Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

Competition on nitrocellulose-immobilized antibody arrays: from bacterial protein binding assay to protein profiling in breast cancer cells. (1/118)

Large scale comparative evaluation of protein expression requires miniaturized techniques to provide sensitive and accurate measurements of the abundance of molecules present as individual and/or assembled protein complexes in cells. The principle of competition between target molecules for binding to arrayed antibodies has recently been proposed to assess differential expression of numerous proteins with one-color or two-color fluorescence detection methods. To establish the limiting factors and to validate the use of alternative detection for protein profiling, we performed competitive binding assays under different conditions. A model experimental protocol was developed whereby the competitive displacement of multi-subunit bacterial RNA polymerase and/or its subunits was evaluated through binding to subunit-specific immobilized monoclonal antibodies. We show that the difference in physico-chemical properties of unlabeled and labeled molecules significantly affects the performance of one-color detection, whereas epitope inaccessibility in the protein complex can prohibit the assessment of competition by both detection methods. Our data also demonstrate that antibody cross-reactivity, target protein truncation and abundance, as well as the cellular compartment of origin are major factors that affect protein profiling on antibody arrays. The experimental conditions established for prokaryotic proteins were adopted to compare protein profiles in the breast tumor-derived cell lines MDA MB-231 and SKBR3. Competitive displacement was detected and confirmed for a number of proteins using both detection methods; however, we show that overall the two-color method is better suited for accurate expression profile evaluation of a large, complex set of proteins. Antibody array data confirm the functional linkage between the ErbB2 receptor and AP-2 transcription factors in these cell lines and highlight unexpected differences in G1 cyclin expression.  (+info)

Dual-allele dipstick assay for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms by primer extension reaction. (2/118)

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Generation, affinity maturation, and characterization of a human anti-human NKG2D monoclonal antibody with dual antagonistic and agonistic activity. (3/118)

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Development of immunoaffinity restricted access media for rapid extractions of low-mass analytes. (4/118)

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Application of the checkerboard immunoblotting technique to the quantification of host biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid. (5/118)

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Digoxigenin modification of adenovirus to spatially control gene delivery from chitosan surfaces. (6/118)

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Selective detection of live pathogens via surface-confined electric field perturbation on interdigitated silicon transducers. (7/118)

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Biointeraction analysis by high-performance affinity chromatography: Kinetic studies of immobilized antibodies. (8/118)

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Three calix[4]arene (Cal-4) derivatives which separately contain ethylester (1), carboxylic acid (2), and crownether (3) at the lower rim with a common reactive thiol at the upper rim were synthesized and constructed to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au films. After spectroscopic characterization of the monolayers, surface coverage and orientation of antibody immobilized on the Cal-4 derivative SAMs were studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Experimental results revealed that the antibody could be immobilized on the Cal-4 derivatives spontaneously. The orientation of absorbed antibody on the Cal-4 derivative SAMs is related to the SAMs dipole moment. The possible orientations of the antibody immobilized on the Cal-4 derivative 1 SAM are lying-on or side-on, while on the Cal-4 derivative 2 and Cal-4 derivative 3 head-on and end-on respectively. These experimental results demonstrate the surface dipole moment of Cal-4 derivative appears to be an important factor to antibody
Integration of fluorescent-conjugated polymers as detection moiety with metallic striped nanorods for multiplexed detection of clinically important cancer marker proteins in an immunoassay format was demonstrated in this report. Specifically, cationic conjugated polymers were introduced to protein complexes through electrostatic binding to negatively charged double-stranded DNA, which was tagged on detection antibodies prior to antigen recognition. The intense fluorescence emission of conjugated polymers resulted in highly sensitive detection of cancer marker proteins wherein an undiluted bovine serum sample as low as ∼25 target molecules captured on each particle was detectable. Meanwhile, the use of polymer molecules as the detection probe did not obscure the optical pattern of underlying nanorods, i.e., the encoding capability of barcoded nanorods was preserved, which allowed simultaneous detection of three cancer marker proteins with good specificity ...
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We have a keen interest in the development of alternative biocatalysts for synthetic and industrial applications. Predominantly our research focuses on the characterization and evolution of enzymes originating from extremophilic organisms, both archaea and bacteria, which thrive in high-salt environments or below freezing temperatures. Currently we are working with a variety of enzymes encompassing oxido-reductases, transaminases, and hydrolases. The environmental adaptation of the organisms translates into unique enzymatic properties such as high tolerance to organic solvents and broad substrate scope.. To maximize enzymatic stability we have developed tailored immobilization strategies which allow us to use (and re-use) the enzymes in batch as well as in flow-systems.. Our research is highly interdisciplinary with a number of collaborators in the US as well as Europe, and together we are looking at the assembly of semi-synthetic enzymes with enhanced biocatalytic properties.. We have a smaller ...
Peptide selenoesters have recently emerged as key building blocks for the ligation-based assembly of large polypeptides and proteins. Herein, we report an efficient solid-phase method for the high yielding and epimerisation-free synthesis of peptide selenoesters using a side-chain immobilisation strategy.
The goal of the Phase I part of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerable dose of milatuzumab that can be given to patients with NHL or CLL. The goal of the Phase II part of this clinical research study is to learn if milatuzumab can help to control NHL or CLL. The safety of the study drug will also be studied.
Milatuzumab or placebo will be given subcutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks to determine if milatuzumab helps to control lupus (SLE). The treatment portion of the study lasts 4 weeks. Then patients are followed for disease activity for at least 12 weeks. If patients respond to the study drug, they may be eligible for one course of retreatment, again followed by 12 weeks of follow-up. Patients who showed a response will continue to be followed at timepoints up to one year after treatment to assess how long the response lasts ...
Compare and contrast animal plant cells 330x220 illustration magnificent 5 cell comparison category. Compare and contrast animal plant cells 6549878 362 vision pretty extra credit the cell provide minimum 4 differences 3 similarities are middle. Automotive Fuse Box
Page contains details about immunosensor . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Background Biosensor-based detection provides a rapid and low-cost alternative to conventional analytical methods for revealing the presence of the contaminants in water as well as solid matrices. Although important to be detected, small analytes (few hundreds of Daltons) are an issue in biosensing since the signal they induce in the transducer, and specifically in a Quartz-Crystal Microbalance, is undetectable. A pesticide like parathion (M = 292 Da) is a typical example of contaminant for which a signal amplification procedure is desirable. Methods/Findings The ballasting of the analyte by gold nanoparticles has been already applied to heavy target as proteins or bacteria to improve the limit of detection. In this paper, we extend the application of such a method to small analytes by showing that once the working surface of a Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) has been properly functionalized, a limit of detection lower than 1 ppb is reached for parathion. The effective surface functionalization is
Hydrophobic polystyrene is the most common material for solid phase immunoassay. Proteins are immobilized on polystyrene by passive adsorption, which often causes considerable denaturation. Biological macromolecules were found to better retain their functional activity when immobilized on hydrophilic materials. Polyacrylamide is a common material for solid-phase carriers of biological macromolecules, including immunoreagents used in affinity chromatography. New macroformats for immunoassay modified with activated polyacrylamide derivatives seem to be promising. New polymeric matrices for immunoassay in the form of 0.63-cm balls which contain hydrazide functional groups on hydrophilic polymer spacer arms at their surface shell are synthesized by modification of aldehyde-containing polystyrene balls with hydrazide derivatives of poly(meth)acrylic acid. The beads contain up to 0.31 μmol/cm2 active hydrazide groups accessible for covalent reaction with periodate-oxidized antibodies. The matrices obtained
Fluorescence immunoassays employing monoclonal antibodies directed against the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were conducted in a multi-channel microimmunosensor. The multi-channel microimmunosensor was prepared in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via hot embossing from a brass molding tool. The multi-channeled microfluidic device was sol-gel coated to generate a siloxane surface that provided a scaffold for antibody immobilization. AlexaFluor-cadaverine-trinitrobenzene (AlexaFluor-Cad-TNB) was used as the reporter molecule in a displacement immunoassay. The limit of detection was 1-10 ng/mL (ppb) with a linear dynamic range that covered three orders of magnitude. In addition, antibody crossreactivity was investigated using hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), HMX, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT) and 2-amino-4,6-DNT.
Takeoka T, Nagase H, Kurose K, Ohue Y, Yamasaki M, Takiguchi S, Sato E, Isobe M, Kanazawa T, Matsumoto M, Iwahori K, Kawashima A, Morimoto-Okazawa A, Nishikawa H, Oka M, Pan L, Venhaus R, Nakayama E, Mori M, Doki Y, Wada H. NY-ESO-1 Protein Cancer Vaccine With Poly-ICLC and OK-432: Rapid and Strong Induction of NY-ESO-1-specific Immune Responses by Poly-ICLC. J Immunother. 2017 Mar 23. doi: 10.1097/CJI.0000000000000162. [Epub ahead of print ...
