Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.

Small antibody-like proteins with prescribed ligand specificities derived from the lipocalin fold. (1/137)

We demonstrate that the ligand pocket of a lipocalin from Pieris brassicae, the bilin-binding protein (BBP), can be reshaped by combinatorial protein design such that it recognizes fluorescein, an established immunological hapten. For this purpose 16 residues at the center of the binding site, which is formed by four loops on top of an eight-stranded beta-barrel, were subjected to random mutagenesis. Fluorescein-binding BBP variants were then selected from the mutant library by bacterial phage display. Three variants were identified that complex fluorescein with high affinity, exhibiting dissociation constants as low as 35.2 nM. Notably, one of these variants effects almost complete quenching of the ligand fluorescence, similarly as an anti-fluorescein antibody. Detailed ligand-binding studies and site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated (i) that the molecular recognition of fluorescein is specific and (ii) that charged residues at the center of the pocket are responsible for tight complex formation. Sequence comparison of the BBP variants directed against fluorescein with the wild-type protein and with further variants that were selected against several other ligands revealed that all of the randomized amino acid positions are variable. Hence, a lipocalin can be used for generating molecular pockets with a diversity of shapes. We term this class of engineered proteins "anticalins." Their one-domain scaffold makes them a promising alternative to antibodies to create a stable receptor protein for a ligand of choice.  (+info)

Efficient screening for catalytic antibodies using a short transition-state analog and detailed characterization of selected antibodies. (2/137)

One of the major obstacles to acquiring catalytic antibodies is that it requires labor-intensive procedures to select catalytic antibodies from huge repertories of antibodies. Here, we selected potential catalytic Abs by utilizing their affinity towards a short transition-state analog which contained only the transition-state structural element, and evaluated in detail its efficiency to enrich catalytic Abs. Hybridoma supernatants elicited against a phosphonate derivative, the TSA1, were screened by a three-step screening process: step 1, ELISA for TSA1-BSA; step 2, ELISA for the short TSA4; and step 3, competitive-inhibition by the short TSA2. Only 22. 8% of positive mAbs from step 1 were found to be catalytic. The rate of catalytic Abs increased to 45.7% using screening steps 1 plus 2, and reached 83.3% using all three screening steps. This clearly suggests that our screening protocol is an efficient method to select potential catalytic Abs. Furthermore, we characterized the properties of both the catalytic Abs and the noncatalytic Abs in detail. The catalytic Abs tended to have lower Kd for TSA1 and the short TSA2 than noncatalytic Abs. It was also observed that catalytic Abs showed clear enantiospecificity toward substrate 6 containing d-phenylalanine while noncatalytic Abs did not. The detailed analysis of kinetic and binding parameters for these antibodies gives us further insight into catalytic antibodies.  (+info)

Diverse structural solutions to catalysis in a family of antibodies. (3/137)

BACKGROUND: Small organic molecules coupled to a carrier protein elicit an antibody response on immunisation. The diversity of this response has been found to be very narrow in several cases. Some antibodies also catalyse chemical reactions. Such catalytic antibodies are usually identified among those that bind tightly to an analogue of the transition state (TSA) of the relevant reaction; therefore, catalytic antibodies are also thought to have restricted diversity. To further characterise this diversity, we investigated the structure and biochemistry of the catalytic antibody 7C8, one of the most efficient of those which enhance the hydrolysis of chloramphenicol esters, and compared it to the other catalytic antibodies elicited in the same immunisation. RESULTS: The structure of a complex of the 7C8 antibody Fab fragment with the hapten TSA used to elicit it was determined at 2.2 A resolution. Structural comparison with another catalytic antibody (6D9) raised against the same hapten revealed that the two antibodies use different binding modes. Furthermore, whereas 6D9 catalyses hydrolysis solely by transition-state stabilisation, data on 7C8 show that the two antibodies use mechanisms where the catalytic residue, substrate specificity and rate-limiting step differ. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that substantial diversity may be present among antibodies catalysing the same reaction. Therefore, some of these antibodies represent different starting points for mutagenesis aimed at boosting their activity. This increases the chance of obtaining more proficient catalysts and provides opportunities for tailoring catalysts with different specificities.  (+info)

Evolution of shape complementarity and catalytic efficiency from a primordial antibody template. (4/137)

The crystal structure of an efficient Diels-Alder antibody catalyst at 1.9 angstrom resolution reveals almost perfect shape complementarity with its transition state analog. Comparison with highly related progesterone and Diels-Alderase antibodies that arose from the same primordial germ line template shows the relatively subtle mutational steps that were able to evolve both structural complementarity and catalytic efficiency.  (+info)

A general kinetic approach to investigation of active-site availability in macromolecular catalysts. (5/137)

A potentially general kinetic method for the investigation of active-site availability in preparations of macromolecular catalysts was developed. Three kinetic models were considered: (a) the conventional two-step model of enzyme catalysis, where the preparation contains only active catalyst (E(a)) and inert (i.e. non-binding, non-catalytic) material (E(i)); (b) an extension of the conventional model (a) involving only E(a) and E(i), but with non-productive binding to E(a) (in addition to productive binding); (c) a model in which the preparation contains also binding but non-catalytic material (E(b)), predicted to be present in polyclonal catalytic antibody preparations. The method involves comparing the parameters V(max) and K(m) obtained under catalytic conditions where substrate concentrations greatly exceed catalyst concentration with those (klim/obs, the limiting value of the first-order rate constant, k(obs), at saturating concentrations of catalyst; and Kapp/m) for single-turnover kinetics, in which the reverse situation obtains. The active-site contents of systems that adhere to model (a) or extensions that also lack E(b), such as the non-productive binding model (b), may be calculated using [E(a)](T)=V(max)/klim/obs. This was validated by showing that, for alpha-chymotrypsin, identical values of [E(a)](T) were obtained by the kinetic method using Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-4-nitroanilide as substrate and the well-known 'all-or-none' spectroscopic assay using N-trans-cinnamoylimidazole as titrant. For systems that contain E(b), such as polyclonal catalytic antibody preparations, V(max)/klim/obs is more complex, but provides an upper limit to [E(a)](T). Use of the kinetic method to investigate PCA 271-22, a polyclonal catalytic antibody preparation obtained from the antiserum of sheep 271 in week 22 of the immunization protocol, established that [E(a)](T) is less than approx. 8% of [IgG], and probably less than approx. 1% of [IgG].  (+info)

Cyclic peptide formation catalyzed by an antibody ligase. (6/137)

Cyclic hexapeptides represent a class of compounds with important, diverse biological activities. We report herein that the antibody 16G3 catalyzes the cyclization of d-Trp-Gly-Pal-Pro-Gly-Phe small middle dotp-nitrophenyl ester (8a) to give c-(d-Trp-Gly-Pal-Pro-Gly-l-Phe) (11a). The antibody does not, however, catalyze either epimerization or hydrolysis. The resulting rate enhancement of the cyclization by 16G3 (22-fold) was sufficient to form the desired product in greater than 90% yield. In absolute rate terms, the turnover of 16G3 is estimated to be 2 min(-1). The background rate of epimerization of 8a was reduced from 10 to 1% and hydrolysis from 50 to 4% in the presence of 16G3. As expected, the catalytic effects of 16G3 were blocked by the addition of an amount of the hapten equal to twice the antibody concentration. We also synthesized three diastereomers of 8a: the d-Trp(1)-d-Phe(6) (8b), l-Trp(1)-l-Phe(6) (8c), and l-Trp(1)-d-Phe(6) (8d) hexapeptides as well as d-Trp'-l-Trp(6) (12) and d-Phe'-l-Phe(6) (13). As expected, the rate enhancement by 16G3 was greatest for 8a, because the stereochemistry of Trp(1) and Phe(6) matches that of the corresponding residues on the hapten used to induce the biosynthesis of 16G3. A model of the variable domain of 16G3 was generated from the primary sequence using the antibody structural database to guide the model construction. The resulting model provided support for some previously proposed interpretations of the kinetic data, while providing valuable new insights for others.  (+info)

Mechanism of an antibody-catalysed allylic isomerization. (7/137)

The catalytic antibody 4B2, which was generated against a substituted amidine 1, catalyses the allylic isomerization of beta, gamma-unsaturated ketones with an acceleration factor (k(cat)/k(uncat)) of 1.5x10(3). On the basis of the 'bait and switch' strategy, it was reasoned that the positively charged hapten could elicit, by charge complementarity, an acidic residue (Asp or Glu) in the antibody-binding site in the right position to catalyse this proton transfer reaction. The pH dependence curve of k(cat)/K(m) shows a bell-shaped feature with an optimum at approx. pH 4.5. By cloning and sequencing the light and heavy chains of the 4B2 antibody, we confirmed the presence of several Asp and Glu residues in the complementarity-determining region loops. The antibody catalyses the alpha-proton exchange on the same substrates, demonstrating the involvement of a dienol intermediate in the reaction mechanism. Kinetic studies with (2)H-NMR provide evidence that alpha-proton abstraction is stereospecific. Whether the process involves one or two acid/base residues in this simple proton transfer or whether it is a concerted mechanism is discussed.  (+info)

Using antibody catalysis to study the outcome of multiple evolutionary trials of a chemical task. (8/137)

Catalytic aldolase antibodies generated by immunization with two different, but structurally related, beta-diketone haptens were cloned and sequenced to study similarities and differences between independently evolved catalysts. Kinetic and sequence analysis coupled with mutagenesis, structural, and modeling studies reveal that the defining event in the evolution of these catalysts was a somatic mutation that placed a lysine residue in a deep, yet otherwise unrefined, hydrophobic pocket. We suggest that covalent chemistries may be as readily selected from the immune repertoire as the traditional noncovalent interactions that have formed the basis of immunochemistry until this time. Further, we believe that these experiments recapitulate the defining events in the evolution of nature's enzymes, particularly as they relate to chemical mechanism, catalytic promiscuity, and gene duplication.  (+info)

