Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... All white blood cells have nuclei, which distinguishes them from the other blood cells, the anucleated red blood cells (RBCs) ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... this is usually expressed as 4,000 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter of blood.[3] White blood cells make up ...
Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... "CLDN15 Gene - GeneCards , CLD15 Protein , CLD15 Antibody". Retrieved 2017-04-14. Human CLDN15 genome ... Among its related pathways are Blood-Brain Barrier and Immune Cell Transmigration: VCAM-1/CD106 Signaling Pathways and Tight ... Cell Biol. 14 (5): 531-6. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(02)00362-9. PMID 12231346. González-Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo ...
Detection of viral antibodies on red blood cells is possible. No specific treatment for CTF is yet available. The first action ... The virus which causes Colorado tick fever may stay in the blood for as long as four months after onset of the illness. First ... The virus has the ability to live in the blood stream for up to 120 days; therefore, coming in contact without proper ... The CTFV was first isolated from human blood in 1944. The virus particle, like other coltiviruses, is about 80 nm in diameter ...
One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small ... Like invertebrates, plants neither generate antibody or T-cell responses nor possess mobile cells that detect and attack ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... Mast cells[edit]. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in ...
Antibodies then develop against the red blood cells. The antibodies attach to red blood cells and cause them to break down too ... Complement is activated by the attached antibody leading to the removal of red blood cells by the spleen.[citation needed] The ... In some cases, a drug can cause the immune system to mistakenly think the body's own red blood cells are dangerous, foreign ... the hapten mechanism in which antibodies are targeted against the combination of penicillin in association with red blood cells ...
Can have antibodies to blood cells (DAT, anti-neutrophil, anti-platelet). Also, can have positive ANA, RF, ANCA ... ALPS patient T cells: Do not die with anti-Fas monoclonal antibody exposure. Normal T cells from unaffected patient do. ... "Blood. 108 (6): 1965-71. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-01-010124. PMC 1895548 . PMID 16757690.. [unreliable medical source?] ... Elevated peripheral blood Double Negative T cells (DNTs)[7] *Required for diagnosis ...
This is followed by transplanting peripheral blood stem cells. If the lesions are mild, the patient will be subject to a good ... Patients with low concentration of antibodies only present with them inside the cells (intercellular).[citation needed] If the ... The underlying tumors are almost exclusively of B-cell lineage. However, T-cells and CD56+ Natural Killer cells have also been ... This case demonstrated the rare association between Natural Killer cell lymphoma and PNP, suggesting that Natural Killer cells ...
July 1959). "Red cell, plasma and blood volume in healthy men measured by radiochromium (Cr51) cell tagging and hematocrit: ... Additionally, they produce more antibodies at a faster rate than males. Hence they develop fewer infectious diseases and ... Adult men have approximately 5.2 million red blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood, whereas women have approximately 4.6 ... Howstuffworks "Red Blood Cells" Serpooshan, Vahid; Sheibani, Sara; Pushparaj, Pooja; Wojcik, Michal; Jang, Albert Y.; Santoso, ...
Some viruses attach to molecules present on the surface of red blood cells, for example, influenza virus. A consequence of this ... Both types of antibodies are measured when tests for immunity are carried out. Antibody testing has become widely available. It ... Many viruses can be grown in cell culture in the lab. To do this, the virus sample is mixed with cells, a process called ... Although different viruses often only grow in certain types of cells, there are cells that support growth of a large variety of ...
It has been shown that female mammals tend to have higher white blood cell counts (WBC), with further associations between cell ... Additionally, they produce more antibodies at a faster rate than males. Hence they develop fewer infectious diseases and ... April 2007). "A role for cell sex in stem cell-mediated skeletal muscle regeneration: female cells have higher muscle ... On average, males have larger hearts, 10 percent higher red blood cell count, higher hemoglobin, hence greater oxygen-carrying ...
... blood cells and plasma. The blood plasma components, such as the antibodies, are treated outside of the body. After removal of ... Retinal bipolar cells (cells in retina that transmit signals) react with the antibodies, leading to cell death. Although it is ... Corticosteroids cause white blood cell death, lowering their numbers throughout the body. They also cause white blood cells to ... This minimizes damage caused by the antibodies produced by the white blood cells. Often, this is treatment is combined with ...
Blood smears can be performed to identify the parasite in the red blood cells. ELISA testing can be used for antigen or ... antibody testing. Treatment is usually ineffective. In-feed pyrimethamine and sulfadimethoxine can help prevent the disease. ... After a number of cell divisions these in turn give rise to the second generation of merozoites which in their turn infect ... The zygote invades the body of the vector, undergoes a series of cell divisions resulting in motile sporozoites that invade the ...
"Surface phenotype of Japanese adult T-cell leukemia cells characterized by monoclonal antibodies". Blood. 58 (3): 645-7. doi: ... However, cell growth was not demonstrated and the affected cell type was not identified, making the identity of the factor(s) ... The discovery of IL-2 allowed T cells, previously thought to be dead end cells, to be grown significantly in culture for the ... "Natural antibodies to the structural core protein (p24) of the human T-cell leukemia (lymphoma) retrovirus found in sera of ...
... low levels of antibodies in the blood in people with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (a cancer of a type of white blood cell) or ... a cancer of another type of white blood cell) and who have frequent infections; low levels of antibodies in the blood in people ... Other severe side effects include kidney problems, anaphylaxis, blood clots, and red blood cell breakdown. Use is not ... The National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services have also developed ...
Antibodies against A and B blood groups (isohemagglutinins) present in the recipient's blood destroy the donor red blood cells ... The reaction is triggered by pre-formed host antibodies destroying donor red blood cells. AHTR typically occurs when there is ... The donor and recipient blood can be re-tested with a type, crossmatch, and antibody screen to determine the cause of the ... Dopamine is used for blood pressure support because it causes vasodilation (dilation of blood vessels) in the kidneys as well ...
In the course of subsequent meals, antigen-antibody complexes are formed; these complexes attach to the surface of blood cells ... An antigen in the mushroom triggers the immune system to attack red blood cells. Serious and commonly fatal complications ... The antigen is still of unknown structure but it stimulates the formation of IgG antibodies in the blood serum. ... The use of corticosteroids may be a useful adjunct in treatment, as they protect blood cells against hemolysis, thereby ...
In this variation, serum antibodies to the influenza virus will interfere with the virus attachment to red blood cells. ... agglutinates red blood cells (i.e. causes red blood cells to clump together). In this assay, dilutions of an influenza sample ... A viral plaque is formed when a virus infects a cell within the fixed cell monolayer. The virus infected cell will lyse and ... The infected cell area will create a plaque (an area of infection surrounded by uninfected cells) which can be seen with an ...
... from maternal white blood cell antibodies passively transferred to the infant) is more likely. In infants neutropenia is ... Consequently, patients with autoimmune neutropenia have low levels of granulocytic neutrophilic white blood cells causing a ... the immune system produces autoantibodies directed against the neutrophilic protein antigens in white blood cells known as ... Blood. 91 (1): 181-6. doi:10.1182/blood.V91.1.181. PMID 9414283. Farruggia P, Dufour C (February 2015). "Diagnosis and ...
The blood type is due to a glycoprotein present on the surface of red blood cells, which behaves as a native antigen. ... Blood Group Antibodies and Their Significance in Transfusion Medicine. Transfus Med Rev 2007; 21: 58-71. Daniels G. Human Blood ... International Society of Blood Transfusion Committee on Terminology for Red Cell Surface Antigens: Cape Town Report. Vox Sang ... Anti-S, anti-s and anti-U antibodies are acquired following exposure (via pregnancy or past transfusion with blood products) ...
Side effects of the antithyroid medications include a potentially fatal reduction in the level of white blood cells. A ... Glinoer D, de Nayer P, Bex M (2001). "Effects of l-thyroxine administration, TSH-receptor antibodies and smoking on the risk of ... These two markers are an elevated level of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and smoking. A positive ...
"Antibody fucosylation differentially impacts cytotoxicity mediated by NK and PMN effector cells". Blood. 112 (6): 2390-2399. ... The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors ... This property allows antibodies to activate the immune system. In IgG, IgA and IgD antibody isotypes, the Fc region is composed ... In this way, it mediates different physiological effects of antibodies (detection of opsonized particles; cell lysis; ...
It suppresses the immune reaction by binding to white blood cells via the protein CD4. The drug is a chimeric antibody from ... Keliximab is a monoclonal antibody for the treatment of severe chronic asthma. ... placebo-controlled study of chimeric antibody to CD4 (keliximab) in chronic severe asthma". Lancet. 352 (9134): 1109-13. doi: ...
... occurs when the body produces an antibody against a blood group antigen on its own red blood cells. The antibodies lead to ... Similarly, a pregnant woman may develop antibodies against fetal red blood cells, resulting in destruction, anemia, and hydrops ... Topology of Kell blood group protein and the expression of multiple antigens by transfected cells. Blood. 1994 Nov 15;84(10): ... subsequent blood transfusions may be marked by destruction of the new cells by these antibodies, a process known as hemolysis. ...
... the IgE antibodies bind to FcεRI receptors on the surface of tissue mast cells and blood basophils. Mast cells and basophils ... In type 1 hypersensitivity, B-cells are stimulated (by CD4+TH2 cells) to produce IgE antibodies specific to an antigen. The ... Mediator release from mast cells Figure 2: Model of genesis of mast cell secretory granules Figure 3: Lipid body biogenesis ... coated by IgE antibodies are "sensitized". Later exposure to the same allergen cross-links the bound IgE on sensitized cells, ...
