Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Infectious Mononucleosis: A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoconglutinins: Autoantibodies directed against newly-formed EPITOPES created as the COMPLEMENT cascade is activated and the proteins involved change their conformations.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Laboratory ManualsManuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Andrology: A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Communicable DiseasesGenetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Plasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.Uterine Cervicitis: Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.

When is a heterophile antibody not a heterophile antibody? When it is an antibody against a specific immunogen. (1/250)

Heterophile antibodies are antibodies produced against poorly defined antigens. These are generally weak antibodies with multispecific activities. Human anti-animal antibodies that develop as a result of treatments with animal immunoglobulins are antibodies with strong avidities, produced against well-defined antigens. Although heterophile antibodies and human anti-animal antibodies interfere with immunological assays by similar mechanisms, modes for identifying the sources of the antibodies and for circumventing or retarding the interference may differ. Unfortunately, there has not been a well-organized attempt to encourage correct definition of these antibodies. This problem of inexact definition is highlighted by recent articles in this Journal. In the present discussion, we examine the history leading to this problem and discuss the origins and the reasons that the nature of the antibody is important for rectifying the problem. We propose a simple nomenclature for general usage that should appropriately characterize these antibodies in most cases.  (+info)

Heterotypic protection and induction of a broad heterotypic neutralization response by rotavirus-like particles. (2/250)

The recognition that rotaviruses are the major cause of life-threatening diarrheal disease and significant morbidity in young children has focused efforts on disease prevention and control of these viruses. Although the correlates of protection in children remain unclear, some studies indicate that serotype-specific antibody is important. Based on this premise, current live attenuated reassortant rotavirus vaccines include the four predominant serotypes of virus. We are evaluating subunit rotavirus vaccines, 2/6/7-VLPs and 2/4/6/7-VLPs, that contain only a single VP7 of serotype G1 or G3. In mice immunized parenterally twice, G3 virus-like particles (VLPs) induced a homotypic, whereas G1 VLPs induced a homotypic and heterotypic (G3) serum neutralizing immune response. Administration of three doses of G1 or G3 VLPs induced serum antibodies that neutralized five of seven different serotype test viruses. The inclusion of VP4 in the VLPs was not essential for the induction of heterotypic neutralizing antibody in mice. To confirm these results in another species, rabbits were immunized parenterally with two doses of 2/4/6/7-VLPs containing a G3 or G1 VP7, sequentially with G3 VLPs followed by G1 (G3/G1) VLPs, or with live or psoralen-inactivated SA11. High-titer homotypic serum neutralizing antibody was induced in all rabbits, and low-level heterotypic neutralizing antibody was induced in a subset of rabbits. The rabbits immunized with the G1 or G3/G1 VLPs in QS-21 were challenged orally with live G3 ALA rotavirus. Protection levels were similar in rabbits immunized with homotypic G3 2/4/6/7-VLPs, heterotypic G1 2/4/6/7-VLPs, or G3/G1 2/4/6/7-VLPs. Therefore, G1 2/4/6/7-VLPs can induce protective immunity against a live heterotypic rotavirus challenge in an adjuvant with potential use in humans. Following challenge, broad serum heterotypic neutralizing antibody responses were detected in rabbits parenterally immunized with G1, G3/G1, or G3 VLPs but not with SA11. Immunization with VLPs may provide sufficient priming of the immune system to induce protective anamnestic heterotypic neutralizing antibody responses upon subsequent rotavirus infection. Therefore, a limited number of serotypes of VLPs may be sufficient to provide a broadly protective subunit vaccine.  (+info)

Enhancement of haemolysis by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) after pre-treatment with heterophile antibody and complement. (3/250)

Pre-treatment of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with fresh human plasma enhances its haemolytic (HL) capacity by several factors. The effect is due to complement activation by the heterophile anti-chick antibody present in human plasma. All the adult human plasmas tested were effective, also 91/100 human cord blood sera. The antibody was mainly of the IgM class. The enhanced HL was due to integration and transference of the complement 'holed' virus envelope membrane and subsequent leakage of haemoglobin. High concentration of activated complement destroys the integrity of the virus enevelope. Treatment of chick erythrocytes and fibroblasts with human plasma also produced lysis of the cells.  (+info)

Heterophile antibodies to bovine and caprine proteins causing false-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results. (4/250)

