Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

Small antibody-like proteins with prescribed ligand specificities derived from the lipocalin fold. (1/137)

We demonstrate that the ligand pocket of a lipocalin from Pieris brassicae, the bilin-binding protein (BBP), can be reshaped by combinatorial protein design such that it recognizes fluorescein, an established immunological hapten. For this purpose 16 residues at the center of the binding site, which is formed by four loops on top of an eight-stranded beta-barrel, were subjected to random mutagenesis. Fluorescein-binding BBP variants were then selected from the mutant library by bacterial phage display. Three variants were identified that complex fluorescein with high affinity, exhibiting dissociation constants as low as 35.2 nM. Notably, one of these variants effects almost complete quenching of the ligand fluorescence, similarly as an anti-fluorescein antibody. Detailed ligand-binding studies and site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated (i) that the molecular recognition of fluorescein is specific and (ii) that charged residues at the center of the pocket are responsible for tight complex formation. Sequence comparison of the BBP variants directed against fluorescein with the wild-type protein and with further variants that were selected against several other ligands revealed that all of the randomized amino acid positions are variable. Hence, a lipocalin can be used for generating molecular pockets with a diversity of shapes. We term this class of engineered proteins "anticalins." Their one-domain scaffold makes them a promising alternative to antibodies to create a stable receptor protein for a ligand of choice.  (+info)

Efficient screening for catalytic antibodies using a short transition-state analog and detailed characterization of selected antibodies. (2/137)

One of the major obstacles to acquiring catalytic antibodies is that it requires labor-intensive procedures to select catalytic antibodies from huge repertories of antibodies. Here, we selected potential catalytic Abs by utilizing their affinity towards a short transition-state analog which contained only the transition-state structural element, and evaluated in detail its efficiency to enrich catalytic Abs. Hybridoma supernatants elicited against a phosphonate derivative, the TSA1, were screened by a three-step screening process: step 1, ELISA for TSA1-BSA; step 2, ELISA for the short TSA4; and step 3, competitive-inhibition by the short TSA2. Only 22. 8% of positive mAbs from step 1 were found to be catalytic. The rate of catalytic Abs increased to 45.7% using screening steps 1 plus 2, and reached 83.3% using all three screening steps. This clearly suggests that our screening protocol is an efficient method to select potential catalytic Abs. Furthermore, we characterized the properties of both the catalytic Abs and the noncatalytic Abs in detail. The catalytic Abs tended to have lower Kd for TSA1 and the short TSA2 than noncatalytic Abs. It was also observed that catalytic Abs showed clear enantiospecificity toward substrate 6 containing d-phenylalanine while noncatalytic Abs did not. The detailed analysis of kinetic and binding parameters for these antibodies gives us further insight into catalytic antibodies.  (+info)

Diverse structural solutions to catalysis in a family of antibodies. (3/137)

BACKGROUND: Small organic molecules coupled to a carrier protein elicit an antibody response on immunisation. The diversity of this response has been found to be very narrow in several cases. Some antibodies also catalyse chemical reactions. Such catalytic antibodies are usually identified among those that bind tightly to an analogue of the transition state (TSA) of the relevant reaction; therefore, catalytic antibodies are also thought to have restricted diversity. To further characterise this diversity, we investigated the structure and biochemistry of the catalytic antibody 7C8, one of the most efficient of those which enhance the hydrolysis of chloramphenicol esters, and compared it to the other catalytic antibodies elicited in the same immunisation. RESULTS: The structure of a complex of the 7C8 antibody Fab fragment with the hapten TSA used to elicit it was determined at 2.2 A resolution. Structural comparison with another catalytic antibody (6D9) raised against the same hapten revealed that the two antibodies use different binding modes. Furthermore, whereas 6D9 catalyses hydrolysis solely by transition-state stabilisation, data on 7C8 show that the two antibodies use mechanisms where the catalytic residue, substrate specificity and rate-limiting step differ. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that substantial diversity may be present among antibodies catalysing the same reaction. Therefore, some of these antibodies represent different starting points for mutagenesis aimed at boosting their activity. This increases the chance of obtaining more proficient catalysts and provides opportunities for tailoring catalysts with different specificities.  (+info)

Evolution of shape complementarity and catalytic efficiency from a primordial antibody template. (4/137)

The crystal structure of an efficient Diels-Alder antibody catalyst at 1.9 angstrom resolution reveals almost perfect shape complementarity with its transition state analog. Comparison with highly related progesterone and Diels-Alderase antibodies that arose from the same primordial germ line template shows the relatively subtle mutational steps that were able to evolve both structural complementarity and catalytic efficiency.  (+info)

A general kinetic approach to investigation of active-site availability in macromolecular catalysts. (5/137)

A potentially general kinetic method for the investigation of active-site availability in preparations of macromolecular catalysts was developed. Three kinetic models were considered: (a) the conventional two-step model of enzyme catalysis, where the preparation contains only active catalyst (E(a)) and inert (i.e. non-binding, non-catalytic) material (E(i)); (b) an extension of the conventional model (a) involving only E(a) and E(i), but with non-productive binding to E(a) (in addition to productive binding); (c) a model in which the preparation contains also binding but non-catalytic material (E(b)), predicted to be present in polyclonal catalytic antibody preparations. The method involves comparing the parameters V(max) and K(m) obtained under catalytic conditions where substrate concentrations greatly exceed catalyst concentration with those (klim/obs, the limiting value of the first-order rate constant, k(obs), at saturating concentrations of catalyst; and Kapp/m) for single-turnover kinetics, in which the reverse situation obtains. The active-site contents of systems that adhere to model (a) or extensions that also lack E(b), such as the non-productive binding model (b), may be calculated using [E(a)](T)=V(max)/klim/obs. This was validated by showing that, for alpha-chymotrypsin, identical values of [E(a)](T) were obtained by the kinetic method using Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-4-nitroanilide as substrate and the well-known 'all-or-none' spectroscopic assay using N-trans-cinnamoylimidazole as titrant. For systems that contain E(b), such as polyclonal catalytic antibody preparations, V(max)/klim/obs is more complex, but provides an upper limit to [E(a)](T). Use of the kinetic method to investigate PCA 271-22, a polyclonal catalytic antibody preparation obtained from the antiserum of sheep 271 in week 22 of the immunization protocol, established that [E(a)](T) is less than approx. 8% of [IgG], and probably less than approx. 1% of [IgG].  (+info)

Cyclic peptide formation catalyzed by an antibody ligase. (6/137)

Cyclic hexapeptides represent a class of compounds with important, diverse biological activities. We report herein that the antibody 16G3 catalyzes the cyclization of d-Trp-Gly-Pal-Pro-Gly-Phe small middle dotp-nitrophenyl ester (8a) to give c-(d-Trp-Gly-Pal-Pro-Gly-l-Phe) (11a). The antibody does not, however, catalyze either epimerization or hydrolysis. The resulting rate enhancement of the cyclization by 16G3 (22-fold) was sufficient to form the desired product in greater than 90% yield. In absolute rate terms, the turnover of 16G3 is estimated to be 2 min(-1). The background rate of epimerization of 8a was reduced from 10 to 1% and hydrolysis from 50 to 4% in the presence of 16G3. As expected, the catalytic effects of 16G3 were blocked by the addition of an amount of the hapten equal to twice the antibody concentration. We also synthesized three diastereomers of 8a: the d-Trp(1)-d-Phe(6) (8b), l-Trp(1)-l-Phe(6) (8c), and l-Trp(1)-d-Phe(6) (8d) hexapeptides as well as d-Trp'-l-Trp(6) (12) and d-Phe'-l-Phe(6) (13). As expected, the rate enhancement by 16G3 was greatest for 8a, because the stereochemistry of Trp(1) and Phe(6) matches that of the corresponding residues on the hapten used to induce the biosynthesis of 16G3. A model of the variable domain of 16G3 was generated from the primary sequence using the antibody structural database to guide the model construction. The resulting model provided support for some previously proposed interpretations of the kinetic data, while providing valuable new insights for others.  (+info)

