Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The treatment of immune system diseases by deliberate infestation with helminths. This therapy is partly based on the HYGIENE HYPOTHESIS which states that the absence of parasites increases immune dysregulation because of the lack of stimulation of REGULATORY T-CELLS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A species of intestinal nematode parasites which occur most commonly in mice. Infection is by ingesting larvae. This particular species is used extensively in immunological research.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.
A genus of large tapeworms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus NECATOR. The resulting anemia from this condition is less severe than that from ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which requires one or two intermediate arthropod hosts before finally being eaten by the final host. Its organisms occur rarely in man.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.

Neurocysticercosis without detectable specific antibody. (1/1192)

A 19-year-old girl who had lived in India for five years until 1992 was admitted to Hokuto Hospital after general seizures which lasted for fifteen minutes. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a ring-enhanced lesion of 6 mm in diameter in the right parietal lobe. She underwent surgical resection after diagnosis of the brain tumor. Histopathological examinations revealed that the resected tumor was a cysticercus of Taenia solium (T. solium), and we concluded that her seizures were caused by neurocysticercosis. Serological examinations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblots to detect specific antibody against the glycoproteins of T. solium showed no detectable antibody response. The patient is under careful observation in our out-patient clinic with no medication.  (+info)

Development of a serologic assay to detect Taenia solium taeniasis. (2/1192)

We developed a serologic assay to identify adult Taenia solium tapeworm carriers using excretory/secretory (TSES) antigens collected from in vitro cultured T. solium tapeworms. To identify taeniasis-specific antigens we used an immunoblot assay with serum samples from T. solium tapeworm carriers and cysticercosis patients. Antigens were identified that reacted with antibodies present in serum samples from taeniasis cases and not with those from cysticercosis patients. Using serum samples collected from persons with confirmed T. solium tapeworm infections, the test was determined to be 95% (69 of 73) sensitive. Serum samples (n = 193) from persons with other parasitic infections, including T. saginata tapeworm infections, do not contain cross-reacting antibodies to TSES, indicating that the assay is 100% specific. These data suggest that the immunoblot assay using TSES antigens can be used to identify persons with current or recent T. solium tapeworm infections and provides a new, important tool for epidemiologic purposes, including control and prevention strategies.  (+info)

Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis induced by vaccination with live organisms correlates with early granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-12 production and with dendritic cell-like maturation. (3/1192)

As is true for other intracellular pathogens, immunization with live Chlamydia trachomatis generally induces stronger protective immunity than does immunization with inactivated organism. To investigate the basis for such a difference, we studied immune responses in BALB/c mice immunized with viable or UV-killed C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn). Strong, acquired resistance to C. trachomatis infection was elicited by immunization with viable but not dead organisms. Immunization with viable organisms induced high levels of antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), gamma interferon production, and immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses. Immunization with inactivated MoPn mainly induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production and IgG1 antibody without IgA or DTH responses. Analysis of local early cytokine and cellular events at days 3, 5, and 7 after peritoneal cavity immunization showed that high levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-12 were detected with viable but not inactivated organisms. Furthermore, enrichment of a dendritic cell (DC)-like population was detected in the peritoneal cavity only among mice immunized with viable organisms. The results suggest that early differences in inducing proinflammatory cytokines and activation and differentiation of DCs may be the key mechanism underlying the difference between viable and inactivated organisms in inducing active immunity to C. trachomatis infection.  (+info)

Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep. (4/1192)

The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone.  (+info)

Anti-filarial IgG4 in men and women living in Brugia malayi-endemic areas. (5/1192)

To assess whether antifilarial IgG4 can be used to study various epidemiological facets of filarial infections, we studied this isotype in 238 individuals resident in areas endemic for brugian filariasis, focusing on the differences between men and women. In the study area, the prevalence of microfilariae was 6.7% and the prevalence of antifilarial IgG4 was 49.2%. All microfilariae carriers were positive for antifilarial IgG4, whereas a proportion of the endemic normals (94/208) and clephantiasis patients (7/14) had IgG4 antibodies to filarial antigens. Data were analysed as a function of gender in distinct clinical groups and stratified for age. The prevalence of microfilariae was higher in males in all age groups, as reflected in significantly higher antifilarial IgG4 antibody levels compared to females. The prevalence of IgG4 increased to reach a plateau at the age of 30 years in both males and females. These results indicate that antifilarial IgG4 antibodies can reflect the differences in the extent of infection in males and females as measured by microfilarial counts, and that this parameter can be used for epidemiological assessments of filarial infection.  (+info)

Comparison of serological and parasitological assessments of Onchocerca volvulus transmission after 7 years of mass ivermectin treatment in Mexico. (6/1192)

OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To compare the utility of an ELISA using 3 recombinant antigens with that of the skin biopsy to estimate incidence of infections in a sentinel cohort of individuals living in an endemic community in southern Mexico during a set of 11 subsequent ivermectin treatments. RESULTS: The apparent community prevalence of infection and microfilarial skin infection before and after 11 treatments with ivermectin plus nodulectomy were 78% and 13%, and 0.68 mf/mg and 0.04 mf/mg, respectively, as measured by skin biopsy. Of a group of 286 individuals participating in all surveys, a sentinel cohort of 42 mf and serologically negative individuals had been followed since 1994. The annual percentage of individuals becoming positive in this cohort was 24% (10/42), 28% (9/33), 0%, and 4.3% (1/23) in 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998, respectively. Likewise, the incidence in children 5 years and under (n = 13) within this sentinel cohort was 15% (2/13), 18% (2/11), 0% and 11% (1/9), respectively. All individuals became positive to both tests simultaneously, indicating that seroconversion assessed infection incidence as accurately as skin biopsy in the sentinel group. CONCLUSION: Incidence monitoring of a sentinel cohort provides an estimation of the parasite transmission in the community; it is less costly than massive sampling, and a finger prick blood test might be more acceptable in some communities.  (+info)

Aetiological study of the presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands. (7/1192)

AIM: To investigate whether presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and whether other risk factors might play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. METHODS: 23 patients were clinically diagnosed as having presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome based on the following criteria: peripapillary atrophy, punched out lesions, a macular disciform lesion or scar in one eye without vitritis. As controls, 66 sex and age matched healthy volunteers were used. Serum samples from both patients and controls were tested for the presence of antibodies against H capsulatum, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis et cati, Ascaris sp, and for the presence of antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans. Serum samples were also tested for the presence of autoantibodies against retinal or choroidal proteins. To investigate other risk factors, patients and controls were asked to fill in a health and travel related questionnaire. Ten patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were used as a disease control group. RESULTS: None of the patients with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome or controls had circulating antibodies directed against H capsulatum. No risk factors could be identified and no indications for autoimmunity and no evidence for the role of the other infectious agents could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: In a Dutch group of patients fulfilling the criteria of a disease currently named presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, no risk factors or relation with the fungus H capsulatum could be detected.  (+info)

Interleukin-12 as an adjuvant for an antischistosome vaccine consisting of adult worm antigens: protection of rats from cercarial challenge. (8/1192)

Our group previously demonstrated that a detergent extract (fraction S3) prepared from immature (4-week) Schistosoma mansoni parasites can induce partial, serum-transferable immunity to challenge infection in rats when administered as an alum precipitate. In the present study, we examined whether S3 prepared from adult (7-week) worms could similarly induce protection and whether immunity could be positively influenced by treatment with interleukin-12 (IL-12). IL-12 coadministered to Fischer rats and C57BL/6 mice at the time of S3 vaccination altered the prechallenge kinetics of S3-specific antibody titers in both species, ultimately leading to a stable enhancement of titers (relative to those in animals vaccinated without IL-12) in mice but not rats. Immunoblot analysis of prechallenge immune sera demonstrated that IL-12 treatment was associated with changes in the S3 antigen recognition profile in each species. Isotyping of specific antibodies in S3- plus IL-12-vaccinated mice prior to challenge infection revealed a moderate elevation in immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) responses, strongly enhanced IgG2a and IgG2b responses, as well as diminished total serum IgE responses compared to those in mice given S3 only. In vaccinated rats, IL-12 profoundly suppressed specific IgG1 and enhanced IgG2b responses but did not affect IgG2a responses. S3- plus IL-12-vaccinated rats also produced less total IgE upon challenge infection. Enumeration of worm burdens revealed that vaccination with S3 plus IL-12 conferred 50% protection from cercarial challenge to rats, whereas rats given S3 only were not protected; mice were not protected by S3 vaccination regardless of IL-12 coadministration. The protection observed in S3- plus IL-12-vaccinated rats could not be transferred with serum, suggesting participation of an activated cellular component in the expression of immunity.  (+info)

