ... immunoglobulin - immunoglobulin joining region - immunoglobulin variable region - immunologic receptor - immunology - In vivo ... heavy-chain immunoglobulin - Hela cell - helminth protein - helper T cell - hemopexin - hemoglobin - herpes simplex virus ...
1988). "Molecular basis of the cell-surface expression of immunoglobulin mu chain without light chain in human B lymphocytes". ... of complete nucleotide sequence of the human IgM heavy chain constant region of polyreactive and monoreactive antibodies". Mol ... Tsubata T, Reth M (1990). "The products of pre-B cell-specific genes (lambda 5 and VpreB) and the immunoglobulin mu chain form ... Dolby TW, Devuono J, Croce CM (1981). "Cloning and partial nucleotide sequence of human immunoglobulin mu chain cDNA from B ...
... immunoglobulin mu-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705.625 - immunoglobulin j-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705.750 - ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... immunoglobulin m MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.574.500 - immunoglobulin mu-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.632 - ... immunoglobulin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705.500.350 - immunoglobulin alpha-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.705. ...
Tsubata T, Reth M (1990). "The products of pre-B cell-specific genes (lambda 5 and VpreB) and the immunoglobulin mu chain form ... 1997). "Structure of human IgM rheumatoid factor Fab bound to its autoantigen IgG Fc reveals a novel topology of antibody- ... Fang T, Smith BP, Roman CA (2001). "Conventional and surrogate light chains differentially regulate Ig mu and Dmu heavy chain ... and promotion of Ig light chain gene rearrangements. The preB cell receptor is composed of a membrane-bound Ig mu heavy chain ...
... asparagine in the immunoglobulin mu heavy chain" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... The Fab region of the antibody binds to the antigen, whereas the Fc region of the antibody binds to an Fc receptor on the ... Opsonin molecules include: Antibodies are part of the adaptive immune response and are generated by B cells in response to ... IgG antibodies are also capable of binding immune effector cells via their Fc domain, triggering a release of lysis products ...
It is composed of two extracellular Ig-like domains, and is a member of both the immunoglobulin superfamily and the multi-chain ... Many low affinity interactions are formed between receptor and antibody that work together to tightly bind the antibody-coated ... This receptor is called the Fc-alpha/mu receptor (Fcα/μR) and is a type I transmembrane protein. With one Ig-like domain in its ... or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Some viruses such as ...
The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin). A typical antibody is ... The first identified was the μ (or mu) heavy chain that is present in all jawed fish and is the heavy chain for what is thought ... immunoglobulin new antigen receptor'). The latter type is a heavy-chain antibody, an antibody lacking light chains, and can be ... These heavy chain types vary between different animals. All heavy chains contain a series of immunoglobulin domains, usually ...
... and is a member of both the immunoglobulin superfamily and the multi-chain immune recognition receptor (MIRR) family. It ... although it has higher affinity for another antibody called IgM. This receptor is called the Fc-alpha/mu receptor (Fcα/μR) ... Principal antibody ligand. Affinity for ligand. Cell distribution. Effect following binding to antibody ... Fc receptors recognize microbes that have been bound by antibodies. The interaction between the bound antibodies and the cell ...
"Altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene ... showed unexpected results on how the immune system rearranges its genes to produce antibodies against antigens it encounters ...
"Immunoglobulin aggregation leading to Russell body formation is prevented by the antibody light chain". Blood. 115 (2): 282-8. ... gamma chain disease (Franklin's disease) mu chain disease delta chain disease The most common type of heavy chain disease is ... Wahner-Roedler DL, Kyle RA (1992). "Mu-heavy chain disease: presentation as a benign monoclonal gammopathy". Am. J. Hematol. 40 ... These heavy chain disease proteins have various deletions, mainly in their amino-terminal part, which causes the heavy chains ...
There are five types of heavy chains: alpha, delta, epsilon, gamma and mu, all consisting of a variable domain (VH) and three ( ... C2-set domains, which are Ig-like domains resembling the antibody constant domain. C2-set domains are found primarily in the ... The basic structure of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules is a tetramer of two light chains and two heavy chains linked by ... CD2; CD4; VCAM1; Smith DK, Xue H (1997). "Sequence profiles of immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin-like domains". J. Mol. Biol. ...
Possible classes of heavy chains in antibodies include alpha, gamma, delta, epsilon, and mu, and they define the antibody's ... In mammals there are two types of immunoglobulin light chain, which are called lambda (λ) and kappa (κ). A light chain has two ... The type of heavy chain present defines the class of antibody; these chains are found in IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM antibodies ... Each antibody contains two light chains that are always identical; only one type of light chain, κ or λ, is present per ...
IGHE Heavy chain mu (IgM): IGHM [email protected] "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: IGH immunoglobulin heavy locus". "Gene Family: ... is a region on human chromosome 14 that contains a gene for the heavy chains of human antibodies (or immunoglobulins). ... immunoglobulin genes: Heavy chain alpha (IgA): IGHA1, IGHA2 Heavy chain gamma (IgG): IGHG1, IGHG2, IGHG3, IGHG4 Heavy chain ... Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. This region represents the ...
Antibodies are composed of two identical heavy chains, i.e. either mu (μ), gamma (γ), alpha (α), epsilon (ε), or delta (δ), and ... immunoglobulin light chain. For diagnosis, the κ and λ free light chains are quantified by immunological methods and the ratio ... a free κ chain in great excess of a λ chain or a free λ chain in great excess of a κ chain; and d) free γ, δ, or μ heavy chains ... is defined as the presence in the blood or urine of a monoclonal antibody, antibody heavy chain, or antibody light chain in a ...
"Entrez Gene: IGJ immunoglobulin J polypeptide, linker protein for immunoglobulin alpha and mu polypeptides". Kiyono, Hiroshi; ... A J chain is a protein component of the antibodies IgM and IgA. It is a 137 residue polypeptide, encoded by the IGJ gene. The J ... The J Chain is required for IgM or IgA to be secreted into mucosa. As part of a polymeric immunoglobulin (pIg), the J-chain is ... 1994). "Early expression of human J chain and mu chain gene in the fetal liver". Cell Struct. Funct. 18 (5): 297-302. doi: ...
"Altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene ... specific expression in lymphoid cells and synthesis of functional antibody". Cell. 38 (3): 647-58. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84) ... altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene ... Grosschedl, R; Weaver, D; Baltimore, D; Costantini, F (October 1984). "Introduction of a mu immunoglobulin gene into the mouse ...