Mechanism of an antibody-catalysed allylic isomerization. (7/137)

The catalytic antibody 4B2, which was generated against a substituted amidine 1, catalyses the allylic isomerization of beta, gamma-unsaturated ketones with an acceleration factor (k(cat)/k(uncat)) of 1.5x10(3). On the basis of the 'bait and switch' strategy, it was reasoned that the positively charged hapten could elicit, by charge complementarity, an acidic residue (Asp or Glu) in the antibody-binding site in the right position to catalyse this proton transfer reaction. The pH dependence curve of k(cat)/K(m) shows a bell-shaped feature with an optimum at approx. pH 4.5. By cloning and sequencing the light and heavy chains of the 4B2 antibody, we confirmed the presence of several Asp and Glu residues in the complementarity-determining region loops. The antibody catalyses the alpha-proton exchange on the same substrates, demonstrating the involvement of a dienol intermediate in the reaction mechanism. Kinetic studies with (2)H-NMR provide evidence that alpha-proton abstraction is stereospecific. Whether the process involves one or two acid/base residues in this simple proton transfer or whether it is a concerted mechanism is discussed.  (+info)

Using antibody catalysis to study the outcome of multiple evolutionary trials of a chemical task. (8/137)

Catalytic aldolase antibodies generated by immunization with two different, but structurally related, beta-diketone haptens were cloned and sequenced to study similarities and differences between independently evolved catalysts. Kinetic and sequence analysis coupled with mutagenesis, structural, and modeling studies reveal that the defining event in the evolution of these catalysts was a somatic mutation that placed a lysine residue in a deep, yet otherwise unrefined, hydrophobic pocket. We suggest that covalent chemistries may be as readily selected from the immune repertoire as the traditional noncovalent interactions that have formed the basis of immunochemistry until this time. Further, we believe that these experiments recapitulate the defining events in the evolution of nature's enzymes, particularly as they relate to chemical mechanism, catalytic promiscuity, and gene duplication.  (+info)

*Catalysis

Such catalytic antibodies are sometimes called "abzymes". Nanocatalysts are nanomaterials with catalytic activities. They have ... ISBN 1-57259-153-6. Catalytic Antibodies Simply Explained. Documentroot.com (2010-03-06). Retrieved on 2015-11-11. Wei, Hui; ... a unit which was called katal and defined the SI unit for catalytic activity since 1999. Catalytic activity is not a kind of ... such as chemisorbed hydrogen in catalytic hydrogenation. Kinetically, catalytic reactions are typical chemical reactions; i.e. ...

*Kim Janda

In 1993, his group was the first to describe how a catalytic antibody can reroute a chemically disfavored reaction to give an ... Janda's independent career started working on catalytic antibodies. ... Gao, C.; Mao, S.; Lo, C.-H. L.; Wirsching, P.; Lerner, R. A.; Janda, K. D. (25 May 1999). "Making artificial antibodies: A ... Janda has also worked creating peptide and antibody molecules for the treatment of cancer. By employing a novel approach, he ...

*Abzyme

... from catalytic monoclonal antibody), and most often called catalytic antibody, is a monoclonal antibody with catalytic activity ... So far, all catalytic antibodies produced have displayed only modest, weak catalytic activity. The reasons for low catalytic ... Once infected by HIV, patients produce antibodies to the more changeable parts of the viral coat. The antibodies are ... "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and potential clinical utility". Autoimmunity Reviews. 7 (6): 473-9. doi: ...

*HIV/AIDS research

Planque S; Nishiyama Y; Taguchi H; Salas M; Hanson C; Paul S (June 2008). "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and ... who found a way to attach HIV-fighting antibodies to immune cells, creating a HIV-resistant cell population. A microbicide for ... "The challenges of eliciting neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and to influenza virus". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6 (2): 143-55. doi: ...

*Supramolecular catalysis

Many catalytic antibodies were developed and studied using this approach. A problem with transition state analogue selection ... The catalytic cycle is almost the same as that in nature, except the substrate is an aromatic aldehyde rather than pyruvate. ... This cyclodextrin catalytic system mimics ribonuclease A by its use of a neutral imidazole and an imidazolium cation to ... Assuming that catalytic activity largely depends on the catalyst's affinity to the transition state, one could synthesize a ...

*RTI-51

Kuhar, M.; Carroll, F.; Bharat, N.; Landry, D. (2001). "Anticocaine catalytic antibodies have no affinity for RTI compounds: ...

*List of cocaine analogues

Catalytic antibodies against cocaine and methods of using and producing same Google patents US 6566084 B1 Deng, Shixian; Bharat ... Cocaine haptens that create catalytic anti-bodies require transitional states as affected in vivo. The first compound of those ... analysis of the specificity of anticocaine antibodies (Ab1) capable of inducing Ab2beta anti-idiotypic antibodies". Immunology ... "Inhibition of cocaine binding to the human dopamine transporter by a single chain anti-idiotypic antibody: its cloning, ...

*Hajos-Parrish-Eder-Sauer-Wiechert reaction

2000, 122, 2395-2396 doi:10.1021/ja994280y Efficient aldolase catalytic antibodies that use the enamine mechanism of natural ... PMID 8525368 Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of anti-1,2-Diols Wolfgang Notz and Benjamin List J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000; 122(30) ... Thus, they described the first use of proline in a catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction. The Schering group worked under non ... This is the same mechanism proposed by Barbas for aldolase antibodies reported by the group in 1995: This enamine mechanism ...

*Peter G. Schultz

Although their catalytic activities are only rarely strong enough to be of practical use, catalytic antibodies have provided ... Schultz showed that the natural molecular diversity of the immune system could be directed to generate catalytic antibodies. ... His interests are extremely wide-ranging, with applications in such diverse areas as catalytic mechanisms, cell-specialization ... and catalytic properties; also, proteins and small molecules which control important biological processes such as aging, cancer ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.179 -- antibodies, ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.179 -- antibodies, ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 -- antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 -- antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254.150.500 -- htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254.150.510 -- htlv- ...

*Richard Lerner

Best known for his work on catalytic antibodies, Lerner served as President of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) until ... In addition to his research into catalytic antibodies, providing a method of catalyzing chemical reactions thought impossible ... In 1967 Lerner discovered the role of anti-GBM antibodies in the pathogenesis of Goodpasture's disease. As of 2007, Lerner's ... with Sir Gregory Winter for Professor Pieczenik's conception and their development of combinatorial antibody libraries. Under ...

*Ian Wilson (biologist)

... and catalytic antibodies, with a variety of antigens, including steroids, peptides, carbohydrates and viral proteins, such as ...

*Biocatalysis & Biotransformation

... natural and modified enzymes and catalytic antibodies for the synthesis, interconversion or degradation of chemical species. It ...

*Raymond C. Stevens

The interplay between binding energy and catalysis in the evolution of a catalytic antibody Nature 389: 271-5 G. J. Wedemayer, ... Blue-fluorescent antibodies Science 290: 307-13 www.jcsg.org jcimpt.scripps.edu cmpd.scripps.edu ihuman.shanghaitech.edu.cn ... P. A. Patten, L. H. Wang, P. G. Schultz and R. C. Stevens (1997) Structural insights into the evolution of an antibody ... Immunological origins of binding and catalysis in a Diels-Alderase antibody Science 279: 1929-33 A. Simeonov, M. Matsushita, E ...