Over the past several years, our lab has been attempting to determine the mechanism by which inbred strains of mice, which we use as model mammalian hosts, respond to experimental filarial infections. The outcome of these studies indicates that an important host defense mechanism is the formation of multicellular aggregates of leukocytes called granulomas around incoming infectious larvae. Our previous studies indicated an important role for T cells (for the recruitment of a robust population of leukocytes and for activating macrophages along the alternative pathway of activation), B lymphocytes (particularly the B1 subset), and macrophages and eosinophils (for participating in the granulomas). We have demonstrated the crucial importance of antifilarial antibodies of the IgM isotype in binding to the surface of the larvae and facilitating the adhesion of activated macrophages to the larvae. We have further shown that the in vitro cytoadherence assay is a good surrogate for in vivo granuloma ...
Keynote Address to Highlight Upstream s Drug Candidates That Have Demonstrated Promising In Vitro Activity Against Sleeping Sickness and Other Parasitic Disease
Molecular Biosciences is an umbrella program that administers five graduate programs in the biomedical and life sciences at Rutgers University. Molecular Biosciences serves as an entry portal to review applications for admission, coordinate the first-year curriculum and assist students to identify a laboratory in which to conduct their thesis research.
can be a pathogen with increasing severity for which host antibody responses provide protection from disease. changes Favipiravir in the rates and severity of disease generating renewed interest in novel approaches to disease treatment and prevention, including toxin-specific vaccines [4, 13C20]. It has been observed that toxin-specific, host antibodies influence the outcome of colonization and infection [21]. Patients with anti-toxin A antibodies at the time of colonization with spores are at lower risk of progression to active and severe disease [22]. Once infected, individuals who develop strong anti-toxin antibody responses clear their disease following antimicrobial treatment and remain disease free [23]. Such studies provide scientific rationale for development of a vaccine against toxins. While numerous studies have presented candidate vaccines [21, 24C28], to date, none has examined the DNA vaccine platform. DNA vaccination has a several advantages versus other modalities including ...
SATREPS: Japanese government (JST/JICA) program for international joint research into global issues by researchers in Japan and developing countries. In the first three years beginning in April 2008, a total of 49 projects commenced in 28 countries.
Donostiako Piratek ekitaldi berezia egin dute bertako Aste Nagusiari hasiera emateko. Gazteak dantzan jarri ditu txupinazoak La Flamenka gunean. geure eta beste batzuen cookieak erabiltzen ditugu nabigatzeko esperientzia hobetzeko. Nabigatzen jarraitzen baduzu, gure cookieen politika onartzen duzula ulertuko dugu. Informazio gehiago Onartu ...
Current guidelines for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) recommend the use of the lentil lectin-bound glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (LLGP-EITB) as the reference standard for serological testing. In response to the drawbacks involved with the use of the LLGP-EITB, a recombinant T24H antigen (rT24H) EITB assay was developed, with promising results. However, the test has yet to be evaluated among individuals from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the performance of the rT24H EITB assay for the detection of NCC cases in a panel of serum samples (N = 366, of which 173 patients presented with epileptic seizures and/or severe chronic headaches, and 193 matched manifestation-free participants) collected as part of a large community-based trial in Burkina Faso ...
Trichinella spiralis, sometimes known as the pork worm, is a parasite within the Nematoda class. It can be found in pigs, rats, humans, and bears. This worm causes trichinosis in humans, most often from consuming undercooked pork. This species is the smallest within its class, reaching an average body length of .16 centimeters. Females are twice as large as males, displaying a sexual dimorphism. The reproductive organs of females are unique to the species in that the front end holds developed juveniles, while the back end, where the uterus is found, holds undeveloped eggs. The genome of this species was completed in 2011.. Trichinella spiralis requires one host to mature and survive, because it spends its entire life within the one host. When a human ingests the larvae, which are protected by a cyst like formation, the PH of the stomach allows them to hatch and travel into the intestines. After reaching this area, the larvae dig into the mucosa to grow and breed. Females can live for up to six ...
Leder K, et al. Liver flukes: Fascioliasis. In: Post T, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, Mass.: UpToDate; 2014. Accessed December 24, 2014 ...
Background: Eosinophils play important roles in tissue inflammatory responses associated with helminth infections. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) produced by tissue-invasive helminths contain a large quantity of proteolytic enzymes that can modulate the host's immune responses. However, little is known regarding the roles of worm-derived products that are responsible for eosinophilic inflammatory responses in helminth infections. Objective: In the present study, we investigated whether ESP produced by Paragonimus westermani, which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, regulates both cell survival and death of human eosinophils. Methods: The ESP was obtained from P. westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM). Eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood of healthy donors, and the purified eosinophils were incubated with or without the ESP secreted by PwNEM. The viability of eosinophils was assessed by staining with propidium iodide using the flow ...
Fasciola gigantica infection threatens the health of both humans and animals in the world. The excretory/secretory products (ESPs) of this fluke has been reported to impair the activation and maturation of immune cells. We have previously shown the influence of F. gigantica ESPs (FgESPs) on the maturation of buffalo dendritic cells (DCs). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potency of FgESPs in shifting the differentiation and immune functions of buffalo DCs. Buffalo DCs were incubated with FgESPs directly or further co-cultured with lymphocytes in vitro. qRT-PCR was employed to determine the gene expression profile of DCs or the mixed cells, and an ELISA was used to measure cytokine levels in the supernatants. Hoechst and Giemsa staining assays, transmission electron microscopy, caspase-3/7 activity test and histone methylation test were performed to determine DC phenotyping, apoptosis and methylation. To investigate the mechanism
Pulmonary paragonimiasis is the most common presentation of patients infected with Paragonimus spp., although extrapulmonary (cerebral, abdominal) paragonimiasis may occur. Detection of eggs in sputum or feces of patients with paragonimiasis is often very difficult; therefore, serodiagnosis may be very helpful in confirming infections and for monitoring the results of individual chemotherapy. In the United States, detection of antibodies to Paragonimus westermani has helped physicians differentiate paragonimiasis from tuberculosis in Indochinese immigrants. The complement fixation (CF) test has been the standard test for paragonimiasis; it is highly sensitive for diagnosis and for assessing cure after therapy. Because of the technical difficulties of CF, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests were developed as a replacement. The immunoblot (IB) assay performed with a crude antigen extract of P. westermani has been in use at CDC since 1988. Positive reactions, based on demonstration of an 8-kDa ...
The study aimed at determining the protective potential of the avocado seed extract against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in albino mice. Histopathological results were obtained in order to verify such a protective potential. Significant structual changes in the mice kidneys were caused by high dosage of gentamicin on T1. However, no damage was noted during the histological evaluation of the kidney slides during T0. When compared, glomerulus and renal tubules remain intact in T0 against the damaged tubules and ruptured glomerular capsules in T1. Attempts at establishing the mode of protection of the avocado seed extract was not determined in the study. With these, there is a need to identify the chemical compounds found in the avocado seed and their mode of effect on the cell. Other plant species, likewise, could also be determined which could have the potential of providing protection against nephrotoxicity. In the process, other organs could also be subjected to examination in order to ...
Looking for online definition of immunodiagnosis in the Medical Dictionary? immunodiagnosis explanation free. What is immunodiagnosis? Meaning of immunodiagnosis medical term. What does immunodiagnosis mean?
Summary Fluorescent antibody technics were used to determine the localization and distribution of Schistosoma mansoni antigen in tissue cells, the presence of circulating antibody, and the sites of antibody production or in vivo antigen-antibody combination. The experiments were performed in mice after a primary infection with cercariae, after several challenges, and after antigen stimulation and challenge. Evidence of the presence of circulating antibody was first observed at 20 days in the inhibition fluorescent antibody test, at 25 days in the indirect fluorescent antibody test, at 42 days with the cercarial fluorescent antibody test, and at 47 days in the Cercarienhullen reaction. Sites of antibody production or in vivo antigen-antibody combination were observed in inflammatory cells of the portal tracts, especially those along the smaller arteries, and in granulomas and isolated cells in the parenchyma of the liver; in the perivascular tissue cells, isolated parenchymal cells and granulomas of the
Doenhoff, MJ and El-Faham, M and Liddell, S and Fuller, HR and Stanley, RG and Schramm, G and Igetei, JE (2016) Cross-Reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni Antigens and the Latex Allergen Hev b 7: Putative Implication of Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants (CCDs). PLoS One. ISSN 1932-6203 ...
Complications of Toxocariasis including hidden complications, secondary medical conditions, symptoms, or other types of Toxocariasis complication.
Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP) IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE responses in vitro, the active in vivo production of these cytokines by T cells, and the degree of polarization of Th2 vs. Th0 in human schistosomiasis is not known. To address this question, we determined the frequency of IL-4 and IFN-γ or IL-5 and IL-2 producing lymphocytes from schistosomiasis patients with high or low levels of IgE anti-SWAP. Our analysis showed that high and low IgE-producers responded equally to schistosomiasis antigens as determined by proliferation. Moreover, patients from both groups displayed similar percentages of circulating lymphocytes. However, high IgE-producers had an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells as compared to the low IgE-producers. Moreover, intracellular cytokine analysis, after short-term stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, showed that IgE high
As part of a major project to investigate protective and diagnostic immune markers against tuberculosis (TB), we measured antibody isotype responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens (LAM, Rv2031, and HBHA) in cohorts of 149 pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTBP), 148 household contacts (HHCs), and 68 community controls (CCs) in an endemic setting. ELISA was used to measure levels of IgA, IgG, and IgM from sera of cohorts at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months from entry. The results show that there were significant differences in IgA, IgG, and IgM responses to the different antigens and in the three cohorts. At baseline, the level of IgM against RV2031 and LAM did not vary between cohorts, but the levels of IgA and IgG against Rv2031 were significantly higher in PTB patients than HHCs and CCs, followed by HHCs, and the lowest in CCs. In patients, there was a significant variation in antibody responses before and after chemotherapy. The levels of IgA and IgG against HBHA, and IgA against ...
See your GP as soon as possible if you think you or your child have symptoms that may be caused by toxocariasis. If one of your eyes is affected by toxocariasis, theres a risk of permanent vision loss. However, prompt treatment can reduce the chances of this happening.. A blood test can usually detect toxocariasis, although you may need an eye examination to look for parasites if your eyes are affected.. The roundworm parasites responsible for toxocariasis (called Toxocara) live in the digestive system of dogs, cats and foxes. The worms produce eggs, which are released in the faeces of infected animals and contaminate soil.. The eggs only become infectious after 10 to 21 days, so theres no immediate danger from fresh animal faeces. However, once the eggs are passed into sand or soil, they can survive for many months.. Humans can become infected if contaminated soil gets into their mouth. Once the eggs are inside the human body, they move into the bowel before hatching and releasing larvae (the ...
Liver Fluke in Cattle Also known as: Bovine Fasciolosis, Fasciola hepatica Bovine fasciolosis is an economically important disease of cattle, which can be associated with particular regions throughout the world directly linked to the habitat of an aquatic mud snail.
Has anyone done the heart worm antigen text on their pups? My vet sent a reminder that Ozzy needs this. Never did it on any of my prior dogs. He has been on...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Nematodes (Roundworms) from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Buy Breast Cancer Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy by Roberto L. Ceriani from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £20.
Long-term use of a daily low-dose aspirin dramatically cuts the risk of dying from a wide array of cancers, a new investigation reveals. Specifically, a British research team unearthed evidence that a low-dose aspirin (75 milligrams) taken daily for at least five years brings about a 10 percent to 60 percent drop in fatalities depending on the type of cancer. The finding stems from a fresh analysis of eight studies involving more than 25,500 patients, which had originally been conducted to examine the protective potential of a low-dose aspirin regimen on cardiovascular disease ...
Prionics, a company involved in farm animal diagnostics, introduces a highly sensitive and specific test for the detection of Trichinella spp. in pigs.