... immunoglobulin mu-chains MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.705.625 -- immunoglobulin j-chains MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.705.750 -- ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 -- antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 -- antibodies, ... immunoglobulin mu-chains MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.705.625 -- immunoglobulin j-chains MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.705.750 -- ... immunoglobulin m MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.574.500 -- immunoglobulin mu-chains MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.632 -- ...
Smith, R. I. F.; Coloma, M. J.; Morrison, S. L. (1995). "Addition of a mu-tailpiece to IgG results in polymeric antibodies with ... Immunoglobulins are composed of two types of protein chain -- the heavy chain and the light chain. The heavy chains, which ... Immunoglobulins include light chains and heavy chains. The light chain (λ or κ) is a protein of ~220 amino acids, composed of a ... "Immunoglobulin M an secretory immunoglobulin A: presence of common polypeptide chain different from light chains". Science. 171 ...
Possible classes of heavy chains in antibodies include alpha, gamma, delta, epsilon, and mu, and they define the antibody's ... For more details on this topic, see Immunoglobulin light chain.. In mammals there are two types of immunoglobulin light chain, ... The type of heavy chain present defines the class of antibody; these chains are found in IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM antibodies ... Several immunoglobulin domains make up the two heavy chains (red and blue) and the two light chains (green and yellow) of an ...
... chains of the immunoglobulin light chain loci rearrange in a very similar way, except that the light chains lack a D segment. ... is generated containing the VDJ region of the heavy chain and both the constant mu and delta chains (Cμ and Cδ). (i.e. the ... It involves somatic recombination, and results in the highly diverse repertoire of antibodies/immunoglobulins (Igs) and T cell ... containing the gene segments for the remainder of the immunoglobulin light chain. Each heavy chain and light chain gene ...
Bridges SL (Aug 1998). "Frequent N addition and clonal relatedness among immunoglobulin lambda light chains expressed in ... In immunohistochemistry, antibodies to TdT can be used to demonstrate the presence of immature T and B cells and pluripotent ... Expression and function of terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase and discovery of novel DNA polymerase mu]". Seikagaku. The ... TdT adds N-nucleotides to the V, D, and J exons of the TCR and BCR genes during antibody gene recombination, enabling the ...
... of sections of the human immunoglobulin gene into mice has already been shown to allow them to produce humanized antibodies ... Ruan, Jinxue; Li, Hegang; Xu, Kui; Wu, Tianwen; Wei, Jingliang; Zhou, Rong; Liu, Zhiguo; Mu, Yulian; Yang, Shulin (2015-09-18 ... for example possibly correcting the mutant gamma-chain gene of the IL-2 receptor in hematopoietic stem cells to restore ... "Ig knock-in mice producing anti-carbohydrate antibodies: breakthrough of B cells producing low affinity anti-self antibodies". ...
Mukhtar, MM; Li, S; Li, W; Wan, T; Mu, Y; Wei, W; Kang, L; Rasool, ST; et al. (2009). "Single-chain intracellular antibodies ... including the use of single-chain antibodies (scFvs), modification of immunoglobulin VL domains for hyperstability, selection ... Auf Der Maur, A; Escher, D; Barberis, A (2001). "Antigen-independent selection of stable intracellular single-chain antibodies ... In molecular biology, an intrabody (from intracellular and antibody) is an antibody that works within the cell to bind to an ...
... also called immunoglobulins). The TCR is similar to a half-antibody consisting of a single heavy and single light chain, except ... Each chain is composed of two extracellular domains: Variable (V) region and a Constant (C) region, both of Immunoglobulin ... The TCR alpha chain is generated by VJ recombination, whereas the beta chain is generated by VDJ recombination (both involving ... Likewise, generation of the TCR gamma chain involves VJ recombination, whereas generation of the TCR delta chain occurs by VDJ ...
The most common form of CD8 is composed of a CD8-α and CD8-β chain, both members of the immunoglobulin superfamily with an ... Antibody receptor:. Fc receptor. Epsilon (ε). *FcεRI. *(FcεRII is C-type lectin) ... Less-common homodimers of the CD8-α chain are also expressed on some cells. The molecular weight of each CD8 chain is about 34 ... Alpha (α)/mu (μ). *FcαRI. *Fcα/μR. Secretory. *Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor ...
Transmembrane receptors: immunoglobulin superfamily immune receptors. Antibody receptor:. Fc receptor. Epsilon (ε). *FcεRI ... Alpha (α)/mu (μ). *FcαRI. *Fcα/μR. Secretory. *Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor ... CD8 (with two glycoprotein chains CD8α and CD8β). *CD4. Accessory molecules. *CD3 ...
Immunoglobulin Mu Heavy Chain) (B-Cell Marker); Clone IM373 (Concentrate) - RA0146-C.1 ( Antibodies, Research Antibodies) ...
Of the various classes of antibodies that B lymphocytes can produce, class M (IgM) is the first to be expressed on the membrane ... mu chain), but not light chains. Recent data suggest that pre-B cells express mu chains on the membrane together with the ... A B cell-deficient mouse by targeted disruption of the membrane exon of the immunoglobulin mu chain gene.. Kitamura D1, Roes J ... We have now assessed the importance of the membrane form of the mu chain in B-cell development by generating mice lacking this ...
Heavy and Light Chains of Immunoglobulin: Heavy chain - mu. Light chain - not determined. Specificity: Hybridoma tissue culture ... All extracts were tested in a capture ELISA using rabbit polyclonal antibodies as solidphase capture reagent. Specific binding ... A final boost of 50 mu g was given 3 weeks after the sixth immunization, and mice were sacrificed 3 days later for hybridoma ... Allergic-reactions; Antibody-response; Antigens; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Cytotoxic-effects; Fungi; Immune- ...
The SA-DA4 monoclonal antibody binds specifically to mu heavy chain of Human Immunoglobulin (IgM).. ... The anti-IgM antibody binds to circulating IgM as well as to IgM antibodies bound to the FcμR. The FcμR is a transmembrane ...
IgM Recombinant Monoclonal Rabbit Antibody (IGHM/2559R) This antibody recognizes the mu heavy chain of human immunoglobulins. ... Human IgG Heavy Chain Polyclonal Rabbit Antibody This antibody recognizes the gamma heavy chain of human immunoglobulins. It ... This antibody recognizes the gamma heavy chain of human immunoglobulins. It does not cross-react with alpha (IgA), mu (IgM), ... This antibody recognizes the gamma heavy chain of human immunoglobulins. It does not cross-react with alpha (IgA), mu (IgM), ...
