Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

Detection of cell wall mannoprotein Mp1p in culture supernatants of Penicillium marneffei and in sera of penicilliosis patients. (1/945)

Mannoproteins are important and abundant structural components of fungal cell walls. The MP1 gene encodes a cell wall mannoprotein of the pathogenic fungus Penicillium marneffei. In the present study, we show that Mp1p is secreted into the cell culture supernatant at a level that can be detected by Western blotting. A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed with antibodies against Mp1p was capable of detecting this protein from the cell culture supernatant of P. marneffei at 10(4) cells/ml. The anti-Mp1p antibody is specific since it fails to react with any protein-form lysates of Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, or Cryptococcus neoformans by Western blotting. In addition, this Mp1p antigen-based ELISA is also specific for P. marneffei since the cell culture supernatants of the other three fungi gave negative results. Finally, a clinical evaluation of sera from penicilliosis patients indicates that 17 of 26 (65%) patients are Mp1p antigen test positive. Furthermore, a Mp1p antibody test was performed with these serum specimens. The combined antibody and antigen tests for P. marneffei carry a sensitive of 88% (23 of 26), with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The specificities of the tests are high since none of the 85 control sera was positive by either test.  (+info)

Aspergillus meningitis: diagnosis by non-culture-based microbiological methods and management. (2/945)

The performance of antibody detection, antigen detection, and Aspergillus genus-specific PCR for diagnosing Aspergillus meningitis was investigated with 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a single patient with proven infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against Aspergillus were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF or serum. The antigen galactomannan was detected in the CSF 45 days before a culture became positive, and Aspergillus DNA was detected 4 days prior to culture. Decline of the galactomannan antigen titer in the CSF during treatment with intravenous and intraventricular amphotericin B and intravenous voriconazole corresponded with the clinical response to treatment.  (+info)

Production of specific monoclonal antibodies to Aspergillus species and their use in immunohistochemical identification of aspergillosis. (3/945)

Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining.  (+info)

Fungal prophylaxis by reduction of fungal colonization by oral administration of bovine anti-Candida antibodies in bone marrow transplant recipients. (4/945)

Candida overgrowth and invasion constitute a serious threat with a high mortality in BMT recipients. Currently available topical antifungal prophylaxis is largely ineffective, and as resistance to existing, absorbable drugs for systemic use is rapidly developing, new forms of therapy are needed. We investigated the effect of oral treatment of BMT recipients with a bovine immunoglobulin product derived from animals immunized against several Candida species. The natural Candida colonization was first followed in 19 patients to establish the colonization pattern. Half of the patients were found to be colonized prior to transplantation and altogether 72% were colonized at some point during follow-up. Those with a high pre-transplant concentration of Candida in saliva (>100 CFU/ml) remained colonized throughout the BMT treatment period. The therapeutic effect was monitored in two other patient groups. The first group consisted of nine patients, where, due to a low number of primary colonized patients, response in colonized patients was suggestive of a therapeutic effect. In the second group, 10 patients with a high level of colonization (>100 CFU/ml) were given 10 g daily of the product in three divided doses. The results suggest a treatment-related reduction in Candida colonization in a majority (7/10) of patients and one patient became completely negative. As no adverse effects were noted, our findings encourage additional studies in immunocompromised, transplant patients.  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (5/945)

Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (6/945)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

New enzyme immunoassays for sensitive detection of circulating Candida albicans mannan and antimannan antibodies: useful combined test for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. (7/945)

Two standardized enzyme immunoassays for the serological diagnosis of candidiasis were developed. The first one detects antimannan antibodies, while the second one detects mannan with a sensitivity of 0.1 ng/ml. These tests were applied to 162 serum samples retrospectively selected from 43 patients with mycologically and clinically proven candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. Forty-three serum samples were positive for mannan, and 63 had significant antibody levels. Strikingly, only five serum samples were simultaneously positive by both tests. When the results were analyzed per patient, 36 (84%) presented at least one serum positive by one test. For 30 of them, positivity by one test was always associated with negative results by the other test for any of the tested sera. For six patients whose sera were positive for either an antigen or an antibody response, a balance between positivity by each test was evidenced by kinetic analysis of sera drawn during the time course of the infection. Controls consisted of 98 serum samples from healthy individuals, 93 serum samples from patients hospitalized in intensive care units, and 39 serum samples from patients with deep mycoses. The sensitivities and specificities were 40 and 98% and 53 and 94% for mannanemia or antibody detection, respectively. These values reached 80 and 93%, respectively, when the results of both tests were combined. These observations, which clearly demonstrate a disparity between circulation of a given mannan catabolite and antimannan antibody response, suggest that use of both enzyme immunoassays may be useful for the routine diagnosis of candidiasis.  (+info)

Antibodies to yeast Sm motif 1 cross-react with human Sm core polypeptides. (8/945)

Two regions common to all UsnRNP core polypeptides have been described: Sm motif 1 and Sm motif 2. Rabbits were immunized with a 22 amino-acid peptide containing one segment of Sm motif 1 (YRGTLVSTDNYFNLQLNEAEEF, corresponding to residues 11-32) from yeast F protein. After immunization, the rabbit sera contained antibodies that not only reacted specifically with the peptide from yeast F protein but also cross-reacted with Sm polypeptides from mammals; that is, with purified human U1snRNPs. The results suggest that the peptide used and human Sm polypeptides contain a common feature recognized by the polyclonal antibodies. A large collection of human systemic lupus erythematosus sera was assayed using the yeast peptide as an antigen source. Seventy per cent of systemic lupus erythematosus sera contain an antibody specificity that cross-reacts with the yeast peptide.  (+info)

*Amyloid

... amyloids are abundant in most environmental biofilms according to staining with amyloid specific dyes and antibodies Fungal ... Modern antibody technology and immunohistochemistry has made specific staining easier, but often this can cause trouble because ... and vaccination to induce anti-toxic oligomer antibodies does not prevent h-IAPP-induced beta-cell apoptosis in h-IAPP ... an amyloid protein structure is a different conformation from the one that the antibody recognizes. Proteopathy JUNQ and IPOD ...

*Sporothrix schenckii

"Effect of anti-glycosphingolipid monoclonal antibodies in pathogenic fungal growth and differentiation. Characterization of ... Patients with sporotrichosis have been shown to produce antibodies specific to S. schenckii and these antibodies may actually ... 6] Fungal Molecular Diagnostics Hu S, Chung WH, Hung SI, et al. (April 2003). "Detection of Sporothrix schenckii in clinical ... Serum antibody reactivity to S. schenckii antigens can also be quantified by ELISA. Although molecular biology techniques are ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.179 -- antibodies, fungal MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.185 -- antibodies, ... antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.179 -- antibodies, fungal MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.185 -- antibodies, ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 -- antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 -- antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254.150.500 -- htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254.150.510 -- htlv- ...

*Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Precipitating IgG antibodies against fungal or avian antigens can be detected in the laboratory using the traditional ... that can detect IgG antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus (Farmer's lung or for ABPA) or avian antigens (Bird Fancier's Lung ...

*Occupational hazards of human nail dust

It has been suggested that absorption of trichophyton fungal antigens can give rise to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody ... of the population has allergic antibodies to fungal antigens, and half of them, that is 5% of the population, would be ... Trichophyton rubrum is the most common fungal cause of nail dystrophy. Studies conducted in England found that the prevalence ... There have been numerous accounts of patients with trichophyton fungal infections and associated asthma, which further ...

*Cladophialophora carrionii

... because the ability to produce antibodies against fungal proteins is critical in minimizing fungal pathogenicity and C. ... Liu, Dongyou (2011). Molecular Detection of Human Fungal Pathogens. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439812402. Reiss, Errol; Shadomy, H. ... carrionii contributes to pathogenicity because it strengthens the fungal cell wall and can neutralize the enzymes produced in ...

*Computational Resource for Drug Discovery

... bacterial and fungal), antibodies against them, proposed epitopes, structural detail, proposed functions, assay system, cross- ...

*Arturo Casadevall

... with a focus on fungal and bacterial pathogenesis and basic immunology of antibody structure-function. Arturo Casadevall was ... Casadevall's research is focused on fungal and bacterial pathogenesis and basic immunology of antibody structure-function. He ... His lab continues to work on fungal and bacterial pathogenesis. Together with Dr. Liise-anne Pirofski, he proposed the 'Damage- ... Fungal infections are particularly dangerous in immunocompromised individuals such as cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, ...

*Coccidioidomycosis

... of fungal infection can be achieved also by serologic analysis detecting fungal antigen or host IgM or IgG antibody produced ... TP antibody is not found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). TP antibody is specific and is used as a confirmatory test, whereas ... The fungal infection can be demonstrated by microscopic detection of diagnostic cells in body fluids, exudates, sputum and ... "CDC". Fungal diseases: valley fever. CDC. July 20, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2015. Hector, Richard F.; Rutherford, George W ...