Our environment shapes our lives - and how we live shapes our environment. We at NERC want to give the Scottish public the chance to see our world-class science up close. Join us as we dig up data to recover weather measurements made on Ben Nevis more than a hundred years ago or get snapping for our photo competition Picture It: Your Environment to capture your own #Enviromoment.. During our free interactive showcase, UnEarthed, at Dynamic Earth, Edinburgh (17-19 November), families and adults can explore the tools used to make science happen and see the extraordinary work of our scientists. Visit our website for event details and more about the amazing environmental science at your feet. Find us on Facebook - external link - and Tweet @NERCscience - external link - using #UnEarthed2017.. 2. NERC is the UKs main agency for funding and managing research, training and knowledge exchange in the environmental sciences. Our work covers the full range of atmospheric, Earth, biological, terrestrial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cysteine protease secreted by Paragonimus westermani attenuates effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated with immunoglobulin G. AU - Myeong Heon Shin, Heon Shin. AU - Kita, H.. AU - Hae Young Park, Young Park. AU - Ju Young Seoh, Young Seoh. PY - 2001/3/14. Y1 - 2001/3/14. N2 - An immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated surface, such as that found on helminth parasites, is one of the most effective physiologic stimuli for eosinophil activation. The cysteine proteases secreted by tissue-invasive helminth larvae play an important role in evasion of the immune response by degrading the host immunoglobulins. In this study, we investigated whether cysteine proteases in the excretory-secretory product (ESP) produced by Paragonimus westermani newly existed metacercariae (PwNEM), which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, could modify effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated with IgG. We coated 96-well plates with human IgG in the absence or ...
Specific IgG4 and IgE responses to adult worm antigen and soluble egg antigen (SEA) were examined in 267 individuals from an area in which schistosomiasis mansoni is endemic. Based on information obtained from clinical and sonographic examinations of this sample, the individuals were divided in three groups: 1) 204 individuals without periportal fibrosis, and liver and spleen enlargements; 2) 41 individuals without periportal fibrosis, but presenting with organopathy, with or without organomegaly; and 3) 22 individuals with periportal fibrosis, regardless of their status as having hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly. Levels of IgG4 to SEA were significantly higher in sera from patients with fibrosis compared with the patients from the other two groups. We also found significantly higher levels of IgG4 against SEA in egg-negative patients with fibrosis compared with egg-negative patients from the other two groups. This report demonstrates a specific humoral response in patients presenting with initial
Physiological reactions to Toxocara infection depend on the hostâ s immune response and the parasitic load. Most cases of Toxocara infection are asymptomatic, especially in adults. When symptoms do occur, they are the result of migration of second stage Toxocara larvae through the body.. Covert toxocariasis is the least serious of the three syndromes and is believed to be due to chronic exposure. Signs and symptoms of covert toxocariasis are coughing, fever, abdominal pain, headaches, and changes in behavior and ability to sleep. Upon medical examination, wheezing, hepatomegaly, and lymphadenitis are often noted.. High parasitic loads or repeated infection can lead to visceral larva migrans (VLM). VLM is primarily diagnosed in young children, because they are more prone to exposure and ingestion of infective eggs. Toxocara infection commonly resolves itself within weeks, but chronic eosinophilia may result. In VLM, larvae migration incites inflammation of internal organs and sometimes the ...
Fasciolosis is one of the major stress factors, leading to malnutrition and low performance and production efficiency in domestic animals. Recent studies indicate that fasciolosis has lead to oxidative stress which is the causative agent in the initiation and progress of lipid peroxidation in the hosts. The antioxidant defences depend on microelements or are microelements themselves. Zinc has been shown to have an antioxidant role in defined chemical systems. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the compound 2Gly.ZnCl2.2H2O on the antioxidant systems comprising vitamins A, C and E, copper, zinc and selenium contents during various stages of fasciolosis. Forty male Wistar albino rats were used. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I, control; Group II, control and treated with 2Gly.ZnCl2.2H2O; Group III, Fasciola hepatica infected rats; and Group IV, Fasciola hepatica infected and treated with 2Gly.ZnCl2.2H2O. Each rat from groups III and IV were orally infected with 25 ...
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. La edad media de las pacientes fue El peso medio de nacimiento fue gramos Tres neonatos presentaron trastornos alimentarios, uno hipoglucemia y otro enfermedad de membrana hialina, ductus arterioso permeable, sepsis y plaquetopenia. It has a high maternal and perinatal morbi-mortality rate. Maternal and neonatal variables were analized. Mean maternal age was MAH O Deteksi Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica pada Kerbau Perah Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica merupakan cacing kelas trematoda.. Telur cacing ini berbentuk oval dan dilengkapi dengan operculum yang berfungsi sebagai jalan keluar larva mirasidium pada saat telur menetas. Ukuran telur Fasciola gigantica lebih besar dibandingkan ukuran telur Fasciola hepatica. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi telur cacing Fasciola Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infestation caused by the trematode fasciola hepatica. It presents a wide spectrum of clinical pictures ranging from fever and ...
Toxocariasis is a preventable parasitic infection caused by the larval form of the dog or cat roundworms Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. Toxocara eggs are found in dog or cat feces. After someone accidentally ingests Toxocara eggs, the larvae hatch and travel through the bloodstream into organs and other tissues. This often causes fever and coughing, and sometimes leads to severe illness, including inflammation of the liver or blindness. Two forms of toxocariasis are of most concern. Ocular toxocariasis results from movement of the parasite into the eye, and visceral toxocariasis results from movement of the parasite through the organs or tissues. Ocular toxocariasis causes visual impairment that can be permanent, including blindness. Visceral toxocariasis can lead to severe damage to the liver and other organs. Toxocariasis is considered a Neglected Parasitic Infection, one of a group of diseases that results in significant illness among those who are infected and is often poorly understood ...
Clonorchis sinensis ESA proved to be a better serodiagnostic antigen than CA for ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity of ELISA with ESA was 92.5% while that of ELISA with CA was 88.2%, when 509 human sera of clonorchiasis were screened in the present study, which was statistically significant. The diagnostic specificity of ELISA with ESA was increased to 93.1% from 87.8% by using CA. Especially cross-reactivity of ESA with serum specimens of opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis and paragonimiasis was reduced compared to that of CA.. C. sinensis ESA was found to include proteins of 7-8, 12.5, and 30 kDa (Kim, 1998), and the 7 or 8 kDa protein predominated (Chung et al., 2002). ESA has been suggested to be a valuable candidate diagnostic antigen of active clonorchiasis in rabbits and humans (Kim, 1994 & 1998). The protein bands in C. sinensis ESA were also found to form 7-8, 17 and 26-28 kDa bands, while in CA bands at 35, 43, 55, and 70 kDa were additionally observed (Hong et al., 1997, 1999).. The 7-8 ...
Despite the high prevalence of helminth infections among preschool-aged children, control programs in sub-Saharan countries primarily focus on school-aged populations. We assessed the prevalence of helminth infections and determined risk factors for infection among preschool-aged children in the urban setting of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.; Starting in October 2015, we conducted a 12-month prospective study among tuberculosis (TB)-exposed children under the age of 5 years and unexposed controls from neighboring households. At the time of recruitment, we collected medical histories, assessed development and cognitive functions, and performed medical examinations. We performed full blood cell counts and screened for HIV and malaria. Point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA), urine filtration, Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, and Baermann tests were employed to detect helminth infections in urine and stool. Helminth infections were stratified for Schistosoma and other helminths to identify risk factors, ...
Fasciolosis remains a significant food-borne trematode disease causing high morbidity around the world and affecting grazing animals and humans. A deeper understanding concerning the molecular mechanisms by which Fasciola hepatica infection occurs, as well as the molecular basis involved in acquiring protection is extremely important when designing and selecting new vaccine candidates. The present study provides a first report of microarray-based technology for describing changes in the splenic gene expression profile for mice immunised with a highly effective, protection-inducing, multi-epitope, subunit-based, chemically-synthesised vaccine candidate against F. hepatica. The mice were immunised with synthetic peptides containing B- and T-cell epitopes, which are derived from F. hepatica cathepsin B and amoebapore proteins, as novel vaccine candidates against F. hepatica formulated in an adjuvant adaptation vaccination system; they were experimentally challenged with F. hepatica metacercariae. Spleen
Looking for Paragonimiasis? Find out information about Paragonimiasis. Presence of the fluke Paragonimus westermani in the lungs or other tissues of humans. a helminthosis of carnivores, swine, and humans that affects primarily... Explanation of Paragonimiasis
This study was undertaken to compare the immunogenicity and protective potential of biofilm vs planktonic Staphylococcus aureus vaccine for the prevention of mastitis using the mouse as a model system. Mice immunized with formalin-killed whole cell vaccine of S. aureus residing in a biofilm when delivered via an intramammary route produced a cell mediated immune response. Mice immunized with this biofilm vaccine showed significant reductions in colonization by S. aureus in mammary glands, severity of clinical symptoms and tissue damage in mammary glands in comparison with the mice immunized with formalin-killed whole cells of planktonic S. aureus. The planktonic vaccine administered by a subcutaneous route produced a significantly higher humoral immune response (IgG1 and IgG) than the biofilm vaccine. However, considering the host response, tissue damage, the clinical severity and colonization of S. aureus in mammary glands, the biofilm vaccine performed better in immunogenicity and protective ...
REFERENCE RANGE: Negative. Results of this assay must be interpreted with caution, as broad variations in antibody response occur, and levels may remain elevated for years after infection. Further, as with many parasitic serology assays, antibodies induced by other parasitic infections may crossreact in this assay. Although a negative result usually rules out infection with Toxocara spp., parallel testing of serial samples may prove useful in following patients with suspected Toxocara infection.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fasciola hepatica in the rat. T2 - immune responses associated with the development of resistance to infection. AU - Keegan, P S. AU - Trudgett, A. PY - 1992/11. Y1 - 1992/11. N2 - F. hepatica infections were established in rats and immune responses were monitored during primary and challenge infections. Antibody levels peaked at 3 weeks post-primary infection and at 6 days post-challenge infection. No significant correlation was found between antibody titre and number of flukes recovered at autopsy. Immunoblotting revealed a limited number of immunogenic polypeptides. When antibodies from these reactive bands were eluted and tested by IFA they all gave identical binding patterns: on juvenile fluke sections tegumental syncytium, tegumental cells and gut cells were labelled, while on adult sections the same antibodies labelled gut cells, reproductive tissue, excretory ducts and flame cells. This suggested that these tissues shared a common epitope or range of epitopes. A ...
Cyathostomins are the most common parasitic nematodes of horses. Larval stages, which inhabit the intestinal wall, are particularly pathogenic and can cause severe colitis and colic. Despite their clinical importance, diagnostic techniques for the prepatent stages do not exist. A method that could estimate mucosal infection intensity would have a major impact on the control and diagnosis of cyathostominosis. Here, serum IgG(T) responses to two larval antigen complexes of 25 and 20 kDa were quantified in horses with experimental infections, natural infections and in horses that presented with clinical larval cyathostominosis. In experimentally-infected animals, anti-25 kDa complex IgG(T) levels correlated positively with field exposure and with early third stage larval (r(s)=0.74, P=0.015) and total mucosal parasite (r(s)=0.78, P=0.010) burdens. In naturally exposed horses whose parasite burdens were quantified upon post-mortem examination, antigen-specific IgG(T) responses were significantly ...
Parasite international open-access, peer-reviewed, online journal publishing high quality papers on all aspects of human and animal parasitology
Comparability of the Utility of Recombinant B8/2 Subunit of the Antigen B, Native Antigen, and a Industrial ELISA Equipment within the Analysis of Human Cystic Echinococcosis Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a helminthic illness… Read more ». ...
Unibiotest has an enthusiastic and creative R&D team, consisting with a group of experienced technicians in lateral flow immunoassay field, and set up long relationship with first-class institutes,universities,academies, to provide excellent service for human healthy and earth ...
Looking for online definition of Anisakis in the Medical Dictionary? Anisakis explanation free. What is Anisakis? Meaning of Anisakis medical term. What does Anisakis mean?
Fruits is a scientific journal for original articles and reviews on fruit crops in temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical regions
Main Article. The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.. ...