Herein, an ultrasensitive and stereo-selective electrochemiluminescent (ECL) biosensor based on ECL signal amplification of luminol by the synergetic catalysis of a hemin-functionalized composite and gold-platinum nanowires (Au-PtNWs) has been designed for the detection of d-alanine (d-Ala). In the sensor de
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
LOC DEVICE FOR ELECTROCHEMILUMINESCENT DETECTION OF TARGET NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCES WITH CALIBRATED PHOTODETECTION OF PROBES IN HYBRIDIZATION ARRAY - diagram, schematic, and image 103 ...
LOC DEVICE FOR ELECTROCHEMILUMINESCENT DETECTION OF TARGET NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCES WITH CALIBRATED PHOTODETECTION OF PROBES IN HYBRIDIZATION ARRAY - diagram, schematic, and image 84 ...
Anti-Human IL-17F Capture Antibody: This Antibody can be used as Capture in a human **** sandwich Immunoassay to detect human **** in combination with biotinylated human **** Detection Antibody (Cat n° ***.***.***). The suggested coating concentration range below should be optimised by each laboratory for each application.
Best New Standard: Standards help to make sharing biological parts easier. For example, the BioBrick DNA assembly standard makes it easier to construct parts from pre-existing parts created by the entire BioBrick community. What other sorts of standards can you create? How about a standard system for measuring promoter activity, a standard method for reporting compatible/ incompatible parts, a standard to help describe and control post-translational modifications (such as phosphorylation), or chassis-specific standards (for instance, a system for describing and sharing transgenic yeast ...
li,,b,Best New Standard,/b,: Standards help to make sharing biological parts easier. For example, the BioBrick DNA assembly standard makes it easier to construct parts from pre-existing parts created by the entire BioBrick community. What other sorts of standards can you create? How about a standard system for measuring promoter activity, a standard method for reporting compatible/ incompatible parts, a standard to help describe and control post-translational modifications (such as phosphorylation), or chassis-specific standards (for instance, a system for describing and sharing transgenic yeast)?,br ...
J. In addition, there is some suggestion that vagal afferent fibers to Tadlaafil-20mg esophagus, which may normally produce transient relaxation of the distal sphincter, may de- stroyed by the thermal energy.
Several related methods for multiplexed detection of one or more posttranslational modifications of a plurality of proteins are provided. Methods for detecting one or more nucleic acid binding proteins are also provided. Use of such methods (e.g., methods of detecting phosphorylation of protein kinases) for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of disease is also included. Compositions, systems and kits that relate to each of the methods are described.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody immobilization on functional monolayers using a quartz crystal microbalance. AU - Aizawa, Hidenobu. AU - Gokita, Yasutoshi. AU - Park, Jong Won. AU - Yoshimi, Yasuo. AU - Kurosawa, Shigeru. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - This paper evaluated immobilization of anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) monoclonal antibody on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) when 2-aminoethanethiol (AET), 4,4-dithiodibutyric acid (DDA), and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) were deposited on the gold surface of QCM. In all monolayers, anti-CRP antibodies were immobilized such as Langmuir types because it had been introduced with a corresponding active group. According to the Langmuir isotherm equation amax, the maximum immobilized amounts of anti-CRP antibody were 4.27, 2.72, and 3.74 pmol/cm2, respectively. Although the immobilized amount of anti-CRP antibody was highest on the AET monolayer, the amount of antigen-antibody binding between the anti-CRP antibody and the CRP was highest on the MUA ...
The occurrence of cancer involves altered protein expression, known as biomarkers of disease. The serum levels of biomarker proteins are used as indicators to differentiate between diseased and healthy states, and to monitor disease progression. Sensitive measurement of proteins over-expressed in individuals with cancer holds excellent promise for early disease detection and personalized therapies. However, the required point-of-care measurement has yet to be broadly realized. Thus, there is an urgent need for simpler, faster and inexpensive detection of serum biomarkers with high sensitivity and accuracy. In this dissertation, new methodologies for ultrasensitive multiplexed detection of serum biomarker proteins for oral cancer, as well as other malignancies, utilizing different aspects of nanotechnology in conjunction with electrochemical detection have been developed and characterized. The first part of the approach addresses the study of interleukin-6 (IL-6) using single-walled carbon nanotube
Article: Smith, James P.; Huang, Chao; Kirby, Brian J.; (2015) "Enhancing Sensitivity and Specificity in Rare Cell Capture Microdevices with Dielectrophoresis", Biomicrofluidics, 9(1). DOI. Abstract: The capture and subsequent analysis of rare cells, such as circulating tumor cells from a peripheral blood sample, has the potential to advance our understanding and treatment of a wide range of diseases. There is a particular need for high purity (i.e., high specificity) techniques to isolate these cells, reducing the time and cost required for single-cell genetic analyses by decreasing the number of contaminating cells analyzed. Previous work has shown that antibody-based immunocapture can be combined with dielectrophoresis (DEP) to differentially isolate cancer cells from leukocytes in a characterization device. Here, we build on that work by developing numerical simulations that identify microfluidic obstacle array geometries where DEP-immunocapture can be used to maximize the capture of target ...
Measuring ligand receptor forces using the atomic force microscope as a force-sensing instrument has been well documented. For example in the detection of antibody-antigen interactions with the antibody attached to the AFM tip with a spacer molecule in-between. The vast majority of these studies use idealized systems, such as individual antibodies adsorbed onto a well-defined substrate. Little work has been done on the investigations on biological systems more representative of actual real-life situations. It has been demonstrated that antibody - antigen interactions can be detected on collagen tendons with an unbinding force of 90 - 120 pN. In addition, by moving the AFM tip laterally the spatial distribution of the interactions could be determined a resolution of a hundred nanometers showing a non-uniform distribution of events across the tendon. The analysis was complicated by signals arising from not only from antibody-antigen interactions but also from the pulling of the collagen fibrils by the
Milatuzumab (or hLL1) is an anti-CD74 humanized monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple myeloma non-Hodgkins lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The drug is the first anti-CD74 antibody that has entered into human testing and is currently being studied for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Milatuzumab has received orphan drug designation from the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for the treatment of multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Milatuzumab was developed by Immunomedics, Inc, (Morris Plains NJ USA). CD74 is present on a variety of hematological tumors and even on some solid cancers. It is present in limited amounts in normal tissues but widely found in leukemias, lymphomas and the vast majority of multiple myeloma cases.[citation needed] CD74 is involved in a cell-to-cell communication pathway that is critical for survival.[citation needed] When CD74 is blocked by milatuzumab, it can lead to cell death. CD74 is an attractive target for a ...
phdthesis{34b38b30-7926-4d3b-be18-4e6e97c97e27, abstract = {Antibody-based microarrays are among the novel class of rapidly evolving proteomic technologies. In recent years, antibody microarrays have emerged as a unique tool for high-throughput protein expression profiling with great promise within biomedicine and a wide range of potential applications, including disease diagnostics and biomarker discovery. In order to evolve the technology from small dedicated microarrays to high-density well-performing arrays for true global proteome analysis, this thesis focussed on the design of the two key components of the antibody microarray setup: the probe and the solid support, i.e. ?catcher and carrier?. The thesis is based upon five original papers that deal with i) the central features of the probe (on-chip functionality and stability, sensitivity and immobilisation strategies) and ii) the biocompatibility of the solid support (defined by the spot morphology, binding capacity, signal to noise ratio, ...
Immobilization of growth factors in scaffolds is important for controlling their dose and bioactivity for regenerative medicine applications. Although numerous covalent and noncovalent immobilization strategies have been proposed, better growth factor loading and dose control inside the scaffold is necessary. Nature of the binding site on the growth factor interacting with scaffold is critical for preserving and achieving maximal growth factor functionality, which has been a relatively less emphasized issue in previous studies. We recently reported heparin mimetic peptide nanofibers, which mimic chemistry of heparan sulfates. Heparin mimetic nanofibers were shown to bind to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and direct endothelial cells to angiogenesis. Here, we further investigated interactions between heparin mimetic peptide nanofibers and growth factors. We tested bioactivity of the nanofiber bound growth factors in order to understand the potential use of these peptide nanofiber ...