*Arbuscular mycorrhiza

Currently there are four common AM fungal specific markers/primers used in genetic sequencing to describe AM fungal communities ... It is defined by its extraction conditions and reaction with the antibody Mab32B11. There is other circumstantial evidence to ... AM fungal diversity and adaptation across multiple grassland communities, all the way up to a global investigation of AM fungal ... AM fungal hyphae have a high surface-to-volume ratio, making their absorptive ability greater than that of plant roots. AMF ...

*Scab

... single-chain antibody fragment Apple scab, an apple tree (genus Malus) fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis Black scab ... Fusarium head blight, a fungal disease of plants, e.g., grain crops (especially wheat and oats), golf course grass, caused by ... a potato fungal disease caused by Synchytrium endobioticum Common scab, a plant bacterial disease caused by Streptomyces ... the several species of Fusarium Pear scab, a pear fungal disease caused by Venturia pirina or Fusicladium pyrorum Poinsettia ...

*Glossary of phytopathology

It is distinguished from a stroma in not having a peridium or covering of fungal tissue of any kind. acid precipitation acid ... anastomoses) anthracnoes antibiotic antibody antigen antiseptic apothecium The apothecium is an open, cuplike, or saucer-shaped ... sexual fungal fruiting body (ascocarp) containing asci. antiseptic appressorium (pl. appressoria) arbuscular mycorrhiza (abbr. ...

*PGM3 deficiency

Skin infections are prominent, with recurrent staphylococcal and fungal infections, severe skin blistering, and flat warts. ... and very high concentrations of the serum antibody IgE levels. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.179 - antibodies, fungal MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.185 - antibodies, ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.500 - htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.510 - htlv-ii ... hepatitis a antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.450.504 - hepatitis b antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.450. ...

*IL17A

... but not antibody dependent, protection against S. pneumoniae challenge. In fungal infection, it has been shown an IL-17 ... Direct clinical significance of IL-17A in RA comes from recent clinical trials which found that two anti-IL-17A antibodies, ... Shen N, Wang J, Zhao M, Pei F, He B (March 2011). "Anti-interleukin-17 antibodies attenuate airway inflammation in tobacco- ... Malley R, Srivastava A, Lipsitch M, Thompson CM, Watkins C, Tzianabos A, Anderson PW (April 2006). "Antibody-independent, ...

*Mucor racemosus

... -specific IgE antibody is commonly used and available for medical as well as laboratory use in allergen assay ( ... In the manufacture of sufu (fermented cheese-like soybean product common in China and Vietnam), the fungal fermentation of ... Inderlied, Clark; Peters, Julius; Cihlar, Ronald (1985). Fungal Dimorphism With Emphasis on Fungi Pathogenic for Humans. Boston ... Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B. 25 (2): 119-33. doi:10.1006/fgbi.1998.1093. PMID 9974223. Beaumont, F; Kauffman, HF; de ...

*Neutropenia

Observations of pediatric patients have noted that fungal infections are more likely to develop in patients with neutropenia. ... Acquired neutropenia (immune-associated neutropenia) is due to anti-neutrophil antibodies that target neutrophil-specific ... These are:[citation needed] Bacterial or fungal sepsis Necrotizing enterocolitis, circulating neutrophil population depleted ... tests for antineutrophil antibodies, autoantibody screen (and investigations for systemic lupus erythematosus), vitamin B12 and ...

*Virulence factor

Immunoglobulins are antibodies expressed and secreted by hosts in response to an infection. These immunoglobulins play a major ... As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... Exotoxins are extremely immunogenic meaning that they trigger the humoral response (antibodies target the toxin). Exotoxins are ...

*Ascochyta diseases of pea

Ascochyta fungal pathogens are heterothallic, meaning they require two compatible hyphae strains to form their sexual stage. ... and by using monoclonal antibodies. Ascochyta blight of pea is caused by Ascomycete fugi. This fungus has an anamorphic ( ... Next, the fungal hyphae grows and produces pear-shaped pycnidia, eventually releasing pycnidiospores that can reinfect plants ... However, there are some small differences between the fungal pathogens. Mycosphaerella blight (M. pinodes) Ascospores of M. ...

*Alternaria tenuissima

This species produces the allergen Alt a 1, one of the most important outdoor seasonal fungal allergens associated with allergy ... Exposure to this protein can induce an allergic reaction in sensitized individuals by reacting with circulating IgE antibody. ... CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre. pp. 500-502. ISBN 978-90-70351-68-7. Nasehi, A.; Kadir, J. B.; Abidin, M. A. Zainal; Wong, M. Y ... "Fungal allergy in asthma-state of the art and research needs". Clinical and Translational Allergy. 4 (1): 14. doi:10.1186/2045- ...

*Herpes simplex

Antibodies that develop following an initial infection with a type of HSV prevents reinfection with the same virus type-a ... Further confusing diagnosis, several other conditions resemble genital herpes, including fungal infection, lichen planus, ... Testing the blood for antibodies against the virus can confirm a previous infection but will be negative in new infections. The ... Rates of infection are determined by the presence of antibodies against either viral species. In the US, 58% of the population ...

*Arabinoxylan

2005). "Monoclonal Antibodies to Plant Cell Wall Xylans and Arabinoxylans". Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 53: ... Phenolic acids may also be involved in defense including protection against fungal pathogens. Arabinoxylans are one of the main ...

*Prion

Fungal prions have helped to suggest mechanisms of conversion that may apply to all prions, though fungal prions appear ... Antiprion antibodies capable of crossing the blood-brain-barrier and targeting cytosolic prion protein (an otherwise major ... Research into fungal prions has given strong support to the protein-only concept, since purified protein extracted from cells ... Fungal prions do not appear to cause disease in their hosts. Prions cause neurodegenerative disease by aggregating ...

*WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease in Children

This staging system also requires the presence of HIV infection: HIV antibody for children aged 18 months or more; virological ... pruritic eruptions Seborrhoeic dermatitis Extensive human papilloma virus infection Extensive molluscum contagiosum Fungal nail ...

*Phagocyte

He discovered that fungal spores that attacked the animal were destroyed by phagocytes. He went on to extend his observations ... Opsonin receptors increase the phagocytosis of bacteria that have been coated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies or with ... They are ferocious eaters and rapidly engulf invaders coated with antibodies and complement, and damaged cells or cellular ... This is due to their lack of efficient phagocytic receptors, in particular opsonins-which are antibodies and complement ...