PULMONOLOGI : A Coggle Diagram about HISTOLOGI (trachea (tunika adventisia, tunika submukosa and mukosa), bronchus, alveolar, bronchiolus , duktus alveolus, epiglotis and sakus alveolus), LABORATORIUM (AGDA, tes tuberkulin, spirometri, rapid test HIV, kultur sputum and darah rutin), FARMAKOLOGI (antitusif, mukolitik, OAT and beta agonis), PATOLOGI ANATOMI (polip sinonasal, karsinoma nasofaring, tuberculosis paru and karsinoma primer paru), penyakit respirasi (kompetensi 3A dan 3B, penyakit paru pada anak and kompetensi 4A), PARASITOLOGI (keong air tawar, paragonimus westermani and ketam air tawar), FISIOLOGI (homeostasis and mekanisme paru dan pernafasan), ANATOMI (sistem respirasi bawah and sistem respirasi atas), PATOLOGI KLINIK (analisis cairan pleura and analisa gas darah), BIOKIMIA (keseimbangan asam basa), MIKROBIOLOGI (jenis mikroorganisme), RADIOLOGI (foto thoraks) and MUSLIM STUDY
Fascioliasis is a waterborne and foodborne zoonotic disease caused by two parasites of class Trematoda, genus Fasciola; namely F. hepatica and F.
Fascioliasis is a parasitic condition caused by a flatworm, Fasciola. It is primarily a disease of animals but can be transmitted to humans.
Fascioliasis is a parasitic condition caused by a flatworm, Fasciola. It is primarily a disease of animals but can be transmitted to humans..
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Anisakiasis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version.
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Ogilvie, B. M. (1964). "Reagin-like Antibodies in Animals Immune to Helminth Parasites". Nature. 204 (4953): 91-92. Bibcode: ...
"Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Erb KJ (May 2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE ... June 2010). "Antibodies specific for a segment of human membrane IgE deplete IgE-producing B cells in humanized mice". The ... In the second approach, antibodies specific for a domain of 52 amino acid residues, referred to as CεmX or M1' (M1 prime), ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has been found only in mammals. IgE is ...
Responses to specific helminths are also characterised with elevated levels of IgE antibodies. Idiotype Janeway, CA; Travers, P ... IgE antibodies are present at lowest concentrations in peripheral blood but constitute the main antibody class in allergic ... which define the antibody's class. Antibodies of different classes activate distinct effector mechanisms in response to an ... Thus an antibody isotype is determined by the constant regions of the heavy chains only. IgM is first expressed as a monomer on ...
The presence of antibody is indicative only of schistosome infection at some time and cannot be correlated with clinical status ... It belongs to the group of helminth infections. Diagnosis is by finding eggs of the parasite in a person's urine or stool. It ... Antibody detection can be useful to indicate schistosome infection in people who have traveled to areas where schistosomiasis ... Bilharz, Siebold CT (1852). "Ein Beitrag zur Helminthographia humana …" [A contribution to the literature on helminths [ ...
Epidemiology and control of ruminant helminths in the Kericho Highlands of Kenya. "Moses Rugutt named Nacosti head". Business ... Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle by antibody and antigen ELISA. Anthelmintic resistance amongst ...
"Antibodies to Selected Canine Pathogens and Infestation with Intestinal Helminths in Golden Jackals (Canis aureus) in Israel". ... helminths) and Echinococcus granulosus. In Israel, some jackals are infected with intestinal helminths and Leishmania tropica. ...
Defense against helminths. Multiple Sclerosis Tfh. IL-21, IL-4. Bcl-6. Help B cells produce antibody. Asthma and other allergic ... Aid the differentiation and antibody production by B cells. Asthma and other allergic diseases ... in immune function in patients with sepsis are associated with PD-1 or PD-L1 expression and can be restored by antibodies ... "Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients" ...
Antibody structure". Архивирано из оригинала на датум 6. 9. 2008.. *^ Erb KJ (2007). „Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE- ... Burton, Oliver T.; Oettgen, Hans C. „Beyond immediate hypersensitivity: evolving roles for IgE antibodies in immune homeostasis ...
It is the bound IgE antibody that confers a selective response of these cells to environmental substances, for example, pollen ... Voehringer D (December 2009). "The role of basophils in helminth infection". Trends in Parasitology. 25 (12): 551-6. doi: ... Interleukin-4 is considered one of the critical cytokines in the development of allergies and the production of IgE antibody by ... proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells and ...
Anthelmintic resistance amongst sheep and goats in Kenya and Epidemiology and control of ruminant helminths in the Kericho ... Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle by antibody and antigen ELISA; ...
Many low affinity interactions are formed between receptor and antibody that work together to tightly bind the antibody-coated ... against which helminths are not resistant. The interaction of the FcεRI receptor with the Fc portion of helminth bound IgE ... or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Some viruses such as ... IgE antibodies bind to antigens of allergens. These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of ...
Muck, A.; Pires, M.; Lammie, P. (2003). "Influence of infection with non-filarial helminths on the specificity of serological ... increased titers of antifilarial antibodies; peripheral blood negative for microfilariae; and a clinical response to ... High antifilarial IgG titers to microfilariae often result in cross reactivity with other nonfilarial helminth antigens, such ...
... antibodies, fungal MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.185 - antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.191 - antibodies, ... antibodies, fungal MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.185 - antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.191 - antibodies, ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 - antibodies, ...
"Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.. *^ Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE ... Chang TW, Wu PC, Hsu CL, Hung AF (2007). Anti-IgE antibodies for the treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Adv. Immunol ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ... In the first approach, the anti-IgE antibody drug omalizumab (trade name Xolair) recognises IgE not bound to its receptors and ...
... helminths, allergens). ... Antibody mimetic[edit]. Antibody mimetics are organic compounds ... Asymmetrical antibodies[edit]. Heterodimeric antibodies, which are also asymmetrical and antibodies, allow for greater ... How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody from Cells Alive!. *Antibody applications Fluorescent antibody image library, University of ... Nucleic acids and small molecules are sometimes considered antibody mimetics, but not artificial antibodies, antibody fragments ...
Helminth cultivation. Oncological investigations. The advantages of using CAM are: It is easy to use as compared to other ... Limited availability of reagents like antibodies due to avian origin. Non-specific inflammatory reaction after 15 days of ... Fried B, Stableford LT (1991). "Cultivation of helminths in chick embryos". Advances in Parasitology. 30: 108-65. PMID 2069072 ...
helminth vs. fungus vs. protist). They are generally considered essential in B cell antibody class switching, breaking cross- ... gastric fluid acidification to expel helminths. IL-5 from CD4 T cells will activate eosinophils to attack helminths. IL-10 ... Antibodies do not play a direct role in this allergy type. T cells play an important role in this hypersensitivity, as they ... Antibody class switching declines significantly once helper T cell function fails. The immune system loses its ability to ...
This is despite the fact that many recently developed methods of antibody detection are of limited value because substantial ... antigenic cross-reactivity exists between filaria and other parasitic worms (helminths), and that a positive serologic test ... Seropositivity for antifilarial IgG antibody was also much higher in the placebo group. The recommended prophylactic dose is ...
Principal antibody ligand. Affinity for ligand. Cell distribution. Effect following binding to antibody ... against which helminths are not resistant.[34][35] The interaction of the FcεRI receptor with the Fc portion of helminth bound ... Fc receptors recognize microbes that have been bound by antibodies. The interaction between the bound antibodies and the cell ... or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Some viruses such as ...
... such as eosinophils killing certain parasitic worms known as helminths via IgE antibodies.[4] ... Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies. References[edit]. *^ Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody- ... Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ...
Stimulates B-cells into proliferation, to induce B-cell antibody class switching, and to increase neutralizing antibody ... gastric fluid acidification to expel helminths. IL-5 from CD4 T cells will activate eosinophils to attack helminths. IL-10 ... Antibodies do not play a direct role in this allergy type. T cells play an important role in this hypersensitivity, as they ... They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing ...
Schistosome proteins also contain abundant proteases which and cleave IgE antibodies. Alpha-1, a protein released by ... The Helminth Secretome Database (HSD) is a repository for helminth proteins predicted using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). ... Garg G, Ranganathan S (2012-01-01). "Helminth secretome database (HSD): a collection of helminth excretory/secretory proteins ... Helminth proteins modulate the immune response of their hosts, but do not suppress it entirely. A number of proteins are able ...
Higher levels of antibodies measured by ELISA methods, referred to as optical density ratios (ODRs), are associated with ... Diagnosis of helminth infections in cattle : World Buiatrics Congress. Areskog, M., Ljungström, B., and Höglund, J. 2013. ... The failure to respond quickly to Ostertagia may be a result of the suggested immunosuppression or impairment of antibody and ... These include the determination of specific anti-parasite antibodies in milk. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have ...
The humoral (antibody) response is defined as the interaction between antibodies and antigens.[16] Antibodies are specific ... and helminth infestations) as well. Hence, research in the field of immunology is of prime importance for the advancements in ... Passively acquired maternal antibodies can suppress the antibody response to active immunization. Similarly the response of T- ... Antibodies are proteins that neutralize the disease-causing microorganisms. The antibodies don't kill the pathogens rather ...
... antibodies, fungal MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.185 - antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548. - htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548. - htlv-ii ...
It is also used as a molecular technique for infection with different pathogens, such as HIV, microbes, and helminth parasites ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ... Since antibodies are bivalent or polyvalent, this is the sum of the strengths of individual antibody-antigen interactions. The ... In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to form an antigen-antibody complex. The ...
Frölich, K., Prusas, C., Schettler, E., & Hafez, H. M. (2002). Antibodies to adenoviruses in free-living common buzzards from ... Other factors that negatively effect raptors have been studied in common buzzards are helminths, avipoxvirus and assorted other ... Santoro, M., Tripepi, M., Kinsella, J. M., Panebianco, A., & Mattiucci, S. (2010). Helminth infestation in birds of prey ( ...
Opsonization: Coating antigen with antibody enhances phagocytosis. *Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity: Antibodies ... parasites including helminths and toxins.[2] Like cytotoxic T cells, most of the CD4+ helper cells die on resolution of ... Passive - Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta or infant via the mother's milk.. Passive - Preformed antibodies in ... An antibody is made up of two heavy chains and two light chains. The unique variable region allows an antibody to recognize its ...
This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... such as helminths, could protect against allergy. Therefore, reduced exposure to these organisms, particularly in developed ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - ...
A. cantonensis is a helminth of the phylum Nematoda, order Strongylida, and superfamily Metastrongyloidea. Nematodes are ... Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as immuno-PCR.[51] A rapid ... "Helminth Taxonomy - Phylum Nematoda". Schistosomiasis Research Group. Archived from the original on April 13, 2009. Retrieved ...
Idiotype Network theory, proposed by Jerne, wherein a network of antibodies capable of neutralizing self-reactive antibodies ... 2004). "Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation". Int. Immunol. 16 (4): 585-96. ... 2002) injected an anti-MHC Class II antibody into mice expressing a single type of MHC Class II molecule (H-2b) to temporarily ... In this case, the host-cell receptor is envisioned as an internal image of the virus, and the anti-idiotype antibodies can ...
Seropositivity for antifilarial IgG antibody was also much higher in the placebo group. The recommended prophylactic dose is ... helminths), and a positive serologic test does not necessarily distinguish between infections-up and coming serologic tests ... and many of recently developed methods of Antibody detection are of limited value-because substantial antigenic cross ...
Serologic testing for antibodies against Babesia (both IgG and IgM) can detect low-level infection in cases with a high ... April 1994). "Diagnosis of babesiosis: evaluation of a serologic test for the detection of Babesia microti antibody". J. Infect ... Since detectable antibody responses require about a week after infection to develop, serologic testing may be falsely negative ...
For example, the use of antibodies made artificially fluorescent (fluorescently labeled antibodies) can be directed to bind to ... Macroparasites[6] (worms or helminths) including nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, tapeworms (cestodes), and ... These tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen, usually a protein or ... Immunoassay B on the other hand may detect or measure antibodies produced by an organism's immune system that are made to ...
20,0 20,1 Castillo J, Milani C, Mendez-Allwood D. Ofatumumab, a second-generation anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, for the ... Correale J, Farez M, Razzitte G (August 2008). "Helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis induce regulatory B ... Hutas G (November 2008). "Ocrelizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD20 for inflammatory disorders and B-cell ...
