Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.

Detection of cell wall mannoprotein Mp1p in culture supernatants of Penicillium marneffei and in sera of penicilliosis patients. (1/945)

Mannoproteins are important and abundant structural components of fungal cell walls. The MP1 gene encodes a cell wall mannoprotein of the pathogenic fungus Penicillium marneffei. In the present study, we show that Mp1p is secreted into the cell culture supernatant at a level that can be detected by Western blotting. A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed with antibodies against Mp1p was capable of detecting this protein from the cell culture supernatant of P. marneffei at 10(4) cells/ml. The anti-Mp1p antibody is specific since it fails to react with any protein-form lysates of Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, or Cryptococcus neoformans by Western blotting. In addition, this Mp1p antigen-based ELISA is also specific for P. marneffei since the cell culture supernatants of the other three fungi gave negative results. Finally, a clinical evaluation of sera from penicilliosis patients indicates that 17 of 26 (65%) patients are Mp1p antigen test positive. Furthermore, a Mp1p antibody test was performed with these serum specimens. The combined antibody and antigen tests for P. marneffei carry a sensitive of 88% (23 of 26), with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The specificities of the tests are high since none of the 85 control sera was positive by either test.  (+info)

Aspergillus meningitis: diagnosis by non-culture-based microbiological methods and management. (2/945)

The performance of antibody detection, antigen detection, and Aspergillus genus-specific PCR for diagnosing Aspergillus meningitis was investigated with 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a single patient with proven infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against Aspergillus were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF or serum. The antigen galactomannan was detected in the CSF 45 days before a culture became positive, and Aspergillus DNA was detected 4 days prior to culture. Decline of the galactomannan antigen titer in the CSF during treatment with intravenous and intraventricular amphotericin B and intravenous voriconazole corresponded with the clinical response to treatment.  (+info)

Production of specific monoclonal antibodies to Aspergillus species and their use in immunohistochemical identification of aspergillosis. (3/945)

Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining.  (+info)

Fungal prophylaxis by reduction of fungal colonization by oral administration of bovine anti-Candida antibodies in bone marrow transplant recipients. (4/945)

Candida overgrowth and invasion constitute a serious threat with a high mortality in BMT recipients. Currently available topical antifungal prophylaxis is largely ineffective, and as resistance to existing, absorbable drugs for systemic use is rapidly developing, new forms of therapy are needed. We investigated the effect of oral treatment of BMT recipients with a bovine immunoglobulin product derived from animals immunized against several Candida species. The natural Candida colonization was first followed in 19 patients to establish the colonization pattern. Half of the patients were found to be colonized prior to transplantation and altogether 72% were colonized at some point during follow-up. Those with a high pre-transplant concentration of Candida in saliva (>100 CFU/ml) remained colonized throughout the BMT treatment period. The therapeutic effect was monitored in two other patient groups. The first group consisted of nine patients, where, due to a low number of primary colonized patients, response in colonized patients was suggestive of a therapeutic effect. In the second group, 10 patients with a high level of colonization (>100 CFU/ml) were given 10 g daily of the product in three divided doses. The results suggest a treatment-related reduction in Candida colonization in a majority (7/10) of patients and one patient became completely negative. As no adverse effects were noted, our findings encourage additional studies in immunocompromised, transplant patients.  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (5/945)

Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (6/945)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

New enzyme immunoassays for sensitive detection of circulating Candida albicans mannan and antimannan antibodies: useful combined test for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. (7/945)

Two standardized enzyme immunoassays for the serological diagnosis of candidiasis were developed. The first one detects antimannan antibodies, while the second one detects mannan with a sensitivity of 0.1 ng/ml. These tests were applied to 162 serum samples retrospectively selected from 43 patients with mycologically and clinically proven candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. Forty-three serum samples were positive for mannan, and 63 had significant antibody levels. Strikingly, only five serum samples were simultaneously positive by both tests. When the results were analyzed per patient, 36 (84%) presented at least one serum positive by one test. For 30 of them, positivity by one test was always associated with negative results by the other test for any of the tested sera. For six patients whose sera were positive for either an antigen or an antibody response, a balance between positivity by each test was evidenced by kinetic analysis of sera drawn during the time course of the infection. Controls consisted of 98 serum samples from healthy individuals, 93 serum samples from patients hospitalized in intensive care units, and 39 serum samples from patients with deep mycoses. The sensitivities and specificities were 40 and 98% and 53 and 94% for mannanemia or antibody detection, respectively. These values reached 80 and 93%, respectively, when the results of both tests were combined. These observations, which clearly demonstrate a disparity between circulation of a given mannan catabolite and antimannan antibody response, suggest that use of both enzyme immunoassays may be useful for the routine diagnosis of candidiasis.  (+info)

Antibodies to yeast Sm motif 1 cross-react with human Sm core polypeptides. (8/945)

Two regions common to all UsnRNP core polypeptides have been described: Sm motif 1 and Sm motif 2. Rabbits were immunized with a 22 amino-acid peptide containing one segment of Sm motif 1 (YRGTLVSTDNYFNLQLNEAEEF, corresponding to residues 11-32) from yeast F protein. After immunization, the rabbit sera contained antibodies that not only reacted specifically with the peptide from yeast F protein but also cross-reacted with Sm polypeptides from mammals; that is, with purified human U1snRNPs. The results suggest that the peptide used and human Sm polypeptides contain a common feature recognized by the polyclonal antibodies. A large collection of human systemic lupus erythematosus sera was assayed using the yeast peptide as an antigen source. Seventy per cent of systemic lupus erythematosus sera contain an antibody specificity that cross-reacts with the yeast peptide.  (+info)

Lab Reagents Fungal Antibody Laboratories manufactures the fungal antibody comp reagents distributed by Genprice. The Fungal Antibody Comp reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact fungal Antibody. Other Fungal products are available in stock. Specificity: Fungal Category: Antibody Group: Comp Comp information ...
A determinação dos marcadores sorológicos P-ANCA (anticorpo perinuclear contra estruturas citoplasmáticas do neutrófilo) e ASCA (anticorpo anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae) auxilia de forma menos invasiva...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunological markers anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in inflammatory bowel disease. T2 - A helpful diagnostic tool. AU - Montanelli, A.. AU - Mainardi, E.. AU - Vagni, A.. AU - Villanacci, V.. AU - Zambelli, C.. AU - Cestari, R.. AU - Cengia, P.. AU - Minelli, L.. AU - Missale, G.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Aim. Nowadays the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the differentiation between Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is still based on morphological changes identified at endoscopy, radiology, and histopathology. In 5-15% of cases this differentiation is not possible (diagnosed with indeterminate colitis). Methods. We evaluated if recently developed commercial kits for the determination of anti-Saccharomyces Cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are useful in differentiating cases of UC from CD diseases with a consequent reduced number of ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is best known as the bakers and brewers yeast, but its residual traces are also frequent excipients in some vaccines. Although anti-S. cerevisiae autoantibodies (ASCAs) are considered specific for Crohns disease, a growing number of studies have detected high levels of AS …
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturers instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements ...
Event Name : 2022 ASCA Annual Conference Event Name : 2022 ASCA Annual Conference Event Start Date : 2/9/2022 6:00 PM Event End Date : 2/12/2022 5:00 PM Venue Name : Crystal Gateway Marriott Event Location :
The ROE Act (S.1209/H.3320) would endanger womens health, radically reduce Massachusetts standards of medical care, and unravel every commonsense law Massachusetts Citizens for Life has passed to protect the unborn and their mothers. This bill:. • Removes standard medical safeguards for women undergoing late-term abortions. •Removes protections for newborn babies after a failed abortion (infanticide). • Eliminates parental or adult supervision and consent for a minor undergoing an abortion. •Allows abortions on viable babies to be performed outside of a hospital. •Uses your tax dollars to fund abortions, re-allocating funds from our Healthy Start program, a program aiding underprivileged women during pregnancy to reduce infant and maternal mortality. • Eliminates all criminal penalties for the performance of any abortion-whether coerced, sex-selective, eugenic, incompetently executed, performed by a non-physician, inflicted on a victim of sex trafficking, statutory rape, or other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Importance of the Candida albicans cell wall during commensalism and infection. AU - Gow, N.A.R.. AU - Hube, B.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - An imbalance of the normal microbial flora, breakage of epithelial barriers or dysfunction of the immune system favour the transition of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans from a commensal to a pathogen. C. albicans has evolved to be adapted as a commensal on mucosal surfaces. As a commensal it has also acquired attributes, which are necessary to avoid or overcome the host defence mechanisms. The human host has also co-evolved to recognize and eliminate potential fungal invaders. Many of the fungal genes that have been the focus of this co-evolutionary process encode cell wall components. In this review, we will discuss the transition from commensalism to pathogenesis, the key players of the fungal cell surface that are important for this transition, the role of the morphology and the mechanisms of host recognition and ...
Stool tests to rule out infections include culture and sensitivities, ovum and parasites, Clostridium difficile toxins, leukocyte count. Stool for calprotectin can detect active CD and also used for monitoring disease.[12][13][14][15]. Blood tests including baseline CBC and a metabolic panel can highlight the presence of anemia (B12 or iron deficiency) or liver disease. Special serology such as normal anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and raised anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) can distinguish Crohns disease from ulcerative colitis. C-reactive protein (CRP) or sedimentary rate (ESR) can reflect the severity of the inflammation.. CT scan/MRE of the abdomen and pelvis can detect abscesses and fistulization. The choice between CT or MR enterography is largely directed at minimizing radiation exposure in younger populations. Both give a higher definition of the diseased intestine. However, MRI can provide more detail when investigating the fistulizing disease. The use of ...
Recently, an association between the presence of antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) and mutations in exon 1 and the promoter region of the mannan binding lectin (MBL) gene was described in 58 patients with Crohns disease (CD).1 A possible link between ASCA and MBL mutations in patients with CD is plausible. MBL is a component of the innate immune system that can bind to S cerevisiae and the serum concentration of MBL … ...
Canditoxins can be released and may be responsible for the symptoms listed above as well as chronic fatigue.3 It is also thought that yeast overgrowth in the intestine may lead to the leaky gut syndrome. In this condition, the lining of the intestine allows large molecules of food to enter the blood and may result in food allergies.4 Candidiasis may be confirmed by the presence of the yeast organism in feces or urine, by vaginal or throat swab, or by measuring specific Candida antibodies in the blood. These include anti-Candida antibodies IgG, IgM, and IgA (Candiquant,TM Biomerica, Inc., 1533 Monrovia Ave., Newport Beach, CA 92663). Interpretations of the antibody results are as follows: Negative-less than 12.5 Units/mL Equivocal or borderline 12.5 to 25 Units/mL (should be repeated in two weeks) Positive 26 to 100 Units/mL Results greater than 100 units indicate a highly elevated amount of antibody. High IgM titers may indicate a current or early onset of the disease, while elevated IgG ...
Searches in a Candida albicans database ( identified two Individual Protein Files (IPF 15363 and 19968) whose deduced amino acid sequences showed 42 % and 45 % homology with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pir4. The two DNA sequences are alleles of the same gene (CaPIR1) but IPF 19968 has a deletion of 117 bases. IPF 19968 encodes a putative polypeptide of 364 aa, which is highly O-glycosylated and has an N-mannosylated chain, four cysteine residues and seven repeats. Both alleles are expressed under different growth conditions and during wall construction by regenerating protoplasts. The heterozygous mutant cells are elongated, form clumps of several cells and are hypersensitive to drugs that affect cell wall assembly. CaPir1 was labelled with the V5 epitope and found linked to the 1,3-β-glucan of the C. albicans wall and also by disulphide bridges when expressed in S. cerevisiae.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturers instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements ...