Microfluidic affinity-based cell capture devices are presently able to isolate specific cell populations from heterogeneous samples, such as whole blood. The impact of this potentially powerful technology, however, is restricted by the fact that there is no reliable method to release the target cells from the capture surface while preserving their integrity. This work presents the development and evaluation of a functional hydrogel coating that supplements microfluidic capture devices to enable both specific capture and release. The hydrogels are formed by ionically crosslinking a microscale pre-functionalized alginate film on top of the capture substrate. After linking the antibody to the exposed functional sites, the gels may be used to capture cells of interest from physiological solutions. The captured cells may be released by applying a gentle chelating buffer which dissolves the gel, eliminating both the specific and the non-specific cell-surface interactions. This system was evaluated for ...
Cytokine (Human) Quantitative Antibody Array 6 is a multiplex antibody array for the quantitative measurement of 40 human cytokines in 8-10 samples. (AA0107) - Products - Abnova
Release of the first human genome assembly was a landmark achievement, and after nearly two decades of improvements, the current human reference genome (GRCh38) is the most accurate and compl
The Bio-ID is the worlds first platform to integrate Inanovates patented LAS technology. The Bio-ID is a multiplexed protein quantification platform which, in real-time, measures protein concentrations from complex matrices. The instrument combines high sensitivity confocal imaging and microfluidics alongside protein based microarrays, resulting in a novel solution to the problems associated with existing state-of-the-art multiplexed platforms.. Instead of depending on a 96-well micro-titer plate, the Bio-ID utilizes a glass slide based protein microarray combined with microfluidics for dispensing and binding samples and detection antibodies. A typical Bio-ID cartridge is shown in the photo to the below right.. In its most basic form, the protein microarray is composed of capture antibodies for the proteins (analytes) being measured, as well as positive and negative quality control features for ensuring sample to sample, run to run, lot to lot, and user to user consistency.. Conceptually ...
The Bio-ID is the worlds first platform to integrate Inanovates patented LAS technology. The Bio-ID is a multiplexed protein quantification platform which, in real-time, measures protein concentrations from complex matrices. The instrument combines high sensitivity confocal imaging and microfluidics alongside protein based microarrays, resulting in a novel solution to the problems associated with existing state-of-the-art multiplexed platforms.. Instead of depending on a 96-well micro-titer plate, the Bio-ID utilizes a glass slide based protein microarray combined with microfluidics for dispensing and binding samples and detection antibodies. A typical Bio-ID cartridge is shown in the photo to the below right.. In its most basic form, the protein microarray is composed of capture antibodies for the proteins (analytes) being measured, as well as positive and negative quality control features for ensuring sample to sample, run to run, lot to lot, and user to user consistency.. Conceptually ...
R&D Systems is now offering Proteome Profiler™ 96 Infrared Antibody Arrays that utilize IRDye® 800CW Streptavidin from LI-COR® Biosciences. These multiplex kits also use a 96-well microplate pre-spotted with up to 16 different capture antibodies and an HRP-conjugated detection antibody to detect the relative phosphorylation of multiple kinases in a single sample of cell lysate. Fluorescent signals are measured using a LI-COR Odyssey® infrared imaging system, such as the Odyssey CLx, Odyssey Sa,
The paper by Ribba et al. (2012) [1, BIOMD0000000521] exemplifies a remarkable example of a model developed in close collaboration between modellers and clinicians for which the data has been collected for over 10 years. At the time of publication, it was the first model that successfully described the time course of tumour growth inhibition for patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG) as consequence of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The model is based on the observation that after a termination of PCV chemotherapy, LGGs often continue to shrink in volume for an extended period of time, ranging from months to years. The hypothesis explaining this phenomenon assumes a certain delay in the action of chemotherapy on non proliferating cells. This is in line with the known cell-cycle non-specific mechanism of action of the PCV regimen related agent. PCV stands for a drug cocktail, i.e. a mixture of three chemotherapeutic components: ...
The invention covers a method of implanting a living donor cell into a host animal without inflammatory response or rejection of the donor cell by the host animal, by obtaining an uncoated particle of a biocompatible, temperature-independent gel that encapsulates the living donor cell, wherein the uncoated particle provides a molecular weight cutoff that prevents host animal immune cells from entering the particle, yet does not have to prevent entry of host animal IgG and complement into the particle, and implanting the uncoated particle into the host animal.
Cytokine (Human) Antibody Array includes 42 highly specific and well-characterized antibodies on membrane. (AA0073) - Products - Abnova
Obesity Antibody Array (# WHA-R403). Detects 10 Human, Mouse, and Rat Adipokines. Suitable for serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatants.
Abcams Human Neuro Antibody Array II (ab211063) for use with cell culture media, serum, plasma, cell and tissue lysates and other liquid samples. Targets: Adiponec…
The process of building DNA nanobots starts on a microfluidic chip.. Decades of research have allowed researchers to optimize DNA assembly outside the body. With the help of catalysts, which help "bind" individual molecules together, the team found that they could easily alter the shape of the self-assembling DNA bots-which formed fiber-like shapes-by changing the structure of the microfluidic chambers.. Computer simulations played a role here too: through both digital simulations and observations under the microscope, the team was able to identify a few critical rules that helped them predict how their molecules self-assemble while navigating a maze of blocking "pillars" and channels carved onto the microchips.. This "enabled a general design strategy for the DASH patterns," they said.. In particular, the whirling motion of the fluids as they coursed through-and bumped into-ridges in the chips seems to help the DNA molecules "entangle into networks," the team explained.. These insights helped ...
The combination of analytic software advances with microscope features provides the iCys with the ability to automatically move the microscope stage to another region of interest after scanning and analysis are complete. The event can then be viewed using the microscope optics, while simultaneously viewing the laser scan images. The user may further utilize any number of microscope accessories available, including optomechanical devices for micromanipulation and cell capture. The iCys displays the 3D morphology of the specimen with protocol-driven settings for variable angle laser scatter along with absorbance direction. The variable resolution scanning yields the ability to scan larger areas for higher throughput analysis. This produces the best resolution of the analysis without compromising sensitivity. The iCys also combines scanned imaging with live visualization.. Since the specimens under study are on slides, they can be measured repeatedly over time, which is ideal for the study of ...
We use NEBuilder HiFi DNA Assembly Master Mix from NEB to build all of our homologous repair templates. This cloning approach allows multiple fragments to be assembled together seamlessly and in a single step ...
C55 High throughput screening technologies have revolutionized the manner in which potential therapeutics are identified. One casualty of the move to high throughput screening technologies has been the widespread disappearance of natural product extracts from pharmaceutical screening programs. Though they are the source of lead compounds for ~65% of anticancer and antimicrobial drugs approved by the FDA between 1981-2002, natural products have often been excluded from modern screening programs. This is due, at least in part, to the inherent difficulties in testing complex extract mixtures, which often contain nuisance compounds, in modern bioassay systems. Here we present a novel electrochemiluminescent assay system that is suitable for testing natural product extracts in high throughput screening systems. To demonstrate its utility, we have developed a screen for inhibition of E3 (ubiquitin ligase) activity utilizing the cancer-relevant molecular target MDM2. Additional screens for inhibition ...
This issue of Biofiles reviews some of our newest and most innovative technologies and their specific applications toward cancer research. In preparing this issue of Biofiles, one is reminded how complex the disease of cancer is, and how difficult it is to identify one topic that is completely unrelated to any other.
Researchers needed an easy-to-understand presentation to explain complex genetic research related to brain tumors. Presentations were made to community foundations and potential donors. Client was able to raise additional funds to proceed with next phase …
The RayBio® SpeedELISA kits utilize the sandwich-based principle of detection with a compressed workflow that allows quantitative measurement of protein concentration in only three hours A biotinylated capture antibody/HRP-conjugated detection antibody mixture is pipetted into the
Capture antibody to the plate, and 24h incubation. Second day, block, add the samples and then detection antibody. After this add the enzyme and the substrate and stop with an acid. Read the plate ...
✅ Mehr als 100 hochwertige Antibody Arrays, Peptid Arrays, Bead Arrays und viele weitere Array Produkte verfügbar. Vergleichen & bestellen Sie unsere handverlesenen Produkte auf antikoerper-online. - Page 2
Platelets are the cellular components of the blood coagulation system. Among the proteins found at the surface of platelet plasma membrane, GPIIb-IIIa integrin harbors the human platelet antigens HPA-1a/b, the most clinically important platelet antigens. These antigens result from a leukine-proline polymorphism at position 33 of the GPIIb-IIIa integrin. About 2% of Caucasian women are homozygous (HPA-1b/1b) and risk forming antibodies against the integrin of the fetus. Such antibodies may destroy fetal platelets and lead to neonatal/fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT).1 Anti-platelet alloimmunization has an estimated incidence of 1 in 1,000 pregnancies and may cause in utero cerebral bleeds or ventriculomegaly.2-4 Thus, screening and identification of maternal alloantibodies are critical in early detection of such alloimmunization.5. Up to now, all methods for detecting auto- or alloantibodies directed at platelets, such as monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen assay ...