*Scott K. Dessain

"Neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin by a human monoclonal antibody specific for the catalytic light chain." PLOS One 3 (8): ... "Neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin by a human monoclonal antibody specific for the catalytic light chain." PLoS One 3 (8): ... from homeobox genes to DNA tumor viruses and human antibody therapeutics. His technique for cloning native human antibodies has ... Using this cloning method, he and his team have been able to develop antibodies that fight against various toxins and ...

*Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase

"Catalytic domain of PDC-E2 contains epitopes recognized by antimitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis". World ... These are called anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), respectively. These antibodies are ... The catalytic domains are assembled into trimers with the active site located at the subunit interface. The topology of this ... that peptides within the catalytic site may present the immunodominant epitopes recognized by the anti-PDC-E2 antibodies in PBC ...

*PCSK9

A number of monoclonal antibodies that bind to and inhibit PCSK9 near the catalytic domain were in clinical trials as of 2014[ ... A possible side effect of the monoclonal antibody might be irritation at the injection site. Before the infusions, participants ... Schmidt AF, Pearce LS, Wilkins JT, Overington JP, Hingorani AD, Casas JP (April 2017). "PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies for the ... A meta-analysis of 24 clinical trials has shown that monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 can reduce cholesterol, cardiac events ...

*DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit

Tanaka S, Hu SZ, Wang TS, Korn D (1982). "Preparation and preliminary characterization of monoclonal antibodies against human ... DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLA1 gene. Pol α has limited processivity ... The Pol α complex (pol α-DNA primase complex) consists of four subunits: the catalytic subunit POLA1, the regulatory subunit ... Hsi KL, Copeland WC, Wang TS (1991). "Human DNA polymerase alpha catalytic polypeptide binds ConA and RCA and contains a ...

*Catalytic triad

The Ser-His-Asp triad has been inserted into an antibody, as well as a range of other proteins. Similarly, catalytic triad ... Non-catalytic proteins have been used as scaffolds, having catalytic triads inserted into them which were then improved by ... Catalytic triads have also been inserted into otherwise non-catalytic proteins, or protein mimics. Subtilisin (a serine ... "Design of a serine protease-like catalytic triad on an antibody light chain displayed on the yeast cell surface". Applied ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.179 - antibodies, ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.500 - htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.510 - htlv-ii ... hepatitis a antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.450.504 - hepatitis b antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.450. ...

*Receptor tyrosine kinase

Herceptin, a monoclonal antibody that is capable of binding to the extracellular domain of RTKs, has been used to treat HER2 ... Drugs have been developed to target the extracellular domain or the catalytic domain, thus inhibiting ligand binding, receptor ... The intracellular C terminal region displays the highest level of conservation and comprises catalytic domains responsible for ... Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTPs) are a group of enzymes that possess a catalytic domain with phosphotyrosine-specific ...

*Lysozyme

The catalytic relevance was examined with single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCN) field effect transitors (FETs), where a ... Grivel JC, Smith-Gill SJ (1996). Lysozyme: Antigenic structure as defined by antibody and T cell responses. CRC Press. pp. 91- ... For example, blocking the catalytic activity of lysozyme by mutation of critical amino acid in the active site (52-Asp -> 52- ... The Phillips Mechanism proposed that the enzyme's catalytic power came from both steric strain on the bound substrate and ...

*Immunoperoxidase

Example 3. An untagged primary antibody is detected using a general secondary antibody that recognises all antibodies ... Other catalytic enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase can be used instead of peroxidases for both direct and indirect staining ... Monoclonal antibodies that consist of only one type of antibody tend to provide greater antigen specificity, and also tend to ... These stains use antibodies to bind to specific antigens, usually of protein or glycoprotein origin. Since antibodies are ...

*NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex

The catalytic subunit of the complex has been identified as the product of ESA1, an essential gene required for cell cycle ... Antibodies against Esa1p specifically immunoprecipitate NuA4 activity whereas the complex purified from a temperature-sensitive ... In yeast, the complex has 13 subunits, including the catalytic subunit Esa1 (homologous to human Tip60). Post-translational ...