*Histoplasma capsulatum

Global fungal diseases > Preventing Deaths from Histoplasmosis. Untereiner, W.A.; Scott, J.A.; Naveau, F.A.; Bachewich, J. ( ... of the resident population have an antibody reaction to H. capsulatum, probably indicating prior subclinical infection. ... "Phylogeography of the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum". Molecular Ecology. 12 (12): 3383-401. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x. ... dermatitidis and the South American pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the recently recognized fungal family ...
References for Abcams Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ab25813). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Goat polyclonal Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody validated for WB, ELISA, Dot and tested in Sc. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or virus
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate and clinical correlations of antibodies against saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) among healthy family members of patients with Behçets disease (BD). METHODS: Twenty-one BD patients and 52 healthy family members (HFM)
A determinação dos marcadores sorológicos P-ANCA (anticorpo perinuclear contra estruturas citoplasmáticas do neutrófilo) e ASCA (anticorpo anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae) auxilia de forma menos invasiva...
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturers instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Importance of the Candida albicans cell wall during commensalism and infection. AU - Gow, N.A.R.. AU - Hube, B.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - An imbalance of the normal microbial flora, breakage of epithelial barriers or dysfunction of the immune system favour the transition of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans from a commensal to a pathogen. C. albicans has evolved to be adapted as a commensal on mucosal surfaces. As a commensal it has also acquired attributes, which are necessary to avoid or overcome the host defence mechanisms. The human host has also co-evolved to recognize and eliminate potential fungal invaders. Many of the fungal genes that have been the focus of this co-evolutionary process encode cell wall components. In this review, we will discuss the transition from commensalism to pathogenesis, the key players of the fungal cell surface that are important for this transition, the role of the morphology and the mechanisms of host recognition and ...
Stool tests to rule out infections include culture and sensitivities, ovum and parasites, Clostridium difficile toxins, leukocyte count. Stool for calprotectin can detect active CD and also used for monitoring disease.[12][13][14][15]. Blood tests including baseline CBC and a metabolic panel can highlight the presence of anemia (B12 or iron deficiency) or liver disease. Special serology such as normal anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and raised anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) can distinguish Crohns disease from ulcerative colitis. C-reactive protein (CRP) or sedimentary rate (ESR) can reflect the severity of the inflammation.. CT scan/MRE of the abdomen and pelvis can detect abscesses and fistulization. The choice between CT or MR enterography is largely directed at minimizing radiation exposure in younger populations. Both give a higher definition of the diseased intestine. However, MRI can provide more detail when investigating the fistulizing disease. The use of ...
Recently, an association between the presence of antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) and mutations in exon 1 and the promoter region of the mannan binding lectin (MBL) gene was described in 58 patients with Crohns disease (CD).1 A possible link between ASCA and MBL mutations in patients with CD is plausible. MBL is a component of the innate immune system that can bind to S cerevisiae and the serum concentration of MBL … ...
Paracoccidioidomycosis definition, a chronic infection caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, occurring in Mexico and in Central and South America, characterized by mouth and throat ulcers, weight loss, and lesions on the skin, intestines, and genitals. See more.
Canditoxins can be released and may be responsible for the symptoms listed above as well as chronic fatigue.3 It is also thought that yeast overgrowth in the intestine may lead to the "leaky gut" syndrome. In this condition, the lining of the intestine allows large molecules of food to enter the blood and may result in food allergies.4 Candidiasis may be confirmed by the presence of the yeast organism in feces or urine, by vaginal or throat swab, or by measuring specific Candida antibodies in the blood. These include anti-Candida antibodies IgG, IgM, and IgA (Candiquant,TM Biomerica, Inc., 1533 Monrovia Ave., Newport Beach, CA 92663). Interpretations of the antibody results are as follows: Negative-less than 12.5 Units/mL Equivocal or borderline 12.5 to 25 Units/mL (should be repeated in two weeks) Positive 26 to 100 Units/mL Results greater than 100 units indicate a highly elevated amount of antibody. High IgM titers may indicate a current or early onset of the disease, while elevated IgG ...
MalaCards based summary : Paracoccidioidomycosis, also known as mucocutaneous-lymphangitic paracoccidioidomycosis, is related to tuberculosis and sarcoma. An important gene associated with Paracoccidioidomycosis is IL10 (Interleukin 10), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and PEDF Induced Signaling. Affiliated tissues include lung, bone and skin, and related phenotypes are hematopoietic system and homeostasis/metabolism ...
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturers instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements ...
The major aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of NK cells in the initial immunological response against P. brasiliensis. Among the few studies about this issue, the study carried out by Peraçoli et al. (13) showed more NK cells in the peripheral blood of PCM patients, although exhibiting a diminished cytotoxic activity. Our data partially confirm these data, given that we observed that NK cells from patients with active disease did exhibit a decreased cytotoxic response against target cells. In relation to the number of CD56+ cells, we found no differences between PCM patients and healthy individuals. Additionally, we observed that after the treatment, the cytotoxic capability of NK cells from patients was similar to that observed in the control group. These data indicate that during the development of the disease, it is possible that the acquired immunological response interfere with the activation of NK cells. PCM patients with active disease are characterized by the ...
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Reviews and ratings for sporanox when used in the treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis. Share your experience with this medication by writing a review.
INTRODUCTION. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most prevalent endemic mycoses in Latin America; it is produced by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The disease affects mainly the lungs but also the mucous membranes and the skin9. Adrenal involvement is also relatively frequent but varies according to the report and the methods employed for its diagnosis; in most cases, such diagnosis is established by indirect means such as demonstrating adrenal hypofunction after ACTH challenge or by measurement of its various metabolites. Nonetheless, the presence of the causative agent in the glands parenchyma is of rare observation, unless autopsy cases are considered. Only one case has been reported with observation of P. brasiliensis in the adrenals of a PCM patient, once he had been treated with apparent satisfactory results7.. The present report describes two PCM patients with adrenal insufficiency in whom P. brasiliensis was observed in biopsies of these glands; one of these ...
Back ground: Candida albicans is a member of the normal human microflora. C. albicans cell wall is composed of several protein and carbohydrate components which have been shown to play a crucial role in C. albicans interaction with the host immune system. Major components of C. albican cell wall are carbohydrates such as mannans, β glucans and chitins, and proteins that partially modulate the host immune responses. Dendritic cells (DC), as the most important antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, play a critical role in inducing immune responses against different pathogens. Objective: We investigated the effect of the cell wall protein fraction (CPF) of C. albicans on DC maturation. Methods: The CPF of C. albicans cells was extracted by a lysis buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulphate, 2-mercaptoethanol and phosphate-buffered saline. The extract was dialyzed and its protein pattern was evaluated by electrophoresis. Dendritic cells were purified from Balb/c mice spleens through a three-step
Underlying disease must be controlled to prevent exacerbation and worsening of ABPA, and in most patients this consists of managing their asthma or CF. Any other co-morbidities, such as sinusitis or rhinitis, should also be addressed.. Hypersensitivity mechanisms, as described above, contribute to progression of the disease over time and, when left untreated, result in extensive fibrosis of lung tissue. In order to reduce this, corticosteroid therapy is the mainstay of treatment (for example with prednisone); however, studies involving corticosteroids in ABPA are limited by small cohorts and are often not double-blinded. Despite this, there is evidence that acute-onset ABPA is improved by corticosteroid treatment as it reduces episodes of consolidation. There are challenges involved in long-term therapy with corticosteroidsâ "which can induce severe immune dysfunction when used chronically, as well as metabolic disordersâ "and approaches have been developed to manage ABPA alongside potential ...
Reviews and ratings for fungizone when used in the treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis. Share your experience with this medication by writing a review.
FCAND : Draw blood in a plain red-top tube(s), serum gel tube(s) is acceptable. Spin down and send 0.5 mL of serum refrigerated in a plastic vial.
When and how often laboratory tests are done may depend on many factors. The timing of laboratory tests may rely on the results or completion of other tests, procedures, or treatments. Lab tests may be performed immediately in an emergency, or tests may be delayed as a condition is treated or monitored. A test may be suggested or become necessary when certain signs or symptoms appear. Due to changes in the way your body naturally functions through the course of a day, lab tests may need to be performed at a certain time of day. If you have prepared for a test by changing your food or fluid intake, lab tests may be timed in accordance with those changes. Timing of tests may be based on increased and decreased levels of medications, drugs or other substances in the body. The age or gender of the person being tested may affect when and how often a lab test is required. Chronic or progressive conditions may need ongoing monitoring through the use of lab tests. Conditions that worsen and improve may ...
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Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA): Symptoms ❗ Workup ❗ Diagnosis ❗ Treatment ❗ Complications ❗ Causes ❗ Epidemiology ❗ Incidence ❗ Prognosis ❗ Check at SYMPTOMA.com Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a disease characterized by a hypersensitivity reaction to aspergillus fumigatus after its repeated inhalation and is most…