The present invention relates to catalytic antibodies and a method for producing the same wherein a host is immunized using an antigen chelate or more specifically a stable compound capable of chelating metal ions. The immune response mounted in response to the antigen chelate produces antibodies that are capable of binding both a substrate and a metal ion, thus achieving a metal cofactor assisted reaction.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalytic antibodies. AU - Benkovic, Stephen. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1146/ DO - 10.1146/ M3 - Review article. C2 - 1497313. AN - SCOPUS:0026717963. VL - 61. SP - 29. EP - 54. JO - Annual Review of Biochemistry. JF - Annual Review of Biochemistry. SN - 0066-4154. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystal structure of a glycosylated Fab from an IgM cryoglobulin with properties of a natural proteolytic antibody. AU - Ramsland, Paul A.. AU - Terzyan, Simon S.. AU - Cloud, Gwendolyn. AU - Bourne, Christina R.. AU - Farrugia, William. AU - Tribbick, Gordon. AU - Geysen, H. Mario. AU - Moomaw, Carolyn R.. AU - Slaughter, Clive A.. AU - Edmundson, Allen B.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2006/5/1. Y1 - 2006/5/1. N2 - The 2.6 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm) resolution structure has been determined for the glycosylated Fab (fragment antigen binding) of an IgM (Yvo) obtained from a subject with Waldenströms macroglobulinaemia. Dynamic light scattering was used to estimate the gel point and monitor the formation of an ordered hydroscopic gel of Yvo IgM upon cooling. If a cryoglobulin forms gels in peripheral tissues and organs, the associated swelling and damage to microvasculature can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. The ...
1KNO: Crystal structure of the complex of a catalytic antibody Fab fragment with a transition state analog: structural similarities in esterase-like catalytic antibodies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A light-activated antibody catalyst. AU - Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari. AU - Taylor, Matthew. AU - Hoffman, Timothy. AU - Lerner, Richard. AU - Janda, Kim. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - A catalytic antibody for a multistep Norrish type II photochemical reaction was investigated. Absorption of light energy by α-ketoamide substrate 1b produced a high-energy biradical intermediate, that was then directed by the antibody microenvironment to form tetrahydropyrazine 13 with a kcat of 1.4 × 10-3 min-1 at 280 nm irradiation and an enantiomeric excess of 78%. Antibody-catalyzed reactions performed with radiolabeled substrate indicated that little self-inactivation (6.8 mol % covalent modification after four turnovers per antibody) occurred. The singular product obtained in the antibody-catalyzed reaction was not observed in the uncatalyzed reaction unless the pH was lowered below 4. Studies suggested that the interplay of conformational control and chemical catalysis were responsible for the high ...
Antibodies were raised to a 1-benzazepine hapten (I) and the properties of 2 of the strongly binding clones, designated C3 and C5, as catalysts examd. Neither antibody catalyzed the reaction for which they were first generated, electrophilic substitution in the benzene ring, but C3 catalyzed the hydrolysis of an aralkyl 4-nitrophenyl ester with a rate enhancement of ,106 compared with the background solvolysis rate. The mechanism of the hydrolysis reaction seems to involve general base catalysis on the basis of chem. modification expts. and isotope effects on the reaction rate in D2O. The possibility that C3 might catalyze other reactions (elimination, deuterium exchange, and epoxide opening) was investigated but no other reactions were obsd. In contrast, C5 catalyzed none of the reactions investigated. The properties of the 2 antibodies are discussed with respect to their ability to bind compds. structurally related to the hapten.. ...
Antibody 7A1 hydrolyzes cocaine to produce nonpsychoactive metabolites ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid. Crystal structures of 7A1 Fab and six complexes with substrate cocaine, the transition state analog, products ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid together and individually, as well as h …
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Blood-Derived RNA- and microRNA-Hydrolyzing IgG Antibodies in Schizophrenia Patients. AU - Ermakov, E. A.. AU - Ivanova, S. A.. AU - Buneva, V. N.. AU - Nevinsky, G. A.. PY - 2018/5/1. Y1 - 2018/5/1. N2 - Abzymes with various catalytic activities are the earliest statistically significant markers of existing and developing autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Currently, schizophrenia (SCZD) is not considered to be a typical AID. It was demonstrated recently that antibodies from SCZD patients efficiently hydrolyze DNA and myelin basic protein. Here, we showed for the first time that autoantibodies from 35 SCZD patients efficiently hydrolyze RNA (cCMP , poly(C) , poly(A) , yeast RNA) and analyzed site-specific hydrolysis of microRNAs involved in the regulation of several genes in SCZD (miR-137, miR-9-5p, miR-219-2-3p, and miR-219a-5p). All four microRNAs were cleaved by IgG preparations (n = 21) from SCZD patients in a site-specific manner. The RNase activity of the abzymes correlated with ...
Examines monoclonal antibody synthesis. Discusses expression of MABs in various mammalian systems. Includes a review of research on the expression of antibody fragments in various microbial systems. Describes the use of catalytic antibodies for a variety of applications. Reviews applications of MABs and its fragments.
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Antibodies and their fragments that specifically break down proteins and peptides are found in an autoimmune context, in multiple myeloma and in certain experimental immune responses elicited against viral polypeptides. Studies support the premise that antibodies with catalytic activity are inherent to the immune repertoire, but may be excluded from dominant responses in the healthy immune subject. Two approaches are described that could lead to production of efficient serine protease-like catalytic antibodies. A new method of immunization is proposed to specifically elicit antibodies that utilize covalent reactivity in antigen binding. Antibodies induced in the covalent immunization procedure will be characterized for hydrolytic activity against defined peptide analogs. Differences in the covalent immunization responses in normal and autoimmune mice will be investigated to reveal possible mechanisms of its regulation. Alternatively, covalent binding will be ...
Scripps, which holds an undisclosed royalty interest and equity stake in CovX, stands to receive a percentage of the proceeds from the sale and royalties from any resulting therapies based on the companys catalytic antibody technology - which could eventually rival the multi-billion dollar therapeutic monoclonal antibody market, company officials said.
The structures of AmpC beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli, alone and in complex with a transition-state analogue, have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The native enzyme was determined to 2.0 A resolution, and the structure with the transition-state analogue m-aminophenylboronic acid was …
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Elizabeth Buck, Zhiguo Jake Song, David Tschaen, Peter G Dormer, R P Volante, Paul J Reider].
The Versatile Binding Mode of Transition-State Analogue Inhibitors of Tyrosinase towards Dicopper(II) Model Complexes: Experimental and Theoretical Investigations., Orio, Maylis, Bochot Constance, Dubois Carole, Gellon Gisèle, Hardre Renaud, Jamet Hélène, Luneau Dominique, Philouze Christian, Reglier Marius, Serratrice Guy, et al. , Chem. - A Eur. J., Volume 17, Number 48, p.13482-13494, S13482/1-S13482/19, (2011) ...
Binge drinking is the largest contributor to the high cost of alcohol use, according to the CDC. Binge drinking is defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism as consuming enough alcohol in the span of two hours that blood alcohol concentration levels reach about 0.08g/dL. This comes out to about four drinks in two hours for women, and about five drinks in two hours for men, although this can vary depending on several factors, including body weight, type of drink consumed and whether food and water are also consumed. Binge drinking is responsible for nearly two-thirds of all alcohol-related fatalities (killing 80,000 people per year), and accounts for about $171 billion, or about 70 percent, of alcohols total cost to the U.S. economy. The high cost of binge drinking really isnt such a surprise. Nearly 38 million Americans, including many college students and underage users, participate in binge drinking, with most reporting a binge drinking session at least four times per ...
This work describes a selective and specific sample preparation workflows and superior chromatographic separation of mAb subunit light chains.
The Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most powerful synthetic tools in organic chemistry, and asymmetric Diels-Alder catalysis allows for rapid construction of chiral carbon scaffolds. For this reason, considerable effort has been invested in developing efficient and stereoselective organo- and biocatalysts. However, Diels-Alder is a virtually unknown reaction in Nature, and to engineer an enzyme into a Diels-Alderase is therefore a challenging task. Despite several successful designs of catalytic antibodies since the 1980s, their catalytic activities have remained low, and no true artificial Diels-Alderase enzyme was reported before 2010.. In this thesis, we employ state-of-the-art computational tools to study the mechanism of organocatalyzed Diels-Alder in detail, and to redesign existing enzymes into intermolecular Diels-Alder catalysts. Papers I-IV explore the mechanistic variations when employing increasingly activated reactants and the effect of catalysis. In particular, the ...
Shop Fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate aldolase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate aldolase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
In this study, we used a phenotypic whole-cell selection approach to identify serotype-independent mAbs that mediated OPK activity against P. aeruginosa and inhibited attachment to epithelial cells. The most active antibody in both the OPK and cell attachments assays described in this study, Cam-003, was also shown to be prophylactically protective in three distinct clinically relevant P. aeruginosa murine infection models: pneumonia, thermal injury, and ocular keratitis, which emphasizes the different aspects of opportunistic P. aeruginosa infections. Although whole-cell phage panning approaches have previously been attempted in the identification of mAbs that bind other microorganisms and cancer cells (Reiche et al., 2002; Zou et al., 2007; Beerli et al., 2008; Fukuchi et al., 2010), this is the first example using this approach with both healthy subject and convalescent patient donors in combination with mechanistic activity screening and target identification for a bacterial pathogen. All ...
Rabbit light chain 3315, prepared from a homogeneous antipneumococcal antibody, was subjected to hydrolysis by pepsin without prior reduction and alkylation of the intrachain disulfide bonds. Gel filtration of the hydrolysate on Sephadex G-10, G-15, and G-25 and ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sephadex yielded several disulfide bridge peptides. These were fully reduced and alkylated and sequenced by Edman degradation. The peptides were located in the light chain sequence determined in independent studies from our laboratory.. The half-cystine residues in this κB rabbit chain are located at positions 23, 80, 88, 134, 171, 194, and 214. The extra disulfide bridge extends between residues 80 and 171, thus joining the variable and constant domains. This is consistent with x-ray diffraction crystallographic studies showing that the corresponding residues in human light chains are separated by a distance compatible with disulfide bond formation.. ...