IgM Recombinant Monoclonal Mouse Antibody (rIM373) This antibody recognizes the mu heavy chain of human immunoglobulins. It ... IgM Recombinant Monoclonal Rabbit Antibody (IGHM/2559R) This antibody recognizes the mu heavy chain of human immunoglobulins. ... The antibodies react specifically with IgM heavy chains (μ chains) and not with immunoglobulin light chains. To minimize ... The antibodies react specifically with IgM heavy chains (μ chains) and not with immunoglobulin light chains. To minimize ...
Immunoglobulin (Another Name) Heavy chains: 450 Amino acids Mu=M Gamma=G Alpha=A Delta= ... Immunology Antibodies Definitions: Globulins A group of gylcoproteins present in plasma belong to this group. ...
A B cell-deficient mouse by targeted disruption of the membrane exon of the immunoglobulin mu chain gene. Nature350:423-426. ... differences in antibody titers between immune and nonimmune sera were significant at a P value of ,0.001 for total antibody (Ab ... T Cells and Antibodies, Including Immunoglobulin A. Heather J. Ray, Yu Cong, Ashlesh K. Murthy, Dale M. Selby, Karl E. Klose, ... evidence for the role of antibodies (26, 41, 44, 45, 53), and particularly immunoglobulin A (IgA) (4), in mucosal immunity ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-IgM Antibody (SPM557) [Alexa Fluor® 405]. B-Cell Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC- ... Recognizes a protein of 75kDa, identified as mu heavy chain of human immunoglobulins. It does not cross-react with alpha (IgA ... All antibody isotypes contain two heavy chains and two light chains... Read full blog post.. ... IgM Antibody (SPM557) [Alexa Fluor® 405] Summary. Immunogen. Recombinant heavy chain of human IgM ...
THE EFFECTIVE GUIDE TO :Antibody Structure and Classes of Immunoglobulins ... Antibody Structure and Classes of Immunoglobulins - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt ... IgG molecules have heavy chains known as gamma-chains; IgMs have muchains; IgAs have alpha-chains; IgEs have epsilon-chains; ... Antibody Structure and Classes of. Immunoglobulins. Structure of Immunoglobulins. Antibody (or immunoglobulin) molecules are ...
... mu opioid receptor - mu-chain immunoglobulin - mucin - Mullers ratchet - multiresistance - muscarinic receptor - muscle - ... antibody - apoenzyme - apolipoprotein - apoptosis - aquaporin - archaea - arginine - argipressin - aromatic amine - aromatic ... immunoglobulin - immunoglobulin joining region - immunoglobulin variable region - immunologic receptor - immunology - In vivo ... heavy-chain immunoglobulin - Hela cell - helminth protein - helper T cell - hemopexin - hemoglobin - herpes simplex virus ...
A B cell-deficient mouse by targeted disruption of the membrane exon of the immunoglobulin mu chain gene. Nature 350: 423-426, ... then injected sheep anti-mouse GBM antibodies intravenously (on day 0). Injection of heterologous anti-GBM antibodies is a ... Mouse Anti-MPO Antibodies Trigger Neutrophil and MPO Accumulation in Glomeruli In Vivo. Having demonstrated the requirement for ... A) Mpo−/− mice had similar MPO-specific antibody titers to MPO intact (WT) mice given anti-MPO-associated crescentic GN. (B) ...
Texas Red conjugated antibody generated in goat specifically detects monkey IgM. Immunoglobulin M is the largest antibody ... Anti-Monkey IgM antibody is ideal for investigators in Immunology, Microbiology, and Cell Biology. ... Formed from covalently linking 5 immunoglobulins together, the approximate molecular weight of IgM is 900kDa and possesses 10 ... Anti-Monkey IgM (mu chain) Texas Red conjugated antibody generated in goat specifically detects monkey IgM. Immunoglobulin M is ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-IgM Antibody (DA4-4 (same as SA-DA4 or HB57)) [DyLight 680]. B-Cell Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ... Recognizes a protein of 75kDa, identified as mu heavy chain of human immunoglobulins. It does not cross-react with alpha (IgA ... All antibody isotypes contain two heavy chains and two light chains... Read full blog post.. ... IgM Antibody (DA4-4 (same as SA-DA4 or HB57)) [DyLight 680] Summary. Immunogen. Heavy chain of human IgM ...
The methods include the use of a component-binding moiety specific to the component of interest, such as an antibody, to detect ... Heavy chains are classified as gamma, mu, alpha, delta, or epsilon, which define the immunoglobulin classes, IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD ... Typically, an antibody comprises a framework from an immunoglobulin gene or fragment that specifically binds and recognizes an ... and mu constant region genes as well as the various immunoglobulin variable genes. Light chains are classified as either kappa ...
CD179a forms a molecular complex with the Ig-mu chain on pre-B cells. It seems that this complex plays a critical role in the ... In association with CD179b it forms a surrogate light chain. CD179a is exclusively expressed on early pre-B cells and pro-B ... Tsubata, T. et al. (1990) The products of pre-B cell-specific genes (lambda 5 and VpreB) and the immunoglobulin mu chain form a ... CD179a forms a molecular complex with the Ig-mu chain on pre-B cells. It seems that this complex plays a critical role in the ...
B cell-deficient mouse by targeted disruption of the membrane exon of the immunoglobulin mu chain gene. Nature 350, 423-426 ( ... Tezel, G. & Wax, M. B. The mechanisms of hsp27 antibody-mediated apoptosis in retinal neuronal cells. J. Neurosci. 20, 3552- ... Corresponding isotype antibodies were used as controls. Data were collected with BD LSR II Flow Cytometer as 20,000-30,000 ... Retinal flat-mounts were stained with an anti-CD4 antibody (green), Tuj1 (red), and DAPI (blue). Shown are anti-CD4-stained (d ...
IgM is a pentamer composed of 5 immunogobulin molecules linked through their F(c) domain by the J chain. The mu chain is the ... Antibody, Peroxidase Conjugated detects IgM. Immunoglobulin M, or IgM, is an antibody produced by B cells. ... heavy chain of IgM and contains an F(c) d... ... domain by the J chain. The mu chain is the heavy chain of IgM ... Human IgM (mu chain) Antibody, Peroxidase Conjugated detects IgM. Immunoglobulin M, or IgM, is an antibody produced by B cells ...