We have recently identified peptide mimetics of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide by screening phage display peptide libraries. 2H1, one of a large family of mAbs against the glucuronoxylomannan fraction (GXM), is highly protective and binds several peptide motifs. This study analyzes the immunologic properties of P601E (SYSWMYE), a peptide from the low affinity motif (W/YXWM/LYE) that has an extended cross-reactivity among anti-GXM mAbs and whose binding correlates with the protective potential of mAbs in experimental infection. P601E is a mimetic, since it competes for GXM binding to 2H1, but not a mimotope, since it does not elicit an anti-GXM response. Sequence analysis of 14 anti-P601E mAbs indicates that anti-P601E mAbs elicited in BALB/c mice have an order of homology with 2H1 of V kappa | J kappa || V(H) | J(H) | D. Further screening of a peptide library with anti-P601E mAbs isolated peptides having a motif almost identical to the peptide motif selected by 2H1. When these
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disorder of the lower gastrointestinal tract that may occur in three forms: Crohns disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and indeterminate colitis (IC). Its prevalence in the adult population approaches 0.3%.1 The differential diagnosis of the different forms of IBD is often difficult, time-consuming, and invasive.2 The gold standard for diagnosis is endoscopy with biopsies for histologic examination.3 In recent years, however, a number of serological markers have been introduced. The most commonly employed serological markers of IBD are anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) and atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA). ASCA positivity is found predominantly in patients with CD, while pANCA positivity is found predominantly in patients with UC.2 A combination of ASCA and pANCA has a specificity of as high as 99% for differentiation of CD from UC.3 Nevertheless, there are a substantial number of patients with IBD who are ...
An overview of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & management written by experts in allergy, asthma & immunology.
Learn more about Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) at Grand Strand Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) at Largo Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
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ABPA - Definition and Epidemiology Hypersensitivity reaction d/t colonization of bronchi by Aspergillus  bronchial obstruction, inflammation, mucous plugging  bronchiectasis, fibrosis, resp failure Occurs primarily in pts w/ asthma (prevalence = 1-2%) or CF (prevalence = 1-15%) Most cases present in the 3rd to 4th decade No gender predilection Some pts have (+) family history of ABPA
Overview: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis? What are the typical findings for this disease? Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity lung disease due to bronchial colonization by Aspergillus fumigatus that occurs in susceptible patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). ABPA affects approximately 1-2%…. ...
Overview: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis? What are the typical findings for this disease? Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity lung disease due to bronchial colonization by Aspergillus fumigatus that occurs in susceptible patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). ABPA affects approximately 1-2%…. ...
In a previous cross-sectional study, we showed that clinical staff working in a hospital had significantly higher antibody levels than nonclinical staff to Pneumocystis jirovecii. We conducted a longitudinal study, described here, to determine whether occupation and self-reported exposure to a patient with P. jirovecii pneumonia were associated with antibody levels to P. jirovecii over time. Baseline and quarterly serum specimens were collected and analyzed by using an ELISA that targeted different variants of the Pneumocystis major surface glycoprotein (MsgA, MsgB, MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8, and MsgC9). Clinical staff had significantly higher estimated geometric mean antibody levels against MsgC1 and MsgC8 than did nonclinical staff over time. Significant differences were observed when we compared the change in antibody levels to the different MsgC variants for staff who were and were not exposed to P. jirovecii pneumonia-infected patients. MsgC variants may serve as indicators of exposure to P. ...
Detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in tissue samples by a nested PCR assay.: A nested PCR assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis DNA w
paracoccidioidomycosis definition: Noun (usually uncountable, plural paracoccidioidomycoses) 1. (pathology) mycosis caused by a fungus of the genus Paracoccidioides....
The Candida antigen CR3-RP (complement receptor 3-related protein) is supposed to be a mimicry protein because of its ability to bind antibody directed against the α subunit of the mammalian CR3 (CD11b/CD18). This study aimed to (i) investigate the specific humoral isotypic response to immunization with CR3-RP in vivo in a rabbit animal model, and (ii) determine the role of CR3-RP in the adherence of Candida albicans in vitro using the model systems of buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and biofilm formation. The synthetic C. albicans peptide DINGGGATLPQ corresponding to 11 amino-acids of the CR3-RP sequence DINGGGATLPQALXQITGVIT, determined by N-terminal sequencing, was used for immunization of rabbits to obtain polyclonal anti-CR3-PR serum and for subsequent characterization of the humoral isotypic response of rabbits. A significant increase of IgG, IgA and IgM anti-CR3-RP specific antibodies was observed after the third (P<0.01) and the fourth (P<0.001) immunization doses. The elevation of IgA
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ATCC ® 14283™ Designation: NIH 6901 Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material
In some patients a so-called "allergic bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)" delvelops. Hereby it is an allergic reaction of the patient to the colonization with the fungus. The involved patients are often apparent with a sudden increased cough, a narrowing of the bronchi and an obvious worsening of the lung function. The laboratory investigation shows an strong increase of the Immunoglobulin E and so-called precipitins which give a hint to the allergic reaction. In the thorax x-ray round shadows can be seen, which do often change the localization rapidly when doing a control ...
Background. Fungal antigens sensibilization is a known cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Nevertheless, the role of fungal colonization in respiratory tract on clinics and prognosis of HP is still unclear.. Aim. To assess the influense of fungal colonization on excercise tolerance in HP.. Methods. 79 pts with morphologically proven HP were enrolled. Mean age 48,8 yrs, males 33. In all cases during work-up BAL was performed with PCR test on DNA of Aspergillus and Candida fungi, as also as PFT and 6MWT. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test.. Results. Fungi were detected in 21/79 (27%) pts. The were no difference between PCR-positive and negative groups for Aspergillus in PFT, but there was significant difference for sPO2 before and after 6MWT (94,1 and 90 %; 91 and 88% respectively, p,0.05), as also as more prominent fatigue on Borg scale (2,9 and 3,9; 5,3 and 6,5 points, respectively p,0.05). There was a trend to lower walking distance in PCR-positive patients vs controls (380 and ...
Candidiasis is a fungal infection that may cause localized or systemic disease. The severity of infection is broad extending to life threatening. Acute and convalescent titers should be compared.
p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href="/manual/evidences">More…,/a>,/p> ...
Candida goes by a lot of names: systemic candidiasis, yeast syndrome, and dysbiosis, to name a few. It is a complicated condition that involves an...
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Crap. I dont really know how optomistic I can be now after reading about the Serology 7. If it really is that accurate, then I think I should just go ahead and consider myself a Crohnie. I just cant believe that the test could be that accurate... most doctors that I have visited, well respected ones too, blow it off as inaccurate. I blew it off b/c my results fluctuated from the First Step Test to the Serology 7 test. True, the first step did not have the CBir1 antibody so I cant comment on that, but every where else my results flipped. I was ASCA positive and OmpC negative, and now I am ASCA negative and OmpC positive ...
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2006ല്‍ പുറത്തിറങ്ങിയ ലയണ്‍ എന്ന ഹിറ്റ് ചിത്രത്തിന് ശേഷം ദിലീപ് രാഷ്ട്രീയ നേതാവിന്റെ വേഷത്തിലെത്തുന്ന ചിത്രമാണ് നാടോടി മന്നന്‍. ചിത്രത്തിലെ നായകന്‍ ദിലീപാണ് എന്നത് വ്യക്തമായിരുന്നെങ്കിലും നായികമാരെ പറ്റി അഭ്യൂഹം നിലനിന്നിരുന്നു. ചിത്രത്തില്‍ മൂന്ന് നായികമാരാണ് ഉള്ളതെന്നും റിമയും ഭാവനയും മംമ്തയുമാണ് നായികാ വേഷം കൈകാര്യം ചെയ്യാനെത്തുകയെന്നും വാര്&zwj
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Looking for online definition of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the Medical Dictionary? Paracoccidioides brasiliensis explanation free. What is Paracoccidioides brasiliensis? Meaning of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis medical term. What does Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mean?
Learn more about Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) at Medical City Dallas DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Guinea pigs infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes developed a cutaneous fungal lesion and became skin test positive to fungal antigen (trichophytin). The cutaneous fungal lesion, while thought to be a cell-mediated response, differed histologically from the skin test site. Basophils were not demonstrated in biopsies of cutaneous fungal lesions, whereas basophils were numerous in biopsies of trichophytin skin test sites. When sensitization to trichophytin was accomplished by injection of hypha in complete Freunds adjuvant instead of infecting with live fungus, basophils could not be demonstrated in skin test sites. This report demonstrated that guinea pigs could be primed for cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity (CBH) responses by infection with live fungus.
Many patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) cough up mucus or have throat cultures that grow a common fungus called Aspergillus. In patients with CF, aspergillus is not known to cause direct damage to the lungs, but some patients respond with an allergic reaction that causes them to wheeze, cough, or have difficulty breathing. This allergic reaction is called ABPA. Current treatment for ABPA includes high dose steroids and an anti-fungal medicine. Treatment with steroids may be problematic for some people due to its side effects on blood sugar levels and the bones. Steroids are medications that decrease inflammation, including prednisone, medrol, dexamethasone and others.. Ongoing research at UPMC on the study Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance in ABPA has studied people with CF and ABPA versus those patients with CF that just grow A. fumigatus (Af) in the sputum, but do not have ABPA. You may have participated in this study. This study has shown that people with CF with the fungus, Af, in their ...
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Background. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular dimorphic fungus that causes paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most important deep mycosis in Latin America. Only a small percentage of individuals infected by P. brasiliensis develop clinical PCM, possibly in part because of genetically determined interindividual variability of host immunity. However, no primary immunodeficiency has ever been associated with PCM.. Methods. We describe the first patient, to our knowledge, with PCM and a well-defined primary immunodeficiency in the β1 subunit of the interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 receptor, a disorder previously shown to be specifically associated with impaired interferon (IFN)-γ production, mycobacteriosis, and salmonellosis.. Results. Our patient had a childhood history of bacille Calmette-Guùrin disease and nontyphoid salmonellosis and, at the age of 20 years, presented to our clinic with a disseminated (acute) form of PCM. He responded well to antifungal treatment and is ...