Korean heritage; majors in chemistry at Cornell University; works as an undergraduate research assistant in the George P. Hess laboratory; enters the Medical Scientist Training Program at Stanford University; focus on proteins and protein folding; pulse-labeling proteins with Robert L. Baldwin; studying synthetic peptides; catalytic antibody research; scientists need to communicate with laypeople; interest in developing pharmaceuticals; establishes a lab at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research; develops a peptide model of a protein folding intermediate; Terrence G. Oas; research on leucine zippers and coiled coils; viral fusion proteins; the therapeutic potential of peptides; the funding of scientific research; teaching; developing computational methods to predict protein folding structures; effects of computer modeling on structural biology; involvement in biotechnology companies; David Baltimore; the investigation of scientific fraud ...
It is known that intranuclear histones can be pernicious after entering to the extracellular space. In addition, the immunization of animals with exogenous histones leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic reactions. Abzymes—autoantibodies with enzymatic activities—are the distinctive feature of autoimmune diseases and they can be especially dangerous to humans. Here, electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs were isolated from sera of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by chromatography on several affinity sorbents. We present evidence that sera of all MS patients contain autoantibodies against histones and 73% of IgGs purified from the sera of 59 MS patients efficiently hydrolyze from one to five histones: H1, H2a, H2b, H3, and H4. The relative average efficiency of the histones hydrolysis was ~3.9-fold higher than that for healthy donors. The relative average activity of IgGs depends on the type of MS and decreased approximately in the following order: debut of MS, secondary progressive
antibodies is available. The Achilles heel, a tiny stretch of ... can generate abzymes to the Achilles heel of HIV. The human ... sequence that resembles the Achilles heel can explain the production ...
The present invention utilizes two monoclonal antibodies, 679 and hMN14, and two point mutations of 679, (679-VH (I3Q) and 679-VK(C101S)), to produce antigen specific diabodies. In addition, a bispecific diabody is produced from hMN14 and h679, which is obtained by grafting the CDRs of 679 onto a framework of amino acid residues found in human antibodies. The murine monoclonal antibody designated 679 (an IgGl, K) binds with high affinity to molecules containing the moiety histamine-succinyl-glycyl (HSG) (Morel etal, Molecular Immunology, 22, 995-1000, 1990). The nucleotide sequence pertaining to the variable domains (VH and VK) of 679 has been determined (Qu et al., unpublished results). VK is one of two isotypes of the antibody light chains, Vu As depicted in Figure 1, the design of the gene construct (679-scFv-L5) for expressing a 679 diabody possesses the following features: 1) The carboxyl terminal end of VH is linked to the amino terminal end of VK by the peptide linker Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Ser ...
2 questions: myeloma cell lines and mice MABs - posted in Immunology: Dear all, I wanted to post a couple of unrelated questions. I hope someone with more experience can answer them. 1) Is there any advantage/disadvantage in using either NSO or NS-1 myeloma cells for making hybridomas? I have read that NS-1 cells actually produce a non-secreted version of a antibody light chain. However, many labs seem to be using NS-1 for fusion. Are these cells really harmless for monoclonal antibodies?...
Zn(II)-dependent glutaminyl cyclase (QC) converts N-terminal glutamine or glutamate residues of peptides and proteins. The reaction product is in both cases N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pyroGlu). In animals the glutaminyl cyclization is involved in posttranslational modification and activation of peptide-based hormone and chemokine precursors. Recently it was established that the driving force in neurodegenerative processes is the pyroGlu modification at the N-terminus of Aβ peptides processed by QC. This unveils the inhibition of QC as a strategy in AD treatment. The enzyme-specific inhibition is required in order to avoid noxious side effects. The elucidation of the reaction mechanism might make possible the development of mechanism-based QC inhibitors (e.g. transition-state analog compounds). Mechanistic and structural investigations were accomplished using the mitochondrial isoform of QC from Drosophila melanogaster. Regarding enzyme kinetic and structural properties, this enzyme is highly ...
Mannonojiritetrazole (7), a novel mannosidase inhibitor, has been synthesized in six steps from 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-D-mannose oxime. The structure of 7 has been established by X-ray analysis. The solid state conformation of 7 is H-6(7) (=H-4(3), numbering based on carbohydrate nomenclature), and the conformation in CD3OD is close to S-7 (sofa; = S-3, numbering based upon carbohydrate nomenclature), while the conformation of the previously synthesized analogue with the gluco configuration (6) is H-6(7), both in the solid state and in solution in D2O or CD3OD. Both 6 and 7 have been tested as inhibitors of each of a series of five alpha- and beta-glucosidases and -mannosidases as well as of a beta-galactosidase, and inhibition constants have been determined. A good correlation (p = 0.9) was found between log K-i for each inhibitor-enzyme pair and log (V-m/K-m) for the corresponding substrate-enzyme pair, thereby providing the first such proof for any glycosidase inhibitor being a transition ...
1IEL: Structures of ceftazidime and its transition-state analogue in complex with AmpC beta-lactamase: implications for resistance mutations and inhibitor design.
to the similar functions with natural enzymes, maturing preparation methods and other advantages compared with natural enzymes. In order to know well about the prodrug activation mediated by MEMs, the cases of practical and potential prodrug activation are listed in Table 2. Although the perfect examples for practical prodrug activation are relative less, ones for potential prodrug activation are more and inspiring. The potential prodrug activation can be classified into two types. In type I, the true MEMs should be completed by loading the naked catalytic cores into the scaffolds. In type II, many perfect MEMs have been used for catalyzing the model molecules, whose catalytic styles just correspond to some practical prodrug activations by natural enzymes. Therefore, these MEMs are greatly potential for practical activation. In order to improve the effectiveness and usability of the prodrug activation mediated by MEMs, some further studies are interesting and essential. First, the exploration of ...
The Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most powerful synthetic tools in organic chemistry, and asymmetric Diels-Alder catalysis allows for rapid construction of chiral carbon scaffolds. For this reason, considerable effort has been invested in developing efficient and stereoselective organo- and biocatalysts. However, Diels-Alder is a virtually unknown reaction in Nature, and to engineer an enzyme into a Diels-Alderase is therefore a challenging task. Despite several successful designs of catalytic antibodies since the 1980s, their catalytic activities have remained low, and no true artificial Diels-Alderase enzyme was reported before 2010.. In this thesis, we employ state-of-the-art computational tools to study the mechanism of organocatalyzed Diels-Alder in detail, and to redesign existing enzymes into intermolecular Diels-Alder catalysts. Papers I-IV explore the mechanistic variations when employing increasingly activated reactants and the effect of catalysis. In particular, the ...
Clinical measurements were obtained for Ramfjords six teeth (16, 21, 24, 36, 41, and 44 in the FDI two-digit notation system) in all subjects). The deepest probing depth (DPD), mean probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and OLeary plaque control record (PCR) were recorded. When one of the selected teeth was missing from the oral cavity, data were obtained from an adjacent tooth in the same area of the jaw. Two weeks after the first clinical measurement, all participants received full-mouth scaling and root planning, followed by professional mechanical tooth cleaning (PMTC). All procedures were performed by two trained periodontists. After that, the subjects in the test (IgY-GP) group took tablets containing anti-gingipain egg yolk antibodies (100 mg/tablet), without chewing, three times a day after a meal or brushing. Tablets stayed in the mouth for 3 to 5 minutes. Eight hours after two minutes mouth rinse with egg yolk immunoglobulin, active antibodies detected in the saliva from 18 ...
A simple receptor and substrate are used to probe the relationship between transition-state charge and the level of rate acceleration that can be created by stabilizing the transition state through hydrogen bonding. Pericyclic reactions are accelerated less than 2-fold by the receptor, whereas a conjugate addition reaction is accelerated more than 30-fold. Therefore, substrate polarization by hydrogen bonding would only appear to be effective for reactions that generate significant charge at the transition state.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Large Rate Enhancement for the Hydrolysis of a Four-membered Ring Phosphonamidate. AU - Laws, Andrew P.. AU - Stone, Julian R.. AU - Page, Michael I.. PY - 1994/5/21. Y1 - 1994/5/21. N2 - Unlike β-lactams a four-membered cyclic 1,2-azaphosphetidine shows enhanced hydrolytic reactivity compared with an acyclic analogue; the cyclic phosphonamidate 3 undergoes hydroxide-ion catalysed hydrolysis in water with endocyclic P-N fission; a corresponding acyclic derivative hydrolyses with P-O fission in basic solution, the rate difference between the cyclic and acyclic structures for P-N fission is greater than 5×108.. AB - Unlike β-lactams a four-membered cyclic 1,2-azaphosphetidine shows enhanced hydrolytic reactivity compared with an acyclic analogue; the cyclic phosphonamidate 3 undergoes hydroxide-ion catalysed hydrolysis in water with endocyclic P-N fission; a corresponding acyclic derivative hydrolyses with P-O fission in basic solution, the rate difference between the cyclic and ...
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Essays DOI: 10.1002/anie.200702210 Organocatalysis Organocatalysis Lost: Modern Chemistry, Ancient Chemistry, and an Unseen Biosynthetic Apparatus Carlos F. Barbas III* aldolases · asymmetric synthesis · biosynthesis · catalytic antibodies · organocatalysis Since the year 2000 there has been explosive growth in an area of catalytic asymmetric synthesis now known as organocatalysis, catalysis mediated solely by small organic molecules.[1] A large number of powerful asymmetric bondforming reactions and stunning cascade reactions have been reported that allow for the enantioselective synthesis of molecules with unprecedented ease. A substantial portion of this new work is founded on enamine and iminium ion based catalysis. Given the historically deep roots of this type of catalysis, why did decades pass before the basic concepts, hidden in the landmark work of Hajos and Parrish, were unveiled and exploited? I believe the answer is complex and unknowable with complete certainty, but likely ...