Synthetic biology is producing a paradigm shift in biotechnology based on the introduction of engineering principles in the design of new organisms by genetic modification (Check, 2005; Haseloff and Ajioka, 2009). Whereas synthetic biology has rapidly permeated microbial biotechnology, the engineering of multicelled organisms following synthetic biology principles is now emerging and is mainly driven by the so-called top-down approaches, where newly engineered genetic circuits are embedded into naturally existing organisms used as a "chassis." The plant chassis offers an extraordinarily fertile ground for synthetic biology-like engineering. However, technology still faces the huge challenge of performing engineering-driven genetic designs. One of the main technological challenges of plant synthetic biology requires the construction and transfer of multigene structures to the plant genome. This is putting pressure on developing DNA assembly and transformation technologies adapted to plants. One ...
One area of considerable importance in modern biotechnology is the preparation of highly active and selective enzyme based biocatalysts for applications in organic solvents. A major challenge is posed by the tendency of enzymes to cluster when suspended in organic solvents. Because the clusters obstruct the transport of substrates to the active site of the enzyme, the observed activity is often severely reduced. Over the past two decades, many strategies have been proposed to mitigate this problem. We have tackled this major hurdle by devising an immobilization strategy that utilizes fumed silica as carrier for the enzyme molecules. Fumed silica is a non-porous nanoparticulated fractal aggregate with unique absorptive properties. The enzyme/fumed silica preparation is formed in two steps. The buffered enzyme molecules are physically adsorbed on the fumed silica and then lyophilized. This protocol was shown to be successful with two enzymes of industrial relevance, Candida antarctica Lipase B ...
Detectable compounds comprising a chemically-transformable first compound covalently linked to an electrochemiluminescent compound are provided. Such compounds are useful in processes and kits that monitor the status of the first compound and derive information from such monitoring. A rapid single step assay suitable for the detection or quantification of β-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamases. The assay can be performed directly on samples of food, such as milk and meat, blood or serum and is useful in determining the suitability of a particular antibiotic in treating a particular bacterial infection and in diagnosis of a bacterial infection. The assay is also useful in determining and quantifying β-lactam antibiotic resistance. The assay can be performed on an IGEN OrigenR Analyzer.
Background: Improvements in asthma diagnosis and management require deeper understanding of the heterogeneity of the complex airway inflammation. We hypothesise that differences in the two major inflammatory phenotypes of asthma; eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma, will be reflected in the lung protein expression profile of murine asthma models and can be delineated using proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Methods: BAL from mice challenged with ovalbumin (OVA/OVA) alone (standard model of asthma, here considered eosinophilic) or OVA in combination with endotoxin (OVA/LPS, model of neutrophilic asthma) was analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compared with steroid-treated animals and healthy controls. In addition, conventional inflammatory markers were analysed using multiplexed ELISA (Bio-Plex T assay). Multivariate statistics was performed on integrative proteomic fingerprints using principal component analysis. Proteomic data were ...
Individual proteins can now often be modified with atomic precision, but there are still major obstacles to connecting proteins into larger assemblies. To direct protein assembly, ideally, peptide tags would be used, providing the minimal perturbation to protein function. However, binding to peptides is generally weak, so assemblies are unstable over time and disassemble with force or harsh conditions. We have recently developed an irreversible protein-peptide interaction (SpyTag/SpyCatcher), based on a protein domain from Streptococcus pyogenes, that locks itself together via spontaneous isopeptide bond formation. Here we develop irreversible peptide-peptide interaction, through redesign of this domain and genetic dissection into three parts: a protein domain termed SpyLigase, which now ligates two peptide tags to each other. All components expressed efficiently in Escherichia coli and peptide tags were reactive at the N terminus, at the C terminus, or at internal sites. Peptide-peptide ligation
Todays solar cells capture about 15 percent of the suns light. The reason why more is not absorbed is that only visible sun light is captured," says Senior Research Scientist Arne Røyset. "The conventional way of thinking is that the solar cells shall adapt themselves to the light. We have chosen to reverse the problem and also work on the sun light adapting itself to the solar cells.". Humans can see light in the spectrum from 400 to 700 nanometres. Ordinary solar cells capture light right up to 1000 nanometres but, in spite of this, much of the light escapes. Sunlight has a specific wave length and quantity of energy. By combining two and two particles, the quantity of energy doubles, while the wave length halves. "The thin film is placed on the outside of the solar cells and it is the optical properties that make this possible," says Røyset. "By halving the wavelength, invisible light becomes visible and, as a result, it is captured by sun cells. We call this frequency conversion or light ...
These arrays require no specialized equipment and eliminate the need for multiple Western blot experiments. Antibody array kits contain buffers, detection antibodies, and membranes spotted in duplicate with high quality capture antibodies. The arrays utilize chemiluminescence for detection and membranes can be assessed for protein levels in the same manner as traditional Western blots. Select arrays that are also suitable for use with the LI-COR® detection system.. Watch video on how to use Proteome Profiler Arrays. Features:. ...
Ophthalmology occupation is exceptionally prone to health hazards of various nature: ergonomic, infectious, allergic, stress-related, and psychosocial. In the follwoing table disease conditions, related agents, and hazards categories are listed comprehensively:
en] Functionalized poly-ε-caprolactone-block-polyethyleneglycol (PCL-PEG) amphiphilic copolymers were prepared to be constituents of nanocarriers used for the targeting of specific cells. Hence, we conceived a smooth and simple photografting methodology on these copolymers using a bifunctional molecular clip (O-succinimidyl-4-(p-azido-phenyl)butanoate). We prepared PCL-PEGs with pendent N-hydroxysuccinimide esters and studied the grafting with 3H-lysine, which radioactivity was counted by LSC. Several parameters were investigated, such as behavior of homopolymers, initial concentrations, irradiation, and incubation durations. Evidences of a "PEG directed photografting" are discussed and this selectivity could be improved by a selective solvent technique. The photografting on different PCL-PEGs revealed a dependency of the rates to the crystallinity of the copolymers. Several controls by SEC, DLS, and TEM of the treated copolymers were realized. Lastly, the coupling of α-d-mannopyranoside ...
SelectScience visited the EDM Millipore booth at Neuroscience 2012 to find out more about the SNAP i.d.® 2.0 Protein Detection System. The new and improved SNAP i.d.® 2.0 Protein Detection System is the second generation of the SNAP i.d.® method for detecting immunoreactive proteins on western blots. With this unique vacuum-driven system, the length of time required for immunodetection is greatly reduced.
Use Human Cytokine Antibody Array, 40 Targets for fast, easy, and consistent DNA/RNA Purification, Antibody/Protein Purification, Cell Isolation.
Antibody Array Kit for studying GMCSF/IFN-gamma/IL10/IL12A/IL13/IL17A/IL2/IL4/IL5/IL6/IL8/TNF-alpha in the Growth Factors/Cytokines research area.
Antibody Array Kit for studying GMCSF/IFN-gamma/IL10/IL12A/IL13/IL17A/IL2/IL4/IL5/IL6/IL8/STAT3 (Ser727) phosphate/TNF-alpha in the Growth Factors/Cytokines research area.
The microfluidic device that Dr. Ruslings team developed simultaneously detects extraordinarily low levels of four proteins that together provide a diagnostic signature for oral cancer. Magnetic beads, each coated with 120,000 antibody molecules, are used to capture even trace levels of specific biomarker proteins and remove them from a blood sample. The magnetic particles are then injected into the microfluidic device, which flows the beads over the sensor elements. Each sensors electrical output corresponds to blood levels of a specific protein ...
Endothelial progenitor cell capture stents versus drug-eluting stents for angina or acute coronary syndrome, Tiantian Zhang, Yaoyao Zhou, Jianbing Zhu, Qianqian Xie, Xiaochun Qiu, Heng Ge and Junfeng Zhang. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010560 ...
As aficionados of Lego and Meccano know, once you have a construction kit the temptation is irresistible to give it moving parts: to add motors. Molecular-scale motors are well-known in biology: they make muscles contract and allow bacteria to swim. These biological motors are made of protein, but researchers have figured out how to produce controlled movement in artificial DNA assemblies too. One approach, championed by Bernie Yurke of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey and Andrew Turberfield at the University of Oxford, is to make a DNA pincer that closes when fueled with a complementary strand that sticks to the arms and pulls them together. A second fuel strand strips away the first and opens the arms wide again. Using similar principles, Turberfield and Seeman have made two-legged DNA walkers that stride step by step along DNA tracks, while a DNA robot devised by Turberfield and colleagues can negotiate a particular path through a network of such tracks, directed by fuel strands that ...