Lacaz, C. da S.; Duarte, M.I.S.; Laurenti, M.D.; Lombardi, A.C.G. de M.; Costa, C.B. de A.; Negro, G.M.B. del; Rodrigues, E.G.; Lirio, V. des; Garcia, N.M., 1990: Intratesticular inoculation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen containing 43 kDa glycoprotein into hamsters
The capsule itself can mediate immune evasion through several different mechanisms. The capsule, made up of polysaccharides rich in mannan residues, is strongly hydrophobic in nature. This helps prevent contact with exogenous factors and prevents recognition by some cells of the immune response. It also prevents efficient antibody binding and the resultant activation of the complement system via classical pathway. The capsule is also capable of interacting directly with components of the immune system, namely glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and galactoxylomannan, both of which are capable of inducing leukocyte activation and cytokine production. However, the capsular anti-inflammatory properties outweigh the inflammatory properties of these two components. Stimulation with encapsulated cryptococci downregulate the activity of macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. This is associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. GXM has also been shown to stimulate production of ...
Mold Clean Up and Repair. Inning conformity with American University of Occupational and Ecological Medication (ACOEM), an estimated 10 percent of the countrys population has delicate antibodies to deal with fungal antigens. A great deal of allergic responses as well as hay high temperatures are reported to have really caused as an outcome of the development of molds in the ins. Mold and mildews are sporophytic fungi - duplicates with the aid of spores. These air-borne spores might trigger allergic reactions, breathing illness, migraine headaches, as well as pains. Consequently, you must take certain safeguard to respond to the growth of molds in the insides. The most important action that you could consume is cleaning up every traces of dampness from the residence. For doing this you need to work with water cleansing specialists that could help you to cleanse every trace of water from the insides, which would stop mold and mildew and also mold development.. Mold and mildew needs moisture as ...
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC ® 90124™ Designation: CDC Y-589-92 [MP-337/88] Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material
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The reservoir and mode of transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii remain uncertain. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 126 San Francisco General Hospital staff in clinical (n = 103) and nonclinical (n = 23) occupations to assess whether occupational exposure was associated with immune responses to P. jirovecii. We examined antibody levels by ELISA for 3 overlapping fragments that span the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg): MsgA, MsgB, and MsgC1. Clinical occupation participants had higher geometric mean antibody levels to MsgC1 than did nonclinical occupation participants (21.1 vs. 8.2, p = 0.004); clinical occupation was an independent predictor of higher MsgC1 antibody levels (parameter estimate = 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.29-1.48, p = 0.003). In contrast, occupation was not significantly associated with antibody responses to either MsgA or MsgB. Healthcare workers may have occupational exposure to P. jirovecii. Humans may be a reservoir for P. jirovecii and may transmit it from
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a condition characterised by an exaggerated response of the immune system (a hypersensitivity response) to the fungus Aspergillus (most commonly Aspergillus fumigatus). It occurs most often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Aspergillus spores are ubiquitous in soil and are commonly found in the sputum of healthy individuals. A. fumigatus is responsible for a spectrum of lung diseases known as aspergilloses. ABPA causes airway inflammation, leading to bronchiectasis-a condition marked by abnormal dilation of the airways. Left untreated, the immune system and fungal spores can damage sensitive lung tissues and lead to scarring. The exact criteria for the diagnosis of ABPA are not agreed upon. Chest X-rays and CT scans, raised blood levels of IgE and eosinophils, immunological tests for Aspergillus together with sputum staining and sputum cultures can be useful. Treatment consists of corticosteroids and antifungal medications. Almost all ...
Free Online Library: A case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis leading to pneumonia with unusual organisms.(Case Report) by Southern Medical Journal; Health, general Aspergillus Risk factors Nocardia asteroides Pulmonary aspergillosis Case studies
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody-mediated protection in murine Cryptococcus neoformans infection is associated with pleotrophic effects on cytokine and leukocyte responses. AU - Feldmesser, Marta. AU - Mednick, Aron. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated yeast, is a common cause of life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunosuppressed patients. We previously observed that administration of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the capsular polysaccharide to mice with pulmonary infection prolonged survival and enhanced granulomatous inflammation without reducing lung CFU. To understand the mechanism of MAb action, we studied leukocyte recruitment and cytokine profiles in lungs of A/JCr mice. B lymphocytes were the predominant cell type in lung infiltrates, comprising 15 to 30% of the leukocytes. Despite alterations in histological appearance, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed no significant difference in total numbers of lung ...
Innate immunity plays an important role for fungal recognition and initiation of fungicidal activity. We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. To test this hypothesis, we propose to analyze the allelic frequencies of 15 different genes (mannose binding lectin, Fc-gamma receptor IIa and IIb, Fc-gamma receptors IIIa and IIIb, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and -beta, interleukin 1A and 1B, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-10, NRAMP-1, chitotriosidase, and chemokine receptor 5) and their intragenic polymorphic forms and to compare this data to the incidence and severity of C neoformans infection. With this study we hope to identify a group of molecules of innate immunity which influence the risk and severity of invasive C neoformans infection ...
Logical Images, Inc. d/b/a VisualDx (hereinafter "VisualDx", "we", "us", or "our") has created this Acceptable Use Policy, Medical Disclaimer, & Copyright Notice (this "Notice") to inform you (hereinafter "you", "your", or "yourself") as a purchaser of a license for and/or user of the software hosted by VisualDx known as VisualDx (the "Software") of certain important terms and conditions set forth in the VisualDx End User License Agreement that governs your license for and/or use of the Software (the "EULA"). This Notice is subject to all of the terms and conditions set forth in the EULA and does not replace or limit it in anyway. You should read the EULA in detail prior to purchasing a license for or using the Software to make sure you understand and agree to its terms and conditions. Nothing in this Notice will (a) expand your rights or VisualDx′s obligations under the EULA or (b) modify or otherwise affect any terms and conditions of the EULA or the rights of the parties under the EULA. In ...
Pain management information for pain medicine healthcare professionals in treating and caring for their patients. Clinical Pain Advisor offers news, case studies and more.
BackgroundAn experimental approach for improving vaccine efficacy involves targeting antigens to mannose receptors (MRs) on dendritic cells (DCs) and other professional antigen presenting cells. Previously, we demonstrated that mannosylated Pichia pastoris-derived recombinant proteins exhibited increased immunogenicity compared to proteins lacking mannosylation. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for this observation, the present study examined the cellular uptake of the mannosylated and deglycosylated recombinant proteins.Methodology/Principal FindingsUtilizing transfected cell lines, roles for the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR, CD206) and DC-SIGN (CD209) in the recognition of the mannosylated, but not deglycosylated, antigens were demonstrated. The uptake of mannosylated antigens into murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) was inhibited by yeast mannans (YMs), suggesting a mannose-specific C-type lectin receptor-dependent process, while the uptake of deglycosylated antigens
A rare cause of acute respiratory failure--allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a complex immune hypersen
The basis for virulence in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not completely understood. There is a consensus that the sequencial in vitro subcultivation of P. brasiliensis leads to loss of its pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from animal passage. Attention to morphological and biochemical properties that are regained or demonstrated after animal passage may provide new insights into factors related to the pathogenicity and virulence of P. brasiliensis. We evaluated morphological characters: the percentage of budding cells, number of buds by cell and the diameter of 100 mother cells of yeast-like cells of 30 P. brasiliensis isolates, before and after animal passage. The isolates were obtained from patients with different clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM): acute form (group A, n=15) and chronic form (group C, n=15). The measurement of the yeast cell sizes was carried out with the aid of an Olympus CBB microscope coupled with a micrometer disc. We measured the major ...
Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein: involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank L26508
Abstract To study hollows of living trees as natural habitats of Cryptococcus neoformans in an endemic area of cryptococcosis in the northeastern region of Brazil, samples of decay..
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Learn more about Coccidioidomycosis at Good Samaritan Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
ASCA National Standards Developed by: American School Counselor Association Guidance and counseling program content standards and student competencies Academic development. The content standards
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeasts hybridized with ITS-HRP-Tyramide probe by signal emission in green color, and cellular walls and non-marked genet...
I write because I like it. If you want to modify, republish it, publish them in your own way I have got no problem. At the end of the day, making people happy is one of the greatest deeds and I would just be happy if you give me a little credit while you copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format or remix, transform, and build upon the material. Because all my articles are licensed under under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ...
Since, my own results with human growth factor serums have been extremely positive, I thought it was high time to put SkinMedica TNS Essential Serum ($260) to the test. Full review at Truth In Aging.