Shop Fructose-6-phosphate aldolase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Fructose-6-phosphate aldolase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Royersford, PA, May 29, 2019. Abzyme Therapeutics LLC, a biotech company focused on developing antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, has been awarded a $299,808 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I Contract by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for implementation of strategies to improve HIV envelope protein expression and yield.. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) SBIR program is a highly competitive program for small businesses that seeks to commercialize innovative technologies with biomedical applications. This highly competitive program helps small businesses participate in federal research and development, develop life-saving technologies, and create jobs.. The promising efficacy seen in the clinical trials of HIV-1 vaccine RV144 creates a critical need for new strategies/technologies that enable development of high yielding GMP manufacturing processes for HIV antigens. Current production processes are low yielding and commercially ...
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Think of the Edwards University Summer Program as our way of setting you up for success. Youll gain insight into our culture through a combination of instructor-led courses and self-directed online learning courses. You can also get advice from recent new grad peers regarding the best way to bridge the gap between your academic life and your professional future. More importantly, the program allows you to quickly build relationships and form connections that will last for years to come through networking events with peers, mentors, and senior leaders. Youll find motivation and inspiration in a culture that emphasizes passion for our patients as you discover your own strengths.. ...
Phosphonate - Search and browse products and chemical formulations for your market. Filter products by market, construction, function, manufacturer or segment.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Atomic dissection of the hydrogen bond network for transition-state analogue binding to purine nucleoside phosphorylase. AU - Kicska, Greg A.. AU - Tyler, Peter C.. AU - Evans, Gary B.. AU - Furneaux, Richard H.. AU - Shi, Wuxian. AU - Fedorov, Alexander. AU - Lewandowicz, Andrzej. AU - Cahill, Sean M.. AU - Almo, Steven C.. AU - Schramm, Vern L.. PY - 2002/12/10. Y1 - 2002/12/10. N2 - Immucillin-H (ImmH) and immucillin-G (ImmG) were previously reported as transition-state analogues for bovine purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and are the most powerful inhibitors reported for the enzyme (KI* = 23 and 30 pM). Sixteen new immucillins are used to probe the atomic interactions that cause tight binding for bovine PNP. Eight analogues of ImmH are identified with equilibrium dissociation constants of 1 nM or below. A novel crystal structure of bovine PNP - ImmG - PO4 is described. Crystal structures of ImmH and ImmG bound to bovine PNP indicate that nearly every H-bond donor/ ...
In this work, platinum (Pt), titanium (Ti) and silver (Ag) doped graphene oxide (GO) nanostructures were synthesized by using sonochemical technique, a relatively new technique in nanomaterial synthesis, and characterized in detail. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized utulizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). TEM images and XPS spectras showed that the dopping process was successful. In addition, a multilayer graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (M-GO-AgNPs) nano-structure was synthesized in this study for the first time, and its electrochemical performance was compared with GO-AgNPs. As a result of electrochemical studies, the rate constants of the GO-AgNPs and M-GO-AgNPs modified electrodes were found as ksanodic= 6.62 s-1 and ksanodic= 6.78 s-1, respectively. Finally, the M-GO-AgNPs nano-structure obtained by sonochemical technique, a green chemistry synthesis technique, has been found to be suitable for use as an electrochemical ...
Hotta, K.; Lange, H.; Tantillo, D. J.; Houk, K. N.; Hilvert, D.; Wilson, I. A. J. Mol. Biol. 2000, 302, 1213-1225: Catalysis of Decarboxylation by a Preorganized Heterogenous Microenvironment: Crystal Structures of Abzyme 21D8. Ujaque, G.; Tantillo, D. J.; Hu, Y.; Houk, K. N.; Hotta, K.; Hilvert, D. J. Comp. Chem. 2002, 24, 98-110: Catalysis on the Coastline: Theozyme, Molecular Dynamics, and Free Energy Perturbation Analysis of Antibody 21D8 Catalysis of the Decarboxylation of 5-Nitro-3-Carboxybenzisoxazole, part of a special issue honoring Dr. Peter A. Kollman.. Dean J. Tantillo and K. N. Houk: Analogies Between Antibody Hydrolases and Decarboxylases Poster presented at the 5th Annual Maria Goeppert-Mayer Interdisciplinary Symposium, San Diego, CA, March 4, 2000.. Dean J. Tantillo, Kinya Hotta, Donald Hilvert, and K. N. Houk: Origins of Catalysis and Cross-Reactivity for an Antibody Decarboxylase Poster presented at the 219th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, March 26-30, 2000; ...
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The SE-5175 Series Sensor/Transmitters utilize electrochemical type cells to detect the target gas. Perfect for your application.
The HORTINLEA project started in July 2013 and runs for three years with a total budget of approximately 1.5 million euros per year. Two additional ye... ...
Dive into the research topics of Recent advances in the chemistry of selenium-containing heterocycles: Six-membered ring systems. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Choi, S.-h.; Mansoorabadi, S. O.; Liu, Y.-n.; Chien, T.-C.; Liu, H.-w. Analysis of UDP-D-Apiose/UDP-D-Xylose Synthase Catalzyed Conversion of UDP-D-Apiose Phosphonate to UDP-D-Xylose Phosphonate: Implications for a Retroaldol-Aldol Mechanism. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13946-13949 ...
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... from catalytic monoclonal antibody), and most often called catalytic antibody or sometimes catab, is a monoclonal antibody with ... So far, all catalytic antibodies produced have displayed only modest, weak catalytic activity. The reasons for low catalytic ... Planque, S; Nishiyama, Y; Taguchi, H; Salas, M; Hanson, C; Paul, S (2008). "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and ... Baron, D. (January 1992). "[Catalytic antibodies]". Die Naturwissenschaften. 79 (1): 15-22. doi:10.1007/BF01132273. ISSN 0028- ...
Such catalytic antibodies are sometimes called "abzymes". Estimates are that 90% of all commercially produced chemical products ... ISBN 1-57259-153-6. Catalytic Antibodies Simply Explained. (2010-03-06). Retrieved on 2015-11-11. Solovev, ... Catalytic heaters generate flameless heat from a supply of combustible fuel. Some of the largest-scale chemicals are produced ... Some monoclonal antibodies whose binding target is a stable molecule that resembles the transition state of a chemical reaction ...
In 1993, his group was the first to describe how a catalytic antibody can reroute a chemically disfavored reaction to give an ... Janda's independent career started working on catalytic antibodies. ... Gao, C.; Mao, S.; Lo, C.-H. L.; Wirsching, P.; Lerner, R. A.; Janda, K. D. (May 25, 1999). "Making artificial antibodies: A ... Janda has also worked creating peptide and antibody molecules for the treatment of cancer. By employing a novel approach, he ...
He created the first commercially catalytic antibodies in the world. Catalytic antibody are capable of accomplishing the tasks ... These antibodies are programmed with chemical methods and specialized in treatments of chronic illnesses due to its ability to ... The main aim of founding this company is to put his research on antibodies into new therapies with the new technology. From ... This time, Barbas dedicated to develop the next generation of drugs with the help of the antibodies invented in his researches ...
Many catalytic antibodies were developed and studied using this approach. A problem with transition state analogue selection ... The catalytic cycle is almost the same as that in nature, except the substrate is an aromatic aldehyde rather than pyruvate. ... This cyclodextrin catalytic system mimics ribonuclease A by its use of a neutral imidazole and an imidazolium cation to ... Assuming that catalytic activity largely depends on the catalyst's affinity to the transition state, one could synthesize a ...
Tanaka S, Hu SZ, Wang TS, Korn D (July 1982). "Preparation and preliminary characterization of monoclonal antibodies against ... DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLA1 gene. This gene encodes the p180 ... The Pol α complex (pol α-DNA primase complex) consists of four subunits: the catalytic subunit POLA1, the regulatory subunit ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human DNA polymerase alpha catalytic ...
"Anti-Cocaine Catalytic Antibodies: A Synthetic Approach to Improved Antibody Diversity". Journal of the American Chemical ... Catalytic antibodies against cocaine and methods of using and producing same Google patents US 6566084 B1 Deng, Shixian; Bharat ... "A catalytic antibody against cocaine prevents cocaine's reinforcing and toxic effects in rats". Proceedings of the National ... octane-2-carboxamido-hexanoic acid Cocaine haptens that create catalytic anti-bodies require transitional states as affected in ...
Kuhar MJ, Carroll FI, Bharat N, Landry DW (August 2001). "Anticocaine catalytic antibodies have no affinity for RTI compounds: ...
Wagner, J; Lerner, RA; Barbas, CF (December 1995). "Efficient aldolase catalytic antibodies that use the enamine mechanism of ... This is the same mechanism proposed by Barbas for aldolase antibodies reported by the group in 1995: This enamine mechanism ... Discovered in the 1970s the original Hajos-Parrish catalytic procedure - shown in the reaction equation, leading to the ... As shown above, Hajos and Parrish worked at ambient temperature in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent using a catalytic amount (3 ...
"Catalytic domain of PDC-E2 contains epitopes recognized by antimitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis". World ... These are called anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), respectively. These antibodies are ... The catalytic domains are assembled into trimers with the active site located at the subunit interface. The topology of this ... that peptides within the catalytic site may present the immunodominant epitopes recognized by the anti-PDC-E2 antibodies in PBC ...
... McNutt, Markey C.; Lagace, Thomas A.; Horton, Jay D. (2007). "Catalytic Activity is Not Required for ... a peptide recognized by an antibody (GAPVPYPDPLEPR) FLAG-tag, a peptide recognized by an antibody (DYKDDDDK) HA-tag, a peptide ... a peptide recognized by an antibody (GKPIPNPLLGLDST) VSV-tag, a peptide recognized by an antibody (YTDIEMNRLGK) Xpress tag ( ... The tag is recognized by a repertoire of single-domain antibodies AviTag, a peptide allowing biotinylation by the enzyme BirA ...
November 1995). "Generation of polyclonal catalytic antibodies against cocaine using transition state analogs of cocaine ...
The catalytic site of the NA has eight functional residues ( R118, D151, R152, R224, E276, R292, R371, and Y406) surrounded by ... doi: doi:10.1056/NEJMra050740 Colman, P.M. (1994) Influenza virus neuraminidase: Structure, antibodies, and inhibitors.Protein ... There are four steps of catalytic pathways. In the first step, the binding step, the carboxylate group changes from the axial ... Influenza viruses that have reduced sensitivity to NAIs often contain mutation that affect the shape of the NA catalytic site ...
Purification, characterization and catalytic properties". The Biochemical Journal. 271 (1): 75-86. doi:10.1042/bj2710075. PMC ... Daniele A, Di Natale P (Mar 1987). "Hunter syndrome: presence of material cross-reacting with antibodies against iduronate ...