The primary structures of the variable regions of the immunoglobulin heavy (gamma1 and mu) and light (kappa) chains were ... coli system for the simultaneous expression of mu and kappa cDNAs for anti-GL1alpha and Gi1alpha monoclonal antibodies. mu and ... 7. Insertion of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain cDNAs into expression vectors that contain an inducible promoter derived ... We are planning to co-transfect vectors expressing the heavy and light chains of monoclonal antibodies for specific Galphas ...
Anti-Human IgM mu chain Alkaline Phosphatase (ab97202) validated for WB, ELISA, IHC-P, ICC. Other Alkaline Phosphatase ... Goat Anti-Human IgM mu chain (Alkaline Phosphatase). See all IgM secondary antibodies. ... Cross reactivity with other immunoglobulins and light chains is less than 0.1%. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and tissue imaging ...
Immunoglobulin Heavy Constant Mu, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... immunoglobulin,mu *IGHM. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Constant region of immunoglobulin heavy chains. Immunoglobulins, also ... Constant region of immunoglobulin heavy chains. Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted ... Immunoglobulin M heavy chain (IGHM) fragment [Homo sapiens]. Immunoglobulin M heavy chain. ...
Apoptosis was also induced by exposing the transfected cells to antibodies directed to the immunoglobulin mu chain (a-mu-ab) ... Exposure of the cells to CD40 ligand (CD40L) or CD40 monoclonal antibody prevented cell apoptosis. Upon transfection with c-myc ... IMMUNOGLOBULIN AND GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE AS MARKERS OF CELLULAR ORIGIN IN BURKITT LYMPHOMA ...
Immunoglobulin Heavy Variable 3-23, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... Immunoglobulin structure and genetics. Identity between variable regions of a mu and a gamma2 chain. (PMID: 409716) Wang A.-C ... Structure of antibodies with shared idiotypy: the complete sequence of the heavy chain variable regions of two immunoglobulin M ... Immunoglobulins are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains; disulfide-linked. ...
... epsilon and mu heavy chain constant region genes, and the myriad immunoglobulin variable region genes. Antibodies exist, e.g., ... monoclonal antibodies, chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies, or single chain antibodies. "Fc" portion of an antibody ... "Antibody" refers to a polypeptide ligand substantially encoded by an immunoglobulin gene or immunoglobulin genes, or fragments ... The term "antibody," as used herein, also includes antibody fragments either produced by the modification of whole antibodies ...
Immunoglobulin M mu-chain. Reactivity. Mouse. Conjugation. Biotin (NHS-LC). Clonality. Polyclonal. ... Antibodies. , Goat Anti-Mouse IgM µ Polyclonal Antibody (Biotin (NHS-LC)). Goat Anti-Mouse IgM µ Polyclonal Antibody (Biotin ( ...
IsotypeLight chainsSpecificityPolyclonalAntigensIsotypesPolypeptideMoleculeAffinityClasses of immunoglobulinsReactsReceptorsMouse immunoglobulinPeroxidase ConjugatedFive major classes of immunoglobulinBindsGenesFlow CytometryKappaImmunogenMember of the immunoglobulinMiceImmunitySpeciesSpecific immunoglobulinImmunologyPredominantDetectsClonalityType of immunoglobulinRate of immunoglobulinClass of immunoglobulinFunctions of immunoglobulinsLymphocytesMucosalBovine immunoglobulinRabbitHuman IgMFragmentTransgenicAntigen bindSubclassesEnhancerAbundant immunoglobulinDifferent immunoglobulinsSerum immunoglobulinsRecombinantEpitopeImmune SystemCell receptorDisulfideChimeric AntibodyDetect
- Immunoglobulin M is the largest antibody isotype and the first to be secreted against an initial exposure to antigen. (rockland-inc.com)
- NALM6 cells were stained with CD179a (VpreB) antibodies or with the corresponding isotype control antibodies (left peak). (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Each Ig heavy chain has an N-terminal variable (V) region containing the antigen-binding site and a C-terminal constant (C) region, encoded by an individual C region gene, that determines the isotype of the antibody and provides effector or signaling functions. (genecards.org)
- The IGHM gene encodes the C region of the mu heavy chain, which defines the IgM isotype. (genecards.org)
- During an antibody response, activated B cells can switch to the expression of individual downstream heavy chain C region genes by a process of somatic recombination known as isotype switching. (genecards.org)
- These results indicate that trans-mRNA synthesis is not restricted to either a particular transgenic line or an isotype, but is a general mechanism to express a second isotype with the V_H regions of rearranged mu chain transgenes. (nii.ac.jp)
- Publications] SHIMIZU,A.: 'Trans-splicing as a possible molecular mechanism for the multiple isotype expression of the immunoglobulin gene. (nii.ac.jp)
- Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is the dominant immunoglobulin isotype found on mucosal surfaces where it acts as a first line of defense against microbial invasion. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Kappa and lambda chains may be associated with H chains of any isotype, and a complete description of an immunoglobulin molecule requires identification of both H and L chains. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Somatic hypermutations and isotype restricted exceptionally long CDR3H contribute to antibody diversification in cattle," Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology , vol. 127, no. 1-2, pp. 106-113, 2009. (hindawi.com)
- Constant regions, comprising amino acids 111-220 (or 440-550), are rather uniform, in comparison, from one antibody to another, within the same isotype. (mam9.com)
- More specifically, an isotype is determined by the primary sequence of amino acids in the constant region of the heavy chain, which in turn determines the three-dimensional structure of the molecule. (mam9.com)
- For example, the five human isotypes, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE and IgM are found in all humans and a result, injection of human IgG into another human would not generate antibodies directed against the structural features (determinants) that define the IgG isotype. (mam9.com)
- Some of these functions are independent of the particular class (isotype) of immunoglobulin. (mam9.com)
- In contrast, other antibody functions are dependent upon the immunoglobulin class (isotype). (mam9.com)
- Our generic cassette approach makes this system a very flexible and convenient one for the rapid production of either chimeric, humanized or human mAb with heavy and light chains of any isotype. (cnrs.fr)
- Pre-B cells, the precursors of B-lymphocytes, produce the heavy chain of IgM (mu chain), but not light chains. (nih.gov)
- Recent data suggest that pre-B cells express mu chains on the membrane together with the 'surrogate' light chains lambda 5 and V pre B (refs 2-7). (nih.gov)
- Heavy and Light Chains of Immunoglobulin: Heavy chain - mu. (cdc.gov)
- The antibodies react specifically with IgM heavy chains (μ chains) and not with immunoglobulin light chains. (biotium.com)