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The major aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of NK cells in the initial immunological response against P. brasiliensis. Among the few studies about this issue, the study carried out by Peraçoli et al. (13) showed more NK cells in the peripheral blood of PCM patients, although exhibiting a diminished cytotoxic activity. Our data partially confirm these data, given that we observed that NK cells from patients with active disease did exhibit a decreased cytotoxic response against target cells. In relation to the number of CD56+ cells, we found no differences between PCM patients and healthy individuals. Additionally, we observed that after the treatment, the cytotoxic capability of NK cells from patients was similar to that observed in the control group. These data indicate that during the development of the disease, it is possible that the acquired immunological response interfere with the activation of NK cells. PCM patients with active disease are characterized by the ...
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Study of the role of secreted aspartyl protease (PbSAP) virulence of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Scholarships in Brazil Doctorate. Daniele Gonçalves Castilho. Biological Sciences. scholarship by fapesp
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of a true systemic (endemic) mycosis called paracoccidioidomycosis. The spectrum of the disease is wide, varying from an asymptomatic infection verified by the skin test to a subclinical, symptomatic or chronic infection. Diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis is often difficult. The infection may become apparent several years after exposure to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, suggesting the possibility of a long latent period. The infection is presumably acquired via inhalation of the conidia, followed by primary infection of the lungs. The degree of pathogenicity may vary and appears strain-dependent. An exocellular serine-thiol proteinase enzyme is a significant virulence factor of the fungus for tissue invasion. In addition to the primary pulmonary form of the disease, acute pulmonary, chronic pulmonary, and disseminated forms may also be observed. In cases of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis, reticuloendothelial system, skin and mucous ...
We used the micro- and macroimmunodiffusion test for the qualitative and quantitative measurement of anti - P. brasiliensis antibodies in serum of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. All 103 paracoccidioidomycosis sera (100%) were positive in the micro test versus 87% positivity index in the macrotest. All 83 control sera from patients with other diseases were negative in both tests. Titers of the positive sera tended to be higher in the microtest, which revealed sharper and easier to read precipiting bands. Microimmunodiffusion is simple to be performed, requires a minimum amount of reagents and allows the simultaneous testing of 102 sera. It may replace the macrotest specially in laboratories dealing with great serologic routine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of immune responses by T suppressor cells and by serum in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis. AU - Castaneda, Elizabeth. AU - Brummer, Elmer. AU - Pappagianis, Demosthenes. AU - Stevens, David A.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - Regulation of cellular responses was studied during the course of chronic murine disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Regulation of peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferative responses to concanavalin A (Con A) was studied in vitro by mixing PBL from infected and noninfected mice. PBL from mice infected for 18 weeks had depressed responses to Con A and they depressed the Con A responses of PBL from noninfected mice by 95% when they were mixed in a 1:1 ratio. After treatment of PBL from infected mice with anti-Lyt-2.2 antibody plus complement, the responses to Con A were increased to normal values. The percentage of T-cell subpopulations in PBL from infected mice did not differ significantly from those of normal mice. Immunoregulation of ...
FCAND : Draw blood in a plain red-top tube(s), serum gel tube(s) is acceptable. Spin down and send 0.5 mL of serum refrigerated in a plastic vial.
When and how often laboratory tests are done may depend on many factors. The timing of laboratory tests may rely on the results or completion of other tests, procedures, or treatments. Lab tests may be performed immediately in an emergency, or tests may be delayed as a condition is treated or monitored. A test may be suggested or become necessary when certain signs or symptoms appear. Due to changes in the way your body naturally functions through the course of a day, lab tests may need to be performed at a certain time of day. If you have prepared for a test by changing your food or fluid intake, lab tests may be timed in accordance with those changes. Timing of tests may be based on increased and decreased levels of medications, drugs or other substances in the body. The age or gender of the person being tested may affect when and how often a lab test is required. Chronic or progressive conditions may need ongoing monitoring through the use of lab tests. Conditions that worsen and improve may ...
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It means so much to me that you would take the time to personally respond. I very much enjoy being a member of ASCA, and I find all of the materials valuable in my quest to become a better coach. I want to thank you and others for all of the work put in to benefit all involved with the swimming community. I hope to someday meet you in person and shake your hand. Again, thank you for all that you do, and for making an early career coachs day! ...
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA): Symptoms ❗ Workup ❗ Diagnosis ❗ Treatment ❗ Complications ❗ Causes ❗ Epidemiology ❗ Incidence ❗ Prognosis ❗ Check at Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a disease characterized by a hypersensitivity reaction to aspergillus fumigatus after its repeated inhalation and is most…
We have recently identified peptide mimetics of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide by screening phage display peptide libraries. 2H1, one of a large family of mAbs against the glucuronoxylomannan fraction (GXM), is highly protective and binds several peptide motifs. This study analyzes the immunologic properties of P601E (SYSWMYE), a peptide from the low affinity motif (W/YXWM/LYE) that has an extended cross-reactivity among anti-GXM mAbs and whose binding correlates with the protective potential of mAbs in experimental infection. P601E is a mimetic, since it competes for GXM binding to 2H1, but not a mimotope, since it does not elicit an anti-GXM response. Sequence analysis of 14 anti-P601E mAbs indicates that anti-P601E mAbs elicited in BALB/c mice have an order of homology with 2H1 of V kappa | J kappa || V(H) | J(H) | D. Further screening of a peptide library with anti-P601E mAbs isolated peptides having a motif almost identical to the peptide motif selected by 2H1. When these
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide mimotope prolongs the survival of mice with Crytococcus neoformans infection. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disorder of the lower gastrointestinal tract that may occur in three forms: Crohns disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and indeterminate colitis (IC). Its prevalence in the adult population approaches 0.3%.1 The differential diagnosis of the different forms of IBD is often difficult, time-consuming, and invasive.2 The gold standard for diagnosis is endoscopy with biopsies for histologic examination.3 In recent years, however, a number of serological markers have been introduced. The most commonly employed serological markers of IBD are anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) and atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA). ASCA positivity is found predominantly in patients with CD, while pANCA positivity is found predominantly in patients with UC.2 A combination of ASCA and pANCA has a specificity of as high as 99% for differentiation of CD from UC.3 Nevertheless, there are a substantial number of patients with IBD who are ...
An overview of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & management written by experts in allergy, asthma & immunology.
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Overview: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis? What are the typical findings for this disease? Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity lung disease due to bronchial colonization by Aspergillus fumigatus that occurs in susceptible patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). ABPA affects approximately 1-2%…. ...
Overview: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis? What are the typical findings for this disease? Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity lung disease due to bronchial colonization by Aspergillus fumigatus that occurs in susceptible patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). ABPA affects approximately 1-2%…. ...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Asthma and Related Disorders from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
In a previous cross-sectional study, we showed that clinical staff working in a hospital had significantly higher antibody levels than nonclinical staff to Pneumocystis jirovecii. We conducted a longitudinal study, described here, to determine whether occupation and self-reported exposure to a patient with P. jirovecii pneumonia were associated with antibody levels to P. jirovecii over time. Baseline and quarterly serum specimens were collected and analyzed by using an ELISA that targeted different variants of the Pneumocystis major surface glycoprotein (MsgA, MsgB, MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8, and MsgC9). Clinical staff had significantly higher estimated geometric mean antibody levels against MsgC1 and MsgC8 than did nonclinical staff over time. Significant differences were observed when we compared the change in antibody levels to the different MsgC variants for staff who were and were not exposed to P. jirovecii pneumonia-infected patients. MsgC variants may serve as indicators of exposure to P. ...
The Candida antigen CR3-RP (complement receptor 3-related protein) is supposed to be a mimicry protein because of its ability to bind antibody directed against the α subunit of the mammalian CR3 (CD11b/CD18). This study aimed to (i) investigate the specific humoral isotypic response to immunization with CR3-RP in vivo in a rabbit animal model, and (ii) determine the role of CR3-RP in the adherence of Candida albicans in vitro using the model systems of buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and biofilm formation. The synthetic C. albicans peptide DINGGGATLPQ corresponding to 11 amino-acids of the CR3-RP sequence DINGGGATLPQALXQITGVIT, determined by N-terminal sequencing, was used for immunization of rabbits to obtain polyclonal anti-CR3-PR serum and for subsequent characterization of the humoral isotypic response of rabbits. A significant increase of IgG, IgA and IgM anti-CR3-RP specific antibodies was observed after the third (P<0.01) and the fourth (P<0.001) immunization doses. The elevation of IgA
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ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ATCC ® 14283™ Designation: NIH 6901 Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material
In some patients a so-called allergic bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) delvelops. Hereby it is an allergic reaction of the patient to the colonization with the fungus. The involved patients are often apparent with a sudden increased cough, a narrowing of the bronchi and an obvious worsening of the lung function. The laboratory investigation shows an strong increase of the Immunoglobulin E and so-called precipitins which give a hint to the allergic reaction. In the thorax x-ray round shadows can be seen, which do often change the localization rapidly when doing a control ...
With paracoccidioidomycosis spores get inhaled into the lungs and the disease spreads through the blood to mucous membranes of the mouth and to the skin.
Background. Fungal antigens sensibilization is a known cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Nevertheless, the role of fungal colonization in respiratory tract on clinics and prognosis of HP is still unclear.. Aim. To assess the influense of fungal colonization on excercise tolerance in HP.. Methods. 79 pts with morphologically proven HP were enrolled. Mean age 48,8 yrs, males 33. In all cases during work-up BAL was performed with PCR test on DNA of Aspergillus and Candida fungi, as also as PFT and 6MWT. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test.. Results. Fungi were detected in 21/79 (27%) pts. The were no difference between PCR-positive and negative groups for Aspergillus in PFT, but there was significant difference for sPO2 before and after 6MWT (94,1 and 90 %; 91 and 88% respectively, p,0.05), as also as more prominent fatigue on Borg scale (2,9 and 3,9; 5,3 and 6,5 points, respectively p,0.05). There was a trend to lower walking distance in PCR-positive patients vs controls (380 and ...
Candidiasis is a fungal infection that may cause localized or systemic disease. The severity of infection is broad extending to life threatening. Acute and convalescent titers should be compared.
Hooker, more formally known as Vaqueros Workin Girl, ASCA/AKC Cd, ASCA CDX, HIAs, HSAsd, OTDsd, is a true miracle. She completed her ASCA Open Trial Dog, ducks, title 2006, on three legs, with a HIT duck score. In 2006, I received her certificates of accomplishment from the AKC Aussie club (USASA)- for being number two in the nation in 2004 in both Intermediate sheep and started ducks. That same year, we qualified number 8 in the ASCA obedience Finals standings in Open. She was diagnosed with Osteosarcoma in her right foreleg in July of 2005, had it amputated late that month, and she was chasing her ball and herding by the end of August. We hope to go on and try for more ASCA herding titles, or at least compete. She is not happy when not Workin!! My Hooker, the love of my life!, came into my life after 18 long months of waiting for the right lady for her father - then I chose her at 2 weeks - I know!! But it has been the right choice for us both - my stubborn little blue girl, never a lady, ...
The 2019 Class of Inductees for the American Swimming Coaches Association Hall of Fame! Congratulations to these great coaches and a huge thank you from the Coaching Community for all they have done to serve their communities and move our sport forward! Join us in honoring them on Thursday eveni ...
Mannan - rodzaj polisacharydów pochodzenia roślinnego zbudowanych z reszt mannozy. Mannan w ostatnim etapie biosyntezy streptomycyny indukuje działanie streptymycynazy - enzymu rozkładającego streptomycynę B (produkt uboczny) do streptomycyny...