Although their catalytic activities are only rarely strong enough to be of practical use, catalytic antibodies have provided ... One of his papers in 2013 PNAS about making more stable antibodies was retracted, due to suspect data from co-author Shiladitya ... Schultz showed that the natural molecular diversity of the immune system could be directed to generate catalytic antibodies. ... His interests are extremely wide-ranging, with applications in such diverse areas as catalytic mechanisms, cell-specialization ...
The Ser-His-Asp triad has been inserted into an antibody, as well as a range of other proteins. Similarly, catalytic triad ... 2007). "Design of a serine protease-like catalytic triad on an antibody light chain displayed on the yeast cell surface". Appl ... A catalytic triad is a set of three coordinated amino acids that can be found in the active site of some enzymes. Catalytic ... Non-catalytic proteins have been used as scaffolds, having catalytic triads inserted into them which were then improved by ...
The catalytic relevance was examined with single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCN) field effect transistors (FETs), where a ... Grivel JC, Smith-Gill SJ (1996). Lysozyme: Antigenic structure as defined by antibody and T cell responses. CRC Press. pp. 91- ... For example, blocking the catalytic activity of lysozyme by mutation of critical amino acid in the active site (52-Asp -> 52- ... The Phillips mechanism proposed that the enzyme's catalytic power came from both steric strain on the bound substrate and ...
A number of monoclonal antibodies that bind to and inhibit PCSK9 near the catalytic domain were in clinical trials as of 2014[ ... A possible side effect of the monoclonal antibody might be irritation at the injection site. Before the infusions, participants ... A meta-analysis of 24 clinical trials has shown that monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 can reduce cholesterol, cardiac events ... Among those inhibitors under development in December 2013 were the antibodies alirocumab, evolocumab, 1D05-IgG2 (Merck), RG- ...
Example 3. An untagged primary antibody is detected using a general secondary antibody that recognises all antibodies ... Other catalytic enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase can be used instead of peroxidases for both direct and indirect staining ... Monoclonal antibodies that consist of only one type of antibody tend to provide greater antigen specificity, and also tend to ... These stains use antibodies to bind to specific antigens, usually of protein or glycoprotein origin. Since antibodies are ...
Fragment A contains the catalytic C domain, and fragment B consists of the T and R domains: The amino-terminal catalytic domain ... It uses diphtheria toxin (truncated by the cell binding domain) coupled to an antibody to CD3ε (UCHT1). Similar to other A-B ... This unique ability can be repurposed to deliver therapeutic proteins, instead of the catalytic domain of the toxin. This toxin ...
The catalytic subunit of the complex has been identified as the product of ESA1, an essential gene required for cell cycle ... Antibodies against Esa1p specifically immunoprecipitate NuA4 activity whereas the complex purified from a temperature-sensitive ... In yeast, the complex has 13 subunits, including the catalytic subunit Esa1 (homologous to human Tip60). Post-translational ...
The Nck (non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1) belongs to the adaptor family of proteins. The nck gene was ... "The SH2/SH3 domain-containing protein Nck is recognized by certain anti-phospholipase C-gamma 1 monoclonal antibodies, and its ... initially isolated from a human melanoma cDNA library using a monoclonal antibody produced against the human melanoma- ...
By selecting for catalytic proteins/RNAs, new variants with novel or improved enzymatic property are usually isolated. For ... the most commonly evolved phenotypes are peptide/proteins that have selective affinity to a specific antibody or DNA molecule. ... The second advantage is that IVC allows the selection of catalytic molecules. As an example, Griffiths et al. was able to ... select for phosphotriesterase variants with higher Kcat by detecting product formation and amount using anti-product antibody ...
However, when these antibodies are immobilized (either by secondary antibody bound to plastic or by Fc receptors on other cells ... Non-catalytic tyrosine-phosphorylated receptor T-cell receptor Murphy, Kenneth (2017). Janeway's immunobiology (9th ed.). New ... Immobilized superagonistic antibodies bound to CD28 exclude CD45 phosphatases completely and the signal leading to T-cell ... Its might also be applicable to other receptors of the Non-catalytic tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors family such as CD28. On ...
2020: Research and educational center for biosynthesis, isolation and purification of monoclonal antibodies, a number of ... educational and research center for catalytic and mass transfer processes; precision information-measuring analytical systems. ...
Antibody-antigen interactions can also be used for serological testing, or the detection of circulating antibodies in response ... The catalytic activity of enzymes also allows lower limits of detection compared to common binding techniques. However, the ... There are limitations with using antibodies in sensors: 1. The antibody binding capacity is strongly dependent on assay ... Crivianu-Gaita, V; Thompson, M (November 2016). "Aptamers, antibody scFv, and antibody Fab' fragments: An overview and ...
Herceptin, a monoclonal antibody that is capable of binding to the extracellular domain of RTKs, has been used to treat HER2 ... Drugs have been developed to target the extracellular domain or the catalytic domain, thus inhibiting ligand binding, receptor ... The intracellular C terminal region displays the highest level of conservation and comprises catalytic domains responsible for ... Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTPs) are a group of enzymes that possess a catalytic domain with phosphotyrosine-specific ...
Type II (AB): RIPs-II are composed of an A domain with similar catalytic activity to Type I RIPs, and a B domain with ... RIPs have been of considerable interest because of their potential use, conjugated with monoclonal antibodies, as immunotoxins ... A conserved glutamic residue has been implicated in the catalytic mechanism; this lies near a conserved arginine, which also ...
In eukaryotes, it is an obligate heterotrimer composed of a catalytic subunit A and structural subunits B and C. While the A ... "Identification and characterization of HIV-specific RNase H by monoclonal antibody". The EMBO Journal. 7 (1): 239-43. doi: ... Tadokoro T, Kanaya S (March 2009). "Ribonuclease H: molecular diversities, substrate binding domains, and catalytic mechanism ... the catalytic subunit of the trimeric H2 complex RNASEH2B, a structural subunit of the trimeric H2 complex RNASEH2C, a ...
... the family is named after antibodies (also called immunoglobulins). The TCR is similar to a half-antibody consisting of a ... Essen LO, Perisic O, Katan M, Wu Y, Roberts MF, Williams RL (February 1997). "Structural mapping of the catalytic mechanism for ... Whereas the antibody uses its Fc region to bind to Fc Receptors on leukocytes, TCR is already docked onto the cell membrane. ... The generation of TCR diversity is similar to that for antibodies and B-cell antigen receptors. It arises mainly from genetic ...
... catalytic domain - CCR5 receptor - CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion ... antibody - apoenzyme - apolipoprotein - apoptosis - aquaporin - archaea - arginine - argipressin - aromatic amine - aromatic ... monoclonal antibody - monomer - monosaccharide - monosaccharide transport protein - morphogenesis - morphogenetic field - mos ...
The interplay between binding energy and catalysis in the evolution of a catalytic antibody Nature 389: 271-5 G. J. Wedemayer, ... Blue-fluorescent antibodies Science 290: 307-13 " ... P. A. Patten, L. H. Wang, P. G. Schultz and R. C. Stevens (1997) Structural insights into the evolution of an antibody ... Immunological origins of binding and catalysis in a Diels-Alderase antibody Science 279: 1929-33 A. Simeonov, M. Matsushita, E ...
Immunofluorescence and antibody techniques were used to localise the mutant V12rac1 protein after being microinjected into the ... Direct selection on these mutants allowed catalytic properties of B-lactamase to be identified and allowed structure-function ... the staining of the cells with antibodies showed that the increases in neurite branching was directly linked to the presence of ...
A two-water catalytic model was proposed and confirmed by an alternate method to track Kinesin-5 catalysis in real-time and in ... "Evidence for kinesin-related proteins in the mitotic apparatus using peptide antibodies". J Cell Sci. 101 (Pt 2): 303-13. doi: ... Two-water catalytic models also are proposed in a divergent motor protein, myosin, and observed experimentally in one of its ... For inhibitors that bind to the L5 pocket, the mechanism of inhibition is that they slow ADP release from the catalytic active ...
... and a single intracellular catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The catalytic domain of this PTP is most ... 1998). "Antibodies to the protein tyrosine phosphatases IAR and IA-2 are associated with progression to insulin-dependent ...
Antibodies are as specific as siRNA, but it is limited by only being able to be used against ligands or surface receptors. On ... RISC has a catalytic component Argonaute, which is an endonuclease capable of degrading messenger RNA (mRNA). Dicer was given ... overhang of dsRNA while the RNaseIII catalytic domains form a pseudo-dimer around the dsRNA to initiate cleavage of the strands ... would be the specificity and diversity of targets it can affect compared to what is currently being used such as antibodies or ...
The encoded enzyme contains a hydrolase domain at the N-terminal portion, a serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic domain in ... an interaction is inferred when a bait protein is affinity captured from cell extracts by either polyclonal antibody or epitope ...
Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to ubiquitin can identify abnormal accumulations of this protein inside cells, indicating ... They are characterised by their highly conserved structure, known as the ubiquitin-conjugating catalytic (UBC) fold. Ligation: ...
... consists of four apple domains, that create a disk-like platform around the base of a fifth, catalytic serine ... and Milvexian as well as the monoclonal anti-factor XI antibody Abelacimab (MAA868). Contact activation pathway (also known as ... This results in a partial detachment of the catalytic domain from the disk-like apple domains, still linked to the fourth ... In the homodimer, the apple domains create two disk-like platforms connected together at an angle, with the catalytic domains ...
Data obtained by using antibodies that detect specific isoforms of DMPK indicate that the most abundant isoform of DMPK is an ... The kinase domain is in an active conformation, with a fully ordered and correctly positioned aC helix, and catalytic residues ... Although DMPK lacks obvious binding sites for known G, DMPK-1 oligomers exhibit low basal catalytic activity due to the ... Lam LT, Pham YC, Nguyen TM, Morris GE (September 2000). "Characterization of a monoclonal antibody panel shows that the ...
Uracil is also introduced into DNA as part of antibody gene diversification and its removal is critical to antibody ... "Mutational analysis of the damage-recognition and catalytic mechanism of human SMUG1 DNA glycosylase". Nucleic Acids Research. ... UNG is known to be the major player in uracil removal but when depleted SMUG1 can provide a backup for UNG in the antibody ...