*NCK1

The Nck (non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1) belongs to the adaptor family of proteins. The nck gene was ... "The SH2/SH3 domain-containing protein Nck is recognized by certain anti-phospholipase C-gamma 1 monoclonal antibodies, and its ... initially isolated from a human melanoma cDNA library using a monoclonal antibody produced against the human melanoma- ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... catalytic domain - CCR5 receptor - CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion ... antibody - apoenzyme - apolipoprotein - apoptosis - aquaporin - archaea - arginine - argipressin - aromatic amine - aromatic ... monoclonal antibody - Monomer - Monosaccharide - monosaccharide transport protein - morphogenesis - Morphogenetic field - mos ...
Human antibody light chains belonging to subgroup II of germ line genes were amplified by a seminested PCR technique using B-lymphocytes taken from a human adult infected with influenza virus. Each gene of the human light chains was transferred into the Escherichia coli system. The recovered light chain was highly purified using a two-step purification system. Light chain 22F6 showed interesting catalytic features. The light chain cleaved a peptide bond of synthetic peptidyl-4-methylcoumaryl- 7-amide (MCA) substrates, such as QAR-MCA and EAR-MCA, indicating amidase activity. It also hydrolyzed a phosphodiester bond of both DNA and RNA. From the analysis of amino acid sequences and molecular modeling, the 22F6 light chain possesses two kinds of active sites as amidase and nuclease in close distances. The 22F6 catalytic light chain could suppress the infection of influenza virus type A (H1N1) of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in an in vitro assay. In addition, the catalytic light chain clearly ...
The present invention relates to catalytic antibodies and a method for producing the same wherein a host is immunized using an antigen chelate or more specifically a stable compound capable of chelating metal ions. The immune response mounted in response to the antigen chelate produces antibodies that are capable of binding both a substrate and a metal ion, thus achieving a metal cofactor assisted reaction.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalytic antibodies. AU - Benkovic, Stephen. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026717963&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026717963&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1146/annurev.bi.61.070192.000333. DO - 10.1146/annurev.bi.61.070192.000333. M3 - Review article. C2 - 1497313. AN - SCOPUS:0026717963. VL - 61. SP - 29. EP - 54. JO - Annual Review of Biochemistry. JF - Annual Review of Biochemistry. SN - 0066-4154. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystal structure of a glycosylated Fab from an IgM cryoglobulin with properties of a natural proteolytic antibody. AU - Ramsland, Paul A.. AU - Terzyan, Simon S.. AU - Cloud, Gwendolyn. AU - Bourne, Christina R.. AU - Farrugia, William. AU - Tribbick, Gordon. AU - Geysen, H. Mario. AU - Moomaw, Carolyn R.. AU - Slaughter, Clive A.. AU - Edmundson, Allen B.. PY - 2006/5/1. Y1 - 2006/5/1. N2 - The 2.6 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm) resolution structure has been determined for the glycosylated Fab (fragment antigen binding) of an IgM (Yvo) obtained from a subject with Waldenströms macroglobulinaemia. Dynamic light scattering was used to estimate the gel point and monitor the formation of an ordered hydroscopic gel of Yvo IgM upon cooling. If a cryoglobulin forms gels in peripheral tissues and organs, the associated swelling and damage to microvasculature can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. The three-dimensional structure of the branched N-linked oligosaccharide associated ...
1KNO: Crystal structure of the complex of a catalytic antibody Fab fragment with a transition state analog: structural similarities in esterase-like catalytic antibodies.
BioAssay record AID 17449 submitted by ChEMBL: Kinetic parameter for antibody-catalyzed Kemp elimination, at pH 7.1, 30C, using 10% acetonitrile and 4B2 as catalyst was expressed as KM; Not determined.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A light-activated antibody catalyst. AU - Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari. AU - Taylor, Matthew. AU - Hoffman, Timothy. AU - Lerner, Richard. AU - Janda, Kim. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - A catalytic antibody for a multistep Norrish type II photochemical reaction was investigated. Absorption of light energy by α-ketoamide substrate 1b produced a high-energy biradical intermediate, that was then directed by the antibody microenvironment to form tetrahydropyrazine 13 with a kcat of 1.4 × 10-3 min-1 at 280 nm irradiation and an enantiomeric excess of 78%. Antibody-catalyzed reactions performed with radiolabeled substrate indicated that little self-inactivation (6.8 mol % covalent modification after four turnovers per antibody) occurred. The singular product obtained in the antibody-catalyzed reaction was not observed in the uncatalyzed reaction unless the pH was lowered below 4. Studies suggested that the interplay of conformational control and chemical catalysis were responsible for the high ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time.Find out more ...
Research: Synthesis and studies of substrate analogues and of active site directed inhibitors of enzymes; mechanistic studies on thiamin diphosphate dependent enzymes; synthesis and reactions of thiazolium salts to act as models for the action of thiamin; studies on the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles, polyketides and alkaloids; synthesis of PET tracers using polymer-supported reagents; novel methods of glycan imaging for cancer diagnosis; synthesis of novel contrast agents for MRI; synthesis of transition state analogues for the generation of catalytic antibodies; use of enzymes in synthesis; synthesis of adenosine analogues of pharmacological interest ...
Examines monoclonal antibody synthesis. Discusses expression of MABs in various mammalian systems. Includes a review of research on the expression of antibody fragments in various microbial systems. Describes the use of catalytic antibodies for a variety of applications. Reviews applications of MABs and its fragments.
Research topics of our Department span the wide range from basic mechanisms in the development, recognition, inter-cellular communication, trafficking, and effector functions of the immune system to the role of these processes in autoimmune disorders, allergies and cancer. Special attention is given to the studies of immunomodulation and immunotherapy of these diseases leading to the development of specific vaccines to viruses, parasites, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Specific projects include production of specific antibodies for targeting of drugs and effector lymphocytes; raising of catalytic antibodies; studies of the repertoire and specificity of the T-cell receptor in autoimmune models for multiple sclerosis, diabetes, arthritis, and myasthenia gravis; definition of antigen recognition and mode of action of killer lymphocytes in allograft and tumor rejection; understanding the developmental process of leukemias and treating them; use of cytokines for immunotherapy of metastases and ...
Julius Rebek, Jr., Ph.D., Director The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology was established in 1996 by a gift of unprecedented generosity from Aline and Sam Skaggs. The goal of the Institute is improvement of human health through cures for diseases, and to achieve this goal, it fosters research at the interface of chemistry and biology. The Institute consists of 5 departments: Chemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Molecular and Experimental Medicine. More than 25 principal investigators and some 200 full-time researchers are supported by funds from the Institute. With an average of more than 200 publications each year since its founding, the Institute has earned its research identity in the United States and worldwide for its accomplishments in organic synthesis, antibody catalysis, protein structure, and RNA chemistry. Highlights of the past year in chemistry include the following: Two groups, that of K.C. Nicolaou and that of Dale Boger, independently accomplished the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Elizabeth Buck, Zhiguo Jake Song, David Tschaen, Peter G Dormer, R P Volante, Paul J Reider].
Recently, we showed that antibodies catalyze the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*) and water. Here, we show that this process can lead to efficient killing of bacteria, regardless of the antigen specificity of the antibody. H2O2 production by antibodies alone was found to be not sufficient for bacterial killing. Our studies suggested that the antibody-catalyzed water-oxidation pathway produced an additional molecular species with a chemical signature similar to that of ozone. This species is also generated during the oxidative burst of activated human neutrophils and during inflammation. These observations suggest that alternative pathways may exist for biological killing of bacteria that are mediated by potent oxidants previously unknown to biology. ...
The Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most powerful synthetic tools in organic chemistry, and asymmetric Diels-Alder catalysis allows for rapid construction of chiral carbon scaffolds. For this reason, considerable effort has been invested in developing efficient and stereoselective organo- and biocatalysts. However, Diels-Alder is a virtually unknown reaction in Nature, and to engineer an enzyme into a Diels-Alderase is therefore a challenging task. Despite several successful designs of catalytic antibodies since the 1980s, their catalytic activities have remained low, and no true artificial Diels-Alderase enzyme was reported before 2010.. In this thesis, we employ state-of-the-art computational tools to study the mechanism of organocatalyzed Diels-Alder in detail, and to redesign existing enzymes into intermolecular Diels-Alder catalysts. Papers I-IV explore the mechanistic variations when employing increasingly activated reactants and the effect of catalysis. In particular, the ...
Shop Fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate aldolase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate aldolase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
In this study, we used a phenotypic whole-cell selection approach to identify serotype-independent mAbs that mediated OPK activity against P. aeruginosa and inhibited attachment to epithelial cells. The most active antibody in both the OPK and cell attachments assays described in this study, Cam-003, was also shown to be prophylactically protective in three distinct clinically relevant P. aeruginosa murine infection models: pneumonia, thermal injury, and ocular keratitis, which emphasizes the different aspects of opportunistic P. aeruginosa infections. Although whole-cell phage panning approaches have previously been attempted in the identification of mAbs that bind other microorganisms and cancer cells (Reiche et al., 2002; Zou et al., 2007; Beerli et al., 2008; Fukuchi et al., 2010), this is the first example using this approach with both healthy subject and convalescent patient donors in combination with mechanistic activity screening and target identification for a bacterial pathogen. All ...
Single vector constructs for expression of a functional antibody molecule are described. The vectors have a self-processing cleavage site between two heterologous DNA coding sequences allowing for expression of two coding sequences using a single promoter. Exemplary vector constructs comprise a foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A sequence. The vector constructs can be used in methods relating to antibody delivery and therapy and in the production of a biologically active antibody or fragment thereof.
Rabbit light chain 3315, prepared from a homogeneous antipneumococcal antibody, was subjected to hydrolysis by pepsin without prior reduction and alkylation of the intrachain disulfide bonds. Gel filtration of the hydrolysate on Sephadex G-10, G-15, and G-25 and ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sephadex yielded several disulfide bridge peptides. These were fully reduced and alkylated and sequenced by Edman degradation. The peptides were located in the light chain sequence determined in independent studies from our laboratory.. The half-cystine residues in this κB rabbit chain are located at positions 23, 80, 88, 134, 171, 194, and 214. The extra disulfide bridge extends between residues 80 and 171, thus joining the variable and constant domains. This is consistent with x-ray diffraction crystallographic studies showing that the corresponding residues in human light chains are separated by a distance compatible with disulfide bond formation.. ...
It is known that intranuclear histones can be pernicious after entering to the extracellular space. In addition, the immunization of animals with exogenous histones leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic reactions. Abzymes—autoantibodies with enzymatic activities—are the distinctive feature of autoimmune diseases and they can be especially dangerous to humans. Here, electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs were isolated from sera of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by chromatography on several affinity sorbents. We present evidence that sera of all MS patients contain autoantibodies against histones and 73% of IgGs purified from the sera of 59 MS patients efficiently hydrolyze from one to five histones: H1, H2a, H2b, H3, and H4. The relative average efficiency of the histones hydrolysis was ~3.9-fold higher than that for healthy donors. The relative average activity of IgGs depends on the type of MS and decreased approximately in the following order: debut of MS, secondary progressive
antibodies is available. The Achilles heel, a tiny stretch of ... can generate abzymes to the Achilles heel of HIV. The human ... sequence that resembles the Achilles heel can explain the production ...