Heterophile antibodies are a well-recognized cause of erroneous results in immunoassays. We describe here a 22-month-old child with heterophile antibodies reactive with bovine serum albumin and caprine proteins causing false-positive results to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other infectious serology testing.  (+info)

Heterophile antibodies segregate in families and are associated with protection from type 1 diabetes. (5/250)

Markedly elevated levels of serum IL-4 were reported previously in 50% of a small group of type 1 diabetes nonprogessors. To determine the patterns of expression for this phenotype, a larger cohort of 58 families containing type 1 diabetic patients was examined. Analysis of the two-site ELISA assay used to measure serum IL-4 revealed evidence for heterophile antibodies, i.e., nonanalyte substances in serum capable of binding antibodies mutivalently and providing erroneous analyte (e.g., IL-4) quantification. Interestingly, relatives without type 1 diabetes were significantly more likely to have this phenotype than were patients with the disease (P = 0.003). In addition, the trait appears to have clustered within certain families and was associated with the protective MHC allele DQB1*0602 (P = 0.008). These results suggest that heterophile antibodies represent an in vivo trait associated with self-tolerance and nonprogression to diabetes.  (+info)

An immunoadhesin incorporating the molecule OX-2 is a potent immunosuppressant that prolongs allo- and xenograft survival. (6/250)

We have established that, in mice receiving donor-specific immunization by the portal vein, the increased graft survival seen is associated with the increased expression of a molecule (OX-2) on a subpopulation of dendritic cells (DC), and polarization of cytokine production to type 2 cytokines on Ag-specific restimulation of cells from these mice. Furthermore, infusion of a mAb to OX-2 blocks both the increased graft survival and the altered cytokine production seen. We have constructed an immunoadhesin in which the extracellular domain of OX-2 is linked to the murine IgG2a Fc region, and we have expressed this molecule (OX-2:Fc) in a eukaryotic (baculovirus) expression system. Incubation of lymphocytes with 50 ng/ml OX-2:Fc inhibits a primary mixed lymphocyte reaction in vitro, as assayed by proliferation and induction of cytotoxic T cells, and also alters cytokine production with decreased IL-2 (IFN-gamma) production and increased IL-4 (IL-10) production. Similarly, in vivo infusion of OX-2:Fc promotes increased allo- and xenograft (both skin and renal grafts) survival and decreases the Ab response to sheep erythrocytes. Our data suggest this molecule might have clinical importance in allo- and xenotransplantation.  (+info)

Accelerated development and aging of the immune system in p53-deficient mice. (7/250)

Development and aging of the immune system lead to an accumulation of memory T cells over the long term. The predominance of T cells of the memory phenotype in the T cell population induces an age-related decline in protective immune responses. We found that development and aging of the immune system were accelerated in p53-deficient (p53-/-) mice; the accumulation of memory T cells was spontaneously accelerated, and a strong T cell-dependent Ab response and Th2 cytokine expression (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) were induced by Ag stimulation in young p53-/- mice in the developmental stage. The high T cell proliferative response in the young mice rapidly progressed to a depressed proliferative response in adult mice. It was suggested that the loss of regulation of the cell cycle, DNA repair, and apoptosis by p53 deficiency potentially leads to immunosenescence with the accumulation of memory T cells.  (+info)

Accommodated xenografts survive in the presence of anti-donor antibodies and complement that precipitate rejection of naive xenografts. (8/250)

Hamster hearts transplanted into transiently complement-depleted and continuously cyclosporin A (CyA)-immunosuppressed rats survive long-term despite deposition of anti-donor IgM Abs and complement on the graft vascular endothelium. This phenomenon is referred to as "accommodation." The hypothesis tested here is that accommodated xenografts are resistant to IgM Abs and complement that could result in rejection of naive xenografts. After first hamster hearts had been surviving in cobra venom factor (CVF) + CyA-treated rats for 10 days, a time when the anti-donor IgM Ab level was maximal and complement activity had returned to approximately 50% of pretreatment levels, naive hamster hearts or hamster hearts that had been accommodating in another rat for 14 days were transplanted into those rats carrying the surviving first graft. The naive hearts were all hyperacutely rejected. In contrast, a majority of regrafted accommodating hearts survived long-term. There was widespread Ab and activated complement deposition on the vascular endothelium of accommodating first hearts, second accommodating hearts, and rejected second naive hearts. However, only the rejected naive hearts showed extensive endothelial cell damage, myocardial necrosis, fibrin deposition, and other signs of inflammation. Accommodating first and second hearts but not rejected second naive hearts expressed high levels of the protective genes A20, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), bcl-2, and bcl-xL. These data demonstrate that accommodated xenografts become resistant to effects of anti-donor IgM Abs and complement that normally mediate rejection of xenografts. We hypothesize that this resistance involves expression by accommodated xenografts of protective genes.  (+info)