The sensors bind to 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and is capable of selective binding with antibodies. The presence of 8- ... The membranes are more effective at elevated temperatures and when covered with catalytic nanoparticles such as platinum. ... atomic thickness and molecularly gateable structure make antibody-functionalized graphene sheets excellent candidates for ...
The Cre transposase is important in the catalytic cleavage of the base pairs present at the carefully positioned loxP sites, ... transplanted organ occurs upon the organ's contact with blood from the recipient due to the recognition of foreign antibodies ... Therefore, further research is being conducted.[citation needed] Transgenic microorganisms capable of producing catalytic ...
The enzyme is thought to use the same catalytic mechanisms for both glucose ring-opening and isomerization for the ... It induces immunoglobulin secretion in B cells as part of a response that activates antibody-secreting cells. Cloning ... implications for catalytic mechanism, cytokine activity and haemolytic anaemia". Journal of Molecular Biology. 309 (2): 447-463 ... the dimer structure of this enzyme is critical to its catalytic function. It is hypothesized that serine phosphorylation of ...
Moroni M, Sartore-Bianchi A, Benvenuti S, Artale S, Bardelli A, Siena S (November 2005). "Somatic mutation of EGFR catalytic ... "PIK3CA mutations in colorectal cancer are associated with clinical resistance to EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies". Cancer ... "Multi-determinants analysis of molecular alterations for predicting clinical benefit to EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies in ... signaling pathway impairs the response of metastatic colorectal cancers to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody ...
MuSK antibodies, and low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 4 antibodies (LRP4-Ab). Antibody binding to their ... "Additive neuroprotective effects of a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a catalytic antioxidant in a transgenic mouse model of ... Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease affecting synapses at the neuromuscular junction, whereby antibodies produced ... 5p and miR-21-5p are consistently shown to be elevated in myasthenia gravis patients with acetylcholinergic receptor antibodies ...
The catalytic triad , located in the active site is formed by three hydrogen-bonded amino acid residues (H71, D119, S214), and ... Method of detection: Sandwich ELISA with two monoclonal antibodies highly specific for human pancreatic elastase 1 The ELISA ...
There are currently no therapeutic approaches targeting CASS4, and in the absence of a catalytic domain and no extracellular ... a humanized monoclonal anti-IL-5 antibodies which reduces excessive eosinophilia). This suggests CASS4 activity may be ...
Administration of antibodies that bind and block the activity of some endogenous opioids (not β-endorphin) also block the ... the catalytic action rapidly becomes secondary, as thermal autodecomposition becomes dominant. In a vacuum thruster, this may ... "Manufacture of Nitrous Oxide by the Catalytic Oxidation of Ammonia". The Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Japan. 64 ...
Antibodies against HSP60 targeted both the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic form. Nonetheless, antibodies against the signal ... These catalytic gps included gp31. The bacterium E. coli is the host for phage T4, and the phage encoded gp31 protein appears ... These new antibodies are then recognizing and attacking human HSP60 which causes an autoimmune disease. This suggests that ... experiments have been performed which have shown that antibodies which are "generated by a human host after exposure to ...
Xue T, Xue XP, Huang QS, Wei L, Sun K, Xue T (August 2009). "Monoclonal antibodies against human aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta- ... December 2000). "Aspartyl beta -hydroxylase (Asph) and an evolutionarily conserved isoform of Asph missing the catalytic domain ... the coding of catalytic domains, and tissue expression. Variation among these transcripts impacts their functions which involve ... beta-hydroxylase monoclonal antibodies: potential biomarkers for pancreatic carcinoma". Pancreas. 25 (1): 39-44. doi:10.1097/ ...
Rational design of a protein relies on an in-depth knowledge of the protein structure, as well as its catalytic mechanism. ... Hawkins RE, Russell SJ, Winter G (August 1992). "Selection of phage antibodies by binding affinity. Mimicking affinity ... This approach, however, only selects for single catalytic turnover and is not a good model of substrate binding or true ... Improvement of the assayed activity can be due to improvements in enzyme catalytic activity or enzyme concentration. There is ...
In the absence of ligand, PDGFRβ adopts an inactive conformation in which the activation loop folds over the catalytic site, ... For instance, forcing PDGFRβ into close proximity of each other by overexpression or with antibodies directed against the ...
They are flanked by the catalytic core and include regions that auto-inhibit the catalytic domains. They also target sequences ... Further research in the field along with increased availability of monoclonal antibodies has shown that various ... Class I enzymes all have a catalytic core of at least 250 amino acids whereas Class II enzymes lack such a common feature. ... The catalytic domains of phosphodiesterase 1 (and other types of phosphodiesterases) have three helical subdomains: an N- ...
The L protein also has a catalytic center while the P protein is believed to not have a catalytic center. There is evidence ... Additionally, a monoclonal antibody with neutralizing functionality has been demonstrated to target antigenic site I. Other ... Upon viral entry into the body and also after vaccination, the body produces virus neutralizing antibodies which bind and ... The epitopes which bind neutralizing antibodies are both linear and conformational. All extant rabies viruses appear to have ...
For example, p27Kip1 binds to cyclin D either alone, or when complexed to its catalytic subunit CDK4. In doing so p27Kip1 ... Le XF, Pruefer F, Bast RC (2006). "HER2-targeting antibodies modulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 via ... inhibits the catalytic activity of Cdk4, which means that it prevents Cdk4 from adding phosphate residues to its principal ...
"The covalent binding of daunomycin and adriamycin to antibodies, with retention of both drug and antibody activities". Cancer ... In 1971, Wilchek and colleagues applied this method to show that protein kinase is composed of regulatory and catalytic ... Using this method, Wilchek collaborated with a team who proved that the binding site of antibodies lies in the Fv portion of ... Early in the 1970s, they exploited Avidin as a probe and developed new methods and reagents to biotinylate antibodies and other ...
... from the monoclonal catalytic antibody C3 in Escherichia coli. The antibody C3 was developed by Khalaf, Suckling, Stimson et al ... Expression of catalytic antibody C3 esterase scFv in Escherichia coli. Open access status:. An open access version is available ... Expression of catalytic antibody C3 esterase scFv in Escherichia coli. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London ... The SpA- C3V1 failed to exhibit the binding properties of the parent monoclonal antibody C3, it did however exhibit a catalytic ...
An antibody selected for its ability to catalyze a chemical reaction by binding to and stabilizing the transition state ... Retrieved from "" ...
Antibody Product Information Form: Lyophilized Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw ... Anti-Cellulose synthase A catalytic subunit 3 [UDP-forming] ... CESA3 Antibody Data Sheet-PHY2941S 150 μg Rabbit Polyclonal ... Youre reviewing:CESA3 / Anti-Cellulose synthase A catalytic subunit 3 [UDP-forming] Antibody. Your Rating. Rating. 1 star 2 ... It is a catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase terminal complexes (rosettes), required for beta-1,4-glucan microfibril ...
Catalytic Antibody Against Ghrelin to Promote Weight Loss. Regarding: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008, 105(45): 17487-17492. ...
LSBio APOBEC3B Antibodies *NITE Biological Resource Center. * Human cDNA clones used in NEDO Project / AK024854 ... apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3Bprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:17352 See related. Ensembl ... APOBEC3B apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 9582, updated on 4-Dec- ... Multiple roles of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) in human tumors: a pan-cancer analysis. ...
Here we report a novel mechanistic pathway through which DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) modulates ... Antibodies. All antibodies were purchased commercially: anti-DNA-PKcs (H-163, Santa Cruz, CA), anti-Ku70 (H-308, Santa Cruz, CA ... et al. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit modulates the stability of c-Myc oncoprotein. Mol Cancer 7, 32 (2008). ... After precleared with protein A/G-agarose, the supernatants were reacted for 3 h with 2 μg of anti-c-Myc antibody at 4°C ...
Highly specific and rigorously validated in-house, Phospho-CaMKII (Tyr231) Antibody (CST #3356) is ready to ship. ... Polyclonal Antibody for studying CaMK2-beta (Tyr231) phosphate/CaMK2-delta (Tyr231) phosphate/CaMK2-gamma (Tyr231) phosphate/ ... CaMKII has catalytic and regulatory domains. Ca2+/calmodulin binding to the CaMKII regulatory domain relieves autoinhibition ... Primary Antibody Incubation. *Incubate membrane and primary antibody (at the appropriate dilution and diluent as recommended in ...
Enzyme mechanisms and inhibition, catalytic antibodies, stereochemical and other biological probes. Phosphoryl group transfer ... Modern asymmetric reactions including organo catalytic reactions and autocatalytic reactions will also be discussed. Not ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal PI3 Kinase p110 beta antibody [EPR5515(2)]. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF, Flow Cyt (Intra) and ... 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 110 kDa catalytic subunit beta antibody. *5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase catalytic beta polypeptide antibody. *Phosphatidylinositol 4 5 bisphosphate 3 kinase 110 kDa ...
1990 on the subject of catalytic antibodies. The recognition that monoclonal antibodies can possess catalytic activity is a ... Monoclonal Antibodies: Preparation and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies and Engineered Antibody Derivatives ... Catalytic Antibodies. Contains the presentations and discussions that took place during a symposium at the CIBA Foundation on ... Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are: antibodies of exceptional purity and specificity; components of the immune system; able to ...
Order monoclonal and polyclonal PPP1R3A antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-PPP1R3A ... derived from skeletal muscle is a heterodimer composed of a 37-kD catalytic subunit and a 124-kD targeting and regulatory ... GM Antibodies. PP1G Antibodies. PPP1R3 Antibodies. PPP1R3A Antibodies. RG1 Antibodies. RGL Antibodies ... PPP1R3A Antibodies by Reactivity. Find PPP1R3A Antibodies for a variety of species such as anti-Human PPP1R3A, anti-Mouse ...
... as a catalytic subunit to remodel nucleosomes and regulate transcription. Recent biochemica ... Antibodies, Cell Labeling, and FACS® Assays. mAbs used for immunofluorescence are listed in Supplemental Materials and Methods ... The Role of Brg1, a Catalytic Subunit of Mammalian Chromatin-remodeling Complexes, in T Cell Development Thomas C. Gebuhr, ... Targeted mutations of the Brg1 catalytic subunit or two other complex members (INI1-Snf5 and Srg3-Baf155) confer early ...