- Antibody (or immunoglobulin) molecules are glycoproteins composed of one or more units, each containing four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains (H) and two identical light chains (L). The amino terminal ends of the polypeptide chains show considerable variation in amino acid composition and are referred to as the variable (V) regions to distinguish them from the relatively constant (C) regions. (scribd.com)
- For example, in humans, functioning IgM antibodies have five Y-shaped units (pentamer) containing a total of ten light chains, ten heavy chains and ten antigenbinding sites (see below). (scribd.com)
- Each of the five monomers is composed of two light chains (either kappa or lambda) and two heavy chains. (scribd.com)
- An Ig molecule is made up of 2 identical heavy chains and 2 identical light chains (see MIM 147200) joined by disulfide bonds so that each heavy chain is linked to a light chain and the 2 heavy chains are linked together. (genecards.org)
- Due to the restricted expression of heavy and light chains in these diseases, demonstration of B-cell Lymphomas is possible with clonal gene-rearrangement studies. (biosb.com)
- Diagnosis is confirmed by immunofixation that is positive for anti-mu, but negative for anti-kappa or anti-lambda light chains. (medscape.com)
- Monoclonal light chains have been found in the urine in two thirds of cases. (medscape.com)
- Immunoglobulin light chains capable of producing amyloid are found in approximately 12% of cases, an incidence that is similar to that observed in patients with multiple myeloma. (medscape.com)
- The case was in a patient with B-cell lymphoma showing non-specific surface expression of light-chains. (bvsalud.org)
- The method enables the detection of Light chains (Kappa and Lambda), and Heavy chains (Gamma 1, Gamma 2a, Gamma 2b, Gamma 3, and Mu) of mouse immunoglobulin. (cellsciences.com)
- A slight excess of light chains is normally produced, and urinary excretion of small amounts of free polyclonal light chains ( ≤ 40 mg/24 h) is normal. (merckmanuals.com)
- M->proteins may consist of both heavy and light chains or of only one type of chain. (merckmanuals.com)
- Up to now the structure proposed for immunoglobulins consists of a four-chain model referring to the presence of two identical light polypeptide chains (light chains) and two identical heavy polypeptide chains (heavy chains) linked together by disulfide bonds to form a y- or T-shaped macromolecules. (justia.com)
- According to the four-chain model, the antigen binding site of an antibody is located in the variable domains of each of the heavy and light chains, and requires the association of the heavy and the light chains variable domains. (justia.com)
- The inventors have surprisingly established that different molecules can be isolated from animals which naturally produce them, which molecules have functional properties of immunoglobulins these functions being in some cases related to structural elements which are distinct from those involved in the function of four-chain immunoglobulins due for instance to the absence of light chains. (justia.com)
- Each immunoglobulin is made up of four protein chains: two long chains (called heavy chains ) and two shorter chains (called light chains ). (cancerconnect.com)
- Immunoglobulin light chains are defined by use of the Greek letters kappa or lambda. (cancerconnect.com)
- In 75% of patients, the plasma cells also produce monoclonal incomplete immunoglobulins, called light chains. (cancerconnect.com)
- Measures antibody light chains made by myeloma cells called kappa or lambda. (cancerconnect.com)
- performed on a 24-hour specimen of urine) Measures the presence and level of Bence Jones proteins (otherwise known as myeloma light chains). (cancerconnect.com)
- 1. Any of a group of large glycoproteins, including all the antibodies that function in the vertebrate immune system, that have a structure consisting of two heavy chains and two light chains. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Each monomer consists of two mu heavy chains and two kappa or lambda light chains. (innov-research.com)
- Immunoglobulins are composed of four polypeptide chains: two "light" chains (lambda or kappa), and two "heavy" chains (alpha, delta, gamma, epsilon or mu). (mam9.com)
- Light chains are composed of 220 amino acid residues while heavy chains are composed of 440-550 amino acids. (mam9.com)
- Hypervariable" regions, or "Complementarity Determining Regions" (CDRs) are found within the variable regions of both the heavy and light chains. (mam9.com)
- 2 LIGHT chains = green and blue. (slideserve.com)
- Because of its relative abundance and excellent specificity toward antigens, IgG is the principle antibody used in immunological research and clinical diagnostics. (scribd.com)
- Specificity was confirmed by ELISA minimal cross-reactivity against other human heavy or light chain isotypes. (genscript.com)
- Antibodies produced cover a broad range of Immunoglobulins from various species cross absorbed to provide high specificity. (vwr.com)
- The immunoconjugates are comprised of an immunoglobulin heavy chain having a specificity for the target cell, such as a cancer or virus-infected cell, and a cytokine, such as lymphotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2, or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, joined via Aits amino terminal amino acid to the carboxy-Aterminus of the immunoglobulin. (google.com)
- Its name is derived from its binding specificity for a part of an antibody known as the Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) region . (wikipedia.org)
- Beidler et al "Cloning and High Level Expression of a Chimeric Antibody with Specificity for Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen" The Journal of Immunology, 141(11): 4053-4060 (1988). (patentgenius.com)
- Sahagan et al "A Genetically Engineered Murine/Human Chimeric Antibody Retains Specificity for Human Tumor-Associated Antigen," The Journal of Immunology, 137 (3): 1066-1074 (1986). (patentgenius.com)
- Specificity: Recognizes a protein of 75kDa, identified as gamma heavy chain of human immunoglobulins. (scytek.com)
- In this regard, idiotypes reflect the antigen binding specificity of any particular antibody molecule. (mam9.com)
- 2003). "Analyzing Antibody Specificity with Whole Proteome Microarrays," Nature Biotechnology 21(12):1509-1512. (patentgenius.com)
- All extracts were tested in a capture ELISA using rabbit polyclonal antibodies as solidphase capture reagent. (cdc.gov)
- After appropriate washing steps, horseradish peroxidase labeled polyclonal anti-human IgM antibody binds to the captured protein. (innov-research.com)
- Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. (usu.edu)
- Serum IgM exists as a pentamer in mammals, predominates in primary immune responses to most antigens, is the most efficient complement fixing immunoglobulin and comprises approximately 10% of normal human serum Ig content. (scribd.com)
- Formed from covalently linking 5 immunoglobulins together, the approximate molecular weight of IgM is 900kDa and possesses 10 binding sites (though due to the size of most antigens, not all sites are capable of binding at once). (rockland-inc.com)
- Human IgM (mu chain) Antibody, Peroxidase Conjugated, was prepared from monospecific antiserum by immunoaffinity chromatography using antigens coupled to agarose beads followed by solid phase adsorption(s) to remove any unwanted reactivities. (genscript.com)
- Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:22158414, PubMed:20176268). (genecards.org)