2006ല്‍ പുറത്തിറങ്ങിയ ലയണ്‍ എന്ന ഹിറ്റ് ചിത്രത്തിന് ശേഷം ദിലീപ് രാഷ്ട്രീയ നേതാവിന്റെ വേഷത്തിലെത്തുന്ന ചിത്രമാണ് നാടോടി മന്നന്‍. ചിത്രത്തിലെ നായകന്‍ ദിലീപാണ് എന്നത് വ്യക്തമായിരുന്നെങ്കിലും നായികമാരെ പറ്റി അഭ്യൂഹം നിലനിന്നിരുന്നു. ചിത്രത്തില്‍ മൂന്ന് നായികമാരാണ് ഉള്ളതെന്നും റിമയും ഭാവനയും മംമ്തയുമാണ് നായികാ വേഷം കൈകാര്യം ചെയ്യാനെത്തുകയെന്നും വാര്&zwj
TY - JOUR. T1 - Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis treated successfully for one year with omalizumab. AU - Collins, Jennifer. AU - de Vos, Gabriele. AU - Hudes, Golda. AU - Rosenstreich, David. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Background: Current therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) uses oral corticosteroids, exposing patients to the adverse effects of these agents. There are reports of the steroid-sparing effect of anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab for ABPA in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), but there is little information on its efficacy against ABPA in patients with bronchial asthma without CF. Objective: To examine the effects of omalizumab, measured by asthma control, blood eosinophilia, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), oral corticosteroid requirements, and forced expiratory volume spirometry in patients with ABPA and bronchial asthma. Methods: A retrospective review of charts from 2004-2006 of patients treated with omalizumab at an academic allergy and immunology ...
Looking for online definition of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the Medical Dictionary? Paracoccidioides brasiliensis explanation free. What is Paracoccidioides brasiliensis? Meaning of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis medical term. What does Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mean?
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Azevedo, RS, Gouvêa, AF, Lopes, MA, Corrêa, MB, Jorge, J. Synchronous oral paracoccidioidomycosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma with submandibular enlargement. Med Mycol. . vol. 49. 2011. pp. 84-9. (Describes similarities and differences between the oral lesions of paracoccidioidomycosis and oral squamous cell carcinomas. Emphasizes and discusses the significance of risk factors in the association of these two entities.). de Freitas, RM, Prado, R, do Prado, FL, de Paula, IB, Figueiredo, MT, Ferreira, CS, Goulart, EM, Pedroso, ER. Pulmonary paracoddidioidomycosis: radiology and clinical-epidemiological evaluation. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop . vol. 43. 2010. pp. 651-656. (Compares respiratory signs and symptoms between patients with and without chest X-ray abnormalities in order to establish the meaning of radiographic findings in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis.). Goldani, LZ. Gastrointestinal paracoccidioidomycosis: an overview. J Clin Gastroenterol. vol. 45. 2010. pp. 87-91. (Review ...
Guinea pigs infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes developed a cutaneous fungal lesion and became skin test positive to fungal antigen (trichophytin). The cutaneous fungal lesion, while thought to be a cell-mediated response, differed histologically from the skin test site. Basophils were not demonstrated in biopsies of cutaneous fungal lesions, whereas basophils were numerous in biopsies of trichophytin skin test sites. When sensitization to trichophytin was accomplished by injection of hypha in complete Freunds adjuvant instead of infecting with live fungus, basophils could not be demonstrated in skin test sites. This report demonstrated that guinea pigs could be primed for cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity (CBH) responses by infection with live fungus.
Many patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) cough up mucus or have throat cultures that grow a common fungus called Aspergillus. In patients with CF, aspergillus is not known to cause direct damage to the lungs, but some patients respond with an allergic reaction that causes them to wheeze, cough, or have difficulty breathing. This allergic reaction is called ABPA. Current treatment for ABPA includes high dose steroids and an anti-fungal medicine. Treatment with steroids may be problematic for some people due to its side effects on blood sugar levels and the bones. Steroids are medications that decrease inflammation, including prednisone, medrol, dexamethasone and others.. Ongoing research at UPMC on the study Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance in ABPA has studied people with CF and ABPA versus those patients with CF that just grow A. fumigatus (Af) in the sputum, but do not have ABPA. You may have participated in this study. This study has shown that people with CF with the fungus, Af, in their ...
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Background. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular dimorphic fungus that causes paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most important deep mycosis in Latin America. Only a small percentage of individuals infected by P. brasiliensis develop clinical PCM, possibly in part because of genetically determined interindividual variability of host immunity. However, no primary immunodeficiency has ever been associated with PCM.. Methods. We describe the first patient, to our knowledge, with PCM and a well-defined primary immunodeficiency in the β1 subunit of the interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 receptor, a disorder previously shown to be specifically associated with impaired interferon (IFN)-γ production, mycobacteriosis, and salmonellosis.. Results. Our patient had a childhood history of bacille Calmette-Guùrin disease and nontyphoid salmonellosis and, at the age of 20 years, presented to our clinic with a disseminated (acute) form of PCM. He responded well to antifungal treatment and is ...
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are unique in their general importance for conferring susceptibility or resistance to infectious and autoimmune diseases (5). It is unclear what keeps these demonstrably harmful genes from being eliminated by natural selection unless they provide some advantage, presumably against some other disease. The only way to unravel these interactions is to characterize the effects of MHC genes on a variety of pathogens and autoimmune diseases. The goal of this study was to experimentally test for an MHC-dependent susceptibility pattern during chronic Cryptococcus neoformans infections.. C. neoformans is a common, opportunistic pathogen that causes disease in immunocompromised individuals. Previous studies have found that various components of immunity are important in clearing a C. neoformans infection. These components include interleukin-12 (11), interleukin-18 (17), inducible nitric oxide synthase (2), gamma interferon (16), B cells (3), and T cells (7). ...
ROMERA, Lavínia Maria DalMas; ALMEIDA, Sandro Rogério de. Analysis of the interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and macrophages through of notch receptores. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences[S.l: s.n.], 2011 ...
Carceller, A.; Torres-Rodríguez, J.M.; Lowinger, M.; Alía, C., 1992: Standardized immunoenzyme analysis for detection of IgG antibodies against Candida albicans in systemic candidiasis
The capsule itself can mediate immune evasion through several different mechanisms. The capsule, made up of polysaccharides rich in mannan residues, is strongly hydrophobic in nature. This helps prevent contact with exogenous factors and prevents recognition by some cells of the immune response. It also prevents efficient antibody binding and the resultant activation of the complement system via classical pathway. The capsule is also capable of interacting directly with components of the immune system, namely glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and galactoxylomannan, both of which are capable of inducing leukocyte activation and cytokine production. However, the capsular anti-inflammatory properties outweigh the inflammatory properties of these two components. Stimulation with encapsulated cryptococci downregulate the activity of macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. This is associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. GXM has also been shown to stimulate production of ...
Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by inhalation of spores from the soil-dwelling fungi Coccidioides immitis or C. posadasii, and can lead to chronic lun...
GF ID Msg2_C #=GF AC PF12373.10 #=GF DE Major surface glycoprotein 2 C terminal #=GF AU Gavin OL; #=GF SE Prosite #=GF GA 25.00 25.00; #=GF TC 25.50 26.70; #=GF NC 24.90 23.70; #=GF BM hmmbuild HMM.ann SEED.ann #=GF SM hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq #=GF TP Family #=GF RN [1] #=GF RM 18627244 #=GF RT Variation in the major surface glycoprotein genes in #=GF RT Pneumocystis jirovecii. #=GF RA Kutty G, Maldarelli F, Achaz G, Kovacs JA; #=GF RL J Infect Dis. 2008;198:741-749. #=GF DR INTERPRO; IPR021041; #=GF DR SO; 0100021; polypeptide_conserved_region; #=GF CC This domain family is found in eukaryotes, and is approximately #=GF CC 30 amino acids in length. The family is found in association #=GF CC with Pfam:PF02349. This family is the C terminal of major #=GF CC surface glycoprotein 2 of virulent bacteria. It is a virulence #=GF CC factor antigen. #=GF SQ 111 #=GS A0A0W4ZX57_PNEMU/934-963 AC A0A0W4ZX57.1 #=GS A0A0W4ZAP4_PNEJ7/847-875 AC A0A0W4ZAP4.1 #=GS ...
Mold Clean Up and Repair. Inning conformity with American University of Occupational and Ecological Medication (ACOEM), an estimated 10 percent of the countrys population has delicate antibodies to deal with fungal antigens. A great deal of allergic responses as well as hay high temperatures are reported to have really caused as an outcome of the development of molds in the ins. Mold and mildews are sporophytic fungi - duplicates with the aid of spores. These air-borne spores might trigger allergic reactions, breathing illness, migraine headaches, as well as pains. Consequently, you must take certain safeguard to respond to the growth of molds in the insides. The most important action that you could consume is cleaning up every traces of dampness from the residence. For doing this you need to work with water cleansing specialists that could help you to cleanse every trace of water from the insides, which would stop mold and mildew and also mold development.. Mold and mildew needs moisture as ...
Paracoccidioides lutzii ATCC ® MYA-826D-2™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Paracoccidioides lutzii strain Pb01 [ATCC ® MYA-826™] Application:
Free, official coding info for 2020 ICD-10-CM B41.8 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Suzaku carries five X-ray telescopes; four identical units for the four XISs (XRT-I) and the fifth for the XRS (XRT-S). They consist of nested conical thin-foil mirrors which share similar design concepts with ASCA XRT (Serlemitsos et al. 1995, PASJ, 47, 105), but with several improvements. In table 1, characteristics of ASCA and Suzaku XRTs are compared. The weight of each mirror unit is about 20 kg both for XRT-I and XRT-S. Each unit consists of two stages (primary and secondary), and each stage is divided into four quadrants. For XRT-I, each quadrant of each stage carries 175 thin foils, while there are 168 foils per quadrant per stage of XRT-S. The radii of the outermost foils are 20.0 cm both for XRT-I and XRT-S. The focal length is 450 cm for XRT-S and 475 cm for XRT-I. The half power-diameter (HPD) is about 1.9. Compared to ASCA XRT, the ratio of the focal length over the diameter is larger, thereby incident angles of the X-rays to the mirror surface are smaller. This leads to better ...
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NIESWOISTE ZAPALENIA JELIT (IBD) Nieswoiste zapalenia jelit (ibd) nieswoiste zapalenia jelit (2)  patogeneza:  nadmierna aktywacja układu immunologicznego  flora jelitowa  antygeny obecne w diecie  bodźce wewnętrzne  zaburzenia „układu obronnego:  brak wyhamowania zapalenia  brak ciągłości błony śluzowej nieswoiste zapalenia jelit (3a)  podłoże genetyczne:  u 15% pacjentów chorują także krewni 1o  jeśli chorują krewni 1o ryzyko wzrasta 3-20x  2-9x częstsza u Żydów aszkenazyjskich  częściej w wybranych allelach klasy II HLA nieswoiste zapalenia jelit (3b)  czynniki immunologiczne:  rola komórek CD4+ (w LCD i UC)  obecność autoprzeciwciał:  a-tropomiozyna,  a-antygeny cytoplazmatyczne neutrofili  pANCA  ASCA  nadmierna sekrecja IL-17  nadmierna ekspresja TNF nieswoiste zapalenia jelit (3c)  czynniki zakaźne:  mikroorganizmy jako czynniki wzmagające rozregulowaną reakcję immunologiczną  ...
"Effect of anti-glycosphingolipid monoclonal antibodies in pathogenic fungal growth and differentiation. Characterization of ... Patients with sporotrichosis have been shown to produce antibodies specific to S. schenckii and these antibodies may actually ... Serum antibody reactivity to S. schenckii antigens can also be quantified by ELISA. Although molecular biology techniques are ... These proteases appear to be essential for fungal growth. However, they have some functional overlap as the inactivation of ...
Chemically, efungumab is a single-chain variable fragment of a human monoclonal antibody. As such, it "grabs" onto fungal hsp90 ...
Currently there are four common AM fungal specific markers/primers used in genetic sequencing to describe AM fungal communities ... It is defined by its extraction conditions and reaction with the antibody Mab32B11. There is other circumstantial evidence to ... AM fungal diversity and adaptation across multiple grassland communities, all the way up to a global investigation of AM fungal ... AM fungal hyphae have a high surface-to-volume ratio, making their absorptive ability greater than that of plant roots. AMF ...