Catalytic and Noncatalytic Upgrading of Oils. Ajay K. Dalai, Dady B. Dadyburjor, Ying Zheng, Aijun Duan, William Roberts, Sonil ... State-of-the-Art and Emerging Technologies for Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody Characterization Volume 1.. John E. Schiel, ... Catalytic and Noncatalytic Upgrading of Oils. Ajay K. Dalai, Dady B. Dadyburjor, Ying Zheng, Aijun Duan, William Roberts, Sonil ... State-of-the-Art and Emerging Technologies for Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody Characterization Volume 1.. John E. Schiel, ...
Thom R, Tipton T, Strecker T, Hall Y, Akoi Bore J, Maes P, et al. Longitudinal antibody and T cell responses in Ebola virus ... We fit reversible catalytic models to age-specific seroprevalence data by using maximum-likelihood methods (17). Those models ... Ogunro BN, Olugasa BO, Kayode A, Ishola OO, Kolawole ON, Odigie EA, et al. Detection of antibody and antigen for Lassa virus ... Gabriel M, Adomeh DI, Ehimuan J, Oyakhilome J, Omomoh EO, Ighodalo Y, et al. Development and evaluation of antibody-capture ...
View Rabbit Polyclonal anti-MAK3 Antibody (NBP1-70631). Validated Applications: WB, IHC. Validated Species: Human. Sample size ... N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 30, NatC catalytic subunit. *N-acetyltransferase MAK3 homolog. *N-alpha-acetyltransferase 30, NatC ... Reviews for MAK3 Antibody (NBP1-70631) (0) There are no reviews for MAK3 Antibody (NBP1-70631). By submitting a review you will ... PTMs for MAK3 Antibody (NBP1-70631). Learn more about PTMs related to MAK3 Antibody (NBP1-70631). ...
PDB Compounds: (C:) Catalytic antibody 34E4 light chain. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1y18c1:. Sequence; same for both SEQRES ... PDB Description: fab fragment of catalytic elimination antibody 34e4 e(h50)d mutant in complex with hapten ... VL-kappa domains of human and mouse antibodies are clustered by the sequence similarity within the germline encoded segment and ... Family b.1.1.1: V set domains (antibody variable domain-like) [48727] (33 proteins). ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of protein localization to nucleolus pathways, according to their ... Custom Antibody Service. Searching for an antibody we dont offer? We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet,well replace the product at no cost to you ...
The new assay provides a complementary method to the use of antibodies, radioactive markers and labeled substrates. ... Tawfik, D.S., Green, B.S., Chap, R., Sela, M. & Eshhar, Z. CatELISA-a facile general route to catalytic antibodies. Proc. Natl ... Geymayer, P., Bahr, N. & Reymond, J.-L. A general fluorogenic assay for catalysis using antibody sensors. Chem. Eur. J. 5, 1006 ... The new assay provides a complementary method to the use of antibodies, radioactive markers and labeled substrates. ...
Harnessing a catalytic lysine residue for the one-step preparation of homogeneous antibody-drug conjugates.. by Sarah Moniz , ...
Four yeast proteins (Prp16p, Prp17p, Prp18p, and Slu7p) function exclusively in the second catalytic step. Human homologs have ... Four yeast proteins (Prp16p, Prp17p, Prp18p, and Slu7p) function exclusively in the second catalytic step. Human homologs have ... is mediated by spliceosomal complexes and occurs in two distinct catalytic steps. The first step involves cleavage of the 5 ... is mediated by spliceosomal complexes and occurs in two distinct catalytic steps. The first step involves cleavage of the 5 ...
However, the area with which he is most associated is the field of catalytic antibodies where he was a pioneer. Bringing ... He recognised the catalytic power of biological enzymes that carry out a vast range of chemical reactions in physiological ... He coupled this with the novel concept of using antibodies to retain the enzymes while directing them to sites where they are ... At this time his research work contained elements of study of the human antibody response that would inform much of his ...
Antibody - Pan Specific (AF4175). Validated Applications: WB. Validated Species: Human, Mouse, Rat. Sample size available. ... Three catalytic subunit isoforms, C alpha , C beta , and C gamma , have been identified. Upon PKA R subunit binding to the ... Diseases for PKA C (pan) Antibody (AF4175). Discover more about diseases related to PKA C (pan) Antibody (AF4175). ... PTMs for PKA C (pan) Antibody (AF4175). Learn more about PTMs related to PKA C (pan) Antibody (AF4175). ...
APPENDIX: Biochemistry in Focus: Catalytic antibodies demonstrated the importance of selective binding of the transition state ... The Catalytic Role of Histidine 57 Was Demonstrated by Affinity Labeling Serine Is Part of a Catalytic Triad That Includes ... Antibodies to Specific Proteins Can Be Generated Monoclonal Antibodies with Virtually Any Desired Specificity Can Be Readily ... Catalytic Activity Is Regulated The Accessibility of Substrates Is Regulated. APPENDIX: Biochemistry in Focus: Loss of NAD ...
... it has fairly high capture capability and catalytic activity because it is presented as aggregates of abundant antibodies and ... The three-in-one antibody (anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibody)-enzyme (horseradish peroxidase)-inorganic (Cu3(PO4)2) nanoflower has ... The prepared antibody-enzyme-inorganic nanoflower was first applied in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to serve as a novel ... In this work, we first coimmobilized the enzyme, antibody, and Cu3(PO4)2 into a three-in-one hybrid protein-inorganic ...
This finding demonstrates the feasibility of catalytic-antibody generation for chemical transformations that require ... This finding demonstrates the feasibility of catalytic-antibody generation for chemical transformations that require ... This finding demonstrates the feasibility of catalytic-antibody generation for chemical transformations that require ... This finding demonstrates the feasibility of catalytic-antibody generation for chemical transformations that require ...
An antibody with dual catalytic activity. Suckling, C. J., Tedford, M. C., Bence, L. M., Irvine, J. I. & Stimson, W. H., 21 Aug ... Catalytic antibodies: a new window on protein chemistry. Suckling, C. J., Tedford, C. M., Proctor, G. R., Khalaf, A. I., Bence ... Catalytic antibodies: designed and accidental. Suckling, C. J., Stimson, W. H., Proctor, G. R., Bence, L. H., Brooks, L., ...
  • It is a catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase terminal complexes ('rosettes'), required for beta-1,4-glucan microfibril crystallization, a major mechanism of the cell wall formation. (
  • Multiple roles of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) in human tumors: a pan-cancer analysis. (
  • Here we report a novel mechanistic pathway through which DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) modulates the stability of c-Myc protein. (
  • The glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) derived from skeletal muscle is a heterodimer composed of a 37-kD catalytic subunit and a 124-kD targeting and regulatory subunit. (
  • Mammalian SWI-SNF-related complexes use brahma-related gene 1 ( Brg1 ) as a catalytic subunit to remodel nucleosomes and regulate transcription. (
  • Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 3 (proteasome beta 5 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. (
  • Localization of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent. (
  • Congenital FXIII deficiency is due principally to defects in the catalytic A subunit of FXIII, with more than 100 mutations throughout the factor XIII A gene identified. (
  • [ 8 ] Recently, it was observed that RMRP associates with the human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT). (
  • Find available monoclonal or polyclonal PPP1R3A Antibodies. (
  • This is a rabbit polyclonal antibody against NAT12 and was validated on Western blot. (
  • ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on the platinum working electrode by the hydrothermal method, whereas Salmonella polyclonal antibodies were selected and immobilized onto ZnO NR surface via a crosslinking process. (
  • Polyclonal antibody was produced against the catalytic domain of endo-l, 4-ß-glucanase (EGI) from a ruminal anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus albus F-40. (
  • Four yeast proteins (Prp16p, Prp17p, Prp18p, and Slu7p) function exclusively in the second catalytic step. (
  • Both methods yield antibody in solution that is free of most other soluble proteins, lipids, etc. (
  • [ 3 , 4 ] Resistance to NAIs is observed relatively rarely because of the essential catalytic function of these proteins. (
  • Catalytic proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. (
  • Find PPP1R3A Antibodies validated for a specific application such as WB, ELISA, FACS, IHC. (
  • This format provides pure antibody that is suitable for a number of downstream applications including: secondary labeling for flow cytometry or microscopy, ELISA, Western blot, etc. (
  • Conjugate is antibody (antigen) linked with enzyme, it is the key substance in ELISA. (
  • Enzymes used in ELISA should meet requirements such as high purity, high conversion rate, favorable specificity, stable properties, rich resources, cheap price and remaining active component and catalytic capacity after becoming conjugate. (
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We have raised murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to a conserved region of the CD4 binding site of gp120 (CD4bs) that neutralize genetically diverse HIV strains. (
  • Product Description: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are an important class of therapeutic that has greatly expanded our ability to treat a variety of indications, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) represent the fastest growing pharmaceutical market segment. (
  • In this work, we evaluated a panel of 16 anti-BoNT/A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to inhibit the in vitro activity of BoNT/A1, /A2, and /A3 complex as well as the recombinant LC of A1. (
  • Among the mAbs, there were significant differences in extraction efficiency, ability to extract BoNT/A subtypes, and inhibitory effect on BoNT catalytic activity. (
  • This thesis describes the construction of a vector for the expression of an antibody light chain variable region gene, (V1), from the monoclonal catalytic antibody C3 in Escherichia coli. (
  • Please refer to primary antibody product webpage for recommended antibody dilution. (
  • Various lysates were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 10929-2-AP (AMPK Alpha 1 antibody) at dilution of 1:4000 incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hours. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human prostate cancer tissue slide using 10929-2-AP (AMPK Alpha 1 antibody) at dilution of 1:200 (under 10x lens). (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human prostate cancer tissue slide using 10929-2-AP (AMPK Alpha 1 antibody) at dilution of 1:200 (under 40x lens). (
  • Solid supporter which has been coated with antigens and antibodies can be stored in low-temperature (2~8℃) and drying condition for six months. (
  • There are some kits that provide coating antigens or antibodies, so inspector do it by themselves. (
  • Antibodies (antigens) are in proportion to enzymes in order to reduce uncombined enzymes or unlinked antibodies (antigens). (
  • Antibodies with catalytic activity can be obtained by using pre-designed antigens (haptens) according to the preparation procedures of general monoclonal antibodies. (
  • As we all know, both antibodies and enzymes are protein molecules, and the binding of enzymes to substrates and the binding of antibodies to antigens are highly specific. (
  • But the fundamental difference between these two binding forms is that enzymes bind to high-energy transition-state molecules, while antibodies bind to antigens (ground-state molecules). (