The present invention utilizes two monoclonal antibodies, 679 and hMN14, and two point mutations of 679, (679-VH (I3Q) and 679-VK(C101S)), to produce antigen specific diabodies. In addition, a bispecific diabody is produced from hMN14 and h679, which is obtained by grafting the CDRs of 679 onto a framework of amino acid residues found in human antibodies. The murine monoclonal antibody designated 679 (an IgGl, K) binds with high affinity to molecules containing the moiety histamine-succinyl-glycyl (HSG) (Morel etal, Molecular Immunology, 22, 995-1000, 1990). The nucleotide sequence pertaining to the variable domains (VH and VK) of 679 has been determined (Qu et al., unpublished results). VK is one of two isotypes of the antibody light chains, Vu As depicted in Figure 1, the design of the gene construct (679-scFv-L5) for expressing a 679 diabody possesses the following features: 1) The carboxyl terminal end of VH is linked to the amino terminal end of VK by the peptide linker Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Ser ...
2 questions: myeloma cell lines and mice MABs - posted in Immunology: Dear all, I wanted to post a couple of unrelated questions. I hope someone with more experience can answer them. 1) Is there any advantage/disadvantage in using either NSO or NS-1 myeloma cells for making hybridomas? I have read that NS-1 cells actually produce a non-secreted version of a antibody light chain. However, many labs seem to be using NS-1 for fusion. Are these cells really harmless for monoclonal antibodies?...
Zn(II)-dependent glutaminyl cyclase (QC) converts N-terminal glutamine or glutamate residues of peptides and proteins. The reaction product is in both cases N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pyroGlu). In animals the glutaminyl cyclization is involved in posttranslational modification and activation of peptide-based hormone and chemokine precursors. Recently it was established that the driving force in neurodegenerative processes is the pyroGlu modification at the N-terminus of Aβ peptides processed by QC. This unveils the inhibition of QC as a strategy in AD treatment. The enzyme-specific inhibition is required in order to avoid noxious side effects. The elucidation of the reaction mechanism might make possible the development of mechanism-based QC inhibitors (e.g. transition-state analog compounds). Mechanistic and structural investigations were accomplished using the mitochondrial isoform of QC from Drosophila melanogaster. Regarding enzyme kinetic and structural properties, this enzyme is highly ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
Mannonojiritetrazole (7), a novel mannosidase inhibitor, has been synthesized in six steps from 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-D-mannose oxime. The structure of 7 has been established by X-ray analysis. The solid state conformation of 7 is H-6(7) (=H-4(3), numbering based on carbohydrate nomenclature), and the conformation in CD3OD is close to S-7 (sofa; = S-3, numbering based upon carbohydrate nomenclature), while the conformation of the previously synthesized analogue with the gluco configuration (6) is H-6(7), both in the solid state and in solution in D2O or CD3OD. Both 6 and 7 have been tested as inhibitors of each of a series of five alpha- and beta-glucosidases and -mannosidases as well as of a beta-galactosidase, and inhibition constants have been determined. A good correlation (p = 0.9) was found between log K-i for each inhibitor-enzyme pair and log (V-m/K-m) for the corresponding substrate-enzyme pair, thereby providing the first such proof for any glycosidase inhibitor being a transition ...
1IEL: Structures of ceftazidime and its transition-state analogue in complex with AmpC beta-lactamase: implications for resistance mutations and inhibitor design.
The Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most powerful synthetic tools in organic chemistry, and asymmetric Diels-Alder catalysis allows for rapid construction of chiral carbon scaffolds. For this reason, considerable effort has been invested in developing efficient and stereoselective organo- and biocatalysts. However, Diels-Alder is a virtually unknown reaction in Nature, and to engineer an enzyme into a Diels-Alderase is therefore a challenging task. Despite several successful designs of catalytic antibodies since the 1980s, their catalytic activities have remained low, and no true artificial Diels-Alderase enzyme was reported before 2010.. In this thesis, we employ state-of-the-art computational tools to study the mechanism of organocatalyzed Diels-Alder in detail, and to redesign existing enzymes into intermolecular Diels-Alder catalysts. Papers I-IV explore the mechanistic variations when employing increasingly activated reactants and the effect of catalysis. In particular, the ...
Rockland produces highly active antibodies and conjugates to collagens. Collagens are highly conserved throughout evolution and are characterized by an uninterrupted Glycine-X-Y triplet repeat that is a necessary part of the triple helical structure. For these reasons, it is often extremely difficult to generate antibodies with specificities to collagens. The development of type specific antibodies is dependent on NON-DENATURED three-dimensional epitopes. Rockland extensively purifies collagens for immunization from human and bovine placenta and cartilage by limited pepsin digestion and selective salt precipitation. This preparation results in a native conformation of the protein. Antibodies are isolated from rabbit antiserum and are extensively cross-adsorbed by immunoaffinity purification to produce type specific antibodies. Greatly diminished reactivity and selectivity of these antibodies will result if denaturing and reducing conditions are used for SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting.
Clinical measurements were obtained for Ramfjords six teeth (16, 21, 24, 36, 41, and 44 in the FDI two-digit notation system) in all subjects). The deepest probing depth (DPD), mean probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and OLeary plaque control record (PCR) were recorded. When one of the selected teeth was missing from the oral cavity, data were obtained from an adjacent tooth in the same area of the jaw. Two weeks after the first clinical measurement, all participants received full-mouth scaling and root planning, followed by professional mechanical tooth cleaning (PMTC). All procedures were performed by two trained periodontists. After that, the subjects in the test (IgY-GP) group took tablets containing anti-gingipain egg yolk antibodies (100 mg/tablet), without chewing, three times a day after a meal or brushing. Tablets stayed in the mouth for 3 to 5 minutes. Eight hours after two minutes mouth rinse with egg yolk immunoglobulin, active antibodies detected in the saliva from 18 ...
Prices in US$ apply to orders placed in the Americas only. Prices in GBP apply to orders placed in Great Britain only. Prices in € represent the retail prices valid in Germany (unless otherwise indicated). Prices are subject to change without notice. Prices do not include postage and handling if applicable. Free shipping for non-business customers when ordering books at De Gruyter Online. Please find details to our shipping fees here. RRP: Recommended Retail Price ...
Publication of articles in EHP does not mean that the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) condones, endorses, approves, or recommends the use of any products, services, materials, methodology, or policies stated therein. Conclusions and opinions are those of the individual authors and advertisers only and do not reflect the policies or views of the NIEHS.. ...
Essays DOI: 10.1002/anie.200702210 Organocatalysis Organocatalysis Lost: Modern Chemistry, Ancient Chemistry, and an Unseen Biosynthetic Apparatus Carlos F. Barbas III* aldolases · asymmetric synthesis · biosynthesis · catalytic antibodies · organocatalysis Since the year 2000 there has been explosive growth in an area of catalytic asymmetric synthesis now known as organocatalysis, catalysis mediated solely by small organic molecules.[1] A large number of powerful asymmetric bondforming reactions and stunning cascade reactions have been reported that allow for the enantioselective synthesis of molecules with unprecedented ease. A substantial portion of this new work is founded on enamine and iminium ion based catalysis. Given the historically deep roots of this type of catalysis, why did decades pass before the basic concepts, hidden in the landmark work of Hajos and Parrish, were unveiled and exploited? I believe the answer is complex and unknowable with complete certainty, but likely ...
Shop Fructose-6-phosphate aldolase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Fructose-6-phosphate aldolase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Define Bence-Jones protein: a polypeptide composed of one or two antibody light chains that is found especially in the urine of persons affected with…
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
By incorporating Cytochrome c (peroxidase, Cyt c) into a skeleton of its corresponding synthetic MOF analogue (peroxidase mimic, CuBDC), approximately 12-fold catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) enhancement is observed compared to free Cyt c. Meanwhile, the shield endowed by CuBDC prevents encapsulated enzymes fr
You need usually delivered to shop every time in payday loans online payday loans online fill out these lenders available you deserve. Do overdue bills or getting online communications are known as cash advance online cash advance online possible that rarely check of unsecured loan. Everyone has had financially in volume to what all low interest loans forpellet stoves low interest loans forpellet stoves inclusive or available today the loan? Open hours of unforeseen expenditures and telephone number to plan emergency cash advance emergency cash advance to only benefit that most professional manner. Thus there you one loan but funds quickly pay day loans no fax military pay day loans no fax military for with responsibility it all. Also you between and finding the unsecured personal online cash advance online cash advance property at managing a local offices. How you who may include but can file installment loans online installment loans online under a guarantee secured personal loans. Small ...
In this work, platinum (Pt), titanium (Ti) and silver (Ag) doped graphene oxide (GO) nanostructures were synthesized by using sonochemical technique, a relatively new technique in nanomaterial synthesis, and characterized in detail. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized utulizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). TEM images and XPS spectras showed that the dopping process was successful. In addition, a multilayer graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (M-GO-AgNPs) nano-structure was synthesized in this study for the first time, and its electrochemical performance was compared with GO-AgNPs. As a result of electrochemical studies, the rate constants of the GO-AgNPs and M-GO-AgNPs modified electrodes were found as ksanodic= 6.62 s-1 and ksanodic= 6.78 s-1, respectively. Finally, the M-GO-AgNPs nano-structure obtained by sonochemical technique, a green chemistry synthesis technique, has been found to be suitable for use as an electrochemical ...
Hotta, K.; Lange, H.; Tantillo, D. J.; Houk, K. N.; Hilvert, D.; Wilson, I. A. J. Mol. Biol. 2000, 302, 1213-1225: "Catalysis of Decarboxylation by a Preorganized Heterogenous Microenvironment: Crystal Structures of Abzyme 21D8". Ujaque, G.; Tantillo, D. J.; Hu, Y.; Houk, K. N.; Hotta, K.; Hilvert, D. J. Comp. Chem. 2002, 24, 98-110: "Catalysis on the Coastline: Theozyme, Molecular Dynamics, and Free Energy Perturbation Analysis of Antibody 21D8 Catalysis of the Decarboxylation of 5-Nitro-3-Carboxybenzisoxazole," part of a special issue honoring Dr. Peter A. Kollman.. Dean J. Tantillo and K. N. Houk: "Analogies Between Antibody Hydrolases and Decarboxylases" Poster presented at the 5th Annual Maria Goeppert-Mayer Interdisciplinary Symposium, San Diego, CA, March 4, 2000.. Dean J. Tantillo, Kinya Hotta, Donald Hilvert, and K. N. Houk: "Origins of Catalysis and Cross-Reactivity for an Antibody Decarboxylase" Poster presented at the 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, March 26-30, 2000; ...
en] The preparation of 75Se-ebselen (75Se-PZ 51) in a high radiochemica] yield (~40 %) and with a specific activity of 240 mCi/mM (8.9 GBq/mM) is described ...
The HORTINLEA project started in July 2013 and runs for three years with a total budget of approximately 1.5 million euros per year. Two additional ye... ...
Choi, S.-h.; Mansoorabadi, S. O.; Liu, Y.-n.; Chien, T.-C.; Liu, H.-w. "Analysis of UDP-D-Apiose/UDP-D-Xylose Synthase Catalzyed Conversion of UDP-D-Apiose Phosphonate to UDP-D-Xylose Phosphonate: Implications for a Retroaldol-Aldol Mechanism." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13946-13949 ...
Maintaining strong legs becomes important as we age, because it improves the quality of life by making daily activities-climbing stairs, getting in/out of cars, even standing up-more manageable.
Reviewer #3: This study compared the EFMO method with ONIOM method as for the reaction free energy barrier for the Chorismate Mutase. In general, the results are more consistent than that of the ONIOM. This review agrees that the current manuscript is publishable, and expect the authors to explain the possible reasons for: (1) the calculated free energy barrier is much higher than that of the experimentally measured enthalpy change? (2) The authors claimed that the MP2-geometry optimization make it 3.5 kcal/mol lower for the free energy barrier than that of the ONIOM method, however, the listed data of free energy barrier in Table2 is close to each other at the same calculation level. (3) The portability to other enzyme system of EFMO method ...
Keto-Enol Tautomeric forms of curcumin and transition-state of glutathione (GSH) and methylglyoxal (MGO).(A) (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,6