  • An antigen-antibody complex is formed which increases virus replication and makes penetration of macrophages by the virus easier through opsonization. (scielo.br)
  • B. Process for analysis which involve an in vitro antigen-antibody, immunological or protein binding interaction other than those involving a living antigen, or enzyme label. (uspto.gov)
  • Although epigenetic events may explain incomplete penetrance of genetic risk in type 1 diabetes, it is less clear why autoreactive T cells and antibodies are detectable in the circulation of at-risk first-degree relatives as well as in healthy HLA- and age-matched nondiabetic control subjects that do not go on to develop type 1 diabetes. (pnas.org)
  • Antibodies are typically detectable after two to three weeks into the illness. (medicinenet.com)
  • The terms "heterogenetic," "heterophilic," or "heterophile" are applied to those antibodies that react with an antigen (sheep erythrocytes) which seemingly had nothing to do with their development. (annals.org)
  • A significant rise of complement-fixing antibodies to CMV was found during the disease. (annals.org)
  • This allows rapid and sensitive detection of antibodies that are markers of such diseases, as infectious mononucleosis and rheumatoid arthritis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Antiendothelial cell antibodies (AECAs), a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies, are associated with several diseases characterized by immune-mediated vascular damage (for reviews, see references 2 and 13 ), including systemic lupus erythematosus ( 19 ), systemic sclerosis ( 17 ), Wegener's granulomatosis ( 6 ), and rheumatoid arthritis complicated by vasculitis ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • After incubation (overnight, 4°C), steps involving addition of biotinylated detection antibody, avidin-horseradish peroxidase (Sigma), and tetramethylbenzidine (Kirkegaard & Perry Laboratories) reactions were performed. (pnas.org)
  • The use of different concetrations of coating and detection antibody reduced the overall signal (without changing the signal-to-noise ratio). (protocol-online.org)
Mononucleosis spot test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Mononucleosis spot test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia (medlineplus.gov)
HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians (annals.org)
Benson's Microbiological Applications, Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology, Short Version
Benson's Microbiological Applications, Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology, Short Version (mheducation.com)
Rapid Review Step1 Classic Labs/Findings Quiz - By Gilgamesh
Rapid Review Step1 Classic Labs/Findings Quiz - By Gilgamesh (sporcle.com)
Mononucleosis spot test
Mononucleosis spot test (ucsfhealth.org)
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology (emedicine.medscape.com)
Glycoengineered Antibodies: Towards the Next-Generation of Immunotherapeutics.
Glycoengineered Antibodies: Towards the Next-Generation of Immunotherapeutics. (bioportfolio.com)
Free USMLE Flashcards about FA Review
Free USMLE Flashcards about FA Review (studystack.com)
Pediatric Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Pediatric Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology (emedicine.medscape.com)
IX-General-Pathology-of-Infectious-Diseases Flashcards by Abigail Sarmiento | Brainscape
IX-General-Pathology-of-Infectious-Diseases Flashcards by Abigail Sarmiento | Brainscape (brainscape.com)
Law Document English View | Ontario.ca
Law Document English View | Ontario.ca (ontario.ca)
Trypanosoma vivax Infections: Pushing Ahead with Mouse Models for the Study of Nagana. I. Parasitological, Hematological and...
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Central Manchester University Hospitals - NHS Foundation Trust - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgG (Virology)
Central Manchester University Hospitals - NHS Foundation Trust - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgG (Virology) (cmft.nhs.uk)
Heterophile | Definition of Heterophile by Merriam-Webster
Heterophile | Definition of Heterophile by Merriam-Webster (merriam-webster.com)
Lymphadenopathy - Cardiovascular Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition
Lymphadenopathy - Cardiovascular Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition (merckmanuals.com)
Thyroglobulin measurement by highly sensitive assays: focus on laboratory challenges : Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory...
Thyroglobulin measurement by highly sensitive assays: focus on laboratory challenges : Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory... (degruyter.com)
Basic Immunology And Serology - ProProfs Quiz
Basic Immunology And Serology - ProProfs Quiz (proprofs.com)