The antibody has affinity to the homodimer IL-17A and the heterodimer IL-17A/F, but not to other members of the interleukin 17 ... The most common side effects include upper respiratory infections, injection site reactions and fungal (tinea) infections. The ... The antibody is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Clinical trials included a Phase II trial of patients with moderate to ... Like other antibodies, ixekizumab is probably degraded by proteolysis. Its elimination half-life is 13 days. Ixekizumab is a ...
A single individual was found to possess antibodies from a systemic fungal infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. A ...
Immunoglobulins are antibodies expressed and secreted by hosts in response to an infection. These immunoglobulins play a major ... As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... Exotoxins are extremely immunogenic meaning that they trigger the humoral response (antibodies target the toxin). Exotoxins are ...
It has been suggested that absorption of trichophyton fungal antigens can give rise to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody ... of the population has allergic antibodies to fungal antigens, and half of them, that is 5% of the population, would be ... Trichophyton rubrum is the most common fungal cause of nail dystrophy. Studies conducted in England found that the prevalence ... There have been numerous accounts of patients with trichophyton fungal infections and associated asthma, which further ...
... -specific IgE antibody is commonly used and available for medical as well as laboratory use in allergen assay ( ... In the manufacture of sufu (fermented cheese-like soybean product common in China and Vietnam), the fungal fermentation of ... Inderlied, Clark; Peters, Julius; Cihlar, Ronald (1985). Fungal Dimorphism With Emphasis on Fungi Pathogenic for Humans. Boston ... Fungal Genetics and Biology. 25 (2): 119-33. doi:10.1006/fgbi.1998.1093. PMID 9974223. Beaumont, F; Kauffman, HF; de Monchy, JG ...
... making them readily accessible to antibodies. The effectiveness of anti-adhesin antibodies is illustrated by studies with FimH ... Fungal adhesin Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAA) Coutte L, Alonso S, Reveneau N, Willery E, Quatannens B, Locht C, Jacob- ... FimH in E. coli overcomes the antibody based immune response by natural conversion from the high to the low affinity state. ... Through this conversion, FimH adhesion may shed the antibodies bound to it. Escherichia coli FimH provides an example of ...
Ascochyta fungal pathogens are heterothallic, meaning they require two compatible hyphae strains to form their sexual stage.[ ... and by using monoclonal antibodies. Ascochyta blight of pea is caused by Ascomycete fungi. This fungus has an anamorphic ( ... Next, the fungal hyphae grows and produces pear-shaped pycnidia, eventually releasing pycnidiospores that can reinfect plants ... However, there are some small differences between the fungal pathogens. Ascospores of M. pinodes produce leaf infections that ...
... cuniculi will produce antibodies as a result of this exposure. Serology is used to detect the level of the antibody to the ... Phylogenetic analysis lends substantial credit to the fungal affiliation of microsporidia. Because the E. cuniculi genome ... Antibodies to E. cuniculi can be detected through serology (a blood test). A rabbit who has been exposed to E. ... A false negative titre may also result if an infected animal produces an inadequate amount of antibodies. Microsporidia are ...
... with a focus on fungal and bacterial pathogenesis and basic immunology of antibody structure-function. Arturo Casadevall was ... Casadevall's research is focused on fungal and bacterial pathogenesis and basic immunology of antibody structure-function. He ... These antibodies are produced as part of the body's natural immune response, and bind to and neutralize the virus. A ... Fungal infections are particularly dangerous in immunocompromised individuals such as cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, ...
Precipitating IgG antibodies against fungal or avian antigens can be detected in the laboratory using the traditional ... that can detect IgG antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus (Farmer's lung or for ABPA) or avian antigens (Bird Fancier's Lung ...
A successful "take" is required for the development of antivaccinia antibody and cell-mediated responses. Opportunistic fungal ... "Antibody response to cutaneous inoculation with vaccinia virus: Viremia and viruria in vaccinated children". The Journal of ... inoculation means the introduction of a pathogen or antigen into a living organism to stimulate the production of antibodies. ...
... of fungal infection can be achieved also by serologic analysis detecting fungal antigen or host IgM or IgG antibody produced ... TP antibody is not found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). TP antibody is specific and is used as a confirmatory test, whereas ... The fungal infection can be demonstrated by microscopic detection of diagnostic cells in body fluids, exudates, sputum and ... "CDC". Fungal diseases: valley fever. CDC. July 20, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2015. Hector, Richard F.; Rutherford, George W ...
This species produces the allergen Alt a 1, one of the most important outdoor seasonal fungal allergens associated with allergy ... Exposure to this protein can induce an allergic reaction in sensitized individuals by reacting with circulating IgE antibody. ... CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre. pp. 500-502. ISBN 978-90-70351-68-7. Nasehi, A.; Kadir, J. B.; Abidin, M. A. Zainal; Wong, M. Y ... "Fungal allergy in asthma-state of the art and research needs". Clinical and Translational Allergy. 4 (1): 14. doi:10.1186/2045- ...
Fungal Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 495-523. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-29137-6_20. ISBN 978-3-319-29137-6 ... "Antibodies to Molds and Satratoxin in Individuals Exposed in Water-Damaged Buildings". Archives of Environmental Health. 58 (7 ... Morris G, Berk M, Walder K, Maes M (May 2016). "The Putative Role of Viruses, Bacteria, and Chronic Fungal Biotoxin Exposure in ... Shang ST, Lin JC, Ho SJ, Yang YS, Chang FY, Wang NC (June 2010). "The emerging life-threatening opportunistic fungal pathogen ...
Antibody detection is useful both for acute diagnosis and monitoring. Gel immunodiffusion is commonly used in endemic areas, ... It has the highest prevalence of all systemic mycoses (fungal infections) in the area. As many as 75% of people in endemic ... Complement fixation allows for a measure of severity of cases by quantifying the antibody level, and is thus useful for ... Both P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii are in-vitro susceptible to most antifungal agents, unlike other systemic fungal infections ...
It is distinguished from a stroma in not having a peridium or covering of fungal tissue of any kind. acid precipitation acid ... anastomoses) anthracnoes antibiotic antibody antigen antiseptic apothecium The apothecium is an open, cuplike, or saucer-shaped ... sexual fungal fruiting body (ascocarp) containing asci. antiseptic appressorium (pl. appressoria) arbuscular mycorrhiza (abbr. ...
Skin infections are prominent, with recurrent staphylococcal and fungal infections, severe skin blistering, and flat warts. ... and very high concentrations of the serum antibody IgE levels. ...
... antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.179 - antibodies, fungal MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.185 - antibodies, ... antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.179 - antibodies, fungal MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.185 - antibodies, ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 - antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485. - htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485. - htlv-ii ...
Modern antibody technology and immunohistochemistry has made specific staining easier, but often this can cause trouble because ... Hydrophobins from Neurospora crassa and other fungi Fungal cell adhesion proteins forming cell surface amyloid regions with ... and vaccination to induce anti-toxic oligomer antibodies does not prevent h-IAPP-induced beta-cell apoptosis in h-IAPP ... an amyloid protein structure is a different conformation from the one that the antibody recognizes. JUNQ and IPOD Proteopathy ...
Observations of children noted that fungal infections are more likely to develop in those with neutropenia. Mortality increases ... Acquired neutropenia (immune-associated neutropenia) is due to anti-neutrophil antibodies that target neutrophil-specific ... These are: Bacterial or fungal sepsis Necrotizing enterocolitis, circulating neutrophil population depleted due to migration ... tests for antineutrophil antibodies, autoantibody screen (and investigations for systemic lupus erythematosus), vitamin B12 and ...
However, anti-fungal immunity appears to be limited to particular sites with detrimental effects observed. Their main effector ... Th17 cells are involved in B cell recruitment through CXCL13 chemokine signaling, and Th17 activity may encourage antibody ... Treg17 cells regulate the function of Th17 cells that are important role in the host defense against fungal and bacterial ...
... but not antibody dependent, protection against S. pneumoniae challenge. In fungal infection, it has been shown an IL-17 ... Direct clinical significance of IL-17A in RA comes from recent clinical trials which found that two anti-IL-17A antibodies, ... Shen N, Wang J, Zhao M, Pei F, He B (March 2011). "Anti-interleukin-17 antibodies attenuate airway inflammation in tobacco- ... Malley R, Srivastava A, Lipsitch M, Thompson CM, Watkins C, Tzianabos A, Anderson PW (April 2006). "Antibody-independent, ...
Potential in Treatment of Systemic Fungal Infections". Combating Fungal Infections: Problems and Remedy. Springer Science & ... 182550). The monoclonal antibody bearing liposomes with encapsulated chq were found to be highly effective in the treatment of ... It was further demonstrated that the entrapment of anti-malarial drugs like chloroquine (chq), in the antibody-coated liposomes ... Encouraged by these results, the liposomes were coated with F(ab')2 fragments of a monoclonal antibody which specifically ...
... because the ability to produce antibodies against fungal proteins is critical in minimizing fungal pathogenicity and C. ... Liu, Dongyou (2011). Molecular Detection of Human Fungal Pathogens. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439812402. Reiss, Errol; Shadomy, H. ... carrionii contributes to pathogenicity because it strengthens the fungal cell wall and can neutralize the enzymes produced in ...
... bacterial and fungal), antibodies against them, proposed epitopes, structural detail, proposed functions, assay system, cross- ...
Anti-fungal Enfortumab vedotin - Antibody-drug conjugate for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic urothelial ... Mycamine (micafungin sodium) - Anti-fungal Myrbetriq (mirabegron) - Overactive bladder (OAB) - US only marketed by Pfizer ... Anti-fungal - marketed with Gilead Sciences. Amevive (alefacept) - plaque psoriasis Astagraf XL (tacrolimus) - Prevention of ...
Antibodies that develop following an initial infection with a type of HSV prevents reinfection with the same virus type-a ... Further confusing diagnosis, several other conditions resemble genital herpes, including fungal infection, lichen planus, ... Testing the blood for antibodies against the virus can confirm a previous infection but will be negative in new infections. The ... Rates of infection are determined by the presence of antibodies against either viral species. In the US, 58% of the population ...
That is, oral candidiasis is a mycosis (yeast/fungal infection) of Candida species on the mucous membranes of the mouth. ... an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Other forms of immunodeficiency which ... Smears and biopsies are usually stained with periodic acid-Schiff, which stains carbohydrates in fungal cell walls in magenta. ... Oral candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin, miconazole, Gentian violet or amphotericin B ...
Yeast and fungal β-glucans contain 1-6 side branches, while cereal β-glucans contain both β-1,3 and β-1,4 backbone bonds. The ... "Mechanism by which orally administered β-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in ... Cereal and fungal products have been used for centuries for medicinal and cosmetic purposes; however, the specific role of β- ... 1995). "Plasma (13)-beta-D-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes". Lancet. 345 ( ...
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ... B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ...
Infliximab, an immune-suppressing antibody, has been tested in COPD; there was a possibility of harm with no evidence of ...
The part of an enzyme or antibody at which substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.. active transport. ... A membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal, and bacterial cells.. ... They are a major component of the group of immune defense molecules collectively called antibodies.. infection. The invasion of ... Rajewsky, Klaus (1996). "Clonal selection and learning in the antibody system". Nature. 381 (6585): 751-758. doi:10.1038/ ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterials (often called antibiotics) whereas fungal and viral infections are treated ... carbohydrate made by an infectious agent) is bound by the antibody, allowing this type of test to be used for organisms other ...