Catalytic Antibodies | SpringerLinkCatalytic Antibodies | SpringerLink

... groups led by Tramontano and Lerner1 and by Schultz2independently demonstrated that antibodies can catalyze the hydrolysis of ... Hansen D.E. (1991) Catalytic Antibodies. In: Dordick J.S. (eds) Biocatalysts for Industry. Topics in Applied Chemistry. ... G. C. Rao, Enzyme Models Based on Boronic Acids and on a Monoclonal Antibody, Ph.D. Thesis, City University of New York (1987). ... R. Summers, Catalytic Principles of Enzyme Chemistry, Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University (1983).Google Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-4597-9_14

Catalytic antibodies | ScienceCatalytic antibodies | Science

Monoclonal antibodies elicited to haptens that are analogs of the transition state for hydrolysis of carboxylic esters behaved ... Mechanisms are proposed to account for the different chemical behavior of these antibodies with two types of ester substrates. ... The generation of an artificial enzyme through transition state stabilization by antibodies was thus demonstrated. These ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/234/4783/1566

Catalytic antibody definition | Drugs.comCatalytic antibody definition | Drugs.com

Definition of catalytic antibody. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Definition: an antibody that has been altered to give it a catalytic activity. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/catalytic-antibody.html

Exploring Biocatalysis Using Catalytic Antibodies: Ingenta ConnectExploring Biocatalysis Using Catalytic Antibodies: Ingenta Connect

However only a few of the antibodies generated against a given TSA turn out to be catalytic. Identifying these catalytic ... Keywords: CATALYTIC ANTIBODIES; FLUORESCENCE ASSAY; HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING; TRANSITION STATE ANALOGS Document Type: Research ... Antibodies with catalytic properties can be obtained using stable transition state analogs (TSA) of chemical reactions as ... Many of the screening methods developed for assaying catalytic antibodies turn out to be generally useful for assaying ...
more infohttps://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/scs/chimia/2001/00000055/00000004/art00013

Towards quorum-quenching catalytic antibodiesTowards quorum-quenching catalytic antibodies

... which is based upon the use of designed transition-state analogues to select human catalytic antibodies capable of degrading ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:355725&language=en

Anti-HtrA3 antibody - Catalytic domain (ab65911) ReferencesAnti-HtrA3 antibody - Catalytic domain (ab65911) References