Some eukaryotic organisms, including a number of protozoa and helminths, are human parasites. ... Treating the symptoms of a viral infection gives the host immune system time to develop antibodies against the viral pathogen ...
Helminth's relationship to humans as hosts should be classified as mutualistic or symbiotic.[citation needed] ... Immunosuppressive antibodies target steps in the immune response. Other drugs modulate immune responses. ... Co-evolution with helminths has shaped some of the genes associated with Interleukin expression and immunological disorders, ... Reddy A, Fried B (January 2009). "An update on the use of helminths to treat Crohn's and other autoimmunune diseases". ...
Torres, J., García Perea, R., Gisbert, J., Feliú, C., (1998). Helminth fauna of the Iberian lynx, Lynx pardinus. J. Helminthol ... Antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from Donana National Park (Spain). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 42 (3): ...
Helminths (worms)[edit]. Helminth organisms (also called helminths or intestinal worms) include: Tapeworms[edit]. Common name ... direct microscopy of stool (PCR, antibody) • worldwide: one of the most common human parasites[1][2]. • United States: infected ...
Brooker S, Clements AC, Bundy DA (2006). Global epidemiology, ecology and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Adv ... a vaccine that could induce antibodies for these antigens could interfere with the hookworm's digestive pathway and impair the ... Knowles SC (August 2011). "The effect of helminth co-infection on malaria in mice". Int. J. Parasitol. 41 (10): 1041-51. doi: ... The term "hookworm" is sometimes used to refer to hookworm infection.[11] A hookworm is a type of parasitic worm (helminth). ...
The presence of helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of the little brown bat is most common in the spring and fall ... Trimarchi, C. V.; Debbie, J. G. (1977). "Naturally Occurring Rabies Virus and Neutralizing Antibody in Two Species of ... Some individuals in the wild have antibodies for the rabies virus.[45] ...
Voehringer D (December 2009). "The role of basophils in helminth infection". Trends in Parasitology. 25 (12): 551-6. doi: ... It is the bound IgE antibody that confers a selective response of these cells to environmental substances, for example, pollen ... Interleukin-4 is considered one of the critical cytokines in the development of allergies and the production of IgE antibody by ... proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells and ...
Vaccinations protect against viral diseases, in part, by eliciting the production of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, ... Antibody presence in blood serum is often used to determine whether a person has been exposed to a given virus in the past, ... When the immune system of a vertebrate encounters a virus, it may produce specific antibodies which bind to the virus and ... Tests detecting HIV infection by detecting the presence of HIV antibody were developed. Subsequent tremendous research efforts ...
Rosalino, L. M., Torres, J., Santos-Reis, M., (2006). A survey of helminth infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in ... Antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from Doñana National Park (Spain). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 42 (3): ... Torres, J., Miquel, J., Motje, M., (2001). Helminth parasites of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles, L.) in Spain: a ... Millán, J., Sevilla, I., Gerrikagoitia, X., García-Perez, A. L., Barral, M., (2004). Helminth parasites of the Eurasian badger ...
"Helminth Parasites". Australian Society of Parasitology. Retrieved 9 October 2017.. *^ "Pathogenic Parasitic Infections". PEOI ... that trigger the adaptive immune system's lymphocytes such as T cells and antibody-producing B cells. These have receptors that ... Various species of helminth castrate their hosts (such as insects and snails). This may be directly, whether mechanically by ... Much of the thinking on types of parasitism has focussed on terrestrial animal parasites of animals, such as helminths. Those ...
Specifically, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) are found in 70 percent of cases of UC.[17] Antibodies ... The therapy tests the hygiene hypothesis which argues that the absence of helminths in the colons of people in the developed ... Specific antibody markers may be elevated in ulcerative colitis. ... Etrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets he ...
Then further tests can be performed to confirm the presence of the bacteria, such as serology tests that find antibodies formed ... pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Several bacteria, such as E. coli, Clostridium botulinum, and Salmonella enterica, are well- ...
Browse by Outcome: Antibodies, Helminth (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia - ... Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia. * G ... Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia ... Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia ...
Malaria-Helminth Co-Infection and the Immune Response: How Relative Infection Size Alters Antibody Specificity and the Th1/Th2 ...
... helminth in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Antibodies, helminth. 28 synonyms for worm: squiggle, squirm, waggle, wiggle, wriggle ... Antibodies, helminth synonyms, Antibodies, helminth antonyms - ... Antibodies, helminth provided by ,a style=color:#000 href=, ... redirected from Antibodies, helminth). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Encyclopedia. #vtZoom,.vt-link{cursor:pointer} .vt- ...
... a causal association between helminths and atopic diseases remains uncertain. ... Although helminth infections can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, ... Antibodies, Helminth / blood * Antibodies, Helminth / immunology * Antigens, Helminth / immunology * Helminthiasis / blood * ... Interactions between helminth parasites and allergy Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Feb;9(1):29-37. doi: 10.1097/ACI. ...
... and IgG antibodies engineered therefrom. Such engineered antibodies can be used to blunt pathologic IgE responses in subjects, ... The present disclosure is directed to human monoclonal IgE antibodies, ... EN) GENERATION OF HUMAN ALLERGEN-AND HELMINTH-SPECIFIC IGE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC USE. (FR) ... 1. (WO2018144425) GENERATION OF HUMAN ALLERGEN-AND HELMINTH-SPECIFIC IGE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC ...
Intestinal helminth testing. Somali. To determine the seroprevalence of schistosoma and strongloides. Posey DL, et al. High ... Seroprevalence of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticerci among refugees resettled in United States. Laos, Burma, Bhutan, ... Seroprevalence of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticerci among refugees resettled in United States. Emerging infectious ... To assess the seroprevalence of antibodies against T. solium cysts to determine public health implications and future research ...
Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine ... Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine ... Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine ... Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine ...
Our results suggest that helminth protein vaccine combined with FK506 induces Tfh cell for stimulating humoral immune responses ... As secondary antibodies, 100 μL of horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-mouse IgG, or IgG1 (Sigma, St. Louis) were added ... reported that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, IL-4 expressing Th cells displayed the Tfh ... which in certain helminth infections are implicated in resistance to reinfection. King and Mohrs reported that. During helminth ...
... racial and breed variation in ability to develop resistance to helminth... ... I. Parasite biomass and antibody response in three strains of inbred mice against graded doses of Echinococcus multilocularis ... Wakelin D. (1982) Mouse Models of Genetic Variation in Resistance to Helminth Parasites. In: Owen D.G. (eds) Animal Models in ... Ljungström, I. (1979). Trichinella spiralis: formation of specific antibodies and modulation of the immune response. PhD Thesis ...
Antibody responses in plasma samples acquired at baseline and tuberculosis (TB) investigation were analysed by enzyme-linked ... IgG titres against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. ... Antibody responses in plasma samples acquired at baseline and tuberculosis (TB) investigation were analysed by enzyme-linked ... IgG titres against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. ...
Antibody isotype response to helminth antigens.. 2377. All. 5 Years to 18 Years (Child, Adult). NCT01658774. 2242. 241642. ... Community Directed Treatment of Soil-Transmitted Helminths Among Young Children in Zambia. *Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection ... Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris, hookworm, Trichuris). *Intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections ( ... Treatment of Helminth co-Infection: Short-Term Effects on HIV-1 Progression Markers and Immune Activation. *HIV Infections ...
Soil transmitted helminths. Intestinal protozoans. Antibody response. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Diarrhea. Malnutrition. ... We will additionally measure Total IgG antibody titers in the blood, and we will compare groups using logged values of the ... Infection with soil transmitted helminths (ascaris, trichuris, hookworm) will be enumerated in stool collected from all index ... antibody levels.. *ASQ Child Development Scores [ Time Frame: Measured 24 months after intervention ]. Interviewers will ...
... in antibody responses to two different recombinant Schistosoma antigens (Sh28GST and TPx-1). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells ... Antibodies, Helminth / biosynthesis* * Antibodies, Helminth / blood * Antibodies, Helminth / immunology * Antigens, Helminth / ... The production of antibody to either antigen was donor-dependent and for each donor it was antigen-dependent. Differentiation ... This may have implications in designing protocols for protein based-vaccinations aiming at eliciting antibody responses of ...
helminth infection. - elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards Search GPT2 in MalaCards View complete ... antibodies-online: Search results for 62 available GPT2 Antibodies ranked by validation data ... antibodies-online: Search results for 62 available GPT2 Antibodies ranked by validation data ... antibodies-online: Search results for 6 available GPT2 Elisa Kits ranked by validation data ...
FFPE lung sections were also stained using antibodies specific for B220 and CD3. Magnification: ×200. The average size of B ... which was elevated in TB patients coinfected with helminths. Together, our data indicate that helminth coinfection induces ... Parasitic helminth worms, such as Schistosoma mansoni. , are endemic in regions with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) ... Prevailing models suggest that T helper type 2 (Th2) responses induced by helminth infection impair Th1 immune responses and ...
Soil samples were examined for helminth eggs and larvae. Water samples were collected from areas of the Araguaia River where ... All samples tested for toxoplasmosis (n = 46) were nonreactive for IgM antibodies. Serologic tests for detection of IgG for ... helminth eggs and larvae, including Toxocara spp., were found in 7 of 10 soil samples. ...
0 (Antibodies, Helminth); 0 (Filaricides). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1606. [Cu] Atualiza o por classe:. 170220. ... In the site which failed TAS, 15 % of participants were antibody positive, 0.2 % were microfilaremic, and age-specific antibody ... and age-specific antibody prevalence peaked at almost 8 % in the 25-34 year-old age range, with no antibody-positive results ... Brugia Rapid™ antibody responses in communities of Indonesia in relation to the results of transmission assessment surveys ( ...
R. Schneider and H. Auer, "Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans ... Other Helminths. In addition to the aforementioned helminth infections, other roundworms, like hookworms and Strongyloides, are ... Hence, helminth parasites are of significant concern to public health and food safety. Furthermore, helminths also infect a ... 2. Trends of Probiotics against Helminth Zoonosis. Zoonotic helminth infections are still remaining a challenge posing a ...
Use of basic indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies produced by experimental immunisation; 4.7. SDS PAGE and Western ... Immunocytochemical demontration of neuroactive substances in helminth parasites; Part IV. Pathology and Immunology: 4.1. ... Production and screening of monoclonal antibodies against Leishmania promastigotes; 4.4. Pathological effects of Mesocestoides ... blotting for the detection of antibodies produced by experimental immunisation; Part V. Chemotherapy: 5.1. Sensitivity of a ...
MHC-restricted antibody responses to Trichuris muris excretory/secretory (E/S) antigen. Parasite Immunol. 12, 509-527 (1990). ... Helminths and the IBD hygiene hypothesis. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 15, 128-133 (2009). doi:10.1002/ibd.20633pmid:18680198. ... Helminth colonization is associated with increased diversity of the gut microbiota. PLOS Negl. Trop. Dis. 8, e2880 (2014). doi: ... such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection ...
Neutrophils in local and systemic antibody-dependent inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions. J. Leukoc. Biol. 94: 643-656. ... An enteric helminth infection protects against an allergic response to dietary antigen. J. Immunol. 169: 3284-3292. ... Similar to other helminths, L. sigmodontis induces systemic immunomodulation (5-7), and a previous study demonstrated that L. ... Chronic helminth infection reduces basophil responsiveness in an IL-10-dependent manner. J. Immunol. 188: 4188-4199. ...
5 D). Lastly, consistent with the severely compromised IgG1 and IgE antibody response previously reported in IL-4Rα- and IL-4- ... IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells in reactive lymph nodes during helminth infection are T follicular helper cells. Irah L. King, ... huCD2 marks T follicular cells in the reactive lymph nodes during helminth infection. (A) Gated CD4+ T cells from mesLNs of ... T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens. J. Exp. Med. 206:991-999. ...
... participants tested positive for Strongyloides antibodies. We identified no statistically significant association between a ... Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet 367: 1521-1532.[Crossref] ... I. Survey of intestinal helminth infections and anemia in rural school children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21: 919-929. ... f Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis Antibodies among a Rural Appalachian Population-Kentucky, 2013 * Elizabeth S. Russell ...