Bloods: Anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytosis, T cell lymphopenia with normal B cells and hypergammaglobulinemia may occur.[ ... citation needed] Autoantibodies may be present including antinuclear, antiphospholipid, and anticardiolipin antibodies.[ ... The wild type protein (STING) is normally found in the cytoplasm of the cell. The mutant forms are located in the Golgi ... B-cell germinal centers and interstitial fibrosis. Some children demonstrate pulmonary alveolar protianosis on Lavage.[citation ...
She demonstrated that mycoplasma can stimulate the production of auto-antibodies on binding to red blood cells. She earned her ... Feizi showed that during both cellular differentiation and the transformation of normal cells to tumorous cells, anti-li blood ... which are misdirected antibodies that bind to red blood cells. ... The antigen on red blood cells that is bound by these cold ... The system was used to assign the host-cell receptors in SV40 and Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. 1994 American Society for ...
... is made up of various components of cells and blood. These include defence cells and proteins such as Neutrophils, Antibodies ... Therefore, despite having clinical gingival health, a low level of inflammatory infiltrate, consisting of neutrophils, B Cell ... a serum like fluid that is formed from the post capillary venules of the Dentogingival Plexus which is a dense network of blood ... plaque bacteria and its toxin to enter the underlying gingival connective tissue via the large spaces between epithelial cells ...
A type of white blood cell, the B cell, produces antibodies that bind to the injected antigen. These antibody producing B-cells ... In addition, specific monoclonal antibodies have been used to define cell surface markers on white blood cells and other cell ... These cells produce antibodies (a property of B cells) and are immortal (a property of myeloma cells). The incubated medium is ... the B cells are fused with immortalised myeloma cells. The fusion of the B cells with myeloma cells can be done using ...
... or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies. They are transported by the blood plasma ... Immature plasma cells[edit]. The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast.[3] ... Plasma cells originate in the bone marrow; B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ...
doi:10.1182/blood-2010-05-283770.. *^ Belikov AV, Schraven B, Simeoni L. T cells and reactive oxygen species. Journal of ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... T cells associate with and predict leukemia relapse in AML patients post allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood Cancer ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ...
... due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood ... If the diagnosis is in doubt antibody testing may be useful to confirm type 1 diabetes and C-peptide levels may be useful to ... Intensive blood sugar lowering (HbA1c,6%) as opposed to standard blood sugar lowering (HbA1c of 7-7.9%) does not appear to ... Blood pressure lowering. Many international guidelines recommend blood pressure treatment targets that are lower than 140/90 ...
... or detecting antibodies against the virus in a person's blood.[98] Isolating the virus by cell culture, detecting the viral RNA ... cells lining the inside of blood vessels), liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and ... an initially decreased white blood cell count followed by an increased white blood cell count; elevated levels of the liver ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ...
The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... doi:10.1182/blood-2013-02-482570. PMID 23613524.. *^ T Shaw, J Quan, and M Totoritis, "B cell therapy for rheumatoid arthritis ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... "Blood. 90 (6): 2188-95. PMID 9310469.. *^ Scott SD (1998). "Rituximab: a new therapeutic monoclonal antibody for non-Hodgkin's ...
Sometimes an underlying medical condition is sought, and this may include blood tests for full blood count and hematinics. If a ... Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Other forms of immunodeficiency which ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ...
Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Levels of HIV-specific antibodies have also declined, leading to speculation that the patient may have been functionally cured ... The donor's blood is withdrawn through a sterile needle in one arm and passed through a machine that removes white blood cells ... The red blood cells are returned to the donor. The peripheral stem cell yield is boosted with daily subcutaneous injections of ...
The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... or dysfunctional B cells. Blood cancersEdit. Rituximab is used to treat cancers of the white blood system such as leukemias and ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... doi:10.1182/blood-2013-02-482570. PMID 23613524.. *^ Shaw, T. (2003). "B cell therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: The rituximab ( ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.02: Convalescent serum (i.e. antibodies in blood from people previously infected) of people who had ... doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03777-9: Similar results - convalescent serum (i.e. antibodies in blood from people previously infected ... TLDR: antibodies in convalescent serum are about 4-fold less neutralizing against delta than against other variants - but we ... Of note, beta-variant antibodies were over 10-fold less effective at neutralizing the delta variant as they were at ...
It is recommended that dosing be based on regular measurements of TSH and T4 levels in the blood.[1] Much of the effect of ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ... people with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titers, people with symptoms of hypothyroidism and TSH levels between 5-10 mIU ...
Clinical trials have been conducted on mice using tomatoes expressing antibodies or proteins that stimulate antibody production ... "The Plant Cell. 3 (11): 1187-1193. doi:10.2307/3869226. JSTOR 3869226. PMC 160085 . PMID 1821764.. ... The antifreeze protein was found to inhibit ice recrystallization in the flounder blood, but had no effect when expressed in ... "Plant Cell Reports. 12: 644-647. doi:10.1007/bf00232816.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ...
It has received regulatory approval for use as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer,[6][4][7][8] although there is ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ... Low amount of potassium in the blood. *Conjunctivitis. *Increased ALT. *Increased AST ... Afatinib, sold under the brand name Gilotrif among others, is a medication used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ...
... and possibly testing for specific antibodies in the blood.[3][11] Blood tests are often negative in the early stages of the ... or who have abnormally low levels of white or red cells or platelets in the blood, should be investigated for possible ... generates antibodies against the OspA protein so a tick feeding on a vaccinated dog draws in blood full of anti-OspA antibodies ... Tests for antibodies in the blood by ELISA and Western blot is the most widely used method for Lyme diagnosis. A two-tiered ...
Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639.. ... Blood proteinsEdit. In addition to their antigonadotropic effects, estrogens are also functional antiandrogens by decreasing ... The generation of antibodies against androstenedione by these agents is thought to decrease circulating levels of ... Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ...
... low white blood cell count), thrombocytopenia (low platelets), and elevated aspartate transaminase levels in the blood. Lassa ... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture.[1] Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ... Fluid replacement, blood transfusion, and fighting hypotension are usually required. Intravenous interferon therapy has also ... to avoid contact with blood and body fluids. These issues in many countries are monitored by a department of public health. In ...
An erythropoetin stimulating agent may be required to ensure adequate production of red blood cells, activated vitamin D ... Newer, so-called "biologic drugs" or monoclonal antibodies, are also used in these conditions and include rituximab, ... which may be suggested by appearance of blood in the urine (haematuria), protein in the urine (proteinuria), pus cells in the ... Basic blood tests can be used to check the concentration of hemoglobin, platelets, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, ...
Therapeutic concentrates are prepared from the blood plasma of blood donors. The US FDA has approved the use of four alpha-1 ... The level of A1AT in serum is most often determined by adding an antibody that binds to A1AT, then using turbidimetry to ... As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has ... In blood test results, the IEF results are notated as in PiMM, where Pi stands for protease inhibitor and "MM" is the banding ...
These germinal centres are places where B memory cells are created and secretory antibody (IgA) is produced. ... and as such frequently engorge with blood to assist in immune responses to common illnesses such as the common cold. The ... These M cells then alert the underlying B cells and T cells in the tonsil that a pathogen is present and an immune response is ... "Tonsils Make T-Cells, Too, Ohio State Study Shows". Ohio State University. Ohio State University, Comprehensive Cancer Center. ...
Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then ... Fluorescently tagged antibodies or streptavidin are bound to the dye molecule. These secondary components are selected so that ... FISH can also be used to detect diseased cells more easily than standard Cytogenetic methods, which require dividing cells and ... "Defining the sister rat mammary tumor cell lines HH-16 cl.2/1 and as an in vitro cell model for Erbb2". PLOS ONE. 7 ...
... which are specialized in facilitating peripheral B cell maturation, and the generation of antibody-producing plasma cells and ... Blood. 100 (10): 3698-3702. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-02-0657. PMID 12393723. Ouyang, Q.; W. M. Wagner; D. Voehringer; A. Wikby; T ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... Mocchegiani, E; M. Malavolta (2004). "NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence". Aging Cell. 3 (4): 177-184. doi:10.1111/j ...
The system which produces antibodies in the blood plasma. Another system, cellular immunity, is done in the tissues by cells. ... These allow vertebrate B cells to generate a huge pool of antibodies from a relatively small number of antibody genes.[9] The ... Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) are large Y-shaped proteins. They are found in the blood or other body fluids of ... Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system ...
β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... At dietary intake levels of at least 3 g per day, oat fiber β-glucan decreases blood levels of LDL cholesterol and so may ... "Mechanism by which orally administered β-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in ... One of the most common sources of β(1,3)D-glucan for supplement use is derived from the cell wall of baker's yeast ( ...
Konradt C, Ueno N, Christian DA, Delong JH, et al «Endothelial cells are a replicative niche for entry of Toxoplasma gondii to ... Lykins J, Li X, Levigne P, Zhou Y, et al «Rapid, inexpensive, fingerstick, whole-blood, sensitive, specific, point-of-care test ... for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies» (en anglès). PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 Ag 16; 12 (8), pp: e0006536. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd. ...
One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated.[2] In 2014, a ... This, in turn, stimulates release of proteases and oxidants by the mesangial and epithelial cells, damaging the capillary walls ... membranous nephropathy is known to predispose affected individuals to develop blood clots such as pulmonary emboli. Membranous ... The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ...
... -labelled probes can be imaged using FISH, or targeted by antibodies using immunohistochemistry. The latter is a ... In cellular biology, the isothiocyanate derivative of fluorescein is often used to label and track cells in fluorescence ... in forensics and serology to detect latent blood stains, and in dye tracing. Fluorescein has an absorption maximum at 494 nm ... allowing biologists to target the fluorophore to specific proteins or structures within cells. This application is common in ...