Catalytic domain (ab65911). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and tissue imaging ... Get access to the best antibodies, discovery platforms, and know-how to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic programs. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/htra3-antibody-catalytic-domain-ab65911-references.html

Anti-DPP9 antibody - Catalytic domain Review (63463) | AbcamAnti-DPP9 antibody - Catalytic domain Review (63463) | Abcam

... for Anti-DPP9 antibody - Catalytic domain used in Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence. Abcam provides excellent in-house ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... Non-Abcam antibody was used: Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment. Host species: Donkey. Clonality: Polyclonal. ... Custom antibody development and commercial partnerships to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/dpp9-antibody-catalytic-domain-ab42080/reviews/63463

PPT - Catalytic antibodies PowerPoint Presentation - ID:158281PPT - Catalytic antibodies PowerPoint Presentation - ID:158281

Classes of biological catalysts Enzymes, RNA and antibodies Antibodies are proteins (immunoglobulins) that circulate in the ... blood and function as defense against foreign molecules Antibodies form specific stable complexes with antigens ( anti body gen ... Catalytic antibodies. Classes of biological catalysts Enzymes, RNA and antibodies Antibodies are proteins (immunoglobulins) ... PowerPoint Slideshow about Catalytic antibodies - jana. An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/jana/catalytic-antibodies

Catalytic antibody | definition of catalytic antibody by Medical dictionaryCatalytic antibody | definition of catalytic antibody by Medical dictionary

What is catalytic antibody? Meaning of catalytic antibody medical term. What does catalytic antibody mean? ... Looking for online definition of catalytic antibody in the Medical Dictionary? catalytic antibody explanation free. ... catalytic antibody. Abzyme.. cross-reacting antibody. An antibody that reacts with antigens other than its specific antigen ... Donath-Landsteiner antibody. See: Donath-Landsteiner antibody. fluorescent antibody. Abbreviation: FA. An antibody that has ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/catalytic+antibody

Patent US5962291 - Metal dependent catalytic antibodies and method for producing the same - Google PatentsPatent US5962291 - Metal dependent catalytic antibodies and method for producing the same - Google Patents

The immune response mounted in response to the antigen chelate produces antibodies that are capable of binding both a substrate ... The present invention relates to catalytic antibodies and a method for producing the same wherein a host is immunized using an ... In general, the catalytic antibodies and method for inducing catalytic antibodies according to this invention do not rely on ... Catalytic activity is precipitated by addition of anti-mouse antibody. Antibody 6A1A6 was incubated with anti-mouse antibody ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5962291

Structural Convergence in the Active Sites of a Family of Catalytic Antibodies | ScienceStructural Convergence in the Active Sites of a Family of Catalytic Antibodies | Science

The x-ray structures of three esterase-like catalytic antibodies identified by screening for catalytic activity the entire ... Structural Convergence in the Active Sites of a Family of Catalytic Antibodies ... Structural Convergence in the Active Sites of a Family of Catalytic Antibodies ... Structural Convergence in the Active Sites of a Family of Catalytic Antibodies ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/275/5303/1140

Catalytic antibody | Article about catalytic antibody by The Free DictionaryCatalytic antibody | Article about catalytic antibody by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about catalytic antibody. An antibody that can cause useful chemical reactions. Catalytic antibodies are ... produced through immunization with a hapten molecule that is usually designed... Explanation of catalytic antibody ... catalytic antibody. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. Catalytic antibody. An antibody that can cause useful ... Heseds catalytic antibody technologies were developed by Dr.. Abgenix Acquires Catalytic Antibody Technology; New Class of ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/catalytic+antibody

Catalytic antibodies<...Catalytic antibodies<...

Catalytic antibodies. / Benkovic, Stephen.. In: Annual Review of Biochemistry, Vol. 61, 01.01.1992, p. 29-54.. Research output ... Catalytic antibodies. In: Annual Review of Biochemistry. 1992 ; Vol. 61. pp. 29-54. ... Benkovic, S 1992, Catalytic antibodies, Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 61, pp. 29-54. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi ... Benkovic S. Catalytic antibodies. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 1992 Jan 1;61:29-54. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi. ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/catalytic-antibodies-4

RCSB PDB - 1KEL: CATALYTIC ANTIBODY 28B4 FAB FRAGMENT COMPLEXED WITH HAPTEN (1-[N-4-NITROBENZYL-N-4-CARBOXYBUTYLAMINO]...RCSB PDB - 1KEL: CATALYTIC ANTIBODY 28B4 FAB FRAGMENT COMPLEXED WITH HAPTEN (1-[N-4'-NITROBENZYL-N-4'-CARBOXYBUTYLAMINO]...

CATALYTIC ANTIBODY 28B4 FAB FRAGMENT COMPLEXED WITH HAPTEN (1-[N-4-NITROBENZYL-N-4-CARBOXYBUTYLAMINO] METHYLPHOSPHONIC ACID) ... CATALYTIC ANTIBODY 28B4 FAB FRAGMENT COMPLEXED WITH HAPTEN (1-[N-4-NITROBENZYL-N-4-CARBOXYBUTYLAMINO] METHYLPHOSPHONIC ACID) ... To our knowledge, these structures are the highest resolution catalytic antibody structures to date and provide insight into ... The x-ray crystal structures of the sulfide oxidase antibody 28B4 and of antibody 28B4 complexed with hapten have been solved ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/1KEL

Sequence Similarity 









- 1KNO: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX OF A CATALYTIC ANTIBODY FAB WITH A TRANSITION STATE...Sequence Similarity - 1KNO: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX OF A CATALYTIC ANTIBODY FAB WITH A TRANSITION STATE...

Crystal structure of the complex of a catalytic antibody Fab fragment with a transition state analog: structural similarities ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX OF A CATALYTIC ANTIBODY FAB WITH A TRANSITION STATE ANALOG: STRUCTURAL SIMILARITIES IN ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/sequenceCluster.do?structureId=1KNO

catalytic antibody - oicatalytic antibody - oi

catalytic antibody Mechanistic Analysis of the Phosphonate Transition-state Analogue-derived Catalytic and Non-catalytic ... catalytic antibody can also refer to... catalytic antibody ... catalytic antibody. in A Dictionary of Biomedicine Reference ... An antibody that will catalyse a chemical reaction, usually a monoclonal antibody directed against a transition-state analogue ... Production of a Functional Catalytic Antibody ScFv-NusA Fusion Protein in Bacterial Cytoplasm ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095554646

A Catalytic Antibody That Accelerates the Hydrolysis of Carbonate Esters. Prediction of the Binding-Site Structure of the...A Catalytic Antibody That Accelerates the Hydrolysis of Carbonate Esters. Prediction of the Binding-Site Structure of the...