Helminths. SECTION VII: IMMUNOLOGY. Chapter 36. Cells and Signals of the Immune System. Chapter 37. Major Histocompatabiity ... Laboratory Use of Antibodies. SECTION VIII: SYSTEMS-BASED MICROBIOLOGY. Chapter 46. Cardiovascular System. Chapter 47. ... Antibodies and Complement. Chapter 40. Humoral Immunity. Chapter 41. Cell-Mediated Immunity. Chapter 42. Hypersensitivity. ...
While each helminth species completes a distinct life cycle within the host, several helminths incite significant lung disease ... While each helminth species completes a distinct life-cycle within the host, several helminths incite significant lung disease ... The impact of helminths on the pulmonary immune response involves a sophisticated orchestration and activation of the host ... The impact of helminths on the pulmonary immune response involves a sophisticated orchestration and activation of the host ...
Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and intestinal parasites in stray, farm and household cats in Spain. Veterinary ... Helminth parasites of the Mediterranean gecko, (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from Texas, United States with a summary of helminths of ... Specific IgG antibody response against antigens of Dirofilaria immitis and its Wolbachia endosymbiont bacterium in cats with ... Helminth parasites of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and sympatric carnivores. Journal of Helminthology, 81, 377- ...
... and 3 negative stool samples for intestinal helminths. An ELISA result for serum antibodies to the helminth Toxocara canis (DRG ... Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:41. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... In this case, we obtained a positive ELISA result for Toxocara canis, another helminth implicated in DUSN (3). Because the ... Additional diagnostic results included negative serum antibody tests for the parasites Fasciola hepatica, Strongyloides spp., ...
what is the mucosal cell response to IL-4 and IL-13 in helminth infection? ...
  • Our data suggest a possible protective association between raised antibody titers and acquisition of Mtb infection, potentially mediated by exposure to antigens both related and unrelated to Mtb . (
  • This study has evaluated the individual control of isotype production and the influence of external signals that can be experimentally provided in vitro, in antibody responses to two different recombinant Schistosoma antigens (Sh28GST and TPx-1). (
  • Antibodies in sera from multiple sclerosis patients recognize Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory antigens. (
  • Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ( ADCC ), also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies . (
  • Helminth proteins can result in a deregulated response to infection, and are implicated in reduced reactivity to other antigens. (
  • Response: Involves production of antibodies and generation of specialized lymphocytes against specific antigens. (
  • The study of reactions between antibodies and antigens. (
  • Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity (Antibody Involves production of antibodies against foreign antigens. (
  • We show here that the depletion of CD301b + DCs specifically enhanced the development of Tfh cells, germinal center B cells and antibody responses against protein antigens. (
  • Through presenting processed antigens on their MHC molecules, dendritic cells (DCs) are primarily responsible for initiating T cell-mediated cellular immunity, which is also required for T cell-dependent antibody responses. (
  • The detection of specific antibodies against T. solium cysticercal antigens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been considered a useful diagnostic element for neurocysticercosis, especially when neuroimaging techniques are unavailable or inconclusive 9,10 . (
  • The present study was designed to prepare a pair of polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) (IgG 4 A7 and IgG 4 B12) against Fasciola gigantica Cathepsin L. (CL) and used them in development of sandwich ELISA and dot-ELISA to detect Circulating Fasciola Antigens (CFA) in serum samples collected from a total of 157 sheep. (
  • Moreover, Fasciola shares antigens with other parasites such as S. mansoni increasing the possibility of cross-reactions when antibody detection assay systems were used for diagnosis of infection ( Espino and Finlay, 1994 ). (
  • These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification. (
  • Helminth exposure is of particular interest in understanding the epidemiology of ARD because of the homology between several helminth antigens and allergens, and the many similarities between helminth- and allergen-specific immune responses. (
  • Helminths have a range of antigens that are strikingly homologous to common allergens, including cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant (CCD) N-glycans carrying core b-1,2- xylose and a-1,3-fucose epitopes. (
  • An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. (
  • [2] This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (
  • 4. Overcome the 'deficient acquired immunity' that occurs during chronic helminth infection, in order to attain sufficient vaccine immunogenicity in these individuals. (
  • Is there an association of Pneumocystis infection with the presence of arena-, hanta-, and poxvirus antibodies in wild mice and shrews in Finland? (
  • Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. (
  • Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid -/- ) or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg -/- ) displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb), whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid -/- mice. (
  • Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid -/- and Fcrg -/- mice. (
  • It is unclear whether antibodies can prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) infection. (
  • In this study, we examined the relationship between total plasma IgG levels, IgG elicited by childhood vaccines and soil-transmitted helminths, and Mtb infection prevalence, defined by positive QuantiFERON (QFT) test. (
  • However, there is no clinical evidence to support the hypothesis that an effective TB vaccine might be based on induction of an antibody response that controls Mtb infection. (
  • Also searched for Helminth infection . (
  • Infection with soil transmitted helminths (ascaris, trichuris, hookworm) will be enumerated in stool collected from all index children and one older child per study compound. (
  • Prevailing models suggest that T helper type 2 (Th2) responses induced by helminth infection impair Th1 immune responses and thereby limit Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) control. (
  • Nowadays, one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases is infection with helminth parasites, which infect about one-third of the human population worldwide. (
  • Infection with helminths usually tends to be chronic rather than acute infection, although there can be acute manifestations after initial infection in naive hosts. (
  • show that intestinal helminth infection, caused by parasitic worms, protects IBD-susceptible mice from developing the disease. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the effect chronic helminth infection has on allergic disease in mice previously sensitized to OVA. (
  • Despite numerous epidemiologic and animal studies suggesting helminth infections are protective against allergy, the two prospective human clinical trials that have tested the efficacy of infection as a therapeutic have failed to show clinical benefit ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Similar to other helminths, L. sigmodontis induces systemic immunomodulation ( 5 - 7 ), and a previous study demonstrated that L. sigmodontis can inhibit the development of allergic disease when infection is established prior to allergic sensitization ( 8 ). (
  • Interleukin (IL)-4 is the quintessential T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine produced by CD4 + T cells in response to helminth infection. (
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report to show the location of IL-4-producing T cells in the reactive lymph nodes after helminth infection. (
  • what is the mucosal cell response to IL-4 and IL-13 in helminth infection? (
  • how do eosinophils get activated and respond to helminth infection? (
  • The infected and control dogs were bled every 5 days for 75 days from the time of infection and the sera were stored at -70°C. Sera were tested by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to E. granulosus scolex excretory/secretory (ES) antigen, protoscolex antigen and oncosphere antigen. (
  • Antibodies to scolex ES antigen and protoscolex antigen were detected in the sera of infected dogs within 2 weeks of infection. (
  • Antibody titers rose rapidly and remained at a high level until the dogs were killed 75 days after infection. (
  • Helminth parasites are effective in biasing Th2 immunity and inducing regulatory pathways that minimize excessive inflammation within their hosts, thus allowing chronic infection to occur whilst also suppressing bystander atopic or autoimmune diseases. (
  • In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. (
  • Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. (
  • This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. (
  • Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. (
  • We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. (
  • This can have important consequences not only on the host's ability to control a helminth infection, but also on their ability to control unrelated infections. (
  • In endemic areas, understanding how helminth infection influences the outcome of common infectious diseases and changes the efficacy of childhood vaccination programs is an important public health question. (
  • Current understanding of how helminths alter important but relatively neglected contributors to the host's anti-helminth immune responses are addressed, namely host antibody responses and how maternal infection may alter a child's immune development. (
  • These are discussed in relation to the control of helminth infection and unrelated infections. (
  • Anthony RM , Rutitzky LI , Urban JF Jr Stadecker MJ and Gause WC (2007) Protective immune mechanisms in helminth infection. (
  • Bouchery T , Kyle R , Ronchese F and Le Gros G (2014) The differentiation of CD4(+) T‐helper cell subsets in the context of helminth parasite infection. (
  • 2012) An essential role for TH2‐type responses in limiting acute tissue damage during experimental helminth infection. (
  • [1] It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies, as part of the humoral immune response , can act to limit and contain infection. (
  • She discusses the immune system, autoimmunity and helminth infection, coevolution of helminths and immunity, the localized impact, immune modulation, response, helminth influence on immunity, types of chronic tissue helminth infection, pathogen co-existence and immunity, and helminths and autoimmunity in mice. (
  • Blockade of eosinophil proliferation and recruitment into the lung by treatment with anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody marginally reduced mycobacterial growth within the lung but did not affect dissemination of the infection to other tissues. (
  • As blood and tissue eosinophilia induced by helminth infection is dependent on the production of the Th2 cytokine interleukin-5 (IL-5) ( 2 , 8 ), the presence of eosinophils in the cellular infiltrate at the site of mycobacterial infection strongly suggests that increased levels of IL-5 are produced in vivo during Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) infection in the absence of IFN-γ signaling. (
  • To study the effect of eosinophilia on the progression of M. bovis BCG infection in IFN-γR −/− mice, we inhibited infection-induced blood and lung eosinophilia by treatment with anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody (MAb). (
  • B Cells Produce the Tissue-Protective Protein RELMα during Helminth Infection, which Inhibits IL-17 Expression and Limits Emphysema. (
  • Both Pf -specific memory B cells and antibody titers increased after acute malaria and then, after six months of decreased Pf exposure, contracted to a point slightly higher than pre-infection levels. (
  • To date, most licensed vaccines are for pathogens that induce long-lived protective antibodies after a single infection. (
  • The study indicated that infection with gastrointestinal helminths was not a limiting factor for milk production in the organic system. (
  • Susceptibility to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and antibody levels to this helminth are associated with polymorphisms in locus 13q33-34. (
  • Allergic reactions in a small group of study participants led to the conclusion that Na-ASP-2 may interact with IgE antibodies induced by previous hookworm infection in individuals living in endemic areas, triggering this response. (
  • Results: Cross-sectional analyses showed that setting (rural vs. urban) was an effect modifier for risk factors (such as location of birth, current helminth [Sm] infection and other helminthrelated factors) for atopy and clinical allergy outcomes, and for atopy-clinical allergy associations. (
  • Although Sm infection was an important risk factor for skin prick test (SPT) reactivity and allergen-specific (as) IgE sensitisation (inversely or otherwise), definitive statistical proof for a role of helminth exposure in the observed effect modification between the two settings was not evident: helminths alone may not fully explain the differences observed. (
  • To obtain further insight into helminth-allergy associations, this project assessed total, Sm- and asIgE and asIgG4 and found strong positive associations with current Sm infection and atopic sensitisation (but not with ARD), but inverse associations between total IgE/ asIgE ratios, asIgG4/ asIgE ratios and SPT reactivity and asthma. (
  • Analyses showed distinctive relationships between IgE/IgG reactivity to these motifs and Sm infection intensity and the rural (versus urban) environment, and implied that they are abundant on common allergen extracts (such as house dust mite, German cockroach and peanut extracts used in standard ImmunoCAP assays), which likely results in false diagnosis of allergic sensitisation in tropical helminth-endemic settings. (
  • Here, immune responses induced by combinations of the bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) and the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb), which causes a murine hookworm infection and an experimental porin protein vaccine against STm, were examined. (
  • Whilst extrafollicular antibody responses were maintained in the first weeks after co-infection, the GC response was less than that in mice infected with Nb only. (
  • This suggested that prior Nb infection may modulate the induction of protective antibody responses to vaccination. (
  • Helminth infection represents a major health problem causing approximately 5 million disability-adjusted life years worldwide. (