Enumeration of CD4+ T-cells in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected patients: interlaboratory study of the FACSCount system. ... Antibodies Black Ace Books La_Tendresse Ken Strauss's website kenstraussposts http:// ... The staging and prognostic value of subset markers on CD8 cells in HIV disease. In Janossy G, Autran B. Miedema F (eds): ... His interest in immunology has led to publications in HIV disease, cellular activation and natural killer cell function, tumor ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... JCV can cross the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system, where it infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, ... Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ... For example, JCV has been found to infect the granule cell layer of the cerebellum, while sparing purkinje fibers, ultimately ...
t-PA is released into the blood very slowly by the damaged endothelium of the blood vessels, such that, after several days ( ... FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ... Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic.[1] This process has two types: ... This may help to avoid the use of blood products such as fresh frozen plasma with its associated risks of infections or ...
Serum is a clear, yellowish coloured fluid which is part of the blood.[1] It does not contain white or red blood cells or a ... Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting (coagulation) and all the electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, hormones, ... Anti-coagulated blood yields plasma containing fibrinogen and clotting factors. Coagulated blood (clotted blood) yields serum ... "blood serum or serum". Collins Dictionary of Biology. 2005. Retrieved 16 June 2012.. ...
... known as antibodies or immunoglobulins. This was first performed (and is still sometimes performed) by taking blood from a ... Synthetic (recombinant or cell-clone) human immunoglobulins can now be made, and for several reasons (including the risk of ... isolating the fraction of the blood which contains antibodies (known as the serum), and injecting this serum into the person ... Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ...
An RBC antibody screen is used to determine blood compatibility between a pregnant woman and her baby, and for compatibility in ... An RBC (red blood cell) antibody screen is a blood test that looks for antibodies that target red blood cells. Red blood cell ... Red blood cell antibodies may show up in your blood if you are exposed to red blood cells other than your own. This usually ... Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen. ...
An RBC antibody screen is used to screen an individuals blood for antibodies directed against red blood cell (RBC) antigens ... The RBC antibody screen looks for circulating antibodies in the blood directed against red blood cells (RBCs). The primary ... To detect antibodies directed against red blood cell antigens. When To Get Tested?. When preparing for a blood transfusion; ... A mother who is blood type A will naturally have antibodies directed against the B surface antigens on red blood cells, and a ...
Red blood cell antibody detection test. Service Code: 86880, Service Type: Medical ...
... and this antibody has been proposed to serve as a major mechanism for removal... ... It has been well-documented that a subpopulation of normal circulating human red cells have antibody on their surfaces, ... U. Galilli, The natural anti-Gal antibody, the B-like antigen, and human red cell aging, Blood Cells 14:205 (1988).Google ... M. R. Clark, Calcium extrusion by high density human red blood cells, Blood Cells 14:119 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Antibody identification test for white blood cell. Antibodies. Service Code: 86021, Service Type: Medical ...
This is a rare type II autoimmune disorder in which antibodies that attack red blood cells have enhanced activity at ... Macroscopic hemagglutination (clumping of red blood cells) in vitro may lead to rouleaux formation (stacks of red blood cells, ... This is a rare type II autoimmune disorder in which antibodies that attack red blood cells have enhanced activity at ... Fixation of complement and hemolysis (the release of hemogloblin in the blood stream when a red blood cell breaks) is a warm- ...
Cold agglutinins with low thermal capacity are usually associated with direct red blood cell agglutination (adhesion) at low ... such as red blood cells or bacteria, to adhere to each each other. ... body temperatures in the peripheral blood vessel network (i.e., the vessels outside of the main circulatory network). ... The term agglutinin refers to an antibody that causes antigens, ... Antibodies that Attack Blood Cells at Lower Temperatures in ...
In this work we focus on understanding the mechanisms of red blood cell agglutination in the antibody-load ... determine human blood type have shown a tremendous potential of using these low-cost materials to build bio-sensors for blood ... Mechanisms of red blood cells agglutination in antibody-treated paper Purim Jarujamrus,ab Junfei Tian,a Xu Li,a Atitaya ... The desorbed antibody also causes agglutinated lumps of red blood cells to form. These lumps cannot pass through the pores of ...
Monoclonal antibody 1F5 (anti-CD20) serotherapy of human B cell lymphomas. Blood, 69(2), 584-591. Accessed June 19, 2019. ... Two patients had circulating tumor cells and in both cases 90% of malignant cells were eliminated from the blood stream within ... Monoclonal antibody 1F5 (anti-CD20) serotherapy of human B cell lymphomas. OW Press, F Appelbaum, JA Ledbetter, PJ Martin, J ... Monoclonal antibody 1F5 (anti-CD20) serotherapy of human B cell lymphomas. OW Press, F Appelbaum, JA Ledbetter, PJ Martin, J ...
Factors affecting antibody levels after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood. 2003;101(8):3319-3324. ... Comprehensive viromewide antibody responses by systematic epitope scanning after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood, 134 ... Post-transplantation B cell activating factor and B cell recovery before onset of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Biol Blood ... Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients have defects of both switched and igm memory B cells. Biol Blood ...
The y-shaped antibody molecule have two arms that can bind to specific antigens. ... Computer artwork of an antibody or immunoglobulin molecule attacking a leukaemia white blood cell (lymphocyte). ... Computer artwork of an antibody or immunoglobulin molecule attacking a leukaemia white blood cell (lymphocyte). The y-shaped ... Leukaemia is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and white blood cells, disrupting the levels of normal, healthy ...
Eur J Cell Biol. 1994 Apr;63(2):247-54. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Eur J Cell Biol. 1994 Apr;63(2):247-54.. Monoclonal antibodies specific for endothelial cells of mouse blood vessels. Their ... Staining of the endothelial lining of blood vessels was greater at cell-to-cell contacts. Weak reactivity was detected in bone ... Two monoclonal antibodies (mAb), MEC 7.46 (IgG1) and MEC 13.3 (IgG2a) that specifically recognize mouse endothelial cells (EC) ...
Peripheral blood monocyte and T cell subsets in children with specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD). ... Peripheral[Title] AND blood[Title] AND monocyte[Title] AND T[Title] AND cell[Title] AND subsets[Title] AND children[Title] AND ... Search: Peripheral blood monocyte and T cell subsets in children with .... *. Number of items displayed:. 5. 10. 15. 20. 50. ... Search: Peripheral[Title] AND blood[Title] AND monocyte[Title] AND T[Title] AND cell[Title] AND subsets[Title] AND children[ ...
Polyclonal Antibody Germ Cell Development, Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Chaperone-Mediated Protein Complex Assembly, ... Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Cellular Sodium Ion Homeostasis ... Polyclonal Antibody Germ Cell Development Polyclonal Antibody Germ Cell Development: Polyclonal Antibody - Bax Antibody, ... Polyclonal Antibody Western Blotting Cell Extension Polyclonal Antibody Western Blotting Cell Extension: Polyclonal Antibody - ...
... sampling from maternal blood becomes a promising way for fetal genetic screening. However, fetal cell-based NIPD has a major ... However, fetal cell-based NIPD has a major challenge due to the small number of fetal cells present in maternal blood. We ... from maternal blood. The FETAL-Chip can dramatically enhance the interaction of fetal cells with antibody-coated microposts to ... for efficient enrichment and identification of circulating fetal cells, i.e., circulating nucleated red blood cells (cNRBCs) ...
... red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can make an immune response ... Procedure: Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Undergo allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation ... Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, such as yttrium Y 90 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8, can find cancer cells and carry ... Plasma Cell Myeloma Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma Procedure: Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Drug: ...
We describe a method for the production of human antibodies specific for an antigen of interest, starting from rare B cells ... Generation of Discriminative Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Rare Antigen-Specific B Cells Circulating in Blood. Marie-Claire ... using readily available Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC). Once specific B cells are isolated, cDNA (complementary ... Enrichment of NK Cells from Human Blood with the RosetteSep Kit from StemCell Technologies… ...
... but involves numerous cell lines. If these cell lines become a major contributor to the total blood cell volume, the severity ... PNH can present as aplastic anemia when the cell line involved fails to provide a normal amount of all of the blood cell lines ... Red blood cell growth factor (recombinant erythropoietin) is also commonly used. For appropriate patients, stem cell ... For unknown reasons, the abnormal cell lines become more dominant than the native cells. The abnormal red cells are prone to ...
Explainwhat happens if type O red blood cells are mixed with anti-A antibody during blood typing and find homework help for ... Explainwhat happens if type O red blood cells are mixed with anti-A antibody during blood typing. ... The plasma of AB blood does not agglutinate the cells of any blood. Hence, the individuals with this type of blood are termed ... Do the antibodies present in blood at the time of blood transfusion destroy the recipients blood... ...
We will test an antibody that recognizes a molecule called CD117 present on blood forming stem cells. This antibody can safely ... This antibody can safely target a recipients stem cells making room for the donor cells. When used in mice, this antibody ... Bone marrow contains mixtures of cells, but only a minority are the blood forming stem cells. These stem cells are the only ... rapidly replacing diseased blood cells with healthy blood cells. Such a result would mean safer and better outcomes for these ...
Complete a Phase I Clinical Trial using a monoclonal antibody to deplete blood stem cells and enable chemotherapy free ... A monoclonal antibody that depletes blood stem cells and enables chemotherapy free transplants ... A monoclonal antibody that depletes blood stem cells and enables chemotherapy free transplants ... Californias Stem Cell Agency California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. * For Researchers * Funding Opportunities * All ...
Antibodies to Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Types I and III in Blood Donors from Calabar, Nigeria ROBERT A. OKPARA, M.D.; EKA ... Antibodies to Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Types I and III in Blood Donors from Calabar, Nigeria. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104:132. ... HTLV antibodies were detected in the blood of two patients with T-cell lymphoma as well as in ... has also been cultured from mononuclear cells of these monkeys (2). Furthermore, antibodies have been detected in blood donors ...
Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting dna-n1-methyladenine Dioxygenase Activity, Primer Set Chromatin IP Stem Cell ... Differentiation, Antibody Sampler Kit Regulation of Dopamine Metabolic Process ... Polyclonal Antibody Cell-Substrate Adhesion Polyclonal Antibody Cell-Substrate Adhesion: Polyclonal Antibody - Cortactin ... Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Blood Vessel Development Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Blood Vessel ...
Activation of endothelial cells via antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection of peripheral blood monocytes.. R Anderson, S Wang ... Activation of endothelial cells via antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection of peripheral blood monocytes. ... Activation of endothelial cells via antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection of peripheral blood monocytes. ... Activation of endothelial cells via antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection of peripheral blood monocytes. ...
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a significant healthcare burden worldwide, but most affected individuals reside in low-resource ... inexpensive and disposable point-of-care blood test for sickle cell disease using novel, highly specific monoclonal antibodies ... Keywords: haemoglobinopathy; lateral flow immunoassay; monoclonal antibody; point of care; sickle cell disease. ... Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a significant healthcare burden worldwide, but most affected individuals reside in low-resource ...
Correlation of Vascular Permeability and Blood Flow with Monoclonal Antibody Uptake by Human Clouser and Renal Cell Xenografts ... Correlation of Vascular Permeability and Blood Flow with Monoclonal Antibody Uptake by Human Clouser and Renal Cell Xenografts ... Correlation of Vascular Permeability and Blood Flow with Monoclonal Antibody Uptake by Human Clouser and Renal Cell Xenografts ... Correlation of Vascular Permeability and Blood Flow with Monoclonal Antibody Uptake by Human Clouser and Renal Cell Xenografts ...
These surface markers can be used to differentiate between leukemic T- and B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphomas (NHLs) and to... ... Lymphoproliferative diseases are to be identified by cell membrane antigens. ... Leukemic Blood Cells of Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Other Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas by Monoclonal Antibodies ... Boyum A (1968) Isolation of mononuclear cells and granulocytes from human blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 21:77-89CrossRefGoogle ...
Mainly three phenotypically and functionally distinct DC subsets are described in the human peripheral blood (PB): plasmacytoid ... arise from hematopoietic stem cells and develop into a discrete cellular lineage distinct from other leucocytes. ... Profiling of primary peripheral blood- and monocyte-derived dendritic cells using monoclonal antibodies from the HLDA10 ... Dendritic cells (DCs) arise from hematopoietic stem cells and develop into a discrete cellular lineage distinct from other ...
Tzeng, S. J. The Isolation, Differentiation, and Quantification of Human Antibody-secreting B Cells from Blood: ELISpot as a ... Essential role of IL-21 in B cell activation, expansion, and plasma cell generation during CD4+ T cell-B cell collaboration. J ... Perez-Andres, M., et al. Human peripheral blood B-cell compartments: A crossroad in B-cell traffic. Cytometry B Clin. Cytom. 78 ... Huggins, J., et al. CpG DNA activation and plasma-cell differentiation of CD27- naïve human B cells. Blood. 109, (4), 1611-1619 ...
... using readily available Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC). Once specific B cells are isolated, cDNA (complementary ... The originality of this strategy is due to the selection of specific antigen binding B cells combined with the counter- ... Their high specificity is indispensable when the antibody needs to distinguish between highly related structures (e.g., a ... technology and subsequently expressed in human cells. Within as little as 1 month, it is possible to produce milligrams of ...
  • Four patients with refractory malignant B cell lymphomas were treated with continuous intravenous (IV) infusions of murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 1F5 (anti-CD20) over five to ten days. (
  • This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of yttrium Y 90 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8 when given together with fludarabine phosphate and total-body irradiation followed by donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant in treating patients with multiple myeloma. (
  • Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, such as yttrium Y 90 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8, can find cancer cells and carry cancer-killing substances to them without harming normal cells. (
  • Giving yttrium Y 90 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8, fludarabine phosphate, and total-body irradiation before the transplant together with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil after the transplant may stop this from happening and may be an effective treatment for multiple myeloma. (
  • This monoclonal antibody marketed under the brand name Soliris by Alexion Pharmaceuticals is indicated for the treatment of PNH to reduce hemolysis. (
  • Animals bearing either RCC or Clouser xenografts were injected with a monoclonal antibody to human major histocompatibility complexes ( 125 I-labeled anti-human histocompatibility complex A, B, C). Tumor uptake of 125 I-labeled anti-human histocompatibility complex A, B, C was found to be 5 times greater in RCC than Clouser xenografts. (
  • Here we compare the reactivity patterns of HLDA10 antibodies (monoclonal antibody (mAb)) with pDCs, CD1c(+) DCs and CD141(+) DCs, as well as with CD14(+)-derived mo-DCs cultured for 7 days in the presence of 100 ng/ml GM-CSF plus 20 ng/ml IL-4. (
  • A monoclonal antibody specific for rat immunoglobulin kappa chains was coupled to red blood cells and used to detect binding of rat monoclonal antibodies to cells attached to the wells of microtitre plates. (
  • In this work, we constructed an antibody phage library from the mRNA of an alpaca immunized with an antiaflatoxin monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1C11. (
  • Lastly, a patient-derived melanoma-specific monoclonal antibody was selected for further study. (
  • 5. The device of claim 1 wherein the reagent that specifically binds red blood cell surface antigens is selected from the group consisting of monoclonal antibody, polyclonal antibodies, and their F(ab') 2 , Fab' and Fab fragments. (
  • If you've tried at least two traditional treatments for primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (different combinations of chemotherapy drugs, plus the monoclonal antibody rituximab [Rituxan] and radiation) and they haven't worked, or your cancer has come back, CAR T-cell therapy is a new option your doctor might recommend. (
  • A monoclonal antibody (mAb or moAb) is an antibody made by cloning a unique white blood cell. (
  • Bispecific monoclonal antibodies can also be engineered, by increasing the therapeutic targets of one monoclonal antibody to two epitopes. (
  • The originality of this strategy is due to the selection of specific antigen binding B cells combined with the counter-selection of all other cells, using readily available Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC). (
  • This virus, or one closely related, has also been cultured from mononuclear cells of these monkeys (2). (
  • Boyum A (1968) Isolation of mononuclear cells and granulocytes from human blood. (
  • The ihv-DCs, which are engineered to express MAGEA3 and high levels of 4-1BBL and MICA, induce simultaneous production of both HLA-A2-restricted, MAGEA3-specific CTLs and NK cells from HLA-A2 + donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (
  • 10 7 cells/ml blood) when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals and melanoma patients were stimulated with zoledronate and then cultured for 14 days in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15, yielding γδT cell cultures of variable purity (77 ± 21 and 56 ± 26%, respectively). (
  • L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLME) is known to remove lysosome-rich cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). (
  • In mice engrafted with human colorectal HT-29 carcinoma cells and allogeneic human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), or with a patient-derived gastric carcinoma and PBMCs from the same patient, we found that coadministration of urelumab and nivolumab was sufficient to significantly slow tumor growth. (
  • RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and EV-RNA detected by RT-PCR. (
  • To study the effect of other T cell activators on these T cell membrane antigens, the authors incubated mononuclear cells for 0-3 days with lectins or pharmacologic agents and stained with monoclonal antibodies to their antigens. (
  • In the same study, blastogenic response (BR) of T-lymphocytes to concanavalin-A (ConA) and PPD were assayed in cultures containing mononuclear cells (MNC) or whole blood (WB). (
  • Cell replacement strategies using human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HuUCBMCs) have emerged as a promising approach for restoration of function in neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • In the previous study, we have proved that extracts of A. blazei inhibit human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation activated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). (
  • In the previous study, we have proved that ethanolic extracts from A. blazei inhibit cytokine productions and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) induced by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) [ 8 ]. (
  • Hybrids secreting antibodies reactive with HL-60 cells but unreactive with peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and further cloned. (
  • Both healthy donor and SSc BM MSCs reduced the proliferation of autologous and allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a cell number dependent fashion. (
  • We propose here a rapid and cost-effective method for the generation of discriminative, fully human mAbs starting from human blood circulating B lymphocytes. (
  • Unfortunately, the way the transplants are currently performed, with toxic treatments to prepare the children to accept the donor cells and the side effects caused by lymphocytes that contaminate standard blood cell grafts reduces the likelihood of successful cure. (
  • They are made by white blood cells called B lymphocytes (or B cells). (
  • Further, the DC-activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells potently suppress tumor growth and metastasis in human lung cancer mouse models. (
  • These cytotoxic lymphocytes suppress lung metastasis of A549/A2.1 lung cancer cells in NSG mice. (
  • Both CTLs and NK cells are found to infiltrate lung as well as lymphoid tissues, mimicking the in vivo trafficking patterns of cytotoxic lymphocytes. (
  • Among professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) hold unique abilities to prime naïve T lymphocytes in mediating antigen-specific, adaptive immune response ( 1 ). (
  • Human lymphocytes transferred into immunodeficient mice underwent activation and redistribution to murine organs, where they exhibited cell-surface expression of hCD137 and hPD-1. (
  • CLEC4C or cluster of differentiation 303 (CD303), also known as blood dendritic cell antigen (BDCA-2), is a type II C-type lectin specifically expressed by human plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and plays a significant role in activation of pDC and in development of antigen-specific T lymphocytes [3, 4]. (
  • IL-17A increases the production of cytokines enhancing the tissue remodelling process, affects apoptosis of endothelial cells and promotes proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells [6, 7]. (