A common fungal infection is candidiasis commonly known as thrush which affects the mucous membranes of the mouth. ... It also has an immunological role in supplying antibodies to the system, such as immunoglobulin A.[16] This is seen to be key ...
vaccines, immunoglobulins, immunosuppressants, interferons, monoclonal antibodies For allergic disordersEdit. anti-allergics, ... Anti-fungal: imidazoles, polyenes. *Anti-inflammatory: NSAIDs, corticosteroids. *Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors ... cytotoxic drugs, therapeutic antibodies, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitors, somatostatin inhibitors, recombinant interleukins ... monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy (for instance, stem-cell therapies). Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of ...
The first is that peptides allow the creation of peptide antibodies in animals without the need of purifying the protein of ... fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides ... Bulinski JC (1986). "Peptide antibodies: new tools for cell biology". International Review of Cytology. International Review of ... These will then be used to make antibodies in a rabbit or mouse against the protein. ...
Green signal from anti-tubulin antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488) and nuclei (blue signal from DNA stained with DAPI) in ... It is used for localizing and identifying the presence of filamentary fungal elements in the corneal stroma in cases of ...
Idiotype Network theory, proposed by Jerne, wherein a network of antibodies capable of neutralizing self-reactive antibodies ... Recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and chronic inflammation of the gut and lungs are seen in chronic granulomatous ... 2002) injected an anti-MHC Class II antibody into mice expressing a single type of MHC Class II molecule (H-2b) to temporarily ... In this case, the host-cell receptor is envisioned as an internal image of the virus, and the anti-idiotype antibodies can ...
"Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris-specific antibody fragments from a bacteriophage antibody display library". Experimental ... Beckett, A., Heath, I. B., and Mclaughlin, D. J. (1974). An Atlas of Fungal Ultrastructure. Longman, Green, New York. ... For example, the word "protist pathogen" may be used to denote any disease-causing organism that is not plant, animal, fungal, ... "Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
"Types of Fungal Diseases , Fungal Diseases , CDC". 2019-06-27. Retrieved 2019-12-09.. ... For example, the use of antibodies made artificially fluorescent (fluorescently labeled antibodies) can be directed to bind to ... These tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen, usually a protein or ... Immunoassay B on the other hand may detect or measure antibodies produced by an organism's immune system that are made to ...
In mutualistic situations the plant often exchanges hexose sugars for inorganic phosphate from the fungal symbiont. It is ... Their innate immune systems do not produce antibodies, and they should seemingly not be able to respond to new challenges ... which enables the tissue to produce antibodies for pathogens that may enter the gut.[39] ...
B1a and MZ B cells form the first antibodies, and specific antibody formation gets started in the process. Cytokines ... As a membrane surface receptor, TLR2 recognizes many bacterial, fungal, viral, and certain endogenous substances. In general, ... These newly formed antibodies would arrive too late in an acute infection, however, so what we think of as "immunology" ... In the early inflammation phase, the pathogens are recognized by antibodies that are already present (innate or acquired ...
Passive antibody therapy[සංස්කරණය]. මෙම කොටස හිස්ය. එය පුළුල් කිරීමෙන් ඔබ හට උපකාර කළ හැක.. ...
Vesper SJ, Vesper MJ (2004). Possible role of fungal hemolysins in sick building syndrome. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. Advances in ... At the moment, apiegnin and beta-cyclodextrin are thought to alleviate S.aureus pneumonia, whereas the antibodies of anti alpha ... Moreover, some hemolysins may be neutralized by the action of anti-hemolysin antibodies, preventing a longer and more dangerous ... "Anti-alpha-hemolysin monoclonal antibodies mediate protection against Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia". Infect. Immun. 77 (7 ...
It is a biological mechanism that changes an antibody from one class to another, for example, from an isotype called IgM to an ... Gene conversion has often been studied in fungal crosses[7] where the 4 products of individual meioses can be conveniently ...
Oyeka CA, Ugwu LO (2002). "Fungal flora of human toe webs". Mycoses. 45 (11-12): 488-491. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0507.2002.00796.x ... "Protective antifungal yeast killer toxin-like antibodies". Current Molecular Medicine. 5 (4): 443-452. doi:10.2174/ ... Fungal species that can take both forms (depending on temperature or other conditions) are called dimorphic fungi ("dimorphic" ... They are the species primarily responsible for cryptococcosis, a fungal disease that occurs in about one million HIV/AIDS ...
Fungal attack of the damaged and dying clover stalks explained the presence of the anticoagulant only in spoiled clover silages ... Heparin can also cause a prothrombotic condition, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (an antibody-mediated decrease in platelet ...
The precise mechanism is unclear and it could be immunologic, although not through the IgE-type antibodies that have the ... Soybean plants are vulnerable to a wide range of bacterial diseases, fungal diseases, viral diseases and parasites. The corn ... An allergy test that is positive demonstrates that the immune system has formed IgE antibodies to soy proteins. However, this ...
Chagas was also the first to unknowingly discover and illustrate the parasitic fungal genus Pneumocystis, later infamously ... With the exception of blood derivatives (such as fractionated antibodies), all blood components are infective. The parasite ... Chronic disease is diagnosed by finding antibodies for T. cruzi in the blood.[2] ...
Patients with sporotrichosis will have antibody against the fungus S. schenckii, however, due to variability in sensitivity and ... Potassium iodide is an anti-fungal drug that is widely used as a treatment for cutaneous sporotrichosis. Despite its wide use, ... In case of sporotrichosis affecting the lungs, the fungal spores enter through the respiratory pathways. Sporotrichosis can ... This fungal disease usually affects the skin, although other rare forms can affect the lungs, joints, bones, and even the brain ...
Infection by fungal pathogens is treated with anti-fungal medication. Fungal infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ... Treating the symptoms of a viral infection gives the host immune system time to develop antibodies against the viral pathogen ... These internal infections can either be treated with anti-fungal creams or with oral medication. Common anti-fungal drugs for ... The typical fungal spore size is ,4.7 μm in length, but some spores may be larger.[13] ...
Blyth CC, Barzi F, Hale K, Isaacs D (September 2012). "Chemoprophylaxis of neonatal fungal infections in very low birthweight ... PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, CS1001.[58] In October, Pfizer announced it had acquired Arixa Pharmaceuticals.[59] ... Diflucan (fluconazole), the first orally available treatment for severe fungal infections. Fluconazole is recommended as a ... first-line treatment in invasive candidiasis[122] and is widely used in the prophylaxis of severe fungal infections in ...
Serology includes two types of antibody test: Nontreponemal antibody test and Treponemal antibody test (specific test).[12] The ... Pettit, A.C.; Kropski, Castilho (2012). "The index case for the fungal meningitis outbreak in the United States". New England ... The Treponemal antibody test (specific test) confirms with FTA-ABS (Fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption).[13] Brain ... Specific tests for treponemal antibody are typically more expensive because the earliest anitbodies bind to spirochetes. These ...
Intracellular pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus, Mycobacterium, Listeria,[5] and intracellular fungal infections.[4]. ... The treatment of primary immunodeficiencies depends on the nature of the defect, and may involve antibody infusions, long-term ... Recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and chronic inflammation of the gut and lungs are seen in chronic granulomatous ... lack of all or most antibody production) which results in frequent severe infections and is often fatal.[2] ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Blood Culture, Fungal. 3. Fungal Antibodies by CF, CSF. 4. Fungal Antibodies by CF, Serum. 5. Fungal Culture. 6. Fungal Culture ... Fungal Stain-KOH with Calcofluor White. 10. Organism Identification, Fungal (Mould). 11. Anti-GBM Antibodies ELISA. ...
Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. G Nussbaum, R Yuan, A Casadevall, M D ... Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. G Nussbaum, R Yuan, A Casadevall, M D ... To our knowledge this is the first report of blocking antibodies to a fungal pathogen. The results have important implications ... Antibody isotype and epitope specificity are important in determining the ability to prolong survival in mice given a lethal C ...
... contamination with fungi thus needs to be monitored and in this study we report the development of a monoclonal antibody (mAb)- ... Antibody cross-reactivity; Button personal inhalable aerosol sampler; ELISA; Fungal aerosol; Monoclonal antibody (mAb); ... Limitations of monoclonal antibodies for monitoring of fungal aerosols using Penicillium brevicompactum as a model fungus.. ... Standardized experimental fungal aerosols were collected with the Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler(R) onto ...
MiniVaxs Pneumocystis Vaccine Candidate Induces Significant anti-Pneumocystis Antibody Responses and Reduced Fungal Load. ... MiniVaxs Pneumocystis Vaccine Candidate Induces Significant anti-Pneumocystis Antibody Responses and Reduced Fungal Load ... Pneumocystis antibody responses as well as a reduced fungal load. These data support further development of MiniVaxs ... MiniVax), a company focused on the development of novel treatments for opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections, recently ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in fungal-type cell wall (1->3)-alpha-glucan biosynthetic process pathways, according to their ... Custom Antibody Service. Searching for an antibody we dont offer? We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet,well replace the product at no cost to you ... Possible reasons that no Antibodies were found:. *Spelling or typing errors. You can use the product search to modify your ...
Using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a putative catechol oxidase secreted by hyphae of Rhizoctonia solani, we show that ... This paper describes methods to improve the use of immunoassays for quantification of soilborne fungal antigens. Calibration ... due to Cu2+ and the implications for the design and use of calibration curves for assays involving quantification of fungal ...
Our requirements are stated in our rapid response terms and conditions and must be read. These include ensuring that: i) you do not include any illustrative content including tables and graphs, ii) you do not include any information that includes specifics about any patients,iii) you do not include any original data, unless it has already been published in a peer reviewed journal and you have included a reference, iv) your response is lawful, not defamatory, original and accurate, v) you declare any competing interests, vi) you understand that your name and other personal details set out in our rapid response terms and conditions will be published with any responses we publish and vii) you understand that once a response is published, we may continue to publish your response and/or edit or remove it in the future ...
Antibody specificity.The possibility of cross-reactions between antibodies to CMH and fungal cell wall components was evaluated ... Purified human antibodies were inhibitory in vitro at 10 μg/ml or at 5 pg/fungal cell, but lower concentrations were not tested ... Human Antibodies against a Purified Glucosylceramide from Cryptococcus neoformans Inhibit Cell Budding and Fungal Growth. ... The addition of antibodies to CMH to the cultures clearly inhibited fungal growth (Fig. 10A) either of acapsular or ...
Recombinant Protein and Fungal protease inhibitor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... Custom Antibody. Antibody Matched Pairs. Antibody Peptide Pairs. Phospho Antibodies. Products by Disease. Products by Pathway. ... Fungal protease inhibitor F ELISA Kit. Fungal protease inhibitor F Recombinant. Fungal protease inhibitor F Antibody. Also ... Fungal protease inhibitor-1 ELISA Kit. Fungal protease inhibitor-1 Recombinant. Fungal protease inhibitor-1 Antibody. Inhibits ...
Human antibody discovery could save lives from fungal killer. A new way to diagnose, treat and protect against stealth fungal ... This research marks a huge step towards using similar antibody-based approaches to tackle fungal infections. These antibodies ... "There is an urgent need to develop better ways for diagnosing and treating life-threatening fungal infections. Human antibodies ... us a step closer to a day when we can use the antibodies that are generated by the human body to diagnose and treat fungal ...
Targeting Aspergillus fumigatus Crf Transglycosylases With Neutralizing Antibody Is Relevant but Not Sufficient to Erase Fungal ... It was demonstrated that anti-Crf antibodies neutralized the enzymatic activity of recombinant Crf protein, and delayed fungal ... Targeting Aspergillus fumigatus Crf Transglycosylases With Neutralizing Antibody Is Relevant but Not Sufficient to Erase Fungal ... In addition, we highlighted the role of Crf proteins in fungal growth, using a deletion mutant for gene, for which a growth ...
Arabidopsis antibody, chlamydomonas antibody, physcomitrella antibody, Antibodies for research on plant and algal cell biology ... AS05 085 , Clonality: Polyclonal , Host: Rabbit , Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant, green alga, animal and bacterial F- ... AS05 085-10 , Clonality: Polyclonal , Host: Rabbit , Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant, green alga and bacterial F-type ...