  • Concerns that repeated anti-helminthic treatment may lead to drug resistance render it important that vaccines are developed but will require increased understanding of the immune-mediated cellular and antibody responses to helminth infection. (
  • Antibody levels peaked at 3 weeks post-primary infection and at 6 days post-challenge infection. (
  • To review the findings of recent human studies of the association between helminth parasite infections and allergy and discuss their potential relevance to public health. (
  • Infections with Trichuris trichiura in early life are associated with a reduced prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity later in life and infants of helminth-infected mothers have been reported to have a reduced prevalence of eczema. (
  • Although helminth infections can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and atopic diseases remains uncertain. (
  • Clinical and field studies of populations in endemic areas have, over many years, produced convincing evidence of individual, racial and breed variation in ability to develop resistance to helminth infections (Wakelin, 1978a). (
  • This paper is a comprehensive, concise, and an up to date review about probiotics effect and mechanisms against helminth infections of zoonotic importance. (
  • However, the effects of these beneficial microorganisms in helminth infections remain largely unexplored. (
  • State-of-the-art research on beneficial effects of bacteria on helminth infections and their proposed mechanisms of action is thoroughly discussed. (
  • Mental and growth stunting among children is also a big problem with helminth infections. (
  • Lack of protection may be due to a variety of factors, including the possibility that helminth infections are better at preventing allergy than treating it. (
  • what is the response to helminth infections? (
  • There has been accumulating a wealth of evidence in the past decade on the physiological role of IgE: this isotype has co-evolved with basophils and mast cells in the defence against parasites like helminths (like Schistosoma) but may be also effective in bacterial infections. (
  • Treat Helminth infections first, or concurrently? (
  • Helminth infections are common, cause considerable pathology, and alter a host's immune profile. (
  • Also covered are how helminth infections alter the host's ability to control TB, HIV and malarial infections along with neglected bacterial infections, such as cholera, and how endemic helminth infections are likely to alter our ability to respond to life-saving vaccination strategies. (
  • Helminth parasites are responsible for some of the most common human infections and cause significant health problems and economic difficulties in the developing areas of the world. (
  • The type 2 immune response, characteristic of helminth infections, has been associated with the development of protective immunity and reduced worm burdens in infected humans. (
  • This article will review these recent advances and highlight how these studies may inform the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat helminth infections and their associated morbidities. (
  • Bentwich Z , Weisman Z , Moroz C , Bar‐Yehuda S and Kalinkovich A (1996) Immune dysregulation in Ethiopian immigrants in Israel: relevance to helminth infections? (
  • Additionally, the database can also be used to develop protein targets for new drugs to treat helminth infections. (
  • It is the only laboratory in the Czech Republic to carry out examinations for tropical parasitic infections caused by helminths. (
  • The price for the determination of antibodies against one agent of helminth parasitic infections is CZK 587. (
  • Helminth Infections Induce Tissue Tolerance Mitigating Immunopathology but Enhancing Microbial Pathogen Susceptibility. (
  • Helminth infections and allergic diseases are associated with IgE hyperresponsiveness but the genetics of this phenotype remain to be defined. (
  • since the genes encode for enzymes involved in the immune response to parasitic infections, they could be helpful for understanding helminth immunity and allergic responses. (
  • Many helminth parasites are long-lived and cause chronic infections. (
  • The immune response that develops during this time often proceeds to cause pathologic changes that in many helminth infections are the primary cause of disease. (
  • The methods, devices, kits and compositions of the present invention may be used to confirm the presence or absence of roundworm, whipworm and/or hookworm in a fecal sample from a mammal and may also be able to distinguish between one or more helminth infections. (
  • Methods: This research project obtained data on current helminth infections and allergy-related outcomes, and measured helminth- and allergen-specific antibody profiles, with immunoassays that included allergen and carbohydrate microarrays. (
  • Streptococcal antibody tests are used for the diagnosis of antecedent infections caused by the group A streptococcus (GAS) and are particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. (
  • Our results suggest that helminth protein vaccine combined with FK506 induces Tfh cell for stimulating humoral immune responses and inducing long-lived humoral immunity. (
  • Antibody responses in plasma samples acquired at baseline and tuberculosis investigation were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ImmunoCAP ® assay. (
  • Antibody responses against Mtb do correlate with, and may provide protection against, TB disease ( 12 - 17 ). (
  • This may have implications in designing protocols for protein based-vaccinations aiming at eliciting antibody responses of certain protective-type isotypes. (
  • IL-4 not only promotes the differentiation of Th2 cells but is also critical for immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgE isotype-switched antibody responses. (
  • V. Enhancement of antibody responses in vivo by allo anti-IgD is due primarily to an indirect effect on B cells. (
  • Antibodies to Tp67 and Tp44 augment and sustain proliferative responses of activated T cells. (
  • HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, S. (
  • Surprisingly, we also observed enhanced antibody responses to HIV Gag in vaccinated mice subsequently infected with schistosomes. (
  • Furthermore, the isotype and specificity of the antibodies produced by plasma cells can drive distinct immune responses. (
  • Cytokine alarmins produced in response to helminth parasites initiate distinct modules of innate immunity including ILC2 (a) and HSPC responses (b). (
  • Exaggerated antibody responses in mice depleted of CD301b + DCs occurred in the absence of any adjuvants, and resulting antibodies had broader specificity and higher affinity to the immunogen. (
  • Molecules called antibodies are a key component of most immune responses because they can bind to invading microbes and either neutralize them or mark them for destruction by immune cells. (
  • For the development of antibody responses, DCs not only promote Tfh differentiation but also directly support B cell survival and class-switching through their expression of B cell stimulatory ligands such as BAFF and APRIL ( MacLennan and Vinuesa, 2002 ). (
  • Human allergic responses are triggered when mast cells bind IgE antibodies. (
  • Correction: Cutting Edge: Helminth Coinfection Blocks Effector Differentiation of CD8 T Cells through Alternate Host Th2- and IL-10-Mediated Responses. (
  • This inherent ability of helminths to induce Th2 responses has led to interest in them from both the perspective of elucidation of the underlying mechanisms that lead to Th2 response development and in terms of understanding Th2 response function. (
  • Compared with the urban area of Kenya, children living in the rural area had a lower percentage of body fat, smaller and fewer skin test responses to allergens, a higher prevalence of IgE antibodies to Ascaris (67% vs 26%) and 10-fold higher total IgE. (
  • Antibodies, especially IgE, are key constituents of the analogous immune responses to helminths and allergens, and are among the chief mediators of the effector cell activation underlying ARDs. (
  • Lead author E. van Riet (Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands) and a team of researchers analyzed antibody and cellular responses to influenza A and B strains in 33 children from a semi-urban school in Lambarn in Gabon, Africa, and 22 children from a rural area nearby. (
  • Influenza specific IL-10, TNF-alfa, and IFN-gamma responses were higher in the semi-urban children, whereas IL-5 responses were higher in the rural children , indicating a skewing toward Th2 responses in the rural children may, at least partly, be the result of the immune-modulating effects of helminths, says van Riet. (
  • The immunoglobulin G class (total IgG) and subclass (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) antibody responses to the spirurid worm Gnathostoma spinigerum were analyzed by immunoblotting technique for the antibodies' potential use in the serodiagnosis of human gnathostomiasis. (
  • Moreover, even in the absence of adjuvant, immunization with this glycosidic Tn-based vaccine induced high levels of anti-Tn antibody responses, recognizing human tumor cells. (
  • Here we dissect multiple checkpoints that operate throughout Tfh cell development and maturation to maintain immunological tolerance while mounting robust and long-lasting antibody responses. (
  • Programming the magnitude and persistence of antibody responses with innate immunity. (
  • Different helminth parasites may have different effects on allergy that may depend on the timing or intensity of the exposure or host genetic factors. (
  • Therefore, the aim of the present review is to raise attention and to summarize recent findings on probiotics research against helminth parasites of zoonotic significance. (
  • Hence, helminth parasites are of significant concern to public health and food safety. (
  • [1] IgE's main function is immunity to parasites such as helminths [2] like Schistosoma mansoni , Trichinella spiralis , and Fasciola hepatica . (
  • Gastrointestinal helminth parasites in stray cats from the mid-Ebro Valley, Spain. (
  • Effector functions of the helminth‐induced type 2 immune response also include tolerance mechanisms that mitigate tissue damage associated with trafficking of these large multicellular parasites. (
  • Helminth parasites promote the production of cytokine alarmins from both epithelial cells and tissue‐resident immune cells (a). (
  • Large parasites like helminths are too big to be engulfed and killed by phagocytosis . (
  • Other helminth proteins promote parasite survival in other ways, particularly since parasites must depend on hosts for the supply of essential nutrients. (
  • Parasites like helminths do not synthesize their own fatty acids or sterols, and are consequently dependent on their hosts for essential nutrients. (
  • Immunopathogenetic Aspects of Disease Induced by Helminth Parasites. (
  • Owing to the control of insect vector populations, the safe disposal of human excrement, and the availability of efficacious drugs, helminth parasites have been largely eradicated as a public health concern in developed countries. (
  • One consequence of this geopolitical segregation is that most of the world's pharmaceutical industries do not support active research and development programs on helminth parasites that cause human disease. (
  • Parasitic helminth worms, such as Schistosoma mansoni , are endemic in regions with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among the population. (
  • This supported a role for helminth-induced antibodies in individual positive helminth-atopy associations, and for the IgG4-IgE balance and the total IgE-allergen-specific IgE balance in the low overall prevalence of clinical allergies in such settings. (
  • ABSTRACT To determine the prevalence of helminth eggs in public places and children's playgrounds, 112 soil samples were collected in 26 sites in Shiraz, southern Islamic Republic of Iran, during September 2002-September 2003. (
  • As there is a large population of stray dogs and cats in Shiraz and no studies have been made on the extent of contamination of the environment with helminth eggs, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs in public places and playgrounds. (
  • I. Parasite biomass and antibody response in three strains of inbred mice against graded doses of Echinococcus multilocularis cyst. (
  • To unambiguously identify and localize Th2 cells and IL-4 production in the reactive lymph nodes in vivo, we infected IL-4 dual reporter mice ( 20 ), in which cells that express IL-4 are marked by GFP and IL-4-producing subsets additionally display surface huCD2, with the mouse gastrointestinal helminth parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus . (
  • In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. (
  • The immune cell effector functions stimulated by helminths include innate and adaptive components that mediate resistance and elimination of the parasite. (
  • In the current study, we investigated the capacity of human macrophages to recognize and attack larval stages of Ascaris suum, a natural porcine parasite that is genetically similar to the human helminth Ascaris lumbricoides. (
  • Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. (
  • IgG titers against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. (
  • Atopy, asthma, and antibodies to Ascaris among rural and urban children in Kenya. (
  • Human macrophages were able to adhere to and trap A suum larvae in the presence of either human or pig serum containing Ascaris-specific antibodies and other factors. (
  • The role of the gut microbiota during coinfection with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Plasmodium spp. (
  • Abstract Helminths, as complex pathogens, possess a large number of different epitopes, some of which may be similar to the epitopes of the host. (
  • ABSTRACT Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widespread helminth zoonosis, especially in rural areas. (
  • It is more critical now, than ever, to address questions around helminth vaccine development," said Jeffrey M. Bethony, PhD, professor of microbiology, immunology, and tropical medicine at the GW School of Medicine and Health Sciences. (
  • Moreover, in patients with pulmonary TB, lung damage correlated with increased serum activity of arginase-1, which was elevated in TB patients coinfected with helminths. (
  • Neuroimaging and specific T. solium cysticercosis antibody detection results are at the mainstay of this diagnosis, while antigen detection in serum has never been included. (
  • The B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of circulating cysticercus antigen was carried out retrospectively on serum samples collected during a hospital-based study from 83 people with epilepsy (PWE) in an endemic area. (
  • Antiserum: Antiserum: Serology: Serology: Gamma Globulins: Globulins: Fraction of serum that contains most of the antibodies. (
  • Serum containing antibodies to a specific antigen(s). (
  • A ratio to serum antibody greater than 3.0 is diagnostic. (