  • In an attempt to learn about possible mechanisms, we investigated antibody production by recipient B lymphocytes in vitro. (
  • The other dichotomy is by lineage: Myeloid cells (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils) are distinguished from lymphoid cells (lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage ( cellular differentiation lineage). (
  • [6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. (
  • Any of the colorless or white cells in the blood that have a nucleus and cytoplasm and help protect the body from infection and disease through specialized neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. (
  • The major types of white blood cells are granulocytes , lymphocytes , and monocytes . (
  • Plasma cells develop from B-lymphocytes or B-cells, a type of white blood cell. (
  • By the 1970s, lymphocytes producing a single antibody where known, in the form of multiple myeloma - a cancer affecting B-cells. (
  • Results from this study provide information for designing new bio-active paper-based devices for human blood typing with improved sensitivity and specificity. (
  • Their high specificity is indispensable when the antibody needs to distinguish between highly related structures ( e.g. , a normal protein and a mutated version thereof). (
  • Monoclonal anti-A,-B, and -H were compared with anti-A and -B of human origin, and anti-H of Ulex extract of specificity for human and animal red cells. (
  • The monoclonal antibodies had higher specificity than the human origin antisera, they seem to be suitable reagents for the blood brouping of red cell membrenes. (
  • Limited research has focused on B cells and the specificity of antibodies they produce in cancer. (
  • Culture supernatants were screened for HLA antibodies, and positive samples were analyzed using single antigen beads to determine antibody specificity. (
  • An attractive alternative would be isolation of fetal cells from peripheral maternal blood using antibodies with high specificity and avidity. (
  • Both mAbs reacted with eight transformed endothelial lines tested in vitro, but were consistently negative on various cell lines of different histological origin. (
  • In addition to these primary cell subsets, DCs can also be generated in vitro from either CD34(+) stem/progenitor cells in the presence of Flt3 (Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3) ligand or from CD14(+) monocytes (monocyte-derived DCs (mo-DCs)) in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor+interleukin-4 (GM-CSF+IL-4). (
  • The latter approach includes dendritic cells (DC) most frequently in the form of in vitro cultured peripheral blood monocytes-derived DC. (
  • Human blood γδT cells are selective for a single class of non-peptide agonists ("phosphoantigens") and develop into potent antigen-presenting cells (APC), termed γδT-APC within 1-3 days of in vitro culture. (
  • They resembled effector memory αβT (T EM ) cells and retained full functionality as assessed by in vitro tumor cell killing as well as secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα) and cell proliferation in response to stimulation with phosphoantigens. (
  • Importantly, day 14 γδT cells expressed numerous APC-related cell surface markers and, in agreement, displayed potent in vitro APC functions. (
  • However, DC do not grow during in vitro culture and are scarce in peripheral blood. (
  • Therefore, a common strategy involves the in vitro generation of DC by culturing blood-derived monocytes for 6 days in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF [monocyte-derived DC (moDC)] ( 4 ). (
  • Again, this method does not yield unlimited numbers of moDC as the majority of cells die during the in vitro differentiation process. (
  • In vitro USSCs showed homogeneous differentiation into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, and hematopoietic and neural cells including astrocytes and neurons that express neurofilament, sodium channel protein, and various neurotransmitter phenotypes. (
  • Recently, a rare cell from BM of rodents, called multipotent adult progenitor cell (MAPC), was identified which differentiated in vitro into cells of all three germ layers and contributed to most somatic tissues when injected into an early murine blastocyst ( 12 ). (
  • We identified a rare, CD45 and HLA class II-negative stem cell candidate displaying robust in vitro proliferative capacity without spontaneous differentiation but with intrinsic and directable potential to develop into mesodermal, endodermal, and ectodermal cell fates. (
  • To evaluate the immunopotentiating ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), we adopted the in vitro stimulation protocol of LLME-treated PBMCs as a model assay system and monitored the level of antibody produced by stimulated PBMCs. (
  • Finally, we tested the immunopotentiating ability of ligands for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate the LAB signal, and observed that both L32 and one of the TLR2 ligands, LTA-BS, induced antigen-specific antibody production by in vitro stimulated PBMC. (
  • In this review, we address the in vitro methods developed to evaluate how monoclonal antibodies could trigger the immunization process by focusing on the role of aggregated antibodies in the establishment of this response. (
  • Studies performed on animal models and in vitro on factors involved in activation of certain dendritic cell (DC) populations in autoimmune diseases point to a significant role of recently discovered lectin receptors such as C-type lectin domain family 4, member C receptor (CLEC4C) and lymphocyte antigen 75 (LY75) [2, 3]. (
  • However, several studies indicate better cytotoxic effects against cancer cells in vitro when engaging FcαRI on granulocytes. (
  • This antibody effectively killed melanoma cells in vitro via antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. (
  • Identification and enumeration of human hematopoietic stem cells remain problematic, since in vitro and in vivo stem cell assays have different outcomes. (
  • Replication of this enormous cell amplification with hematopoietic growth factors in vitro would allow the generation of large numbers of cells that could be used for a variety of clinical applications (7). (
  • The parameters included the ability to: form colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-F), differentiate along the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages, express cell surface antigens defining the MSCs population, support normal haematopoiesis and suppress in vitro lymphocyte proliferation induced by either anti-CD3∊ plus anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies or the mixed lymphocyte reaction. (
  • 3 These cells are identified in vitro by their ability to form colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-F) and, phenotypically, by their expression of surface markers, such as CD105, CD73, CD90, integrins and adhesion molecules in addition to the absence of CD14, CD34 and CD45 haematopoietic-related antigen. (
  • In vitro, human MSCs inhibit or suppress several T cell functions. (
  • abstract = "Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in the peripheral blond were enumerated with an enzyme-linked immunospot assay in 12 children with mycoplasma pneumonia. (
  • abstract = "Background: Current methods for obtaining fetal cells for prenatal diagnosis are invasive and carry a small (0.5-1.0%) but definite risk of miscarriage. (
  • There are a few reasons why someone may produce antibodies against RBC antigens. (
  • The recipient may produce antibodies to attack these foreign antigens. (
  • The mother may begin to produce antibodies against these foreign RBC antigens. (
  • The first time a person is exposed to a foreign RBC antigen, by transfusion or pregnancy, the person may begin to produce antibodies but his or her cells do not usually have the time during the first exposure to make enough antibodies to actually destroy the foreign RBCs. (
  • 5-Which produce antibodies? (
  • Others produce antibodies or destroy dead cells. (
  • These are white blood cells that produce antibodies. (
  • In 1975, Georges Köhler and César Milstein succeeded in making fusions of myeloma cell lines with B cells to create hybridomas that could produce antibodies, specific to known antigens and that were immortalized. (
  • Much of the work behind production of monoclonal antibodies is rooted in the production of hybridomas, which involves identifying antigen-specific plasma/plasmablast cells (ASPC) that produce antibodies specific to an antigen of interest and fusing these cells with myeloma cells. (
  • An RBC (red blood cell) antibody screen is a blood test that looks for antibodies that target red blood cells. (
  • This test looks for antibodies to red blood cells (RBCs) in your blood. (
  • Antibodies are proteins made by your body to attack foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria. (
  • PIG-A is required for synthesis of GPA, a cellular protein which allows a number of surface proteins to remain tethered to the cell wall. (
  • Over the next decade, investigators such as Emil von Behring, Shibasabura Kitasato, Karl Landsteiner, and Paul Ehrlich studied this phenomenon and discovered that this transfer of immunity occurred because of proteins called antibodies. (
  • Finally, blood proteins called complement can destroy the membranes of foreign cells. (
  • Complement proteins do this more easily when antibodies are attached to the target. (
  • Biomedical engineers at Tufts University School of Engineering have developed tiny lipid-based nanoparticles that incorporate neurotransmitters, which can help to carry drugs, large molecules, and even gene editing proteins across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and into the brain in mice. (
  • Bioproducts (BPs) such as recombinant proteins, including monoclonal antibodies, have proven to be effective in growing therapeutic areas and in particular for the treatment of chronic diseases. (
  • The researchers hope to create tiny particles that can interfere with the proteins that viruses such as HIV use to attach to cells. (
  • Furthermore, only protected animals had markedly increased concentrations of RANTES, macrophage inflammatory proteins 1α and 1β produced by circulating CD8 + T cells. (
  • The major heteropolysaccharides include the connective-tissue polysaccharides, the blood group substances, glycoproteins (combinations of carbohydrates and proteins) such as gamma globulin , and glycolipids (combinations of carbohydrates and lipids), particularly those found in the central nervous system of animals and in a wide variety of plant gums. (
  • In addition, HuUCBMCs upregulated the expression of proteins that are critical for cell survival, such as phospho-Akt and Bcl-2, in the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. (
  • The white blood cells work with special proteins called antibodies, which also travel in the blood, to protect against diseases that you have some immunity to. (
  • This allows other proteins in the blood (called complement) to also latch on. (
  • as the number of plasma proteins increase (due to the production of proteins) red blood cells settle at an increased rate. (
  • Antibodies are large proteins called immunoglobulins (Igs), which recognize and destroy foreign substances and organisms such as bacteria. (
  • Antibodies are a specific type of immune-system proteins known as immunoglobulins, whose role is to fight infections by binding themselves to antigens. (
  • Sometimes the immune system acts like these red blood cells are "foreign" and will attack them. (
  • If your blood is not compatible, your immune system will attack the transfused blood as if it is a foreign substance. (
  • Leukaemia is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and white blood cells, disrupting the levels of normal, healthy blood cells and resulting in damage to the immune system and anaemia. (
  • Giving chemotherapy drugs, such as fludarabine phosphate, and total-body irradiation before a donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cancer cells and helps stop the patient's immune system from rejecting the donor's stem cells. (