  • Although TviD possesses an atypical catalytic triad, its O-acetyltransferase function was verified by antibody reactivity and 13C NMR data for tviD-mutant polysaccharide. (
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (
  • Harnessing a catalytic lysine residue for the one-step preparation of homogeneous antibody-drug conjugates. (
  • The three-in-one antibody (anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibody)-enzyme (horseradish peroxidase)-inorganic (Cu3(PO4)2) nanoflower has some advantages over commercial enzyme-antibody conjugates. (
  • SN-38 prevents DNA from unwinding by inhibition of topoisomerase I. SN-38 is moderately toxic, allowing it to be conjugated at a drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) of 7.6:1, which is approximately twice the DAR of other antibody-drug conjugates. (
  • The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) holoenzyme is composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits, designated PKA R and PKA C, respectively. (
  • Protein kinase in cultured cells using a specific antibody. (
  • On germline analysis, they identified a rare variant affecting PRKDC , protein kinase DNA-activated catalytic polypeptide (DNA-PKcs). (
  • The Proteintech guarantee covers Proteintech antibodies in any species and any application, including those not listed on the datasheet. (
  • Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody ( #7074 ). (
  • Our RabMAb ® technology is a patented hybridoma-based technology for making rabbit monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Immunohistochemical staining of perfusion-fixed frozen mouse brain sections with Anti-Presenilin-2 Antibody (#AIP-012), (1:200), followed by goat anti-rabbit-AlexaFluor-488. (
  • Find PPP1R3A Antibodies for a variety of species such as anti-Human PPP1R3A, anti-Mouse PPP1R3A, anti-Rat PPP1R3A. (
  • Vi antigen is also produced by environmental Bordetella isolates, while mammal-adapted Bordetella species (like B. bronchiseptica) produce a capsule of undetermined structure that cross-reacts with antibodies recognizing Vi antigen. (
  • The new assay provides a complementary method to the use of antibodies, radioactive markers and labeled substrates. (
  • The reaction of catalytic domain of endocellulase on the cellulosic substrates was visualised by using immunogold labelling procedures to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. (
  • The specificity of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction of these antibodies is equivalent to or even exceeds the specificity of the enzyme reaction, and some of the catalysis rates can reach the level of enzyme catalysis. (
  • Specificity This antibody recognizes an internal domain of human brain GP. (
  • Second, it has fairly high capture capability and catalytic activity because it is presented as aggregates of abundant antibodies and enzymes. (
  • The artificial enzyme developed has a catalytic speed close to that of natural enzymes, which means that the speed of chemical reactions can be increased by more than 100 million times (natural enzymes are usually 10 billion to 1000 billion times). (
  • As long as it is properly designed, the catalytic speed of artificial synthetic enzymes can continue to increase. (
  • Abzymes, which appeared in the late 1980s, are the product of an ingenious combination of the high selectivity of antibodies and the efficient catalytic ability of enzymes. (
  • It is essentially a class of immunoglobulins with catalytic activity, which endows the properties of enzymes in the variable region, so it is also called catalytic antibody. (
  • Both antibodies and enzymes are macromolecular substances, each performing different missions in the long evolutionary process. (
  • The prepared antibody-enzyme-inorganic nanoflower was first applied in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to serve as a novel enzyme-labeled antibody for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) determination. (
  • The monoclonal antibody was purified from tissue culture supernatant or ascites by affinity chromatography. (
  • It is the best to utilize antibodies that is purified through affinity chromatography. (
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from rat brain, either sham-operated, 15 min ischemia followed by 4 h reperfusion or 15 min ischemia only, using Phospho-CaMKII (Tyr231) Antibody (upper) or CaMKII Antibody (lower). (
  • Western Blot: MAK3 Antibody [NBP1-70631] - Human Heart lysate, concentration 0.2-1 ug/ml. (
  • C) Western blot analysis of protein components of five HNSCC cell lines using antibodies to GRIM-19 and tubulin. (
  • F) Western blot analysis of protein components of JHU-028 cells stably expressing either HA-GFP or HA-GRIM-19 DM4 using antibodies to HA, p-p53, p53, p21 and tubulin. (
  • 7,8 Although a number of murine antibodies are still commercially available, the focus today is on chimeric, humanized, and (eventually) human antibodies, generated with the use of transgenic mice or large combinatorial libraries in bacteriophages or yeast. (
  • The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. (
  • IHC-P analysis of human colon tissue using GTX55763 PSMB8 antibody. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Carbonic Anhydrase IV (CA4) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (
  • PTP1B (P18031 in UniProtKB) has an N-terminal catalytic phosphatase domain (residues 1-300) followed by a regulatory region of about 80-100 residues and a membrane localization domain (residues 400-435) that tethers the enzyme to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • 10 Hundreds of second and third generation antibody-based products are in preclinical and clinical development. (
  • The overexpression of CAIX in hypoxic solid tumours, its limited expression in normal tissue and the presence of an extracellular catalytic domain makes this protein an excellent therapeutic target. (
  • Likewise, anti-CAIX antibody MM-26 blocked 50% of CAIX activity and induced cell death in vitro.The work described here provides new insight into the mechanism of CAIX-mediated tumour invasion and metastasis and has identified two new therapeutic strategies for targeting CAIX. (
  • Serological assays have been broadly employed through the coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to measure antibody responses to extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to trace seroconversion in populations. (
  • Although N -linked glycosylation does not interfere with antigen recognition, a number of implications are linked to this functionality, such as: stability, pharmacokinetics, antigenicity, Fc-related effector functions, and serum stability of antibodies. (
  • A monoclonal antibody elicited by a transition-state analog that is representative of an intramolecular six-membercd ring cyclization reaction acted as a stercospecific, enzyme-like catalyst for the appropriate substrate. (
  • For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v BSA, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween ® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight. (
  • Secondary antibody was GAM-AP (1/2000) and the nitrocellulose membrane was developed with BCIP/NBT. (
  • From the pool of anti-CAIX inhibitors and antibodies characterized in this thesis, the inhibitor U-104 was excellent at blocking CAIX enzymatic activity and has entered phase I clinical trials. (
  • However, please note that glycerol may interrupt some downstream antibody applications and should be added with caution. (
  • The Center for Disease Analysis Foundation (CDAF)* for treatment if costs are low, which can offset elimination developed a catalytic funding mechanism to allow low- and costs. (
  • Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt. (
  • Because the synthetic method requires no organic solvent and because of the distinct hierarchical nanostructure, protein-inorganic nanoflowers display enhanced catalytic activity and stability and would be a promising tool in biocatalytical processes and biological and biomedical fields. (
  • To beat artificial and regulatory challenges posed by nanoparticle-mediated siRNA supply, antibody-siRNA conjugate (ARC) platform is rising as a possible siRNA supply system appropriate for scientific translation. (
  • The addition of 50% glycerol is optional for those storing this antibody at -20C and not aliquoting smaller units. (
  • Catalytic component of the teleromerase holoenzyme complex whose main activity is the elongation of telomeres by acting as a reverse transcriptase that adds simple sequence repeats to chromosome ends by copying a template sequence within the RNA component of the enzyme. (
  • A pilot program using a catalytic funding model, nisms, such as donations and grants, remain largely unavailable including simplified test-and-treat strategies, was launched in for hepatitis elimination programs ( 4 ). (
  • The vast majority of today's antibody treatment concepts rely on active immunization directed to specific disease targets. (
  • We therefore studied the association of two polymorphisms--R353Q polymorphism at codon 353 involving the catalytic region and the 10 base pair [‎bp]‎ insertion polymorphism involving the promoter region--with FVllc levels in 176 healthy Tunisians. (
  • The antibody C3 was developed by Khalaf, Suckling, Stimson et al (1992) at the University of Strathclyde, and catalysed the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl 5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-pentanoate. (
  • An antibody selected for its ability to catalyze a chemical reaction by binding to and stabilizing the transition state intermediate. (
  • This compound could be detected by a catalytic chemical reaction of chromogen, producing specific color at specific cellular location. (
  • The novel expression vector carried the C3V1 gene as a fusion to a antibody binding domain of Staphylococcus aureus protein A. The C3V1 gene was expressed in E.coli from vector pQR627. (
  • This volume will be followed by another concentrating on the combination of monoclonal antibody techniques with molecular genetic techniques to study structure/function relationships at the level of both the gene and gene product. (
  • We have previously reported the effectiveness of antibody-capture to purify and concentrate BoNTs from complex matrices, such as clinical samples. (
  • Antibody or protein antigen remains activity after adsorbed on it. (
  • The good conjugate possess not only catalytic activity of enzyme but also immunological competence of antibody. (
  • It was found that the intracellular (IC) domain of CAIX regulates its catalytic activity, which is required for cell survival, cell invasion and metastasis. (
  • Because some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the activity of BoNT, the choice of antibody with which to extract the toxin is critical. (
  • ITPK isoforms include ITPKA, ITPKB, and ITPKC, all of which contain a conserved catalytic unit in their C termini, but have unique N-terminal sequences and tissue distributions. (
  • IHC-P analysis of rat heart tissue using GTX55763 PSMB8 antibody. (
  • Splicing, the removal of introns from pre-mRNA, is mediated by spliceosomal complexes and occurs in two distinct catalytic steps. (
  • ICC/IF analysis of A549 cells using GTX55763 PSMB8 antibody. (
  • Blast TBI triggers an activation of the immune system, generation of auto- antibodies, as well as infiltration of circulating immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • This proposal will define the role of auto- antibodies and circulating immune cells on the progression of blast-mediated visual loss in order to identify mechanisms that are amenable to therapy. (
  • A technique to widen the scope of catalytic reactions effected by abzymes. (
  • The SpA- C3V1 failed to exhibit the binding properties of the parent monoclonal antibody C3, it did however exhibit a catalytic function. (