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Review question We planned to review evidence about the effect of treatments to fight fungal infections which cause allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis.. Background Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic lung reaction to a type of fungus (usually Aspergillus fumigatus) in some people with cystic fibrosis. It causes cough and wheezing and sometimes fever. If left untreated ABPA can lead to chronic lung damage. It is usually treated with a high dose of corticosteroids (also known as steroids). However, it has not been proven that corticosteroids can prevent lung function deteriorating in the long term. Also, long-term use of steroids is linked to some serious side effects. Treating the fungus which causes ABPA may be an alternative to using high doses of steroids to combat the allergic reaction. This is an update of a previously published review.. Search date The evidence is current to: 29 September 2016.. Study characteristics No trials ...
Unique clinical characteristics and other variables influencing the outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients have not been well defined. From a review of published reports, we found that C. neoformans infection was documented in 2.8% of organ transplant recipients (overall death rate 42%). The type of primary immunosuppressive agent used in transplantation influenced the predominant clinical manifestation of cryptococcosis. Patients receiving tacrolimus were significantly less likely to have central nervous system involvement (78% versus 11%, p =0.001) and more likely to have skin, soft-tissue, and osteoarticular involvement (66% versus 21%, p = 0.006) than patients receiving nontacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Renal failure at admission was the only independently significant predictor of death in these patients (odds ratio 16.4, 95% CI 1.9 - 143, p = 0.004). Hypotheses based on these data may elucidate the pathogenesis and may ultimately guide the management of C.
14-3-3 proteins comprise a family of eukaryotic multifunctional proteins involved in several cellular processes. The Pb14-3-3 of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis seems to play an important role in the Paracoccidioides-host interaction. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is an etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, which is a systemic mycosis that is endemic in Latin America. In the initial steps of the infection, Paracoccidioides spp. synthetizes adhesins that allow it to adhere and invade host cells. Therefore, the aim of this work was to perform a functional analysis of Pb14-3-3 using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model. The functional analysis of Pb14-3-3 was performed in S. cerevisiae, and it was found that Pb14-3-3 partially complemented S. cerevisiae proteins Bmh1p and Bmh2p, which are recognized as two yeast 14-3-3 homologues. When we evaluated the adhesion profile of S. cerevisiae transformants, Pb14-3-3 acted as an adhesin in S. cerevisiae; however, Bmh1p did not show this function. The influence
Authors:. John Refait1, Julie Macey1,2,3, Stephanie Bui1, Michaël Fayon1,2,3, Patrick Berger1,2,3, Laurence Delhaes1,2,3, François Laurent1,2,3, Gaël Dournes1,2,3. Affiliations:. 1CHU de Bordeaux, Service dImagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Service des Maladies Respiratoires, Service dExploration Fonctionnelle Respiratoire, Unité de Pneumologie pédiatrique, Service de Parasitologie-Mycologie, CIC 1401, F-33600 Pessac, France. 2Univ. Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, U1045, CIC 1401, F-33000 Bordeaux, France. 3Inserm, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, U1045, CIC 1401, F-33000 Bordeaux, France. What was your research question?. The goal of our study was to compare hyperattenuating mucus versus conventional CT signs to diagnose allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis.. Why is this important?. Allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an inflammatory disease of airways related to an allergic reaction directed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Miltefosine is fungicidal to Paracoccidioides spp. yeast cells but subinhibitory concentrations induce melanisation. AU - Rossi, Diego Conrado Pereira. AU - Spadari, Cristina de Castro. AU - Nosanchuk, Joshua D.. AU - Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi. AU - Ishida, Kelly. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides spp. The duration of antifungal treatment ranges from months to years and relapses may nevertheless occur despite protracted therapy. Thus, there remains an urgent need for new therapeutic options. Miltefosine (MLT), an analogue of alkylphospholipids, has antifungal activity against species of yeast and filamentous fungi. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effects of MLT on the yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. MLT demonstrated inhibitory activity from 0.12 to 1 µg/mL, which was similar to amphotericin B or the combination ...
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Looking for online definition of Double Immunodiffusion in the Medical Dictionary? Double Immunodiffusion explanation free. What is Double Immunodiffusion? Meaning of Double Immunodiffusion medical term. What does Double Immunodiffusion mean?
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate non-conventional transport of molecules across the fungal cell wall. We aimed at describing the carbohydrate composition and surface carbohydrate epitopes of EVs isolated from the pathogenic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii using standard procedures. Total EV carbohydrates were ethanol-precipitated from preparations depleted of lipids and proteins, then analyzed by chemical degradation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and size-exclusion chromatography. EV glycosyl residues of Glc, Man, and Gal comprised most probably two major components: a high molecular mass 4,6-α-glucan and a galactofuranosylmannan, possibly an oligomer, bearing a 2-α-Manp main chain linked to β-Galf (1,3) and α-Manp (1,6) end units. The results also suggested the presence of small amounts of a (1→6)- Manp polymer, (1→3)-glucan and (1→6)-glucan. Glycan microarrays allowed identification of EV surface lectin(s), while plant lectin ...
|strong|Mouse anti Respiratory syncitial virus, major surface glycoprotein G antibody, clone 8C5|/strong| recognizes the major glycoprotein G of Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV). RSV is a 100-350 nm …
THESIS. The inhibitory effect of MK886 on the inflammatory process caused by Paracoccidioidomycosis brasiliensis infection in genetically selected mice. Correspondence to. Thesis: H. A. Balderramas submitted this thesis for his Masters in Tropical Diseases at the Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2008.. Advisor: Professor Silvio Luis de Oliveira. ABSTRACT. Leukotrienes are classic inflammatory response mediators considered chemotactic agents and microbicidal activity regulators in cells of the innate immune system, playing a protective role against different infectious agents. In this study, we investigated the involvement of leukotrienes in the course of murine paracoccidioidomycosis based on the following immunologic parameters: cell influx, mieloperoxydase activity, NO production, cytokine production, and fungal recovery in lungs of mice selected according to the intensity of their low (AIRmin) and high (AIRmax) acute inflammatory ...
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) yeast cells can enter mammalian cells and probably manipulate the host cell environment to favor their own growth and survival. We studied the uptake of strain Pb 18 into A549 lung and Vero epithelial cells, with an emphasis on the repercussions in the cytoskeleton and the apoptosis of host cells. Cytoskeleton components of the host cells, such as actin and tubulin, were involved in the P. brasiliensis invasion process. Cytochalasin D and colchicine treatment substantially reduced invasion, indicating the functional participation of microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs) in this mechanism. Cytokeratin could also play a role in the P. brasiliensis interaction with the host. Gp43 was recognized by anti-actin and anti-cytokeratin antibodies, but not by anti-tubulin. The apoptosis induced by this fungus in infected epithelial cells was demonstrated by various techniques: TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and Bak and Bcl-2 immunocytochemical expression. DNA ...
Functional analysis of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 14-3-3 adhesin expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background Itraconazole (ITZ) is an alternative to steroids in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) but therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is warranted due to erratic absorption and early relapse.. Aim To correlate serum ITZ levels with clinical outcomes in ABPA.. Methods ITZ capsules 400mg/day for 6 months were administered as monotherapy to 30 consecutive patients in stage 4/5 of ABPA between Jan13 to Jun13. High-performance liquid chromatography was done on serum samples collected after 2-4 weeks to measure concentrations of ITZ and its active metabolite hydroxy-ITZ (OHITZ); ITZ levels of ,2mg/L were considered adequate. Total and Aspergillus species specific IgE, leucocyte count (TLC), eosinophil count (AEC) and precipitins were recorded before and thereafter. Any relapse was noted till 2 years.. Results Mean serum concentration of ITZ and OHITZ was 0.79±0.2 and 1.2±0.3mg/L respectively. Total IgE (9.9±1.4 vs 6.5±1.2×103IU/mL), specific IgE (42.98±3.9 vs ...
A mnemonic to remember the common causes of bronchiectasis is: CAPT Kangaroo has Mounier Kuhn Mnemonic C: cystic fibrosis or congenital cystic bronchiectasis A: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) P: post-infectious (most common) ...
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Learn more about Coccidioidomycosis at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Our diagnosis was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) including asthmatic responses as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) due to exposure to moldy household waste. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and handling are exposed and at risk to develop sensitization to fungi due to exposure to dust of biodegradable waste. Further studies are necessary to show if separate collection of biodegradable waste increases the health risks due to exposure to bacteria and fungi in comparison to waste collection without separation. Am. J. Ind. Med. 37:438-442, 2000 Plain text: Background Separate collection of biodegradable garbage and recyclable waste is expected to become mandatory in some western countries. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and separation might become endangered by high loads of bacteria and fungi. Case history and examination A 29 year old garbage collector involved in emptying so-called biological ...
The chapter provides an overview on allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Recombinant DNA technology has allowed for identification and production of many Aspergillus fumigatus allergens that may play a role in pathogenesis and find use in diagnostic testing. A role for the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in protection against A. fumigatus has been shown in experimental murine ABPA, and a broader role for IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory regulatory cytokine in lung inflammation in both asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF) is likely. A critical immunogenetic feature of ABPA is inheritance and expression of certain major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles that act to regulate CD4+ Tcell responses to A. fumigatus. Susceptibility to ABPA appears to be independently increased by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Oral glucocorticoids are an effective first-line treatment for ABPA and appear as effective in CF as they are in asthmatic APBA. Serum IgE levels are a