Alongside the increasing availability of affinity reagents, antibody microarrays have been developed to become a powerful tool to screen for target proteins in complex samples. Besides multiplexed sandwich immunoassays, the application of directly applying labeled sample onto arrays with immobilized capture reagents offers an approach to facilitate a systematic, high-throughput analysis of body fluids such as serum or plasma. An alternative to commonly used planar arrays has become available in form of a system based on color-coded beads for the creation of antibody arrays in suspension. The assay procedure offers an uncomplicated option to screen larger numbers of serum or plasma samples with variable sets of capture reagents. In addition, the established procedure of whole sample biotinylation circumvents the purification steps, which are generally required to remove excess labeling substance. We have shown that this assay system allows detecting proteins down into lower pico-molar and higher ...
[120 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Cancer Biomarkers Sales Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Cancer Biomarkers Revenue,...
The AlphaLISA® SureFire® Ultra™ p-JNK1/2/3 (Thr183/Tyr185) HV (high volume) assay is a sandwich immunoassay for quantitative detection of phospho-JNK1/2/3 (phosphorylated on Thr183/Tyr185) in cellular lysates using Alpha no-wash technology ...
The AlphaLISA® SureFire® Ultra™ p-STAT6 (Tyr641) assay is a sandwich immunoassay for quantitative detection of phospho-STAT6 (phosphorylated on Tyr641) in cellular lysates using Alpha Technology ...
The AlphaLISA® SureFire® Ultra™ p-STAT1 (Tyr701) assay is a sandwich immunoassay for quantitative detection of phospho-STAT1 (phosphorylated on Tyr701) in cellular lysates using Alpha Technology.
Neuroscience Antibody Array with 167 antibodies is designed for protein phosphorylation profiling of cell and tissue samples from human, mouse or rat.
Glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) are important enzymes for the development of amperometric enzyme linked immunosensors. The selectivity of each enzyme towards its analyte deepens its importance in determining the sensitivity of the resultant immunosensor. In designing immunosensors that have customized transducer surfaces, the incorporation with FAD and iron based enzymes ensures that electron kinetics remains optimal for electrochemical measurement. Various different immobilization strategies are used to produce response signals directly proportional to the concentration of analyte with minimal interferences. The combination of self-assembled monolayers and supramolecular chemistry affords stability and simplicity in immunosensor design. In this work, two electrochemical strategies for the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) is presented. This involves the modification of a gold surface with a thiolated β-cyclodextrin epichlorohydrin polymer (βCDPSH) to form a ...
The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique refers to a bioanalytical approach capable of monitoring adsorption reactions at the solid-liquid interface with the help of thumbnail‐sized piezoelectric quartz crystals that perform resonant shear oscillations of nanometre amplitude
Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a piezoelectric sensor with multiple application such as antigen-antibody interactions, detection of virus capsids, protein adsorption, and DNA and RNA...
Clinical Effects: LORATADINE AND RELATED AGENTS USES: Loratadine and desloratadine are used for the relief of allergic rhinitis for both seasonal and perennial symptoms. They are also indicated for the relief of pruritus and hives in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. PHARMACOLOGY: Loratadine and desloratadine (a major metabolite of loratadine) are long acting tricyclic histamine…
Toh, Y.-C., Zhang, C., Zhang, J., Khong, Y.M., Samper, V.D., Van, Noort D., Yu, H., Hutmacher, D.W., Chang, S. (2007). A novel 3D mammalian cell perfusion-culture system in microfluidic channels. Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology 7 (3) : 302-309. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1039/ ...
新製品、キャンペーン、カタログ、イベントなど、最新の情報を随時更新: メンブレン抗体アレイ Membrane Antibody Array
1ADQ: Structure of human IgM rheumatoid factor Fab bound to its autoantigen IgG Fc reveals a novel topology of antibody-antigen interaction.
1ADQ: Structure of human IgM rheumatoid factor Fab bound to its autoantigen IgG Fc reveals a novel topology of antibody-antigen interaction.
Meet Global Medical, Surgical and Radiation Oncologists from USA, Europe, Asia Pacific and Middle East at Cancer Conference, Oncology Conference, World Cancer Conference scheduled from November 27-28, 2017 Dubai, UAE
IP: For most effective IP use the solubilization protocol described in the ELISA protocol. Consider that protein-protein interaction may be affected.. ICC: This antibody gives much better results in ICC than the monoclonal antibody.. ELISA: Suitable as detector antibody for sandwich-ELISA with cat. no. 126 111 as capture antibody (protocol for sandwich-ELISA).. ...
The AlphaLISA® SureFire® Ultra™ p-IGF-1 Receptor β (Tyr1135/1136) assay is a sandwich immunoassay for quantitative detection of phospho-IGF Receptor β (phosphorylated on Tyr1135/1136) in cellular lysates using Alpha Technology.
Full Moon BioSystems offers a range of convenient and reliable services - Antibody Array Assay Service, Array Scanning and Image Analysis, and more.
researchers_have_identified_markers_unique_to_the_cells_of_blood_vessels_running_through_ovarian_tumors_the_finding_while_preliminary_could_one_day_improve_screening_diagnosis_and_treatment_for_this_disease
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of methanol production from synthetic gas mixture by Methylosinus sporium through covalent immobilization. AU - Patel, Sanjay K.S.. AU - Selvaraj, Chandrabose. AU - Mardina, Primata. AU - Jeong, Jae Hoon. AU - Kalia, Vipin C.. AU - Kang, Yun Chan. AU - Lee, Jung Kul. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Both methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are major greenhouse gases (GHGs); hence, effective processes are required for their conversion into useful products. CH4 is used by a few groups of methanotrophs to produce methanol. However, to achieve economical and sustainable CH4 reduction strategies, additional strains are needed that can exploit natural CH4 feed stocks. In this study, we evaluated methanol production by Methylosinus sporium from CH4 and synthetic gas. The optimum pH, temperature, incubation period, substrate, reaction volume to headspace ratio, and phosphate buffer concentration were determined to be 6.8, 30 °C, 24 h, 50% CH4, 1:5, and 100 mM (with 20 ...
Polyclonal or monoclonal antibody to detect IL-2 in sandwich Elisa? - posted in ELISA and Immunoassay: I can only either use: - polyclonal capture antibody and polyclonal capture antibody - monoclonal capture antibody and polyclonal capture antibody Im thinking the first since monoclonal capture would be too specific? But the polyclonal and polyclonal one sounds too general and would have lots of non specific binding or binding to other molecules... Thank you so much in advan...
Omics group organizes Cancer Biomarker national symposiums, conferences across the globe in association with popular Cancer Biomarker associations and companies. OMICS group planned its conferences, and events in america, europe, middle east and asia pacific. locations which are popular with international conferences, symposiums and events are china, canada, dubai, uae, france, spain, india, australia, italy, germany, singapore, malaysia, brazil, south korea, san francisco, las vegas, san antonio, omaha, orlando, raleigh, santa clara, chicago, philadelphia, baltimore, united kingdom, valencia, dubai, beijing, hyderabad, bengaluru and mumbai
View PROTEIN DETECTION for MB.BS.pptx from AA 1PROTEIN DETECTION Dr.Sajida Parveen Shaikh OBJECTIVES Define proteins List major body proteins in various body fluids. Proteinuria State Principle of
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Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gas sensor coated with thin molecular recognition membrane using acrylic acid, methacrylic acid or stylene are prepared using plasma-polymerized chemical vapor deposition (CVD)method. The sensor coated with acrylic acid thin film as the molecular recognition membrane exhibits an excellent selectivity and a high sensitivity for ammonia and amine gases. The effect of the functional groups on the sensor characteristics is also investigated.
This paper critically evaluates the electrogravimetric curves measured on the thin metal (Fe, Ni, Al and Cu) film electrode/aqueous electrolyte system at our laboratory and elsewhere, to introduce how to apply the principle of electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance technique to the study of such interfacial reactions at electrode/electrolyte as corrosion, passivation and deposition of metals. From the electrogravimetric curve measured on various thin metal film electrode specimens simultaneously with steady state voltammogram, quasi-steady state or transient voltammogram, the interfacial reaction mechanisms of the metals have been proposed ...
TY - GEN. T1 - SAMS and protein adsorption studies for the calibration of miniaturized quartz crystal microbalance arrays. AU - Kao, Ping. AU - Goyal, Abhijat. AU - Allara, David. AU - Tadigadapa, Srinivas A.. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - We report the design and fabrication of a micromachined quartz crystal balance (QCM) array for self assembled monolayers (SAMs) and protein adsorption studies. The microQCM was fabricated using recently developed inductively coupled plasma etching process for quartz to realize resonators with 60 μm thickness and electrode diameters of 0.5 mm. The reduction in the thickness and lateral pixel size has resulted in a sensitivity improvement by factor of 1364 over a commercially available macro-sized QCM. In both rigid and viscoelastic film adsorption limits, we find the microQCM to exhibit three times greater sensitivity than the predicted value when operated at the third overtone. These results show that the micromachined QCM in array format is a very ...