- IgM antibody is prominent in early immune responses to most antigens. (neobiotechnologies.com)
- Nonetheless, concentrations of antibodies to three conserved pneumococcal antigens correlated with protection against colonization. (asm.org)
- Concentrations of antibodies to conserved pneumococcal antigens may be correlates of protection without being effectors of protection. (asm.org)
- Antibodies to certain noncapsular antigens arise early in life ( 8 , 18 ) in response to colonization with, or otitis media caused by, pneumococci ( 18 ). (asm.org)
- These antibodies may be effectors of protection, and they may also be markers of host immune responses to prior pneumococcal exposure, which may have induced antibodies to other antigens and/or immunity mediated through other mechanisms. (asm.org)
- Second, we sought to determine whether antibodies to conserved pneumococcal antigens were correlated with protection against colonization following intranasal exposure. (asm.org)
- E. S. Ward et al (1) have described some experiments performed on variable domains of heavy polypeptide chains (V.sub.H) or/and light polypeptide chains (V.sub.K /F.sub.V) to test the ability of these variable domains, to bind specific antigens. (justia.com)
- In tests for presence of an infection, ortests of immune status, antigens are often usedto detect antibody expression in serum. (slideshare.net)
- Intact antigens are able to specifically interact with the induced immunoglobulins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Immunoglobulins bind specifically to one or a few closely related antigens. (slideserve.com)
- The Mouse Immunoglobulin Easy Isotyping Kit provides a rapid and easy method (2-step ELISA) to characterize mouse monoclonal antibody isotypes in cell culture supernatants or purified antibodies preparations. (cellsciences.com)
- Publications] Han,H.: 'Regulated expression of immunoglobulin trans-mRNA consisting of the variable region of transgenic μ chain and constant regions of endogenous isotypes. (nii.ac.jp)
- Antigenic determinants used to describe parts of immunoglobulins: isotypes and idiotypes.2. (slideshare.net)
- There are three categories of antigenic determinants present on immunoglobulins: isotypes are found in all individuals, allotypes are found in some individuals, and idiotypes are associated with the amino-terminal variable region. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Isotypic determinants are located on the carboxyl-terminal constant region and are used to group immunoglobulin H and L chains into isotypes or classes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- There are two L-chain isotypes named kappa (κ) and lambda (λ). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Like isotypes, allotypes are determined by the amino acid sequence and corresponding three-dimensional structure of the constant region of the immunoglobulin molecule. (mam9.com)
- There is provided an isolated immunoglobulin comprising two heavy polypeptide chains sufficient for the formation of a complete antigen binding site or several antigen binding sites, wherein the immunoglobulin is further devoid of light polypeptide chains. (justia.com)
- The invention relates to new isolated immunoglobulins which are devoid of light polypeptide chains. (justia.com)
- These immunoglobulins do not consist in the degradation products of immunoglobulins composed of both heavy polypeptide and light polypeptide chains but to the contrary, the invention defines a new member of the family of the immunoglobulins, especially a new type of molecules capable of being involved in the immune recognition. (justia.com)
- The two heavy polypeptide chains are usually linked by disulphide bounds in a so-called "hinge region" situated between the first and second domains of the constant region. (justia.com)
- Cabilly et al "Generation of Antibody Activity from Immunoglobulin Polypeptide Chains Produced in Escherichia Coli"0 Proc. (patentgenius.com)
- 4. A chimeric monoclonal antibody and derivatives thereof according to claim 3 having light chain variable regions of formula I, wherein the polypeptide residues of the framework regions FR.sub.1, FR.sub.2, FR.sub.3 and FR.sub.4 are thoseoccurring in murine antibodies. (patentgenius.com)
- Immunoglobulins are composed of two identical heavy (H) and two identical light (L) polypeptide chains. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Variable regions are contained within the amino (NH2) terminal end of the polypeptide chain (amino acids 1-110). (mam9.com)
- The four polypeptide chains are held together by covalent disulfide (-S-S-) bonds. (mam9.com)
- CF® dye goat anti-human IgM (μ chain) is labeled with our bright, fluorescent dyes and is prepared from antibodies purified by human IgM-affinity chromatography. (biotium.com)
- Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. (genecards.org)
- This antibody was isolated by affinity chromatography using antigen coupled to agarose beads and conjugated to Alkaline Phosphatase (AP). (abcam.com)
- Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
- As humoral responses progress, the average affinity of the antibodies produced rises, in a process known as 'affinity maturation. (brainmass.com)
- To understand the relationship between the affinity of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and the immune response to antigen, two lines of immunoglobulin H chain transgenic (Tg) mice were created. (duke.edu)
- Another receptor can also bind IgA, although it has higher affinity for another antibody called IgM . (wikipedia.org)
- the high-affinity receptor FcεRI is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (it has two Ig-like domains). (wikipedia.org)
- 2. A chimeric monoclonal antibody and derivatives thereof according to claim 1 with an affinity of at least 2.1.times.10.sup.10 liters/mol for human CEA. (patentgenius.com)
- Human IgM will bind to the affinity purified capture antibody coated on the microtiter plate. (innov-research.com)
- They include the IgG receptors (FcγR), high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεR), IgA receptor (FcαR) and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor for IgA and IgM. (creative-diagnostics.com)
- GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Phosphorylation of the AP2 mu subunit by AAK1 mediates high affinity binding to membrane protein sorting signals. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Phosphorylation of mu 2 enhances the binding affinity of AP2 for sorting motifs as much as 25-fold compared with dephosphorylated AP2. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- By immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA this antibody reacts specifically with Human IgM. (abcam.com)
- IgA antibody reacts with immunoglobulin Ig alpha chains. (neogenomics.com)
- IgD antibody reacts with immunoglobulin Ig delta chains. (neogenomics.com)
- IgM antibody reacts with immunoglobulin Ig mu chains. (neogenomics.com)
- Description: The eB121-15F9 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mu heavy chain of mouse IgM. (fishersci.co.uk)
- Description: The II/41 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mu heavy chain of mouse IgM. (fishersci.co.uk)
- In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. (genecards.org)