Fungal Antibodies by IDFungal Antibodies by ID

... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Blood Culture, Fungal. 3. Fungal Antibodies by CF, CSF. 4. Fungal Antibodies by CF, Serum. 5. Fungal Culture. 6. Fungal Culture ... Fungal Stain-KOH with Calcofluor White. 10. Organism Identification, Fungal (Mould). 11. Anti-GBM Antibodies ELISA. ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Fungal-Antibodies-by-ID-22872-1/

Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. | JEMImmunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. | JEM

Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. G Nussbaum, R Yuan, A Casadevall, M D ... Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. G Nussbaum, R Yuan, A Casadevall, M D ... To our knowledge this is the first report of blocking antibodies to a fungal pathogen. The results have important implications ... Antibody isotype and epitope specificity are important in determining the ability to prolong survival in mice given a lethal C ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/183/4/1905?ijkey=c3fdaab6e99c6b21ad9581dd04aff77a12c0e495&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

MiniVaxs Pneumocystis Vaccine Candidate Induces Significant anti-Pneumocystis Antibody Responses and Reduced Fungal Load -...MiniVax's Pneumocystis Vaccine Candidate Induces Significant anti-Pneumocystis Antibody Responses and Reduced Fungal Load -...

MiniVaxs Pneumocystis Vaccine Candidate Induces Significant anti-Pneumocystis Antibody Responses and Reduced Fungal Load. ... MiniVaxs Pneumocystis Vaccine Candidate Induces Significant anti-Pneumocystis Antibody Responses and Reduced Fungal Load ... Pneumocystis antibody responses as well as a reduced fungal load. These data support further development of MiniVaxs ... MiniVax), a company focused on the development of novel treatments for opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections, recently ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/clinical_trials/minivax-s-pneumocystis-vaccine-candidate-induces-significant-anti-pneumocystis-antibody-responses-13744.html

Fungal protease inhibitor elisa and antibodyFungal protease inhibitor elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Fungal protease inhibitor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... Custom Antibody. Antibody Matched Pairs. Antibody Peptide Pairs. Phospho Antibodies. Products by Disease. Products by Pathway. ... Fungal protease inhibitor F ELISA Kit. Fungal protease inhibitor F Recombinant. Fungal protease inhibitor F Antibody. Also ... Fungal protease inhibitor-1 ELISA Kit. Fungal protease inhibitor-1 Recombinant. Fungal protease inhibitor-1 Antibody. Inhibits ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=fungal-protease-inhibitor

Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases: The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal...Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases: The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal...

Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases: The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal ... Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases : The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal ... Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases : The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal ... T1 - Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases. T2 - The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/radioimmunotherapy-of-fungal-diseases-the-therapeutic-potential-o-2

Human antibody discovery could save lives from fungal killer - Life Sciences ScotlandHuman antibody discovery could save lives from fungal killer - Life Sciences Scotland

Human antibody discovery could save lives from fungal killer. A new way to diagnose, treat and protect against stealth fungal ... This research marks a huge step towards using similar antibody-based approaches to tackle fungal infections. These antibodies ... "There is an urgent need to develop better ways for diagnosing and treating life-threatening fungal infections. Human antibodies ... us a step closer to a day when we can use the antibodies that are generated by the human body to diagnose and treat fungal ...
more infohttps://www.lifesciencesscotland.com/news/human-antibody-discovery-save-lives-fungal-killer

fungal-type cell wall (1-|3)-alpha-glucan biosynthetic process Antibodies | Invitrogen
                       
                ...fungal-type cell wall (1-|3)-alpha-glucan biosynthetic process Antibodies | Invitrogen ...

Antibodies for proteins involved in fungal-type cell wall (1->3)-alpha-glucan biosynthetic process pathways, according to their ... Custom Antibody Service. Searching for an antibody we dont offer? We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet,well replace the product at no cost to you ... Possible reasons that no Antibodies were found:. *Spelling or typing errors. You can use the product search to modify your ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/primary/panther/fungal-type%20cell%20wall%20

Targeting Aspergillus fumigatus Crf Transglycosylases With Neutralizing Antibody Is Relevant but Not Sufficient to Erase Fungal...Targeting Aspergillus fumigatus Crf Transglycosylases With Neutralizing Antibody Is Relevant but Not Sufficient to Erase Fungal...

Targeting Aspergillus fumigatus Crf Transglycosylases With Neutralizing Antibody Is Relevant but Not Sufficient to Erase Fungal ... It was demonstrated that anti-Crf antibodies neutralized the enzymatic activity of recombinant Crf protein, and delayed fungal ... Targeting Aspergillus fumigatus Crf Transglycosylases With Neutralizing Antibody Is Relevant but Not Sufficient to Erase Fungal ... In addition, we highlighted the role of Crf proteins in fungal growth, using a deletion mutant for gene, for which a growth ...
more infohttps://eprints.ucm.es/55684/

Antibody-based Therapies and Diagnostics for Fungal Infections | babsAntibody-based Therapies and Diagnostics for Fungal Infections | babs

Antibody-based Therapies and Diagnostics for Fungal Infections. Opportunistic invasive fungal pathogens cause over two million ... Therefore, antibodies that recognise components of the fungal cell surface may provide bio-tools for the development of ... Research in my group is focused on Candida albicans which is the most common serious fungal pathogen of humans. C. albicans ... However, this opportunistic fungal pathogen can cause serious, life-threatening disseminated disease when these barriers and ...
more infohttps://www.babs.unsw.edu.au/research/antibody-based-therapies-and-diagnostics-fungal-infections

Human Antibodies against a Purified Glucosylceramide from Cryptococcus neoformans Inhibit Cell Budding and Fungal Growth |...Human Antibodies against a Purified Glucosylceramide from Cryptococcus neoformans Inhibit Cell Budding and Fungal Growth |...

Antibody specificity.The possibility of cross-reactions between antibodies to CMH and fungal cell wall components was evaluated ... Purified human antibodies were inhibitory in vitro at 10 μg/ml or at 5 pg/fungal cell, but lower concentrations were not tested ... Human Antibodies against a Purified Glucosylceramide from Cryptococcus neoformans Inhibit Cell Budding and Fungal Growth. ... The addition of antibodies to CMH to the cultures clearly inhibited fungal growth (Fig. 10A) either of acapsular or ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/68/12/7049?ijkey=cf52b5134d15ab4d8df06b3220b80a8fc0c10fcd&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Five-year follow-up of Micropolyspora faeni antibody in smoking and nonsmoking farmers.  - PubMed - NCBIFive-year follow-up of Micropolyspora faeni antibody in smoking and nonsmoking farmers. - PubMed - NCBI

Antibodies, Fungal. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Atypon - PDF. *Ovid Technologies, Inc. ... Five-year follow-up of Micropolyspora faeni antibody in smoking and nonsmoking farmers.. Kusaka H1, Homma Y, Ogasawara H, ... The prevalence of MF antibody among nonsmokers was significantly higher than that among smokers: 27.1% versus 7.7% in 1979, ... To examine factors that influence changes in Micropolyspora faeni (MF) antibody titer in farmers lung disease (FLD), we ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2782740?dopt=Abstract

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Antibodies, Fungal); 0 (Antigens, Fungal); 0 (Epitopes); 0 (Fungal Proteins); 0 (Hemagglutinins); 0 (Membrane Glycoproteins ... the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. Antibodies that bind to the polypeptide backbone of isolated Ywp1 show little ... Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against human PDPN were developed and characterized. Two anti-PDPN mAb, SZ-163 and SZ-168, ... 0 (Antibodies, Monoclonal); 0 (Biomarkers, Tumor); 0 (Membrane Glycoproteins); 0 (PDPN protein, human). ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D12.776.395.550

Programme Result - UK NEQASProgramme Result - UK NEQAS

Antibody to Fungal & Related Antigens. , Immunology. Register Interest. Summary. ACCREDITATION STATUS: UKAS accredited ...
more infohttps://ukneqas.org.uk/programmes/result/?programme=antibody-to-fungal-%26-related-antigens

Frontiers | Therapeutic monoclonal antibody for sporotrichosis | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Therapeutic monoclonal antibody for sporotrichosis | Microbiology

... indicating a possible participation of specific antibodies to this molecule in infection control. In an other work of the our ... indicating a possible participation of specific antibodies to this molecule in infection control. In an other work of the our ... Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies and Fungal Infection. Monoclonal antibodies are attractive biologic drugs because of their ... For many years, the protective role of antibodies in fungal infection was contested. A consensus has now emerged that the ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00409/full

all pediatric l1 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineall pediatric l1 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

MeSH-major] Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic / analysis. Antibodies, Fungal / analysis. Diagnostic Tests, Routine / ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic; 0 / Antibodies, Fungal; 0 / Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex ... NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .. *[Source] The source of this record ... NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .. *[Source] The source of this record ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=all+pediatric+l1+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

Individual data from immunoassays with antigens existin | Open-iIndividual data from immunoassays with antigens existin | Open-i

Antibodies, Fungal/blood/immunology. *Cell Wall/metabolism. *Chromoblastomycosis/immunology/microbiology. *Environmental ... The distribution of these fungal species in nature and the knowledge of how cell wall polysaccharides and glycoconjugates ... The distribution of these fungal species in nature and the knowledge of how cell wall polysaccharides and glycoconjugates ... the cell wall of MMHC82 grown in MM had β-D-Manp units that promoted higher antigenic response.The distribution of these fungal ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4215789_fcimb-04-00153-g0004&req=4

Outbreak of Erythema Nodosum of Unknown Cause --- New Mexico, November 2007--January 2008Outbreak of Erythema Nodosum of Unknown Cause --- New Mexico, November 2007--January 2008