Morphine sulfate in doses of 90 to 150 micrograms/3 microliters evoke a prominent behavioral syndrome characterized by 1) periodic bouts of spontaneous agitation during which the rat scratches and bites at the skin of the caudal dermatomes and 2) vigorous agitation, vocalization and coordinated efforts to bite and escape evoked by a light tactile stimulus applied to the flank, suggestive of a pain state (allodynia). The phenomenon is not reversed by naltrexone or is it subject to tolerance. The ordering of activity of an opioid alkaloid related agent in producing this touch-evoked agitation is: noroxymorphone-3-glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-3-ethereal sulfate, dihydromorphine, noroxymorphone dihydrate, hydromorphone, dihydrocodeine tartrate, morphine sulfate, dihydroisomorphine, morphine-HCl, 6-acetylmorphine, N-normorphine-HCl and (+)-morphine. The following agents were essentially without effect at the highest doses examined: 3,6-diacetylmorphine, N-normeperidine-HCl, ...
"Adoptive immunotherapy of lung cancer with immobilized anti-TCRgammadelta antibody-expanded human gammadelta T-cells in ... Immunosuppressive antibodies target steps in the immune response. Other drugs modulate immune responses. ...
Phosphopeptides are enriched using phosphospecific antibodies, immobilized metal affinity chromatography or titanium dioxide ( ... Antiphosphotyrosine antibodies have been proven very successful in purification, but fewer reports have been published using ... IMAC enrichment is based on phosphate affinity for immobilized metal chelated to the resin. SCX separates phosphorylated from ... To begin with, isolation methods such as anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies do not distinguish between isolating tyrosine- ...
AMAs immobilize antibodies that capture analytes from the sample applied on the microarray. The target protein is detected ... Other protein microarrays include forward protein microarrays (PMAs) and antibody microarrays (AMAs). PMAs immobilize ... Strips with single band indicate specific antibodies that are suitable for RPMA use. Antibody performance should be also ... In addition, finding the appropriate antibody could require extensive screening of many antibodies by western blotting prior to ...
Analytical or capture protein arrays display antigens and antibodies to profile protein or antibody expression in serum. These ... Subsequently, cDNA molecules (each corresponding to one gene) are immobilized as ~100 µm diameter spots on a membrane, glass, ... Reverse-phase protein arrays test replicates of cell lysates and serum samples with different antibodies to study the changes ... A protein microarray consists of a protein library immobilized on a substrate chip, usually glass, silicon, polystyrene, PVDF, ...
The immobilized DNA is washed to remove inhibitors and used directly as a template for IS2404 PCR. The latter two methods each ... The second method uses paramagnetic beads linked to M. ulcerans antibodies to capture whole cells and separate them from ... contaminants in a magnetic field (immunomagnetic separation). Antibodies are raised in laboratory animals. Captured cells are ...
Here the DNA was immobilized in the well together with an anti-GST antibody. Then cell-free expression mix was added and the ... or C-terminus of each nascent protein will be bound by the capture reagent or antibody, thus immobilizing the proteins to form ... The mRNAs are then arrayed on a slide and immobilized by the binding of biotin to streptavidin that is pre-coated on the slide ... Many proteins, including antibodies, are difficult to express in host cells due to problems with insolubility, disulfide bonds ...
Immunoaffinity media (detailed below) utilizes antigens' and antibodies' high specificity to separate; immobilized metal ... Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography[edit]. Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) is based on the ... This allows any antibodies that recognize the antigen to be captured on the solid support. Elution of the antibodies of ... to remove the undesirable anti-GST antibodies from the serum and to purify the target antibody. ...
Briefly, magnetic beads containing primary antibodies were mixed with labeled secondary antibodies, incubated, and immobilized ... antigens interacting with immobilized antibodies) and homogeneous immunoassays (antigens interacting with antibodies in ... Superparamagnetic nanoparticles were immobilized with anti-IgE antibodies and fluorescently labeled aptamers to quantify IgE ... The magnet is reintroduced and the particles are immobilized and the droplet is moved away. This process is repeated with wash ...
"Affinity purification and enzymatic cleavage of inter-alpha inhibitor proteins using antibody and elastase immobilized on CIM ... "Monolith-based immobilized metal affinity chromatography increases production efficiency for plasmid DNA purification". Journal ...
... non-specific binding is not limited to the antibody-binding sites on the immobilized support; any surface of the antibody or ... irrelevant antibody of the same antibody subclass as the IP antibody is used instead of the IP antibody itself. This approach ... Antibodies that are specific for a particular protein (or group of proteins) are immobilized on a solid-phase substrate such as ... Second, the ability to capture the target protein is directly dependent upon the amount of immobilized antibody used, and ...
After the antigen is immobilized, the detection antibody is added, forming a complex with the antigen. The detection antibody ... Enzyme-linked secondary antibodies are applied as detection antibodies that also bind specifically to the antibody's Fc region ... By using an enzyme-linked antibody that binds the Fc region of other antibodies, this same enzyme-linked antibody can be used ... A specially prepared "secondary antibody" - an antibody that binds to other antibodies - is then applied to the plate, followed ...
However, when these antibodies are immobilized (either by secondary antibody bound to plastic or by Fc receptors on other cells ... It is of note, that the immobilized conventional antibody poses less prominent spatial constraints than the immobilized ... Immobilized superagonistic antibodies bound to CD28 exclude CD45 phosphatases completely and the signal leading to T-cell ... However, its authors suggest it might be also applied to CD28 triggering by superagonistic antibodies (mitogenic antibodies). ...
Immunoaffinity - Detailed below, this method utilizes antigens' and antibodies' high specificity to separate. Immobilized Metal ... to remove the undesirable anti-GST antibodies from the serum and to purify the target antibody. Monoclonal antibodies can also ... This allows any antibodies that recognize the antigen to be captured on the solid support. Elution of the antibodies of ... This will remove antibodies against the GST part of the fusion protein. The serum is then separated from the solid support and ...
Preferably, this unlabeled antibody is immobilized in some way, such as coupled to an agarose bead, coated to a surface, etc. ... Next, the "hot" radiolabeled antibody is allowed to interact with the first antibody-target molecule complex. After extensive ... to present multiple epitopes to the antibodies. One antibody would be radiolabeled as above while the other would remain ... This radiolabeled antigen is then mixed with a known amount of antibody for that antigen, and as a result, the two specifically ...
The Genous Stent is a bio-engineered coronary stent coated with immobilized anti-CD34 monoclonal antibodies specific to the ... The pro-healing technology has an antibody surface coating that captures circulating CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells to the ...
The capture step has been implemented using antibodies bound to magnetic beads as well as antibodies immobilized on flow- ... Antibody-Coupled Magnetic Beads Can Be Reused in Immuno-MRM Assays To Reduce Cost and Extend Antibody Supply. J Proteome Res. ... in which antibodies are used to enrich target proteins, which are analyzed intact by MS; and hybrid methods in which antibodies ... is captured by a sequence-specific anti-peptide antibody. The antibody, together with the captured target peptide, is then ...
He has pioneered in the development of immobilized enzyme or antibody biosensors for clinical, environmental and forensic ...
... then instead of the diffusion towards the antibodies, the proteins are electrophoresed into an antibody-containing gel in the ... Some variants of affinity immunoelectrophoresis are similar to affinity chromatography by use of immobilized ligands. The open ... but provides an anchor for the immunoprecipitates of protein and specific antibodies. The high pH was chosen because antibodies ... 1986). "Antibodies to the glutamate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum". Parasitology. 92 (2): 313-324. doi:10.1017/ ...
This method uses either naturally occurring lectins or artificial monoclonal antibodies, where both are immobilized on a ... Table 1:Advantages and disadvantages of mass spectrometry in glycan analysis Lectin and antibody arrays provide high-throughput ... contain carbohydrate compounds that can be screened with lectins or antibodies to define carbohydrate specificity and identify ...
Specific uses of affinity chromatography include antibody affinity, Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and ... "The covalent binding of daunomycin and adriamycin to antibodies, with retention of both drug and antibody activities". Cancer ... Using this method, Wilchek collaborated with a team who proved that the binding site of antibodies lies in the Fv portion of ... Early in the 1970s, they exploited Avidin as a probe and developed new methods and reagents to biotinylate antibodies and other ...