  • Neonates who were born ≤ 37 weeks gestation to mothers or their blood specimens were ≥ 48 h for testing or their mother was irregular antibody-positive or had transfusion records or liver and kidney dysfunction, blood or immune system diseases were excluded. (
  • That's because your immune system then sees the donor's blood as an "invader" and attacks it. (
  • If your fetus has a different blood group than yours, your immune system may also make antibodies against that "foreign" blood group. (
  • The concept behind this ongoing revolution is that the function of cells of the immune system can be modulated by antibody molecules binding to receptors expressed on their cell surface. (
  • By investigating the ability of combat-ready white blood cells (WBCs) to ingest and kill GAS, researchers have discovered new insights into how this disease-causing bacteria can evade destruction by the immune system. (
  • Scientists at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have extracted part of the human immune system and reconstituted it in brewer's yeast in a fashion that enables powerful machines to quickly identify new antibodies. (
  • Medical Xpress)-While our immune system protects us from myriad bacterial and viral attacks by producing antigen-specific antibodies, this process can sometimes go awry. (
  • This collection of scientifically accurate drawings celebrates the unexpected beauty of our immune system at a tiny scale and includes images of our heroic white blood cells and bacteria and viruses for which we have vaccines against. (
  • This article is about the cells of the immune system also known as white blood cells. (
  • White blood cells (also called leukocytes or leucocytes and abbreviated as WBCs) are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. (
  • Our immune system does not damage cells in our own bodies because it recognises that they are ours. (
  • If cells from someone else's body are placed in our body, our immune system recognises that they are not ours, and destroys them. (
  • For most body cells there are lots of different markers (antigens - say ant-i-jens) that tell our immune system that something does not belong in our body, but for red blood cells there are only a few main antigens (A, B and Rh) on their surface. (
  • The blood that someone is given is 'matched' so that it won't be destroyed by their immune system. (
  • Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is a rare blood disorder in which the body's immune system produces antibodies that destroy red blood cells. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) isolated from tumor bearing animals or from individuals with solid tumors display functional abnormalities and the DC impairment has emerged as one mechanism for tumor evasion from the control of the immune system. (
  • These include the red blood cells that carry oxygen, the white blood cells that develop into immune system cells, and platelets, which cause blood to clot. (
  • If you are Rh negative and your unborn baby is Rh positive, your body may begin to make antibodies against your baby's blood. (
  • Both Kell antigens and Rh incompatibility may cause a mother to make antibodies against her baby's blood. (
  • If you have Rh incompatibility, your body may begin to make antibodies against your baby's blood. (
  • People who have many transfusions make antibodies to RBCs because they are exposed to foreign RBC antigens with each transfusion. (
  • Vertebrate animals make antibodies, but invertebrate animals do not. (
  • If you get blood from a person whose blood group is different from yours, your body may make antibodies against this other blood. (
  • Antibodies were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by immunofluorescence on different cultured cell lines and by immunoperoxidase staining on frozen sections of various mouse normal and inflammatory tissues. (
  • The serum level of M. pneumoniae antibody measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay remained high in the convalescent phase, while the number of specific ASCs decreased. (
  • When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is caused by a biochemical blood cell defect that arises from an acquired genetic mutation in the stem cell lines in the bone marrow. (
  • Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the oldest and most common form of stem cell-based therapy. (
  • Bone marrow contains mixtures of cells, but only a minority are the blood forming stem cells. (
  • AMG 191 is being utilized as a conditioning agent for selectively eliminating endogenous stem cells in pediatric SCID patients prior to CD34+CD90+ hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for repopulation of the bone marrow. (
  • Red blood cells are produced in bone marrow. (
  • Red blood cells, like white blood cells, are made in the bone marrow and circulate through the blood stream. (
  • These flexible stem cells, able to morph into a variety of cell types, are called "pluripotent," and before this Argonne research, they have been found only in fetal tissue, which is limited, and in bone marrow, which is difficult to collect. (
  • All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells . (
  • Pro-Im1 and Pro-Im2 were found to be brightly expressed on a fraction of fetal liver hematopoietic and bone marrow cells. (
  • Red blood cells are being made all of the time in the bone marrow inside many bones of the body, such as the bones of the pelvis and thighs. (
  • White blood cells are formed mainly in the bone marrow, and unlike red blood cells, have a cell nucleus. (
  • MDCs are traveling from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood and/or out in peripheral tissues. (
  • A small population of primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is present in the bone marrow. (
  • The CD34 + protein is a surface glycoprotein expressed on HSCs and progenitor cells in early developmental stages in HUCB and bone marrow, as well as on endothelial cells. (
  • The CD34 + CD38 - immunophenotype defines a primitive subpopulation of progenitor cells in fetal liver and fetal or adult bone marrow (3-5). (
  • About 1% of bone marrow cells express CD34, and generally less than 1% of these cells are CD38-negative. (
  • The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment contains a complex network of non-haematopoietic cells, mainly of mesenchymal origin, which provide support for growth, proliferation and differentiation of the haematopoietic stem cells and their progeny. (
  • Multiple myeloma is a disease in which malignant plasma cells spread through the bone marrow and hard outer portions of the large bones of the body. (
  • Bone marrow is a very active tissue that is responsible for producing the cells that circulate in the blood. (
  • B-cells, like all blood cells, develop from unspecialized stem cells in the bone marrow . (
  • Multiple myeloma begins when the genetic material (DNA) is damaged during the development of a stem cell into a B-cell in the bone marrow. (
  • A growth factor , called interleukin-6, promotes uncontrolled growth of these myeloma cells in the bone marrow and prevents their natural death. (
  • Whereas normal bone marrow contains less than 5% plasma cells, bone marrow of an individual with multiple myeloma contains over 10% plasma cells. (
  • Further insight into humoral viral immunity after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) could have potential impact on donor selection or monitoring of patients. (
  • The dendritic cell (DC) is the master regulator of host immunity. (
  • DCs also possess the capacity to induce activation and proliferation of γσ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, bridging innate immunity to adaptive immune response ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Cell-based immunotherapy strategies target tumors directly (via cytolytic effector cells) or aim at mobilizing endogenous anti-tumor immunity. (
  • Dendritic cells (DC) are master regulators of adaptive immunity and are long thought to be a prime target for the treatment of various diseases, including chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • T-cells can provide long-term immunity against diseases, as they remain in the body's system and can be rapidly produced to mount an aggressive response against recurring pathogens. (
  • Many factors work in concert to inhibit antiglioma immunity, including immunosuppressive cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg), and the downmodulation of costimulation molecules by antigen-presenting cells resulting in loss of T-cell effector function-all of which are operational in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients (reviewed in ref. 3 ). (
  • The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway is a potent regulator of anti-inflammatory responses through its suppression of macrophage activation ( 19 , 20 ), reduction of the cellular cytotoxicity of natural killer cells and neutrophils, and reduction of the expression of MHC II, CD80, CD86, and IL-12 in dendritic cells rendering them unable to stimulate T cells and generate antitumor immunity ( 21 ). (
  • b. cell-mediated immunity. (
  • However, this 1% of the blood makes a large difference to health, because immunity depends on it. (
  • The method was found to be simpler and more rapid than the alternative enzyme-linked binding assay and useful for rapid screening and selection of antibodies for use as differentiation markers of human and mouse haemopoietic cells. (
  • Although embryonic stem cells have the broadest differentiation potential ( 2 ), their use for cellular therapeutics is excluded for several reasons: the uncontrollable development of teratomas in a syngeneic transplantation model ( 3 ), imprinting-related developmental abnormalities ( 4 ), and ethical issues ( 1 ). (
  • On the other hand, previously published claims that adult tissue-specific stem cells possess an intrinsic differentiation potential to other tissues may have been premature. (
  • According to some authors, ingestion of apoptotic bodies by DC manifesting CD205+ phenotype initiates production of transforming growth factor  (TGF-) by the cells, which promotes differentiation of Tregs [2]. (
  • A series of monoclonal antibodies recognizing myeloid differentiation antigens were prepared by immunizing Balb/c mice with HL-60 cells. (
  • The proliferation and differentiation of cells is controlled by a group of hematopoietic growth factors. (
  • Red blood cell antibodies may cause harm to you after a transfusion or, if you are pregnant, to your baby. (
  • This usually happens after a blood transfusion or during pregnancy , if a mother's blood comes in contact with her unborn baby's blood. (
  • Check your blood before a blood transfusion. (
  • Your health care provider may order an RBC screen if you are scheduled to get a blood transfusion, or if you are pregnant. (
  • The primary reason that a person may have RBC antibodies circulating in the blood is because the person has been exposed, through blood transfusion or through pregnancy, to RBCs other than his or her own (foreign RBCs). (
  • Before receiving a blood transfusion, a person's ABO group and Rh type are matched with that of donor blood to prevent a serious transfusion reaction from occurring. (
  • If someone receives a blood transfusion, the person's body may also recognize other RBC antigens from other blood groups (such as Kell or Kidd) that the person does not have as foreign. (
  • When the next transfusion or pregnancy occurs, the immune response may be strong enough for enough antibodies to be produced, attach to, and break apart (hemolyze) the transfused RBCs or the baby's RBCs. (
  • The basic principle of transfusion states that if the cells of the blood to be transfused will be agglutinated by the recipients plasma, the transfusion must not be made. (
  • Do the antibodies present in blood at the time of blood transfusion destroy the recipient's blood. (
  • Red blood cell transfusion is a mainstay of therapy in patients with SCD. (