... and radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies. Many tracers are still at the preclinical stage. Some tracers require further studies ... Radiolabelled antimicrobial peptides showed promising results, but large prospective studies in fungal infection are lacking. ... The use of monoclonal antibodies has helped advance our understanding of antibodies vital role in different fungal species [45 ... Both the murine antibody and humanised antibody are currently available [50,53,54]. There is no non-specific binding of JF5 to ...
In this regard, immunomodulating therapeutic agents that turn up the immune response in the fight against fungal infections ... In this regard, immunomodulating therapeutic agents that turn up the immune response in the fight against fungal infections ... Antifungal agents targeting the pathogen remain the treatment of choice for fungal infections. However, antifungal agents are ... Antifungal agents targeting the pathogen remain the treatment of choice for fungal infections. However, antifungal agents are ...
Antibody-based Therapies and Diagnostics for Fungal Infections. Opportunistic invasive fungal pathogens cause over two million ... Therefore, antibodies that recognise components of the fungal cell surface may provide bio-tools for the development of ... Research in my group is focused on Candida albicans which is the most common serious fungal pathogen of humans. C. albicans ... However, this opportunistic fungal pathogen can cause serious, life-threatening disseminated disease when these barriers and ...
Fungal Antibody Comp. Lab Reagents Fungal Antibody Laboratories manufactures the fungal antibody comp reagents distributed by ... please contact fungal Antibody. Other Fungal products are available in stock. Specificity: Fungal Category: Antibody Group: ... The Fungal Antibody Comp reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these ... Description: A polyclonal antibody against COMP. Recognizes COMP from Human, Mouse. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in ...
An anti-VEGF-A antibody that binds to murine VEGF was evaluated for effects on corneal neovascularization and fungal recovery. ... MMP-9 increases during fungal keratitis [14] and is capable of promoting angiogenesis during stromal degradation [31]. Fungal ... but can potentiate fungal replication [33]. Anti-VEGF antibodies provide a specific intervention to slow the onset and ... we used a monoclonal antibody that blocks murine VEGF-A activity and examined its effects on experimental fungal keratitis [8, ...
Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases: The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal ... Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases : The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal ... Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases : The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal ... T1 - Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases. T2 - The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody ...
Selective inhibition of peanut-specific antibodies. A study suggests a potential treatment approach for severe peanut allergies ... Our report of Malassezia genome sequences is part of a growing understanding of the adaptations of human fungal pathogens. ... M. globosa does not have a traditional fungal fatty acid synthase. Ovals represent fatty acid synthase domains, with black ... A) The phylogenetic tree based on 28 concatenated single-copy orthologous proteins present in 34 fungal genomes was prepared by ...
The antibody labels the walls of intracellular hyphae and the interfacial matrix which separates them from the invaginated host ... The monoclonal antibody, UB25, recognises a glycoprotein specifically located at the biotrophic interface formed in the ... The antibody labels the walls of intracellular hyphae and the interfacial matrix which separates them from the invaginated host ... The monoclonal antibody, UB25, recognises a glycoprotein specifically located at the biotrophic interface formed in the ...
Cataloging Fungal Life in Antarctic Seas. By Ignacio Amigo , December 1, 2017 ... tags: broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies x microbiology x The Scientist. » broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies and ...
... indicating a possible participation of specific antibodies to this molecule in infection control. In an other work of the our ... indicating a possible participation of specific antibodies to this molecule in infection control. In an other work of the our ... Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies and Fungal Infection. Monoclonal antibodies are attractive biologic drugs because of their ... For many years, the protective role of antibodies in fungal infection was contested. A consensus has now emerged that the ...
Anti-fungal. A drug used to treat fungal infections. Antigen. A substance, usually on the surface of foreign body such as a ... An antibody sticks to an antigen on a foreign cell, causing the antibody-antigen cell to be destroyed or to break down. ... The type of antibody so produced must have an adverse effect in the body, as some antibodies are necessary for normal function ... Mononclonal antibodies. Highly specific antibodies produced by cells grown in the laboratory. Current research is investigating ...
Investigations were performed using Rhizoctonia solani as a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen. Anti-fungal antibody production ... Antibodies are known to possess enzyme inhibitory properties. Genes for such antibodies could be cloned and might be a good ... Optimum conditions for antibody production involved a 48h incubation period at 16°C. Two clones that showed stable antibody ... 2001) Cloning recombinant genes for antibodies inhibitory to fungal pectinases. PhD thesis, Murdoch University. ...
Idiotypic Antifungal Vaccination: Immunoprotection by Antiidiotypic Antibiotic Antibodies Luciano Polonelli, Walter Magliani, ... Practical and authoritative, Vaccines for Invasive Fungal Infections: Methods and Protocols provides a standard reference for ... Immunosuppressive conditions Fungal pathogens Aspergillus and Candida species Mycoses Invasive mycosis vaccines Endpoint ...
In contrast, fungal phagocytosis and fungal killing were normal in the patients, explaining why dectin-1 deficiency was not ... Mucocutaneous fungal infections are typically found in patients who have no known immune defects. We describe a family in which ... Human dectin-1 deficiency and mucocutaneous fungal infections.. Ferwerda B1, Ferwerda G, Plantinga TS, Willment JA, van Spriel ... Dectin-1 deficiency and mucocutaneous fungal infections. [N Engl J Med. 2010] ...
Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in ... Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in ... In this study, we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a semi-purified cytolytic S. ... Allergic-reactions; Allergies; Antibody-response; Antigens; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Biological-systems; ...
Antibody may help the immune system fight sepsis-related fungal infections An antibody that blocks the "programmed cell death" ... pathway may help the immune system fight off sepsis-related fungal infections, according to animal studies reported in SHOCK: ...
Immunocompromised patients are at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFI), in particular those with haematological ... Further antibodies target CD19, CD33 or interleukin-2 (IL-2). Low evidence on risk of IFI makes it difficult to give specific ... Invasive fungal infection Antifungal prophylaxis Itraconazole Fluconazole Posaconazole Amphotericin B Liposomal Isavuconazole ... Lin P-C, Hsiao L-T, Poh S-B et al (2007) Higher fungal infection rate in elderly patients (more than 80years old) suffering ...
... of a joint by a fungal infection. It is also called mycotic arthritis. ... Fungal arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint by a fungal infection. It is also called mycotic ... Thorough treatment of fungal infections elsewhere in the body may help prevent fungal arthritis. ... Fungal arthritis is a rare condition. It can be caused by any of the invasive types of fungi. The infection can result from an ...
  • MiniVax is a New Orleans, LA based company that specializes in the research and development of novel vaccines and therapeutics for the treatment and prevention of opportunistic fungal and bacterial infections. (
  • A new way to diagnose, treat and protect against stealth fungal infections that claim more than 1.5 million lives per year worldwide has been moved a step closer, according to research published in Nature Communications. (
  • Despite public health efforts, many people who get fungal infections in their blood streams die, even if they can be identified and treated with antifungal drugs. (
  • In laboratory experiments, the research team used these cloned antibodies to successfully protect animals from Candida bloodstream infections and demonstrate their potential in both treating and diagnosing Candida infections. (
  • Dr Fiona Rudkin, who led the research and is currently heading up the creation of an Aberdeen-based spinout company to conduct the next phase of therapeutic development, said: "There is an urgent need to develop better ways for diagnosing and treating life-threatening fungal infections. (
  • This research marks a huge step towards using similar antibody-based approaches to tackle fungal infections. (
  • These antibodies will now be developed as novel antifungal drugs through the creation of mycoBiologics - a new spin out company based in Aberdeen focused on improving the outcome of patients suffering from life-threatening fungal infections. (
  • Professor Neil Gow of the University of Exeter, who supervised the research while at Aberdeen, said: "Globally, fungal infections are under-recognised as a major killer. (
  • This research brings us a step closer to a day when we can use the antibodies that are generated by the human body to diagnose and treat fungal infections. (
  • is an airborne opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for severe infections. (
  • Opportunistic fungal infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with single or multiple defects in their immunity. (
  • Antifungal agents targeting the pathogen remain the treatment of choice for fungal infections. (
  • In this regard, immunomodulating therapeutic agents that turn up the immune response in the fight against fungal infections hold promise for enhancing the efficacy and safety of conventional antifungal therapy. (
  • In this review, therefore, clinical evidences supporting the opportunities and challenges of immunomodulation therapies in the treatment of invasive fungal infections are included. (
  • Antifungal agents targeting the pathogen such as polyenes, azoles, flucytosine, and echinocandins are the treatment of choice for most fungal infections. (
  • The lower burden of fungal infections in people with intact immune response has been taken as strong evidence that normal immunity mediates effective resistance to fungal infections ( Casadevall and Pirofski, 2001 ). (
  • As mentioned below and summarized in Table 1 , several immunomodulating approaches have been clinically tested for the treatment of fungal infections. (
  • Clinical benefits and challenges of immunomodulating agents used in patients with fungal infections. (
  • However, this opportunistic fungal pathogen can cause serious, life-threatening disseminated disease when these barriers and defences are compromised (e.g. seriously ill patients in the ICU, during cancer chemotherapy, organ/stem cell transplantation, or when the gut microbiota is disturbed), which renders them vulnerable to infections from the C. albicans that colonises their gut. (
  • Therefore, antibodies that recognise components of the fungal cell surface may provide bio-tools for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with utility against fungal infections. (
  • However, as there is an obvious and urgent need for novel approaches to treat infectious diseases, RIT can provide us with a powerful approach to combat serious diseases, including invasive fungal infections. (
  • Human dectin-1 deficiency and mucocutaneous fungal infections. (
  • Mucocutaneous fungal infections are typically found in patients who have no known immune defects. (
  • In contrast, fungal phagocytosis and fungal killing were normal in the patients, explaining why dectin-1 deficiency was not associated with invasive fungal infections and highlighting the specific role of dectin-1 in human mucosal antifungal defense. (
  • An antibody that blocks the "programmed cell death" pathway may help the immune system fight off sepsis-related fungal infections, according to animal studies reported in SHOCK: Injury, Inflammation, and Sepsis: Laboratory and Clinical Approaches, Official Journal of the Shock Society. (
  • Immunocompromised patients are at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFI), in particular those with haematological malignancies undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). (
  • Thorough treatment of fungal infections elsewhere in the body may help prevent fungal arthritis. (
  • Fungal infections of bones and joints. (
  • Considering the abundance of these cross-reactive antibodies, our observations confirm that significant viral amplification could occur during DENV infections in humans with prior infection or with maternally transferred immunity, possibly leading to severe dengue. (
  • However, fungal respiratory infections generate concern in the expanding population of immunosuppressed patients. (
  • Many yeast infections get better after a few days or weeks of treatment, but certain fungal infections may need to be treated for several months or longer before they clear up. (
  • [4] Salaki JS, Louria DB, Chmel H. Fungal and yeast infections of the central nervous system. (
  • Minamoto GY and Rosenberg AS (1997) Fungal infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Immunology of Fungal Infections (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (
  • Although many issues remain to be investigated, the results of our study are very exciting and they constitute an important first step in the development of new therapeutic agents to treat fungal infections without major side effects for patients. (
  • The Platelia Candida -specific antigen and antibody assays (Bio-Rad Laboratories) were used to test serial serum samples from seven neutropenic adult patients with hematological malignancies who had developed systemic Candida tropicalis infections. (
  • These therapeutic approaches induce severe neutropenia and have resulted in an increased incidence of bacterial and fungal infections ( 1 , 12 , 19 , 25 , 47 ). (
  • Autopsy studies have shown that the incidences of fungal infections are 15 to 25% among patients with leukemia or those undergoing bone marrow transplant and 10% among those with lymphoma ( 4 , 27 ). (