In the field of biology it proved useful in analyzing an antigen bound to an antibody that had been immobilized for analysis. ... In one study it was found to be a label-free method, allowing for localization and quantitative analysis of antigen-antibody ... Antibody Binding on 2D Substrate Using Imaging NanoSIMS". Analytical Chemistry. 80 (15): 5958-5962. doi:10.1021/ac800602q. ISSN ...
A specially prepared "secondary antibody" - an antibody that binds to human antibodies - is then applied to the plate, followed ... However, unlike the ELISA method, the viral proteins are separated first and immobilized. In subsequent steps, the binding of ... Antibodies that do not attach are washed away, and enzyme-linked antibodies with the capability to attach to the person's ... Antibody tests may give false negative (no antibodies were detected despite the presence of HIV) results during the window ...
... using an antibody from a complex mixture. The extract of disrupted tissue or cells is mixed with an antibody against the ... The immobilized protein complex can be accomplished either in a single step or successively. IP can also be used in conjunction ... If the ligand is bound to the receptor-antibody complex, then the acceptor will emit light. When using FRET, it is critical ... This method involves purifying an antigen through the aid of an attached antibody on a solid (beaded) support, such as agarose ...
Modification-specific antibodies in turn, are used to immunoprecipitate the DNA-histone complexes. Following ... both immunoprecipitated DNA and non-immunoprecipitated onto a microarray containing immobilized gDNA. Analysis of the relative ...
The first form is to covalently immobilize the organic compounds on the solid surface with diverse linking techniques; this ... This microarray format is very similar to DNA microarray, protein microarray and antibody microarray. In chemical genetics ...
... using protein A immobilized on porous substrates is the most widely established method for purifying monoclonal antibodies ( ... 1: Antibodies (AF ed.). GE Healthcare. 2016. p. 48. "A Pathogen's Swiss Army Knife". Small Things Considered. Retrieved 2016-08 ... To this end, protein A plays a multifaceted role: By binding the Fc portion of antibodies, protein A renders them inaccessible ... Protein A is often immobilized onto a solid support and used as reliable method for purifying total IgG from crude protein ...
Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... was immobilized by the antiquated mechanical equipment. ... alone are sufficient to trigger the production of antibodies. ... demonstrated that the serum of an animal vaccinated against the disease included the antibodies needed to defeat it. The anti- ...
In antibody phage display, antibodies are physically linked to phage particles that bear the gene coding for the attached ... DEL libraries are subjected to affinity selection procedures on an immobilized target protein of choice, after which non- ... Phage-displayed antibodies can be isolated from large antibody libraries by mimicking molecular evolution: through rounds of ... The technique enables the mass creation and interrogation of libraries via affinity selection, typically on an immobilized ...
In the first "surface-panning" strategy, decreasing concentrations of antigen is surface immobilized. In the second "solution- ... Phage Display Antibody Library Screening Subsequent library screening will fish out the antibody mutants that have high ... To further improve antibody affinity maturation, Creative Biolabs successfully updated its unique antibody affinity maturation ... If the structure of the antibody/antigen complex is available or modeling the structure of the antibody/antigen is possible, ...
Definition of treponema-immobilizing antibody. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms ... treponema-immobilizing antibody. Definition: antibody, evoked during syphilitic infections, possessing specific affinity for ... Treponema pallidum; in the presence of complement immobilizes the organism.. Synonym(s): immobilizing antibody, treponemal ...
The higher ratio of enzyme/antibody than conventional ELISA improved both the sensitivity and dynamic range. Especially, the ... A highly sensitive immunoassay was developed by using antibody-conjugated spherical mesoporous silica with immobilized enzymes ... A highly sensitive immunoassay using antibody-conjugated spherical mesoporous silica with immobilized enzymes J. Y. Eum, S. Y. ... A highly sensitive immunoassay was developed by using antibody-conjugated spherical mesoporous silica with immobilized enzymes ...
Agarose Immobilized]. Available in 15 dyes & fluorophores. Backed by our 100% Guarantee. ... Home » IgG (H+L) » IgG (H+L) Antibodies » Rabbit anti-Goat IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody [Agarose Immobilized] ... Rabbit anti-Goat IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody [Agarose Immobilized] Summary. Immunogen. Goat IgG whole molecule ... Be the first to review our Rabbit anti-Goat IgG (H L) Secondary Antibody [Agarose Immobilized] and receive a gift card or ...
The attachment of BSA to the antibody-immobilized surface of the taper at (20-25°C) temperature was monitored by transmission ... to the antibody-immobilized surface of the taper. The applied fiber tapers were fabricated with waist diameter of 6-7μm and of ... tapered fibers with antibody-immobilized surfaces showed changes in optical throughput at bulk concentrations down to100 fg/mL ... tapered optical fiber biosensor for real-time monitoring of bovine serum albumin at femtogram/mL levels on antibody-immobilized ...
Such an immobilized antibody system is well suited for repeated use with minimal change in its physical and biochemical ... The immobilized antibody system is highly resistant to leaching, may be made incompressible, sterilizable, and pyrogen-free. ... An immobilized antibody system can be made by reacting an aminated core support with an antibody in the presence of a ... 7. The immobilized antibody system of claim 1 where the antibody or antibody fragment is a monoclonal antibody or antibody ...
Competitive ELISA, Immobilized antibody type Capture ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody Capture ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody ... Immobilized antibody Competitive ELISA, Immobilized antigen Control Set Direct ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody Direct ELISA, ... Competitive ELISA, Immobilized antibody - for Saliva - Immunoassays. Product filter molecule 1,25OH2 Vitamin D 17α- ... AChE-labelled antibody Sandwich ELISA, Biotin-labelled antibody Sandwich ELISA, HRP-labelled antibody Training ELISA Kit ...
Pure Goat Anti-Mouse IgG Gel, Specific Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL, pre-packed in column with separate elution buffers and ... Pure Goat Anti-Mouse IgG Gel, Specific Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL, pre-packed in column with separate elution buffers and ...
... the fluorescent-labeled anti-CD11b was orientedly immobilized to the SiNP surface through the specific protein G-antibody ... An antibody against CD11b expressed on the surfaces of mouse macrophages (anti-CD11b), was fluorescently labeled. Protein G, ... It is concluded that the anti-CD11b orientedly immobilized SiNP are promising nanoprobes to image the inflammation site at a ... The anti-CD11b orientedly immobilized SiNP were accumulated in the UUO kidney to a significantly great extent compared with the ...
... treponema-immobilizing antibody explanation free. What is treponema-immobilizing antibody? Meaning of treponema-immobilizing ... antibody medical term. What does treponema-immobilizing antibody mean? ... Looking for online definition of treponema-immobilizing antibody in the Medical Dictionary? ... treponema-immobilizing antibody. trep·o·ne·ma-im·mo·bi·liz·ing an·ti·bod·y. antibody, evoked during syphilitic infections, ...
An Antibody-Immobilized Capillary Column as a Bioseparator/Bioreactor for Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with Absorbance ...
Data on antigen recognition hindrance by antibodies covalently immobilized to Protein G magnetic beads by dimethyl pimelimidate ...
Page contains details about antibody-immobilized single-walled carbon nanotubes . It has composition images, properties, ...
Immuno Absorbant Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL, pre_packed in column with separate elution buffers and instruction booklet. \ AGK ... Pure Mouse IgG Gel, Immuno Absorbant Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL, pre_packed in column with separate elution buffers and ... Pure Mouse IgG Gel, Immuno Absorbant Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL, pre_packed in column with separate elution buffers and ... Product name : Pure Mouse IgG Gel, Immuno Absorbant Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL, pre_packed in column with separate elution ...
Number of immobilized antibody molecules per agarose bead. *Typically, the protein coupling capacities of activated resins are ... How many antibody or protein molecules are coupled per agarose bead?. *How many antibody or protein molecules can bind to one ... Ideal for antibodies and other proteins- immobilize molecules via primary amines (-NH2) ... 20501) can immobilize 4.7mg mouse IgG with 97% efficiency. That translates into an effective coupling yield of 4.5mg IgG per mL ...
Gold-Coated Magnetic Particles for Solid-Phase Immunoassays: Enhancing Immobilized Antibody Binding Efficiency and Analytical ...
Specific Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL \ AG-008-2 for more molecular products just contact us ... Specific Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL mus musculus murine Pure Rabbit Anti_Mouse IgG Gel, Specific Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL ... Specific Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL. Related products : Pure Rabbit Anti_Mouse IgG Gel, Specific Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL ... Pure Rabbit Anti_Mouse IgG Gel, Specific Immobilized Antibodies, 2mL rabbit polyclonal These antibodies are very stable and can ...