  • He is currently the Associate Director of Transfusion Medicine and Assistant Professor of Pathology at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, MD. He did his transfusion medicine fellowship at Yale-New Haven Hospital and was previously the Assistant Director of the Blood Bank and of Apheresis at that hospital. (
  • Dr. Gehrie's clinical and research interests are focused on the safety and efficacy of blood transfusion and therapeutic apheresis. (
  • In particular, he is interested in developing algorithms to predict adverse events related to blood transfusion. (
  • He is a co-investigator of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) supported Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III), where he focuses on the impact of blood transfusion on recipient vital signs and pulmonary injury. (
  • In addition to these efforts, Dr. Gehrie is committed to patient blood management, with a particular emphasis on the development and implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the initiation of blood component transfusion. (
  • Most transfusion-related problems happen when a donor's blood isn't compatible with the person getting the blood. (
  • This test finds out blood compatibility in advance of a blood transfusion. (
  • These antibodies may have formed from a blood transfusion, from an earlier pregnancy, or even from exposure to some viruses or bacteria. (
  • You may need this test before a blood transfusion to check your specific blood traits. (
  • You may also have this test if you need an emergency blood transfusion during delivery. (
  • Test results before a blood transfusion will show whether your blood is compatible with the red blood cells in donor blood. (
  • The ability to manufacture RBCs on demand, especially the universal donor blood (O+), would significantly benefit those in need of transfusion for conditions like leukemia by circumventing the need for large volume blood draws and difficult cell isolation processes. (
  • In the third, hemolytic disease was present and a blood transfusion was needed for the newborn. (
  • Doctors can give blood from one person to another in what is called a transfusion (say trans-few-shun). (
  • Transfusion with ABO incompatible blood can lead to severe and potentially fatal transfusion reactions. (
  • Antibodies to RhD develop only after an individual is exposed to RhD antigens via transfusion, pregnancy or organ transplantation. (
  • Anti RhD (or anti-D) antibodies destroy RhD positive red cells and can lead to haemolytic transfusion reactions. (
  • When a transfusion is given, it is preferable for patients to receive blood and plasma of the same ABO and RhD group. (
  • O RhD negative red cells are issued in emergency situations where life saving transfusion is required prior to completion of a crossmatch. (
  • Most ABO incompatible transfusions occur as a result of improper patient identification at the time of collection of the pre-transfusion sample or administration of the blood product. (
  • The pre-transfusion check is carried out at the bedside by 2 members of clinical staff to ensure the right blood is transfused to the right patient. (
  • Transfusion can cause antibodies to develop in the recipient. (
  • Some of these antibodies can cause transfusion reactions or damage the foetus. (
  • This aspect of the ABO blood group system is very important in transfusion. (
  • Blood group O individuals are said to be universal donors, because their blood can be used for transfusion in individuals who have any one of the four blood types. (
  • However, before any transfusions, donor blood is mixed with serum from the recipient (a process called cross matching) to ensure that no agglutination will occur after transfusion. (
  • Publications] Shigenori IKEMOTO: 'Recent information on blood group antigens detected with monoclonal antibodies discriminate red cell membrenes' Journal of Science in Senshu University. (
  • We semi-quantitatively evaluate the percentage of antibody molecules that are adsorbed on cellulose fibres and can potentially immobilize red blood cells on the fibre surface, and the percentage of the molecules that can desorb from the cellulose fibre surface into the blood sample and cause haemagglutination reaction in the bulk of a blood sample. (
  • Our results show that 34 to 42% of antibody molecules in the papers treated with commercial blood grouping antibodies can desorb from the fibre surface. (
  • When specific antibody molecules are released into the blood sample via desorption, haemagglutination reaction occurs in the blood sample. (
  • The reaction bridges the red cells in the blood sample bulk to the layer of red cells immobilized on the fibre surface by the adsorbed antibody molecules. (
  • Antibodies are Y-shaped molecules. (
  • Third, the DCs can be genetically modified to deliver given tumor antigens in high efficiency and to express activating molecules in driving simultaneous production of antigen-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • Fourth, introducing two allogeneic DRB1 molecules into the DCs improves generation of tumor antigen-specific T cells. (
  • The blood-brain barrier comprises a layer of endothelial cells that line the blood vessels in the brain, which allows only select types of molecules to pass from the bloodstream into the fluid surrounding the neurons and other cells of the brain. (
  • In particular, we will present the different cell-based assays that have been used to assess the potential of antibodies and their aggregates to modulate cellular mechanisms leading to activation and the biological parameters (cellular activation markers, proliferation and secreted molecules) that can be measured to evaluate the different cell activation stages and their consequences in the propagation of the immune response. (
  • Antibodies are specific molecules that can lock onto a particular cellular structure to start, stop or otherwise temper a biological process. (
  • Australian scientists have described an exquisitely balanced interplay of four molecules that trigger and govern antibody production in immune cells. (
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been identified as signaling molecules in various pathways regulating cell survival. (
  • We determined if the altered expression of adhesion molecules during stem cell expansion could be a reason for the discrepancy. (
  • This H substance is present in unmodified form in individuals with blood type O. Adding extra sugar molecules to the H substance produces the A and B substances. (
  • The production of monoclonal antibodies by mouse-mouse hybridoma cell lines and its application against blood grouping of the forensic materials. (
  • Publications] Shigenori IKEMOTO: 'The production of monoclonal antibodies and its application against blood grouping' Medical Bulletin. (
  • In 1973, Jerrold Schwaber described the production of monoclonal antibodies using human-mouse hybrid cells. (
  • Birds of each line were injected intravenously with 1 mL of 2.5% SRBC at four and 11 weeks of age to induce primary and secondary antibody responses, respectively. (
  • Immunization is the procedure designed to induce an antibody-mediated response against a particular pathogen. (
  • Using granulocytes as the source of effector cells, FcαRI-engagement can induce potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ]. (
  • To bypass this requirement, CD3-bispecific antibodies have been developed to induce a polyclonal T-cell response against the tumor. (
  • That is, the donor's blood must be compatible with the recipient's so that antibodies do not react with and destroy donor blood cells. (
  • VirScan highlights both donor and recipient contributions to the viral antibody repertoire, and acquisition of new viral epitopes after HCT. (
  • Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can make an immune response against the body's normal cells. (
  • These healthy stem cells can come from either a donor or can be stem cells that are modified by gene therapy techniques. (
  • In a BMT the stem cells from a donor replaces the recipient's diseased stem cells. (
  • Currently, recipients that undergo BMT are treated with toxic agents such as radiation and chemotherapy in order to in order to eliminate their own blood forming stem cells and permit the donor cells to take and develop. (
  • This antibody can safely target a recipient's stem cells making room for the donor cells. (
  • When used in mice, this antibody resulted in excellent donor stem cell take and cured mice that had a condition equivalent to human SCID. (
  • Our objective is to test the antibody that targets human CD117 to safely prepare children with SCID to accept blood forming stem cells from a donor. (
  • Based on the animal studies we expect that this antibody will markedly increase the levels of donor cells as compared to current standards. (
  • If the antibody treatment results a stronger blood system originating from a donor in SCID patients, this result would prove that the antibody could be used to optimize engraftment of gene-therapy modified cells and could be applied to the treatment the many other diseases that need a BMT. (
  • Easier and faster manufacturing of RBCs would also have a significant impact on blood banks worldwide and reduce dependence on donor blood which has a higher risk of infection. (
  • Over the past years, studies have shown that after hematopoietic allo-transplantation with BM or G-CSF-mobilized blood, a small percentage of donor cells can also be detected as nonhematopoietic tissue ( 5 - 9 ). (
  • It is unclear, however, whether such MAPCs decline with donor age, a phenomenon that has been observed for the hematopoietic ( 14 ) and the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) compartment from BM ( 15 ). (
  • Besides this biological superiority, CB is abundantly available, is routinely harvested without risk to the donor, and infectious agents such as CMV are rare exceptions ( 20 )-a definite advantage for the development of cell therapeutics in regenerative medicine. (
  • Donor-specific HLA antibodies have been associated with acute and chronic rejection. (
  • In 13 of 16 allograft recipients, IgG antibodies against mismatched donor HLA antigens were observed, and donor-specific antibodies were sometimes produced in B-cell cultures when serum reactions were negative. (
  • Our results suggest that analysis of B cells producing antibodies specific for donor antigens may be a useful tool for identifying and monitoring the humoral immune response in organ transplant recipients. (
  • Cell replacement strategies using stem cells (SCs) as donor tissue have emerged as a promising approach for restoration of function in neurodegenerative diseases [ 14 - 19 ]. (
  • Group O is often referred to as the universal red cell donor. (
  • Group AB plasma can therefore be given to patients of any ABO blood group and is often referred to as the universal plasma donor. (
  • Over the past 15 years, human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) has been clinically investigated as an alternative source of HSCs for allogeneic transplantation of patients lacking a human leukocyte antigen-matched marrow donor. (
  • In contrast, polyclonal antibodies bind to multiple epitopes and are usually made by several different antibody secreting plasma cell lineages. (
  • This study demonstrates that high doses of 1F5 can be administered to patients with negligible toxicity by continuous infusion and that clinical responses can be obtained in patients given greater than 1 g of unmodified antibody over a ten-day period. (
  • We interrogated the viral antibody repertoire before and after HCT using a novel serosurvey (VirScan) that detects immunoglobulin G responses to 206 viruses. (
  • Day 14 γδT cells from PBMC of patients with cancer were equally effective as their counterparts derived from blood of healthy individuals and triggered potent CD8 + αβT cell responses following processing and cross-presentation of simple (influenza M1) and complex (tuberculin purified protein derivative) protein antigens. (