  • Patients with histoplasmosis or other invasive fungal infections may present with disseminated, rather than localized, disease. (
  • Empiric anti-fungal therapy should be considered in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections who develop severe systemic illness. (
  • The 2019 Gordon Research Conference the Immunology of Fungal Infections focuses on leading advances in our understanding of the challenges that fungi impose on the immune system. (
  • In this meeting we include focus on investigations using of NextGen sequencing and big data approaches, state of the art advances in fundamental immune processes controlling fungal infections and development of new strategies for immunotherapeutic control of these pathogens in humans. (
  • This meeting has become a melting pot for perspectives gained from researchers from different traditions with a common interest in fungal infections. (
  • In this study we used mixtures of protective and nonprotective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to determine if nonprotective mAbs blocked the activity of the protective mAbs. (
  • Limitations of monoclonal antibodies for monitoring of fungal aerosols using Penicillium brevicompactum as a model fungus. (
  • Production and characterization of IgM monoclonal antibodies against hyphal antigens of Stachybotrys species. (
  • In this study, we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a semi-purified cytolytic S. chlorohalonata preparation (cScp) derived from hyphae. (
  • Novel mouse monoclonal antibodies specifically recognizing β-(1→3)-D-glucan antigen. (
  • Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against synthetic nona-β-(1→3)-D-glucoside conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were generated using hybridoma technology. (
  • CHO cell cultures are used to produce over 70% of biopharmaceuticals, including monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutics. (
  • Industrial CHO cell lines are made by transfecting genes that code for therapeutic proteins ( e.g., light and heavy chains for monoclonal antibodies) under the control of strong promoters ( e.g., cytomegalovirus [CMV], elongation factor), which are then screened for high-producing phenotypes. (
  • Passive administration of monoclonal antibodies against H. capsulatum and other fungal pathogens. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies for research have traditionally been produced by isolating B cells from an animal immunized against a target, then immortalizing those cells to produce a cell line called a hybridoma. (
  • ADE has been repeatedly demonstrated in vitro using dengue immune sera or monoclonal antibodies and cells of monocytic and recently, B lymphocytic lineages bearing Fc receptors ( 5 - 7 ). (
  • Vaccination and infection can elicit protective and nonprotective antibodies to the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. (
  • Antibody isotype and epitope specificity are important in determining the ability to prolong survival in mice given a lethal C. neoformans infection. (
  • MiniVax's lead product is a vaccine against the opportunistic fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), which predominately affects immunocompromised individuals. (
  • The cryptococcal infection follows the inhalation of fungal basidiospores ( 63 ) or of poorly encapsulated yeasts ( 30 ). (
  • GXM, the major capsular polysaccharide of C. neoformans , is antiphagocytic, inhibits both the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the increased expression of costimulatory molecules, suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity, and may reduce antibody production in response to fungal infection (reviewed in reference 44 ). (
  • The new technique, within the Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Mycology at the University of Aberdeen and funded by the Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council, is the first to successfully use antibodies that are cloned from patients who have recovered from an infection caused by the fungus Candida . (
  • They're hard to detect and for every day we fail to diagnose a serious fungal infection, the chances of survival diminishes. (
  • In a previous study, we showed that antigens secreted by S. schenckii induced a specific humoral response in infected animals, primarily against a 70-kDa molecule, indicating a possible role of specific antibodies against this molecule in infection control. (
  • Fungal arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint by a fungal infection. (
  • A Genome-Wide Functional Genomics Approach Identifies Susceptibility Pathways to Fungal Bloodstream Infection in Humans. (
  • Candidemia, one of the most common causes of fungal bloodstream infection, leads to mortality rates up to 40% in affected patients. (
  • Activation of neutrophils by autocrine IL-17A-IL-17RC interactions during fungal infection is regulated by IL-6, IL-23, RORγt and dectin-2. (
  • Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection. (
  • neoformans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen of patients whose immune system has been compromised due to viral infection, antineoplastic chemotherapy, or tissue transplantation. (
  • Infection with dengue virus (DENV) or any other flavivirus induces cross-reactive, but weakly neutralizing or nonneutralizing, antibodies that recognize epitopes involving the fusion peptide in the envelope glycoprotein. (
  • mAb IgG 1A5 up-regulated DENV infection by a mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in a variety of Fc receptor-bearing cells in vitro . (
  • Infection with DENV or any other flavivirus induces broadly cross-reactive but weak or nonneutralizing antibodies ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • These antibodies remain detectable for a long period and rise rapidly during a subsequent heterotypic infection as a result of an anamnestic response. (
  • Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. (
  • Fungal infection occurs following the inhalation of spores, after the inhalation of conidia, or by the reactivation of a latent infection. (
  • Endemic fungal pathogens (eg, Histoplasma capsulatum , Coccidioides immitis , Blastomyces dermatitidis , Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , Sporothrix schenckii , Cryptococcus neoformans ) cause infection in healthy hosts and in immunocompromised persons, in defined geographic locations of the Americas and around the world. (
  • Pulmonary nodules resulting from fungal infection are seen below. (
  • The incidence of fungal meningitis is increasing worldwide due to the increasing number of patients immunosuppressed by pharmacological agents and HIV infection. (
  • Fungal arthritis is infection of a joint by a fungus. (
  • Are you sure your patient has a disseminated fungal infection? (
  • A finely tuned immune response is critical, since either insufficient or exaggerated responses undermine the host's ability to eradicate fungal infection. (
  • Our data thus confirm the value of the combined detection of mannanemia and antimannan antibodies in individuals at risk of candidemia and suggest that in neutropenic patients, an approach based on the regular monitoring of both markers could contribute to the earlier diagnosis of C. tropicalis systemic infection. (
  • Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. (
  • A common fungal infection. (
  • This paper describes methods to improve the use of immunoassays for quantification of soilborne fungal antigens. (
  • Possible mechanisms for the effect due to Cu 2+ and the implications for the design and use of calibration curves for assays involving quantification of fungal antigens in soil are discussed. (
  • Finally, we will discuss the potential of PAN-FUNGAL RIT the targeting of conserved fungal cell surface antigens by RIT as a treatment modality for fungi prior to the formal microbiological identification of the specific pathogen. (
  • Nosanchuk, JD & Dadachova, E 2012, ' Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases: The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal cell surface antigens ', Frontiers in Microbiology , vol. 2, no. (
  • It has been suggested that absorption of trichophyton fungal antigens can give rise to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody production, sensitization of the airways, and symptomatic asthma and rhinitis. (
  • The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies antibody, protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins. (
  • Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. (
  • To our knowledge this is the first report of blocking antibodies to a fungal pathogen. (
  • Research in my group is focused on Candida albicans which is the most common serious fungal pathogen of humans. (
  • Investigations were performed using Rhizoctonia solani as a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen. (
  • A fungal pathogen isolated postmortem from brain and lung tissue was initially identified as Blastomyces dermatitidis on the basis of serologic and histopathologic findings, but its features in culture were atypical (3). (
  • The degree of environmental contamination with fungi thus needs to be monitored and in this study we report the development of a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of spores of Penicillium brevicompactum in experimental model aerosols. (
  • In sum, RIT provides a mechanism for the targeted killing of drug susceptible or resistant fungi irrespective of the host immune status and may dramatically reduce the length of therapy currently required for many invasive fungal diseases. (
  • Engineering plants for resistance to necrotrophic fungi is therefore a viable option for control of fungal diseases and may be achieved by transforming plants with genes that can inhibit the fungal pectic enzymes. (
  • People with weakened immune systems who travel or live in areas where the fungi are common, are more susceptible to most causes of fungal arthritis. (
  • Fungal pneumonia is an infectious process in the lungs caused by one or more endemic or opportunistic fungi. (
  • Newfound recognition of the immunological roles of nutrient limitation, abiotic stress, non-hematopoietic cells, co-evolution of fungal-host interactions, and trafficking of intracellular cargo in phagocytes has lead to novel insights about mechanisms that restrain fungi or that cause immunopathology. (
  • iii) potential cross-reactivity with antibodies produced by other fungi such as Blastomyces dermatitidis. (
  • In addition, we have investigated the influence of different parameters of air sampling and sample recovery on ELISA performance.MAbs were produced with standard hybridoma techniques and cross-reactivities were determined against spores of 53 fungal species by indirect ELISA. (
  • Standardized experimental fungal aerosols were collected with the Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler(R) onto polycarbonate or polytetrafluoroethylene filters (PTFE) and the effects of different extraction buffers and filter agitation methods during sample processing on spore recovery and ELISA detection were investigated.Five mAbs were produced and all of them cross-reacted with several of 31 related Aspergillus, Penicillium and Eurotium species. (
  • Quantitative ELISA results for fungal aerosols were found to be influenced by differential sample processing and thus method standardization will be essential to maintain the comparability of immunometric monitoring results. (
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (
  • Antibody production was observed using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot assay. (
  • Mice with high affinity antisera were identified by ELISA and used for cloning the antibody genes. (
  • In addition, we highlighted the role of Crf proteins in fungal growth, using a deletion mutant for gene, for which a growth decrease of 23.6% was observed after 48 h. (
  • CIH1 is thus a fungal proline-rich glycoprotein which appears to form a cross-linked structure in planta and, as such, resembles plant cell wall proline- and hydroxyproline-rich proteins. (
  • Liquid cultures of genetically engineered yeast could be an alternative source of therapeutic proteins such as antibodies. (
  • That genetic understanding has helped Glycofi and other yeast antibody companies to tweak the organism's biology so that it can produce more human-like versions of proteins. (
  • Addgene, known for distributing some 100,000 plasmids, including fluorescent proteins, CRISPR/Cas9 components and many other gene products, announced in May its plans to partner with NeuroMab , an academic group based in James Trimmer's lab at the University of California, Davis, which develops antibodies for mammalian brain research. (
  • 4. Detection and isolation of toxin receptors : (1) Covalent binding sites of victorin (HV-toxin) in oat leaf tissues were detected by polyclonal, antibodies : in vivo binding of victorin to proteins of 100 and 45 Kd was … More observed in both susceptible and resistanit cultivars of oats, and also, in vitro binding to 100, 55 and 45 Kd in both genotypes. (
  • A secondary focus of MiniVax is the development of a monoclonal antibody therapeutic for the treatment of those individuals who are already suffering from PCP. (
  • Because of their low toxicity and high specificity, anti-infectious therapeutic antibodies could be a new alternative to conventional therapeutics. (
  • In this study, we investigated the potential of cell wall transglycosylases of to be therapeutic targets for therapeutic antibodies. (
  • Overall, our study highlighted the potential relevance of targeting Crf cell wall protein (CWP) with therapeutic antibodies. (
  • The aim of this project is to demonstrate the therapeutic and diagnostic utility of these antibodies. (
  • Nonmolecular fungal markers in serum or other biological samples represent a noninvasive diagnostic tool, which can help in therapeutic decisions. (
  • The growing trend of implementing immunotherapy into oncology has resulted in various new therapeutic cancer treatments utilizing antibodies. (
  • It is also becoming clear that many asthmatics with an even more severe form of fungal inflammatory lung disease, usually due to A. fumigatus and known as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), are often not properly diagnosed and have significant unmet diagnostic and therapeutic needs [ 10 - 13 ]. (
  • The Antibody is listed under an alternate gene/protein name. (
  • Specific antibodies were purified from patients' sera by immunoadsorption on the purified glycolipid followed by protein G affinity chromatography. (
  • It was demonstrated that anti-Crf antibodies neutralized the enzymatic activity of recombinant Crf protein, and delayed fungal growth by 12.3% when added to spores. (