Positive fungal complement fixation antibody tests (paired acute and convalescent sera) (n = 12) ... rise in antibodies against fungal antigens (if any), given the relatively long time needed for seroconversion (M. Lindsley, CDC ... Twelve paired sera were tested for antibodies to possible fungal pathogens (Table). Although certain sera displayed elevated ... Detection of antibody to C. neoformans was performed using the tube agglutination method. Convalescent sera were drawn 4--12 ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5848a3.htm

Anti-chitin antibodiesAnti-chitin antibodies

On 3 Apr 2001, SL wrote: , Hi, , , Does anyone know where I could obtain antibodies to fungal chitin , (preferably monoclonal ... Anti-chitin antibodies. Alex Brands abbrands at artsci.wustl.edu Tue Apr 3 10:06:44 EST 2001 *Previous message: Anti-chitin ... There is an antibody search engine at http://www.abcam.com. --- ______________O_________oO_____________oO______o_______oO ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/yeast/2001-April/009843.html

Casadevall A[au] - PubMed - NCBICasadevall A[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Structure-function analysis and therapeutic efficacy of antibodies to fungal melanin for melanoma radioimmunotherapy. ... The enigmatic role of fungal annexins: the case of Cryptococcus neoformans.. Maryam M, Fu MS, Alanio A, Camacho E, Goncalves DS ... The melanization road more traveled by: Precursor substrate effects on melanin synthesis in cell-free and fungal cell systems. ... The structural unit of melanin in the cell wall of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Casadevall+A%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Spondyloarthritis, acute anterior uveitis, and fungi: Updating the Catterall-King hypothesis<...Spondyloarthritis, acute anterior uveitis, and fungi: Updating the Catterall-King hypothesis<...

In the last decade, many links between spondyloarthritis and fungal infections have been found. Antibodies against the fungal ... In the last decade, many links between spondyloarthritis and fungal infections have been found. Antibodies against the fungal ... In the last decade, many links between spondyloarthritis and fungal infections have been found. Antibodies against the fungal ... In the last decade, many links between spondyloarthritis and fungal infections have been found. Antibodies against the fungal ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/spondyloarthritis-acute-anterior-uveitis-and-fungi-updating-the-c-2

Exploiting Lipids to Develop Anticryptococcal Vaccines | SpringerLinkExploiting Lipids to Develop Anticryptococcal Vaccines | SpringerLink

Human antibodies against a purified glucosylceramide from Cryptococcus neoformans inhibit cell budding and fungal growth. ... Monoclonal antibody to fungal glucosylceramide protects mice against lethal Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Clin Vaccine ... Ergosterol, an orphan fungal microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP). Mol Plant Pathol. 2014;15(7):747-61.Google Scholar ... The vaccines and antibodies associated with Als3p for treatment of Candida albicans infections. Vaccine. 2017;35(43):5786-93. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40475-019-00178-x

Immunodetection and risk assessment for Aspergillus contamination in nuts using a highly specific monoclonal antibodyImmunodetection and risk assessment for Aspergillus contamination in nuts using a highly specific monoclonal antibody

... , Alaa A ... Monoclonal antibody, Fungal antigen, Aspergillus, ITS, Diagnosis, Nuts. Introduction. Nuts are widely consumed as plant origin ... Fungal Genet Newsl 1993; 40: 25-27.. *White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ... Identification of fungal species. The result of DNA sequencing analysis of ITS region for 28 fungal isolates confirmed the ...
more infohttp://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/immunodetection-and-risk-assessment-for-aspergillus-contamination-in-nuts-using-a-highly-specific-monoclonal-antibody-11033.html

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Structure-function analysis and therapeutic efficacy of antibodies to fungal melanin for melanoma radioimmunotherapy *J. D. ... Rights & permissionsfor article Structure-function analysis and therapeutic efficacy of antibodies to fungal melanin for ... Rights & permissionsfor article Making ends meet: a model for RNA splicing in fungal mitochondria . Opens in a new window. ... Combination of a novel HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-241 and anti-PD-L1 antibody enhances anti-tumor immunity and cytotoxicity in ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/search?author=%22A%20Ray%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=fa309c95-5fd4-414d-b05e-7120af183872

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Anti fungal antibody (substance) {18659000 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Actinomycetes species antibody ( ... Immunoglobulin G antibody to Cladosporium (substance) {720215008 , SNOMED-CT } Immunoglobulin G antibody to Phoma herbarum ( ... Antibody to Rhizomucor pusillus (substance) {709866007 , SNOMED-CT } Antibody to Rhizopus arrhizus (substance) {709867003 , ... SNOMED-CT } Antibody to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (substance) {766963009 , SNOMED-CT } Antibody to Trichoderma viride (substance ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=18659000

Scopulariopsosis and Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in an Addict | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of PhysiciansScopulariopsosis and Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in an Addict | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

Precipitating antibodies to fungal antigen and immediate wheal and late necrotizing type of skin reactions were shown in the ... We showed precipitating antibodies to fungal antigen in the serum, prepared from the patients isolate. Similar granulomatous ... Granulomatosis caused by fungal spores of a soil saprophyte is a newly recognized pulmonary complication of intravenous drug ... The studies support the notion that pulmonary hypersensitivity to fungal spores was mediated by an Arthus-type phenomenon. ...
more infohttps://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/689656/scopulariopsosis-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-addict
  • GXM, the major capsular polysaccharide of C. neoformans , is antiphagocytic, inhibits both the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the increased expression of costimulatory molecules, suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity, and may reduce antibody production in response to fungal infection (reviewed in reference 44 ). (asm.org)
  • There is therefore an urgent clinical need for the development of diagnostics and new therapeutics for fungal diseases which research in my group aims to address in innovative ways. (edu.au)
  • To examine factors that influence changes in Micropolyspora faeni (MF) antibody titer in farmer's lung disease (FLD), we followed for 5 yr the prevalence of serum MF antibody and the epidemiologic factors (years on farm, hours in barn, and hay-handling time) among 92 dairy farmers in Hokkaido, Japan. (nih.gov)
  • In this study we used mixtures of protective and nonprotective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to determine if nonprotective mAbs blocked the activity of the protective mAbs. (rupress.org)
  • The results have important implications for the development of vaccines and passive antibody therapy against C. neoformans. (rupress.org)
  • The purified antibodies to CMH (mainly immunoglobulin G1) bound to different strains and serological types of C. neoformans , as shown by flow cytofluorimetry and immunofluorescence labeling. (asm.org)
  • The addition of human antibodies to CMH to cryptococcal cultures of both acapsular and encapsulated strains of C. neoformans inhibited cell budding and cell growth. (asm.org)
  • Detection of antibody to C. neoformans was performed using the tube agglutination method. (cdc.gov)
  • The distribution of these fungal species in nature and the knowledge of how cell wall polysaccharides and glycoconjugates structure vary, may contribute to the better understanding and the elucidation of the pathology caused by this fungus. (nih.gov)
  • We determined the prevalence of MBL deficiency in a Hungarian IBD patients' cohort, and whether it is associated with the antimicrobial antibody formation or particular clinical manifestations. (mtak.hu)
  • It was demonstrated that anti-Crf antibodies neutralized the enzymatic activity of recombinant Crf protein, and delayed fungal growth by 12.3% when added to spores. (ucm.es)
  • Granulomatosis caused by fungal spores of a soil saprophyte is a newly recognized pulmonary complication of intravenous drug addiction. (annals.org)
  • The studies support the notion that pulmonary hypersensitivity to fungal spores was mediated by an Arthus'-type phenomenon. (annals.org)
  • We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and applications. (thermofisher.com)
  • Nuts are widely consumed as plant origin foods due to the nutrition they contain, and are considered a source of microorganism growth, including toxigenic and pathogenic fungal species. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The expanded nut-products trade has a highlighted nut's role in the exposure to diseases associated with the occurrence of toxigenic fungal species and their secondary metabolites [ 2 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Nut contamination can occur either by fungal colonization or their production of secondary metabolites during or after harvesting, storage and transition [ 7 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In addition, prime-boost with secreted mini-Kexin induced a significant anti-PC antibody response and protected mice against PC challenge. (drugs.com)
  • The Role of Melanin in Fungal Pathogenesis for Animal Hosts. (nih.gov)
  • There was no remarkable change in overall prevalences of MF antibody between 1979 and 1984 (18.5 and 19.6%, respectively). (nih.gov)
  • Human antibodies have revolutionised the way many cancers are treated and diagnosed. (lifesciencesscotland.com)
  • Fungal contamination in nuts is unavoidable and is a major challenge to nuts safety, quality and then for human health after consumption particularly immunocompromised individuals. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites and exhibit toxic effects in human and animal health through contaminant foods or feeds consumption [ 8 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Transmission electron microscopy of yeasts labeled with immunogold-antibodies to CMH and immunostaining of isolated cell wall lipid extracts separated by HPTLC showed that the cryptococcal CMH predominantly localizes to the fungal cell wall. (asm.org)
  • Together, the data discussed here encourage the use of fungal lipids in anticryptococcal vaccinal strategies. (springer.com)