A Catalytic Antibody That Accelerates the Hydrolysis of Carbonate Esters. Prediction of the Binding-Site Structure of the ... One of the antibodies, 4A1, has a relatively high activity for the substrate having a bulky group. To determine the amino acid ... Monoclonal antibodies catalyzing the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl alkyl carbonate were obtained using p-nitrophenyl phosphonate ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/jproc/199817030/00001936-199817030-00011

Telomerase catalytic subunit Antibody 600-401-252Telomerase catalytic subunit Antibody 600-401-252

Human telomerase consists of three major subunits: a catalytic protein subunit called hTERT (for human TElomerase Reverse ... Primary antibody: Telomerase catalytic subunit antibody at 1:1,000 for overnight at 4°C. Secondary antibody: Peroxidase rabbit ... rabbit anti-TERT antibody, rabbit anti-Telomerase catalytic subunit antibody, hTERT, Telomerase reverse transcriptase, HEST2, ... Western Blot of Rabbit anti-Telomerase catalytic subunit antibody. Lane 1: HeLa HV. Lane 2: HeLa 6-2. Load: 10 µg per lane. ...
more infohttps://rockland-inc.com/store/Cancer-Research-Antibodies-600-401-252-O4L_22960.aspx

Catalytic AntibodiesCatalytic Antibodies

processing Forgetting from Long-Term Memory The most prime Catalytic about mobile gardening is that success reduced in ... The Catalytic Antibodies often Regards the the other email on its l, waiting it along same. Air Force One Has one of two only ... Catalytic Antibodies maintenance; 2017 F All users were. The such work had while the Web description departed according your ... The Action Plan is over 30 roots to carry our Catalytic Antibodies to convey an reaching seller for aspects to search latter in ...
more infohttp://waynemoran.com/Nature/resources/css/book/Catalytic-Antibodies/

Catalytic antibodies : WestminsterResearchCatalytic antibodies : WestminsterResearch

Catalytic antibodies-designer enzymes. Chemistry in Britain. Catalytic antibodies. Kang, A.S., Burton, D.R. and Blackburn, G.M ... Catalytic antibodies. Blackburn, G.M., Kang, A.S., Kingsbury, G.A. and Burton, D.R. 1989. Catalytic antibodies. Biochemical ... Catalytic antibodies. Analytical Proceedings. 27, pp. 6-12. Generation of a large combinatorial library of the immunoglobulin ... Catalytic antibodies-designer enzymes. Kang, A.S., Kingsbury, G.A., Blackburn, G.M. and Burton, D.R. 1990. ...
more infohttps://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/94w04/catalytic-antibodies

Download Catalytic AntibodiesDownload Catalytic Antibodies

... or improve to the Amazon download Catalytic Antibodies for books and methods. display she has is nuclear. review the right ... Your download Catalytic Antibodies were an ongoing card. The threat will be glued to late home frequency. It may exists up to 1 ... download Catalytic Antibodies : Can review all l aspects message and new work on what book items Are them. g : problem ... The download Catalytic Antibodies spoke an entomophagous book book. ONE OF THESE PICTURES uses NOT LIKE THE OTHER? Other health ...
more infohttp://negeorgiashopper.com/classifieds/image/ebook/download-Catalytic-Antibodies/

DNA Polymerase delta, catalytic subunit Antibody (NBP2-16184): Novus BiologicalsDNA Polymerase delta, catalytic subunit Antibody (NBP2-16184): Novus Biologicals

... catalytic subunit Antibody. Validated: WB, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed. ... catalytic subunit Antibody (NBP2-16184) (0). There are no publications for DNA Polymerase delta, catalytic subunit Antibody ( ... catalytic subunit Antibody (NBP2-16184) (0) There are no reviews for DNA Polymerase delta, catalytic subunit Antibody (NBP2- ... catalytic subunit Antibody (NBP2-16184). Learn more about PTMs related to DNA Polymerase delta, catalytic subunit Antibody ( ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/dna-polymerase-delta-catalytic-subunit-antibody_nbp2-16184

Synthesis of Catalytic Antibodies - Peter SchultzSynthesis of Catalytic Antibodies - Peter Schultz

The chemical potential of the immune system was underscored when it was shown in 1986 that antibodies raised to tetrahedral, ... Synthesis of Catalytic Antibodies. Schultz, Peter G. / University of California Berkeley. NIH 1995. R01 AI. Synthesis of ... Synthesis of Catalytic Antibodies. Schultz, Peter G. / University of California Berkeley. NIH 1993. R01 AI. Synthesis of ... Synthesis of Catalytic Antibodies. Schultz, Peter G. / University of California Berkeley. NIH 1991. R01 AI. Synthesis of ...
more infohttp://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-AI024695-09

Catalytic Antibodies: Past, Present, and Future - CHEMICAL BIOLOGYCatalytic Antibodies: Past, Present, and Future - CHEMICAL BIOLOGY

... - reflects the multidimensional character of chemical ... Catalytic antibodies. Methods Enzymol. 1991; 203:327-351.. 14. Mayforth RD, Quintans J. Designer and catalytic antibodies. N. ... in the case of catalytic antibodies, the reverse is the case-eliciting catalytic antibodies through biological means provides ... Recent Developments in Catalytic Antibodies. Since the seminal discovery of chemical catalysis by an antibody, numerous complex ...
more infohttps://schoolbag.info/chemistry/chemical_biology/13.html

Anti-platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b catalytic subunit 3 Antibody Products | Biocompare.comAnti-platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b catalytic subunit 3 Antibody Products | Biocompare.com

Compare Anti-platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b catalytic subunit 3 Antibody Products from leading suppliers on ... antibodies-online anti-Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase 1b, Catalytic Subunit 3 (29kDa) (PAFAH1B3) (Middle Region) ... Anti-platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b catalytic subunit 3 Antibody Products. Clear ... Strong Antibody for Autophagy Receptor CALCOCO2 This antibody is good to study calcoco2 as a selective autophagy receptor. read ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110447/soids/2267316/Antibodies/platelet_activating_factor_acetylhydrolase_1b_catalytic_subunit_3
  • In 1993, his group was the first to describe how a catalytic antibody can reroute a chemically disfavored reaction to give an endo Diels-Alder cyclization product rather than the uncatalyzed exo product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditions were found that permit the secretion of active recombinant antibody into the periplasm of a strain of E. coli deficient in the biotin biosynthetic genes (delta bio-gal). (scripps.edu)
  • In addition to demonstrating that the active site of antibody 28B4 does indeed reflect the mechanistic information programmed in the aminophosphonic acid hapten, these high-resolution structures provide a basis for enhancing turnover rates through mutagenesis and improved hapten design. (rcsb.org)
  • The x-ray crystal structures of the sulfide oxidase antibody 28B4 and of antibody 28B4 complexed with hapten have been solved at 2.2-angstrom and 1.9-angstrom resolution, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • Our specific aims i n this proposal are (1) to characterize the catalytic mechanisms and structures of three previously generated catalytic antibodies - a chorismate mutase, nucleoside acylase and cis-- trans enone isomerase. (grantome.com)
  • Catalytic antibodies offer unique capabilities in a range of scenarios, including stereoselective organic synthesis, therapeutic potential in the treatment of disease, the elimination of toxins, the attenuation of agents used in chemical and biological warfare, and cessation of abused and/or addictive drugs. (schoolbag.info)
  • R. Summers, Catalytic Principles of Enzyme Chemistry , Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University (1983). (springer.com)
  • Get access to the best antibodies, discovery platforms, and know-how to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic programs. (abcam.com)
  • Custom antibody development and commercial partnerships to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. (abcam.com)
  • Janda demonstrated that one could manipulate the immune system to generate antibodies against cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody that cross-reacts with smooth muscle collagen and the gluten in wheat, found in the serum of people with celiac sprue and some related autoimmune diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although it has been reported that this antibody reacts with mouse TERT (mTERT) (see Drissi, et al. (rockland-inc.com)
  • When a foreign substance is introduced into the human body, the individual typically reacts by mounting an immune response by generating antibodies to this substance. (justia.com)
  • However, the immune response is not always beneficial, as in the case where the substance provokes an antibody-mediated allergic response. (justia.com)
  • The antibodies can thus recognize and bind only to the invader, identifying it as foreign and leading to its destruction by the rest of the immune system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Action Plan is over 30 roots to carry our Catalytic Antibodies to convey an reaching seller for aspects to search latter in, to Choose routes to send obviously, partially and thereMay in their forces or in & profuse to them. (waynemoran.com)