  • Malassezia are also thought to contribute to the common skin disease atopic eczema by host sensitization to fungal protein allergens ( 10 ). (
  • A library of recombinant phage displaying the cloned antibody bound to the M13 gill protein was produced and panned against the fungal antigen. (
  • It hopes that a monthly injection of an antibody that blocks a well-known migraine-triggering protein will prevent these headaches. (
  • The target of Alder's antibody is a protein called CGRP that is thought to be at the root of migraines. (
  • In most mammals, antibodies, which comprise two protein chains, arise through specialized genetic recombination during B cell development, which produces a vast diversity of target-binding sequences. (
  • Even though modern technology makes them easier to sequence and characterize, commercial antibodies are often sold in purified protein form, with sequences undisclosed. (
  • Workers or farmers with heavy exposure to bird, bat, or rodent droppings or other animal excreta in endemic areas are predisposed to any of the endemic fungal pneumonias, such as histoplasmosis , in which the environmental exposure to avian or bat feces encourages the growth of the organism. (
  • Autocrine activity of IL-17A and its receptor induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased fungal killing in vitro and in a model of Aspergillus-induced keratitis. (
  • To differentiate between Aspergillus species and Mucorales of fungal sinusitis by immunohistochemistry . (
  • MUC5B antibody appears to be a useful immunohistochemical marker for identifying fungal types in tissue sections, especially in distinguishing between Aspergillus species and Mucorales in fungal sinusitis . (
  • Opportunistic fungal organisms (eg, Candida species, Aspergillus species, Mucor species) tend to cause pneumonia in patients with congenital or acquired defects in the host immune defenses. (
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed Aspergillus niger and other species on fungal cultures. (
  • Corneal neovascularization complicates Candida albicans keratitis [ 6 ], but the molecular pathogenesis of angiogenesis during fungal keratitis has not yet been studied. (
  • Cell wall-degrading enzymes, particularly pectic enzymes, are a major cause of pathogenesis by necrotrophic fungal pathogens. (
  • The Fungal Antibody Comp reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (
  • A low level of mannanemia was detected in only one serum sample, and none showed significant Candida antibody titers. (
  • Additional negative tests included serum galactomannan and [beta]-d-glucan, serology for Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Blastomyces and Coccidioides, CMV PCR, EBV PCR as well as fungal, mycobacterial and bacterial blood cultures. (
  • Abstract β-(1→3)-D-Glucan is an essential component of the fungal cell wall. (
  • We have also added a new session focusing on the microbiology of different fungal microbes, which will help bring together microbiologists and immunologists attending the meeting. (
  • The present data suggest that the cryptococcal β-glucosylceramide is a fungal antigen that plays a role on the cell wall synthesis and yeast budding and that antibodies raised against this component are inhibitory in vitro. (
  • Alder also says that producing antibodies in yeast will also be cheaper compared to producing them in mammalian cells, which grow more slowly than yeast and require more costly culturing conditions. (
  • Epigenetics is also a factor in controlling the activation of secondary metabolite products in fungal and yeast cells. (
  • This article highlights the major modes of epigenetic-based regulation as they relate to mammalian cell culture instability and the influence of epigenetics on bioproduction in fungal and yeast systems. (
  • Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. (
  • Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. (
  • Therapy for fungal pneumonias must include antifungal agents. (
  • Supplementary or alternative therapies have primarily focused on use of antifungal agents including oral triazoles and inhaled amphotericin B. Immunomodulation with omalizumab, a humanised anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, or "pulse" monthly high-dose intravenous corticosteroid, has also been employed. (
  • There is therefore an urgent clinical need for the development of diagnostics and new therapeutics for fungal diseases which research in my group aims to address in innovative ways. (
  • Anti-fungal antibody production in mice was induced by inoculation of mice with R. solani extracellular enzyme preparation. (
  • Description: A polyclonal antibody against COMP. (
  • To confirm, polyclonal anti-AK-toxin antibodies are raising in rabbits. (
  • A partial CDNA clone, encoding HTS-1 (220 kd) was identified using a specific polyclonal anti-HTS-1 antibody and by hybridization, to a synthetic oligonucleotide corresponding to the amino acid sequence of a tryptic peptide of the enzyme. (
  • The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus. (
  • This meeting - the 5th in its series - has become the must-attend venue for immunologists and medical mycologists to discuss how the immune system response to the challenge of fungal pathogens as well as how the fungus responds to the assault of innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • The samples included 29 cases of fungal balls, 12 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis , 24 cases of chronic invasive fungal sinusitis and 1 case of acute invasive fungal sinusitis . (
  • Severe asthma with fungal sensitisation and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis encompass two closely related subgroups of patients with severe allergic asthma. (
  • Individuals with allergic, or atopic, hypersensitivity form special weak types of antibodies, that cause local tissue damage and such symptoms as hives hives (urticaria), rash consisting of blotches or localized swellings (wheals) of the skin, caused by an allergic reaction (see allergy). (
  • More recently, researchers have developed recombinant antibodies, which are encoded on a plasmid that carries both heavy and light chain genes, and can either be developed in vitro or derived from a hybridoma's antibody genes. (
  • No subject attracts more interest, yet is strewn with more pitfalls, than fungal vaccine development. (
  • Two major types of vaccine development are preventive vaccines and monoclonal antibody immunotherapy. (
  • The purified antibodies to CMH (mainly immunoglobulin G1) bound to different strains and serological types of C. neoformans , as shown by flow cytofluorimetry and immunofluorescence labeling. (
  • The addition of human antibodies to CMH to cryptococcal cultures of both acapsular and encapsulated strains of C. neoformans inhibited cell budding and cell growth. (
  • This review mainly focuses on production of fungal lipase by solid state fermentation using various fungal strains, substrates and fermentation conditions. (
  • It has been reported that SSF with fungal strains results in greater productivity than submerged fermentation [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • What is a fungal strain, and why are fungal strains important for indoor contamination? (
  • Flow Cytometry: alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) [NB100-690] - Intracellular flow cytometric staining of 1 x 10^6 CHO (A) and HEK-293 (B) cells using alpha Tubulin antibody (dark blue). (
  • Flow Cytometry: alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) [NB100-690] - An intracellular stain was performed on HeLa cells with alpha Tubulin (DM1A) Antibody NB100-690JF646 (blue) and a matched isotype control (orange). (
  • The most common type of fungal meningitis is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans . (
  • At least as many, if not more people die from invasive fungal diseases every year than from malaria or tuberculosis. (
  • Plant diseases caused by necrotrophic fungal pathogens cause considerable damage to crop cultivars worldwide. (
  • Traditional approaches to control fungal diseases are confined to breeding plant resistance or the application of fungicides. (
  • Fungal diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in healthy and immune-compromised individuals. (
  • We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and applications. (
  • The evolution of fungal species, shown by multilocus sequence typing, enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree of all known fungal pathogens with assignments to well-described families and orders. (
  • Each fungal species is characterized by a specific set of genetic patterns. (
  • This means that there is not a single pattern that defines a fungal species, rather a range of patterns. (
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. (
  • The aim of this study was to develop a novel approach to engineer resistance to fungal pathogens by cloning recombinant genes for antibodies against fungal pectinase enzymes. (
  • Such antibodies are useful in immunoassays for determining iodothyronines in biological fluids. (
  • The antibodies impart immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. (
  • The diagnosis of fungal pneumonias is difficult to prove and is often made on a presumptive basis. (
  • The results have important implications for the development of vaccines and passive antibody therapy against C. neoformans. (
  • (g) IL-17A gene expression in naïve C57BL/6 bone marrow neutrophils incubated with media alone (unstimulated, US ) or after 1h incubation with supernatants from AspHE - stimulated splenocytes plus neutralizing antibodies to IL-1β, TGFβ, IL-6 or IL-23. (
  • In CHO cell lines, integration site(s) of a monoclonal antibody gene and the method used to select for monoclonal antibody gene integration both affect long-term productivity loss during serial passages. (
  • Today, all antibody drugs are made in mammalian tissue culture cells. (
  • Classification criteria for pediatric antiphospholipid antibody syndrome includes the following clinical criteria for vascular thrombosis: One or more clinical episodes of arterial, venous, or small-vessel thrombosis, in any tissue or organ. (
  • Formalin -fixed paraffin -embedded tissue blocks of 66 cases of fungal sinusitis were retrieved from the archival files of Department of Pathology of Beijing Tongren Hospital during the period from 2001 to 2006. (
  • fungal culture and Gomori's methenamine silver staining of resected tissue specimens. (
  • IgE antibodies affix to tissue mast cells and circulating basophils to trigger immediate hypersensitivity reactions upon re-exposure to A. fumigatus allergens. (
  • Immunohistochemistry: alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) [NB100-690] - Analysis of colon tissue. (
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) [NB100-690] - IHC analysis of a formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue section of mouse prostate using alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) at 1:200 dilution. (
  • Immunohistochemistry: alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) [NB100-690] - Analysis of small intestine tissue fixed with formalin and paraffin embedded showing cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal staining of glandular cells. (
  • In contrast to other fungal model organisms, S. macrospora produces only meiotically derived ascospores, while asexual spores, such as conidia, are absent. (
  • The pathophysiology of ABPA results from florid T-helper cell (Th)2 innate and adaptive immune responses in susceptible hosts who are unable to efficiently clear the respiratory epithelium of inhaled fungal spores ( fig. 1 ) [ 15 - 18 ]. (
  • These patterns control all aspects of fungal life, from conditions under which germination can occur to the speed with which radial growth proceeds when spores are produced, etc. (
  • Trichophyton rubrum is the most common fungal cause of nail dystrophy. (
  • Humanized mAb IgG 1A5, derived from a chimpanzee, shares properties of cross-reactive antibodies. (
  • A major subset of these cross-reactive antibodies is directed to immuno-dominant epitopes involving determinants mapped to the flavivirus-conserved fusion peptide in the envelope glycoprotein (E) ( 11 - 13 ). (
  • The functional activities of these cross-reactive antibodies are not well characterized. (
  • Antibodies that attach to and destroy lymphocytes.This may be used clinically by injection into a vein, for example, in aplastic anaemia or in other conditions where the body's immune system is being harmful. (
  • The immune system of these pets kills the fungal organism before clinical disease can occur. (
  • A PCR assembly process was used to link these amplified VL and VH genes randomly together for expression as single chain variable fragment (ScFv) of antibody genes. (
  • Chemically, efungumab is a single-chain variable fragment of a human monoclonal antibody. (
  • Call for an appointment with your provider if you have any symptoms of fungal arthritis. (
  • México: hallazgo del Amblyomma cajennense influenza-like symptoms, which continued after his return naturalmente infectado en Veracruz. (
  • The nonprofit reagent repository Addgene , of which Fan is a co-founder and chief scientific officer, is hoping to solve that problem through radical antibody openness. (
  • A biopharmaceutical company will know this year whether an antibody produced using a unique technique can prevent chronic migraines. (
  • Fungal keratitis (FK) is a sight-threatening disease, accounting for a significant portion with its complex presentation, suboptimal efficacy of the existing therapies and uncontrollable excessive innate inflammation. (
  • Radioimmunotherapy is the targeted delivery of cytocidal radiation to cells via specific antibody. (
  • IgG 1A5 variants, containing amino acid substitutions from the Fc region of IgG2 or IgG4 antibodies, reduced but did not eliminate DENV-4-enhancing activity in K562 cells. (
  • ADE occurs because preexisting subneutralizing antibodies and the infecting DENV form complexes that bind to Fc receptor-bearing cells, leading to increased virus uptake and replication ( 4 ). (
  • CCL17 also attracts regulatory T-cells (T reg ) capable of suppressing protective Th1 responses and suppressing macrophage activation, thereby impairing fungal killing. (
  • Immunomicroscopy: alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) [NB100-690] - Analysis of HeLa cells, green staining is alpha tubulin whereas red is DNA stained with propidium iodide. (
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) [NB100-690] - HeLa cells were fixed for 10 minutes using 10% formalin and then permeabilized for 5 minutes using 1X TBS + 0.5% Triton-X100. (
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) [NB100-690] - IF Confocal analysis of C6 cells using alpha Tubulin antibody (NB100-690, 1:50). (