  • The immunoglobulins derive their name from the finding that they migrate with globular proteins when antibody-containing serum is placed in an electrical field. (
  • This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a pair of polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) raised against Fasciola CL antigen for detection of circulating Fasciola antigen using sandwich ELISA and dot-ELISA in serum samples of sheep naturally infected with Fasciola . (
  • Children (mean age, 11 years) from Kabati (n = 136), a rural village, and Thika (n = 129), a small town, were studied by skin testing and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody measurement. (
  • Here, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model to examine if the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus and its excretory/secretory products (HES) are able to suppress inflammatory disease. (
  • Continuous Delivery of Neutralizing Antibodies Elevate CCL2 Levels in Mice Bearing MCF10CA1d Breast Tumor Xenografts. (
  • Local variation in helminth burdens of Egyptian spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus) from ecologically similar sites: relationships with hormone concentrations and social behaviour. (
  • Populations of Egyptian spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus) in a fragmented montane wadi system in the Sinai showed significant differences in the abundance of gut helminths. (
  • Variation in the helminth community structure in spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) from four montane wadis in the St Katherine region of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. (
  • Other experiments that depleted some other types of dendritic cell - but not those that produce CD301b - completely abolished the antibody response of the mice. (
  • Despite altered control of bacterial and helminth colonization in co-infected mice, robust extrafollicular Th1 and Th2-reflecting immunoglobulin-switching profiles were detected, with IgG2a, IgG1 and IgE plasma cells all detected in parallel. (
  • To assess this we immunized mice with porins, which confer protection in an antibody-dependent manner, before challenging with STm. (
  • Martin RM, Brady JL, Lew AM. The need for IgG2c specific antiserum when isotyping antibodies from C57BL/6 and NOD mice. (
  • Generation of hybridomas secreting murine reaginic antibodies of anti-DNP specificity. (
  • The total IgG antibody to an antigenic band of approximately 24 kDa from a somatic extract of G. spinigerum advanced third-stage larvae (GS24) gave the highest sensitivity (91.6%) and 87.8% specificity. (
  • This book reviews how host immunity to helminths alters our ability to respond to the major pathogens that exist in helminth endemic regions. (
  • Samples used were collected from Ugandan participants of three cross-sectional surveys: the baseline and outcome surveys of a cluster-randomised trial of intensive versus standard anthelminthic treatment in rural Schistosoma mansoni (Sm)-endemic islands, and a parallel survey in proximate urban communities with lower helminth exposure. (
  • Immunoglobulin E ( IgE ) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) " isotype ") that has only been found in mammals . (
  • ADCC requires an effector cell which classically is known to be natural killer (NK) cells that typically interact with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. (
  • An antibody ( Ab ), also known as an immunoglobulin ( Ig ), [1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses . (
  • Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily . (
  • Suppression and contrasuppression in the induction of contact sensitivity by the administration of cellbound antigen-antibody complexes. (
  • Many other blood grouping systems based either on membrane or sera antigen antibody interactions have also been discovered. (
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (
  • Further differences in lymphokine synthesis between Th1 and Th2 clones revealed by RNA hybridization, functionally monospecific bioassays, and monoclonal antibodies. (
  • IL-4 or antibody-activated murine macrophages are known to immobilize parasitic nematode larvae, but few studies have addressed whether this is translatable to human macrophages. (
  • Lambert SL, Okada CY, Levy R. TCR vaccines against a murine T cell lymphoma: a primary role for antibodies of the IgG2c class in tumor protection. (
  • For an HIV vaccine to produce bnAbs, immunization with a single strain of antigen will likely not suffice as it would lead AM to produce strain-specific antibodies. (
  • Strong antibody response is considered a hallmark of a successful vaccine. (
  • 3. Develop vaccine potency assays that do not rely on the traditional immunization-challenge potency model (as used for vaccines against pertussis, diphtheria, and rabies) as neither helminth pathogen induce reliable mortality in an animal model nor do these vaccines induce sterilizing protection. (
  • Creating a helminth vaccine is arduous. (
  • Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. (
  • Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, inducing the NK cell to release proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes , which causes the lysis of the infected cell to hinder the spread of the virus. (
  • Despite their pathogenic properties, helminth proteins have potential to be co-opted to treat a number of other human diseases. (
  • Helminth proteins modulate the immune response of their hosts, but do not suppress it entirely. (
  • Schistosome proteins also contain abundant proteases which and cleave IgE antibodies. (
  • The Helminth Secretome Database (HSD) is a repository for helminth proteins predicted using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). (
  • Previously identified ESTs, which correspond to known helminth proteins, are used to predict the location and function of newly discovered helminth proteins based on genomic sequencing. (
  • Given the modulatory properties of helminth proteins, it has been suggested that they may be co-opted to successfully treat other human diseases, particularly those associated with auto-immunity disorders. (
  • Eliciting antibodies that are cross reactive with surface proteins of diverse strains of highly mutable pathogens (e.g. (
  • The method, termed single-cell metabolic regulome profiling (scMEP), quantifies proteins that regulate metabolic pathway activity using high-dimensional antibody-based technologies. (
  • Antibodies play a key role in protection from malaria, yet several studies indicate that antibodies against some Pf proteins are generated inefficiently and lost rapidly. (
  • GST (Glutathione S-Transferase) is a 26kDa protein encoded by the parasitic helminth Schistosoma japonicum and widely used in the pGEX family of GST plasmid expression vectors as a fusion protein with foreign proteins. (
  • Recognizes Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), a 26-kDa protein encoded by the parasitic helminth Schistosoma japonicum. (
  • Protection conferred by most clinically efficacious vaccines against their target pathogens requires a protective antibody response ( 9 - 11 ). (
  • Helminths trigger a specific type of immune response different from that induced by microbial pathogens. (
  • We will review the current evidence that helminths induce regulatory immune circuits that suppress aberrant inflammation and may be useful clinically to treat immune-mediated disease. (
  • In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. (
  • Dharmkrong-at A, Migasena S, Suntharasamai P, Bunnag D, Priwan R, Sirisinha S (1986) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to Gnathostoma antigen in patients with intermittent cutaneous migratory swelling. (
  • Antibody production is critical for pathogen clearance. (
  • These receptors recognize and bind to the Fc portion of an antibody , such as IgG , which has bound to the surface of a pathogen -infected target cell. (
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen , via the Fab's variable region . (
  • Helminths are parasitic worms, an evolutionarily ancient and diverse group of metazoan organisms, which include cestode tapeworms, nematode roundworms, and trematode flukes. (
  • [3] However, macrophages , neutrophils and eosinophils can also mediate ADCC, such as eosinophils killing certain parasitic worms known as helminths via IgE antibodies. (
  • The antibody response to each peptide was measured by ELISA. (
  • Together, our data indicate that helminth coinfection induces arginase-1-expressing type 2 granulomas, thereby increasing inflammation and TB disease severity. (
  • The first exposure to the antigen induces the production of IgE antibodies (cytotropic antibodies, reagin) that bind to receptors on mast cells and basophils. (
  • We will consider the effective eradication of helminths during this time period and the effects of helminths on immunity. (
  • Human studies suggest that helminth coinfections contribute to increased TB susceptibility and increased rates of TB reactivation. (
  • Despite significant advances in our understanding of the mammalian immune response to helminths, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that promote type 2 immunity remain to be fully defined. (
  • Allen JE and Maizels RM (2011) Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths. (
  • A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. (
  • One of the first recombinant larval helminth vaccines tested in humans was the 21.3 kDa N. americanus Ancylostoma Secreted Protein-2 (Na-ASP-2). (
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (
  • These results also provide insight into the mechanisms by which helminth coinfections drive increased susceptibility, disease progression, and severity in TB. (
  • Human monocyte adherence to cultured vascular endothelium: monoclonal antibody-defined mechanisms. (
  • Mechanisms by which several of these helminth-derived immunosuppressive "drugs" function have been elucidated, and generally appear to be adapted for specific host species. (
  • Conclusions: The current PhD research provides important insight into mechanisms underlying the complex epidemiological helminth-allergy trends in LICs. (
  • [7] Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (
  • When antibodies from these reactive bands were eluted and tested by IFA they all gave identical binding patterns: on juvenile fluke sections tegumental syncytium, tegumental cells and gut cells were labelled, while on adult sections the same antibodies labelled gut cells, reproductive tissue, excretory ducts and flame cells. (
  • Frozen human lung tissue section was stained with anti-DC-SIGN followed by an AP conjugated secondary antibody and New Fucshin. (
  • [4] The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system . (
  • Antibodies are central to malaria immunity, yet little is known about the B-cell biology that underlies the inefficient acquisition of Pf -specific humoral immunity. (
  • Anaphylaxis Hypersensitivity reaction involving IgE antibodies, mast cells and basophils. (
  • Parasitic helminths, or worms, comprise a diverse group of metazoan organisms that infect billions of people and their domesticated animals worldwide ( 22 ). (
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (
  • Intermediate Host An organism that harbors the larval or asexual stage of helminth or protozoan. (
  • 2. occasionally, any form of hypersensitivity in which antibodies, rather than T lymphocytes, are the primary mediators, i.e., types I-III. (
  • Following vaccination, influenza virus HI antibody titers increased in both the rural and the semi-urban schoolchildren, but reached significantly higher levels in the semi-urban schoolchildren. (
  • Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt. (
  • Antigen Any substance that can bind to an antibody or T cell receptor. (
  • The "valency" of antibody refers to the number of antigenic determinants that an individual antibody molecule can bind. (
  • Antibodies are said to bind to certain sites as well. (
  • [2] [3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (
  • The ability of an antibody to bind to its corresponding FcR is further modulated by the structure of the glycan(s) present at conserved sites within its Fc region. (
  • [4] The ability of antibodies to bind to FcRs helps to direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. (
  • A casecontrol study on asthma among schoolchildren enabled assessment of a role for antibodies in allergic disease. (
  • This inefficient, stepwise expansion of both the Pf -specific memory B-cell and long-lived antibody compartments depends on Pf exposure rather than age, based on the comparator response to tetanus vaccination that was efficient and stable. (
  • The group found that H1N1, H3N2 and B influenza virus-specific antibodies were already present in the majority of sera before vaccination indicating that influenza strains have already been circulating in Gabon. (
  • Despite zoonotic helminth diseases being still a challenge to the public health and the agriculture industries globally, they were still neglected in both human and veterinary medicine. (
  • Consequently, the use of beneficial microorganisms, probiotics, is becoming interesting for its prophylactic or therapeutic application against several diseases including helminths. (
  • Although components of the biome other than helminths may be important in this plague of diseases, a wide range of studies in rodents and emerging observations in humans demonstrate consistently that helminths are the component of the biome that is most missed by our immune system in post-industrial culture (Capron et al. (
  • In autoimmune diseases, antibodies may also target the body's own cells, with the result that the immune system mistakenly attacks tissues and organs. (
  • This also led to the antibodies behaving in exaggerated ways, as can occur in autoimmune diseases. (
  • Blood samples from 3446 individuals from 700 randomly selected families were examined for detection of antibody against Echinococcus granu- losus. (
  • The main aim of this study was to determine the distribution of populations of gastrointestinal helminths in lactating crossbred cows and calves during the grazing season in an organic milk production system. (
  • In vivo DC-targeting strategies, based on Tn-MGL interactions, constitute a promising strategy for enhancing antigen presentation and inducing potent antibody response. (
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (
  • Although populations in tropical low-income countries (LICs), and in rural (compared to urban) settings, seem to be remarkably protected, the trends are fast changing as these communities undergo an epidemiological transition exemplified by changing helminth exposure patterns. (
  • Immune cells called T follicular helper cells activate the cells that produce antibodies, the B cells. (
  • 8 Furthermore, once self-reactive B cells have been vaguely selected in germinal centres, their differentiated offspring can live and produce antibodies unchecked, subject to virtually no further control. (