Immobilized Anti-TMT™ Antibody Resin. Catalog number:. 90076. Size. 6 mL. Price. USD 506.00 ... Quantitative analysis of proteins for which no antibodies are available. • Identification and quantitation of membrane and post ...
ANTIBODY REMOVAL BY IMMOBILIZED SYNTHETIC ANTIGEN IN SPECIFIC ANTIBODY FILTERS. Gautam, Shalini; Alikhani, Azadeh H.; Bovin, ... STEM CELL SEPARATION BASED ON SURFACE MAKER DENSITY BY ANTIBODY-IMMOBILIZED COLUMN. Mahara, Atsushi; Yamaoka, Tetsuji ...
Isahakia, M and Alexander, N J., "Sperm-immobilizing and -agglutinating monoclonal antibodies. Abstr." (1983). Subject Strain ...
RP complex from a plasma or commercial concentrate source of factor VIII onto agarose beads bound to a monoclonal antibody ... Carboxyl anchored immobilized antibodies. US4568488 *. 11. Jan. 1984. 4. Febr. 1986. Lee Huang Sylvia. Reverse immunoaffinity ... Carrier for affinity chromatography immobilized with antibodies. US5149787 *. 24. Nov. 1987. 22. Sept. 1992. The Blood Center ... Monoclonal antibodies useful in deodorizing skin and antibody fragments thereof. US5259951 *. 11. Juni 1991. 9. Nov. 1993. ...
The improvement involves immobilizing the analyte on the solid surface by reacting the analyte or derivative thereof with ... with a group which is reactive with the analyte contacting the resulting conjugate with the solid surface to thereby immobilize ... Disclosed is an improvement to the technique for immobilizing an analyte onto a solid surface for use in a competitive ... Immobilized hydrophobically-modified antibodies. US5403928 *. 15 May 1991. 4 Apr 1995. Diatron Corporation. Fluorescent marker ...
6-nylon element-anti-guinea pig IgG-insulin antibody (hereinafter designates as immobilized antibody). The immobilized antibody ... and conjugated with an antibody to prepare the immobilized antibody. Polystyrene is previously molded, thereafter chemically ... Preparation of immobilized antibody]-I:. Fifty 6,6-nylon elements of the size and shape as shown in FIG. 5 were stirred with ... Preparation of immobilized antibody]-II:. Fifty 6,6-nylon elements were added to a methanol solution (50 ml) of 30% v/v ...
The biocarrier, which is preferably in the form of glass microspheres, is coated with an antibody or group of antibodies that ... 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; IMMOBILIZED CELLS; SUPPORTS; REMEDIAL ACTION; CHEMICAL ... The antibody, once bonded to the biocarrier, is used by the composition to attract and bond those pollutant-degrading antigens ... Each antibody is specific for an antigen that is specific for a given pollutant. The resulting composition is subsequently ...
Microfluidic one-step synthesis of alginate microspheres immobilized with antibodies. Wanyu Chen, Jong-Hoon Kim, Di Zhang, ... Boronic acid-modified magnetic materials for antibody purification. Vijaykumar L. Dhadge, Abid Hussain, Ana M. Azevedo, Raquel ...
  • The aim of the current study is to develop new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human ST3Gal-I and evaluate their diagnostic potential. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we show that CD81 cross-linking via immobilized E2 or mAbs specific for CD81 inhibits not only non major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells but also interferon (IFN)-γ production by NK cells after exposure to interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-15, or CD16 cross-linking. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For several decades, and until recently, mice were used extensively in the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, only patients in hospi- antibodies (MAbs) to plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase tals are being screened for the disease. (cdc.gov)
  • A) Shown are the reactivities of the indicated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the LDH from 7 Plasmodium spp. (cdc.gov)
  • To stabilize BG505 SOSIP.664 trimer, it was coupled with the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of broadly neutralizing antibody, PGT145. (moleculardevices.com)
  • In the first case the antibody is split above the hinge region, thereby producing a so-called Fc fragment (consisting of two heavy-chain constant domains) and two Fab fragments (variable and constant domain of the two chains). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Methods and Results- Human IgG1 antibodies against 2 malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified apoB-100 peptide sequences were produced through screening of a single-chain antibody-fragment library and subsequent cloning into a pcDNA3 vector. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 . The microarray of claim 2 , wherein the first active area comprises an immobilized polypeptide. (google.com.au)
  • 5 . The microarray of claim 4 , wherein the immobilized polypeptide comprises an antigen. (google.com.au)
  • 7 . The microarray of claim 2 , wherein the first active area comprises immobilized avidin, immobilized non-glycosylated avidin, or immobilized streptavidin. (google.com.au)
  • 10 . The microarray of claim, 9 , wherein the first active area further comprises an immobilized fusion tag ligand. (google.com.au)
  • By using the rAg microarray chip, a fast and automated screening of antibodies against pathogens in sera of slaughtered pigs would be possible for zoonosis monitoring. (mdpi.com)
  • We propose (2) a novel concept for multiplexing without mixing named antibody colocalization microarray (ACM). (mcponline.org)
  • Often, these methods of immobilization result in partial denaturation of the antibody and conformational changes leading to a reduced activity of the antibody. (spie.org)
  • Here we show that scFv antibody fragments expressed in the APEx format allow the binding of spheroplasts to immobilized ligands. (elsevier.com)
  • ScFv antibodies specific for the cardiac glycoside digoxin or for the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis as a negative control were expressed in E. coli as fusions to either N-terminal or C-terminal membrane anchoring domains. (elsevier.com)
  • 3. The antibody according to claim 2 , characterized in that it is in the form of single chain (scFv) comprising one variable region of the light chain covalently joined to one variable region of the heavy chain. (google.com)
  • We investigated preparation of latex immobilized with single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody. (aiche.org)
  • Approximately 50 ng/ml of CRP was detected by use of the scFv-immobilized latices prepared in this study. (aiche.org)
  • High yields of functional scFv antibody fragments can be produced and secreted into the culture medium by B. megaterium , making this production system a reasonable alternative to E. coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibodies are nanosize biological products that are part of the specific immune system. (hindawi.com)
  • It has four sections focusing on Sperm antigens, Antisperm antibodies (ASAs), Clinical impact of ASAs, and Immune contraception, and include contributions from leading experts in these fields. (springer.com)
  • Antibody treatment is a type of therapy that is used to treat certain types of cancer and immune disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies can also be grown outside of the patient's body and injected into them to help aid the immune system to fight disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immediate union of antibody and antigen forms immune complexes that are too small to precipitate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Conclusions- These findings suggest that antibodies are important mediators of atheroprotective immune responses directed to oxidized LDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • Immunoglobulin G is the most abundant antibody isotype found in the circulation. (novusbio.com)
  • 7. The antibody according to claim 4 characterized in that it comprises at least one of the sequences selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, and 6 in combination with a sequence derived from an immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region. (google.com)
  • To further study the role of these IgG antibodies in the atheroprotective response and to test whether specific MDA-apoB-100 antibodies could be used for direct inhibition of atherosclerosis in apoE −/− mice, we produced recombinant human IgG1 that specifically recognizes 2 MDA-modified sequences in human apoB-100. (ahajournals.org)
  • P. knowlesi ratory conditions, several monkey malarias are capable of binds to both the "falciparum-specifi c" (17E4/7G9) and the infecting humans and that P. knowlesi can be transmit- "vivax-specifi c" (11D9/13H11) antibodies (Figure 1, pan- ted to humans by mosquito bite ( 6,7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Blood was wicked in the presence of colloidal gold conjugated to antibody 6C9, which binds all pLDH isoforms. (cdc.gov)
  • As the results, zwitterionic telomer brush containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) efficiency suppressed the non-specific interaction between cells and antibody-immobilized surface. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Protective antibodies are secreted by cells underlying the gastrointestinal lining. (britannica.com)
  • Moreover the present invention refers to the nucleotide sequences coding for such antibodies and to the therapeutic use of both polypeptide and nucleotide sequences, in particular for the therapy of diseases involving tissue damage deriving from uncontrolled activation of the complement system. (google.com)
  • Get access to the best antibodies, discovery platforms, and know-how to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic programs. (abcam.com)
  • Custom antibody development and commercial partnerships to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. (abcam.com)
  • Reuse of therapeutic antibodies for diagnostic purposes reduces translational costs since the safety profile of the antibody is well defined and the agent is already available under conditions suitable for human use. (springer.com)
  • Advanced antibody engineering techniques have extensive applications in the fields of immunology, biotechnology, diagnostics, and therapeutic medicines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Their prophylactic and therapeutic protection ability was first discovered in the late nineteenth century by the passive transmission of antibodies from a diseased animal that provided immunity against diphtheria. (frontiersin.org)