- In particular, the invention relates to polypeptides that are homologous to other sweet receptors, nucleic acids encoding the polypeptides, vectors and host cells comprising the nucleic acids and antibodies that specifically bind to the polypeptides. (google.com)
- Fc receptors bind to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens . (wikipedia.org)
- Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection . (wikipedia.org)
- There are several different types of Fc receptors (abbreviated FcR), which are classified based on the type of antibody that they recognize. (wikipedia.org)
- All of the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are the most important Fc receptors for inducing phagocytosis of opsonized (marked) microbes. (wikipedia.org)
- Immunoglobulins generally assume one of two roles: immunoglobulins may act as i) plasma membrane bound antigen receptors on the surface of a B-cell or ii) as antibodies free in cellular fluids functioning to intercept and eliminate antigenic determinants. (mam9.com)
- Some immunoglobulins also bind to receptors on placental trophoblasts, which results in transfer of the immunoglobulin across the placenta. (slideserve.com)
- Fc receptors, the receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins, play an essential role in antibody-dependent immune responses. (creative-diagnostics.com)
- Recent studies in Fc receptor-deficient nude mice show that the anti-tumor effects of mAbs such as those directed at-CD20 (Rituximab) and HER2 (Herceptin) require the presence of the signal transducing Fcγ chain that is involved in the activation of FcγRI and FcγRIII receptors that are expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells. (creative-diagnostics.com)
- The anti-IgM antibody binds to circulating IgM as well as to IgM antibodies bound to the FcμR. (beckman.com)
- The SA-DA4 monoclonal antibody binds specifically to mu heavy chain of Human Immunoglobulin (IgM). (beckman.com)
- 9. The method of claim 8 wherein the one or more agents are an antibody that specifically and independently detects and binds with one of neurensin (p24), UCH-L1 or synuclein. (google.ca)
- Another FcR is expressed on multiple cell types and is similar in structure to MHC class I . This receptor also binds IgG and is involved in preservation of this antibody. (wikipedia.org)
- This complex could control pre-B-cell differentiation, in particular the rearrangement of the light-chain genes. (nih.gov)
- The heavy chain V region is encoded by 1 each of 3 types of genes: V genes (see MIM 147070), joining (J) genes (see MIM 147010), and diversity (D) genes (see MIM 146910). (genecards.org)
- The C region genes are clustered downstream of the V region genes within the heavy chain locus on chromosome 14. (genecards.org)
- IGHV3-23 belongs to a cluster of approximately 40 functional variable (V) genes in the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain locus on chromosome 14. (genecards.org)
- A further sequence comparison revealed that the bovine IGHC genes display an extensive polymorphism leading to expression of multiple antibody allotypes. (mysciencework.com)
- Immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes rearrange independently at early stages of B cell development. (nih.gov)
- Abgent's experienced staff custom validates more than 1,000 antibodies each month in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Flow Cytometry (FC) and additional applications. (abgent.com)
- Product lines include a wide range of antibodies used in ELISA, immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blotting, flow cytometry (FACS), immunofluorescence and microscopy. (vwr.com)
- Mesenchymal stem cells were characterized through flow cytometry using specific antibodies. (bvsalud.org)
- Antibody and other cell surface ligands have been widely used for cell separation via either magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) where ligands are immobilized to magnetic nanoparticles or flow cytometry in fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) where antibodies are labeled with fluorescent dyes. (justia.com)
- The primary structures of the variable regions of the immunoglobulin heavy (gamma1 and mu) and light (kappa) chains were determined from the respectiv … More e cDNAs. (nii.ac.jp)
- We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc) cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH) and kappa-chain (hIGK) germline loci (named as κHAC) are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO). (usu.edu)
- With one Ig-like domain in its extracellular portion, this Fc receptor is also a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
- There are two types of FcεR are known- FcεRI and FcεRII, FcεRI is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (it has two Ig-like domains). (creative-diagnostics.com)
- We have now assessed the importance of the membrane form of the mu chain in B-cell development by generating mice lacking this chain. (nih.gov)
- A final boost of 50 mu g was given 3 weeks after the sixth immunization, and mice were sacrificed 3 days later for hybridoma production. (cdc.gov)
- To evaluate the relative contribution of CD4 + and CD8 + effector T lymphocytes in virus clearance and recovery, we have examined the host response to lethal type A influenza virus infection in B lymphocyte-deficient mice with a targeted disruption in the immunoglobulin mu heavy chain. (rupress.org)
- and ( c ) transfer of neutralizing anti-hemagglutinin (HA) antibody alone into infected SCID mice (deficient in T and B cells) leads to influenza virus clearance from the lungs of these immunodeficient mice ( 2 , 8 ). (rupress.org)
- In immunoglobulin-deficient mice, virus recurrence results in higher virus titers. (uniri.hr)
- In mice following intranasal exposure to Streptococcus pneumoniae , protection against pneumococcal colonization was independent of antibody but dependent on CD4 + T cells. (asm.org)
- In mice, clearance rates of pneumococcal colonization are similar in wild-type and in μMT mice, which are deficient in antibody production, suggesting that the mechanism of clearance is antibody independent ( 16 ). (asm.org)
- 1. A researcher purified mu heavy chains from two inbred* strains, called C3H and A/J. She immunized mice from each strain with the other's mu chains, yielding C3H anti-A/J mu and A/J anti-C3H mu. (brainmass.com)
- Results were validated in mu MT mice, which lack B cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- In mu MT mice, T-cell dependent tumor rejection and anti-PD-1 responses were no different than in wildtype C57BL/6 J mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- These results suggest that oral vaccination with LVS induces protective immunity against i.n. challenge with F. tularensis SCHU S4 by a process mediated cooperatively by CD4 + T cells and antibodies, including IgA. (asm.org)
- Using a murine respiratory challenge model we have previously demonstrated a role for Th1 cells in natural immunity against Bordetella pertussis, but could not rule out a role for antibody. (nih.gov)
- B-cell functions, including but not limited to antibody production, are also required for generation of protective immunity. (asmscience.org)
- Considering the negligible heterosubtypic immunity induced by current inactivated influenza vaccines, which induce strain-specific antibody responses, further investigation is required to generate a vaccine with a capacity to induce cross-protective immunity. (asm.org)
- Anti-Monkey IgM antibody is ideal for investigators in Immunology, Microbiology, and Cell Biology. (rockland-inc.com)
- S. S. Saini, W. Farrugia, P. A. Ramsland, and A. K. Kaushik, "Bovine IgM antibodies with exceptionally long complementarity-determining region 3 of the heavy chain share unique structural properties conferring restricted V H + V λ pairings," International Immunology , vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 845-853, 2003. (hindawi.com)
- B. L. Bosch, K. D. Beaman, and Y. B. Kim, "Characterization of a cDNA clone encoding for a porcine immunoglobulin μ chain," Developmental and Comparative Immunology , vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 329-337, 1992. (hindawi.com)
- K. E. Bernstein, C. B. Alexander, E. P. Reddy, and R. G. Mage, "Complete sequence of a cloned cDNA encoding rabbit secreted μ -chain of V(H)a2 allotype: comparisons with V(H)a1 and membrane μ sequences," Journal of Immunology , vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 490-495, 1984. (hindawi.com)
- IgM is one of the predominant surface immunoglobulins on B-lymphocytes, and is useful when identifying Leukemias, Plasmacytomas, and B-cell lineage derived Hodgkin's Lymphomas. (biosb.com)
- Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) A is the predominant Immunoglobulin in mucosal secretions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Surface immunoglobulin light-chain restriction is evidence of clonality in mature B-cell neoplasms. (bvsalud.org)
- An aberrant pattern of surface light-chain expression can also be considered evidence of clonality. (bvsalud.org)
- According to a previous study, flow cytometric analysis of the cytoplasmic pattern of light-chain expression in mature B-cell neoplasms is a viable approach to confirming clonality. (bvsalud.org)
- Herein, we report a case, in which clonality could not be proven by surface light-chain analysis, but was demonstrated by cytoplasmic light-chain analysis. (bvsalud.org)
- This case support consideration of flow cytometric analysis of cytoplasmic light-chain expression patterns when aberrant surface light chain expression is observed, to confirm clonality of mature B-cell neoplasms. (bvsalud.org)
- The isolated immunoglobulins were also subjected to other analyses to identify and to confirm the structures of carbohydrate molecules that were incorporated, as well as to assess the effects of inhibition of N-glycosylation or N-linked oligosaccharide processing on the biological functions of immunoglobulins. (gla.ac.uk)
- Though most of the endogenous mu chain expression was excluded by the expression of the human rearranged mu transgene in TG.SA mouse, a significant portion of splenic B lymphocytes could express the transgenic human IgM and endogenous mouse IgG simultaneously after stimulation with LPS and IL-4. (nii.ac.jp)
- IgM is a purified immunoglobulin fraction of rabbit antiserum that is filter sterilized and diluted in buffer pH 7.5, containing BSA and sodium azide as a preservative. (biosb.com)
- 6. If one injects a rabbit with a humanimmunoglobulin with a γ1 heavy chain and a κlight chain, the determinants on the constantregion of the human antibody will berecognized as foreign, and the rabbit willmake antibodies against them. (slideshare.net)
- However, injection of human IgG into a rabbit would generate antibodies directed against those same structural features. (mam9.com)
- Urinary excretion of the mu fragment has been noted in very few patients, presumably because the polymers of the carboxy-terminal mu fragment are too large to be filtered by intact renal glomeruli. (medscape.com)
- In a study on adult volunteers, antibodies to a fragment of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a surface-exposed protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae , correlated with protection against colonization with a serotype 23F pneumococcus, while antibodies against type 23F capsular polysaccharide did not ( 15 ). (asm.org)
- The F(ab')2 fragment of the antibody is obtained from pepsin digested antiserum by immunospecific methods of purification. (abcam.cn)
- Sequence alignment of the bovine 5' E mu enhancer core region with those of other mammals, demonstrated an absence of the mu E3 motif and a shortened spacer between the mu A and mu B sites within the bovine E mu enhancer core region. (mysciencework.com)
- Acts as a transcriptional repressor on minimal promoter containing mu E3 enhancer sequence (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
- The inventors have determined that immunoglobulins can have a different structure than the known four-chain model and that such different immunoglobulins offer new means for the preparation of diagnosis reagents, therapeutical agents or any other reagent for use in research or industrial purposes. (justia.com)
- SDS-PAGE Analysis Purified IgM Mouse Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody (rIGHM/2558). (neobiotechnologies.com)
- Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human Tonsil stained with IgM Mouse Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody (rIGHM/2558). (neobiotechnologies.com)
- Hardman et al "Generation of a Recombinant Mouse --Human Chimaeric Monoclonal Antibody Directed Against Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen", Int. J. Cancer, 44: 424-433 (1989). (patentgenius.com)
- Fig. 1: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human Tonsil stained with vWF Recombinant Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (rVWF/2480). (abeomics.com)
- Immunoglobulin's (antibodies) are produced by multiple myeloma cells and the production of these abnormal immunoglobulin's offer no benefit to the body and ultimately lead to the detrimental health effects suffered by myeloma patients including kidney impairment, interference with blood cell production and an impaired immune system. (cancerconnect.com)
- These are antibodies present in blood which are produced by B cells and are used by immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria, virus and any foreign objects. (juniordentist.com)
- The hinge region is the area of the H chains between the first and second C region domains and is held together by disulfide bonds. (scribd.com)
- IgM forms polymers where multiple immunoglobulins are covalently linked together with disulfide bonds, normally as a pentamer or occasionally as a hexamer. (biosb.com)
- 1993). "Disulfide bond assignment in human J chain and its covalent pairing with immunoglobulin M". Biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
- The methods include the use of a component-binding moiety specific to the component of interest, such as an antibody, to detect the component of interest. (google.ca)
- Maisnar et al presented a case study in which they used immunofixation electrophoresis, capillary zone electrophoresis with immunotyping, and high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis to detect and characterize monoclonal mu-heavy chains in a patient with multiple malignancies. (medscape.com)
- We provide tools for path-breaking research by developing antibodies that detect a comprehensive library of novel and established targets. (abgent.com)
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a biochemical technique to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. (biomol.com)