  • Of note, and in clear contrast to peripheral blood γδT cells, the ability of day 14 γδT cells to trigger antigen-specific αβT cell responses did not depend on re-stimulation. (
  • The researchers sought to investigate this further, comparing the magnitude of T-cell and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses in symptomatic and asymptomatic sufferers of the disease. (
  • Through examination of blood plasma in the study group, the researchers found that both sets of individuals in fact, had mounted sufficient virus-specific T-cell responses, indistinguishable in magnitude from one another. (
  • however, the lack of tumor eradication indicates that the T cells mediating adaptive immune responses are deficient in malignant glioma patients and are functionally impaired within the local tumor microenvironment ( 5 - 9 ). (
  • Because significant T-cell immune suppression is induced by the GBM and because glioblastoma-associated cancer-initiating cells are a therapeutically resistant population, the question arises as to the participation of cancer-initiating cells in inhibiting T-cell responses. (
  • Sheep Red Blood Cell and Brucella abortus Antibody Responses in Chicke" by N. A. Nelson, N. Lakshmanan et al. (
  • Chickens from replicated lines divergently selected for multitrait immunocompetence were tested for their antibody responses to sheep red blood cells and Brucella abortus antigen. (
  • For sheep red blood cell responses, the most marked difference was between the high and low lines postsecondary immunization. (
  • These results indicate that congenic lines carrying six B complex recombinants differ in their primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC. (
  • There is abundant literature on various aspects of humoral autoimmune responses (islet cell antibody [ICA], insulin autoantibody [IAA], GAD65, etc.), although it is usually held that the tissue damage would be caused by cytolytic autoimmune T-cells. (
  • While there has been much focus on T cell-mediated immune responses, limited knowledge exists on the role of mature B cells. (
  • We describe an approach, including a cell-based ELISA, to evaluate mature IgG antibody responses to melanoma from human peripheral blood B cells. (
  • These data demonstrate the presence of a mature systemic B cell response in melanoma patients, which is reduced with disease progression, adding to previous reports of tumor-reactive antibodies in patient sera, and suggesting the merit of future work to elucidate the clinical relevance of activating humoral immune responses to cancer. (
  • Protected macaques developed highest titers of heterologous neutralizing antibodies, and consistently elevated HIV-1-specific T helper responses. (
  • Any of various white or colorless cells in the blood of vertebrate animals, many of which participate in the inflammatory and immune responses to protect the body against infection and to repair injuries to tissues. (
  • Computer artwork of an antibody or immunoglobulin molecule attacking a leukaemia white blood cell (lymphocyte). (
  • Test results if you're pregnant will show whether you have RBC antibodies of the immunoglobulin G, IgG, subtype. (
  • Today, all approved monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy are immunoglobulin (Ig) G isotype antibodies [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • The antibodies can destroy the baby's red blood cells, causing a severe form of anemia . (
  • Immune complexes are large and precipitate out of solution, increasing the chance that white blood cells called phagocytes will destroy them. (
  • The transplantation of the cancer cells in these special mice provokes a massive infiltration of white blood cells that destroy the cancer, said Zheng Cui, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of pathology at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center and the lead scientist. (
  • They attack and rapidly destroy red cells carrying the corresponding antigen. (
  • The antibodies destroy the red blood cells as they move through the body. (
  • These are the cells that normally destroy old bone, so that new bone can be produced by cells called osteoblasts. (
  • We designed a frequency-enhanced transferrin receptor antibody-labelled microfluidic chip (FETAL-Chip) for efficient enrichment and identification of circulating fetal cells, i.e. , circulating nucleated red blood cells (cNRBCs) from maternal blood. (
  • A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays a crucial role in the survival of peripheral B cells, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) through upregulation of autoantibody production and maintenance of autoimmune phenomena. (
  • We found that the cancer-initiating cells inhibited T-cell proliferation and activation, induced regulatory T cells, and triggered T-cell apoptosis. (
  • However, melanoma-infiltrating myeloid cells displayed impaired suppression of nonspecific T-cell proliferation compared with peripheral blood myeloid cells, in which monocytes and eosinophils were suppressive. (
  • Furthermore, myeloid-derived cells isolated from melanoma tumors were unable to suppress T-cell proliferation compared with homologous subsets obtained from peripheral blood. (
  • Our findings provide a first characterization of the nature and suppressive function of the melanoma myeloid infiltrate and suggest that the frequency and contribution of these cells to the inhibition of T-cell proliferation in patients with metastatic melanoma seem far less than that based on murine tumor models. (
  • TDB treatment induced CD8 + T-cell proliferation. (
  • C 21 H 33 O 3 ) from A. blazei investigated its regulatory effects on cytokine productions and cell proliferation of PBMC induced by PHA. (
  • One of the therapeutic objectives in tissue inflammation is to reduce the local inflammatory response through the reduction of inflammatory cell activation and proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production. (
  • Patients undergo TBI and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant on day 0. (
  • For appropriate patients, stem cell transplantation provided definitive therapy. (
  • Successful stem cell therapy requires the exchange of diseased or non-functional stem cells with healthy ones. (
  • One important step in this process of repair and replacement is to eliminate the existing diseased cells so that physical space is created for the healthy ones, and competition for environmental factors that nurture and support the stem cells are removed. (
  • These stem cells are the only cells that can permanently generate new blood for the life of a recipient. (
  • We propose to test a protein called an antibody that recognizes a molecule called CD117 present on blood forming stem cells. (
  • We have brought together world experts in transplantation, protein development and clinical study design who have the shared objective of bringing the technology of antibody targeting stem cells to patients. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation possesses the ability to provide a life-long cure for all of these diverse diseases, as it allows for the replacement of defective HSC. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) arise from hematopoietic stem cells and develop into a discrete cellular lineage distinct from other leucocytes. (
  • Is It Possible to Volunteer Yourself for Stem Cell Research in America? (
  • Here a new, intrinsically pluripotent, CD45-negative population from human cord blood, termed unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) is described. (
  • Somatic human stem cells which can be propagated in large quantities while retaining their ability to differentiate into different tissue cell types could serve as a highly valuable resource for the development of cellular therapeutics ( 1 ). (
  • In contrast to adult BM, the stem cell compartment in cord blood (CB) is less mature. (
  • This has been documented for the hematopoietic stem cells, which in CB are more abundant than in BM and have a higher proliferative potential associated with an extended life span and longer telomeres ( 16 - 19 ). (
  • Thus, we termed the primary population unrestricted somatic stem cell (USSC). (
  • Pluripotent stem cells are important because they can generate all types of tissues found in the body, and the Argonne-developed technology can produce them from adult blood cells. (
  • To receive news and publication updates for Stem Cells International, enter your email address in the box below. (
  • Grafted cells reduced 3-AP-induced neuronal loss promoted the activation of microglia in the brain stem, and prevented the overexpression of GFAP elicited by 3-AP in the cerebellum. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cells from human umbilical cord blood (HuUCBCs) have been proposed as an excellent source of embryonic SCs in regenerative therapies for the Central Nervous System [ 20 - 23 ]. (
  • c. stem cells. (
  • Single dose of 100 million Longeveron Mesenchymal Stem Cells (LMSCs) followed by vaccination with Fluzone High-Dose at either 1 week (Cohort B) or 4 weeks (Cohort C) post infusion. (
  • 2 cohorts to receive a single infusion of 100 million Longeveron Mesenchymal Stem Cells (LMSCs) (Cohort A: 30 subjects) or placebo (Cohort B:30 subjects) followed by vaccination with Fluzone High-Dose. (
  • or stem cell factor) in different combinations: TPO + FL + KL, TPO + FL and TPO, at concentrations of 50 ng/mL each. (
  • The TPO + FL + KL combination presented the best condition for maintenance of stem cells. (
  • The expression of CD62L, HLA-DR and CD117 was modulated after culture, particularly with TPO + FL + KL, explaining differences between the adhesion and engraftment of primary and cultured candidate stem cells. (
  • We conclude that culture of CD34 + cells with TPO + FL + KL results in a significant increase in the number of candidate stem cells with the CD34 + CD38 - phenotype. (
  • Expansion of human stem cells in ex vivo culture will likely have important applications in transplantation, stem cell marking, and gene therapy (2). (
  • Ex vivo culture is a crucial component of several clinical applications of stem/progenitor cells. (
  • A single stem cell has been proposed to be capable of more than 50 cell divisions or doublings in vivo and as such has the capacity to generate up to 10 15 cells, or sufficient cells for up to 60 years. (
  • Within these cells, a population of multipotential progenitors, referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or, more correctly multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells 1 has been identified. (
  • The major antigens or surface identifiers on human RBCs are the O, A, and B antigens, and a person's blood is grouped into an A, B, AB, or O blood type according to the presence or absence of these antigens. (
  • The protein was synthesized by the cells and exposed on the cell surface. (
  • These surface markers can be used to differentiate between leukemic T- and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) and to subclassify various entities [1]. (
  • They are found on the surface of mature B cells. (
  • If a B cell encounters an invader with antigens that match its antibodies (like a key in a lock), the antigen is brought inside and then displayed on the surface, akin to waiving the enemy's captured flag. (
  • Detection of monoclonal antibodies against cell surface antigens: the use of antiglobulins coupled to red blood cells. (
  • An antiglobulin-coupled red cell assay is described for screening monoclonal antibodies against cell surface antigens. (
  • This structure provides the cell with ample surface area for the absorption and delivery of oxygen and carbon dioxide. (
  • A confluent monolayer of HT29-MTX cells strained with DAPI (blue) expressing transmembrane mucin MUC1 (green) was infected with Salmonella (red) from the apical surface. (
  • It binds to N-acetylgalactosamine glycoproteins expressed on the surface of T cells then activates the cells to produce cytokines and proliferate [ 9 ]. (
  • One clone was found to produce an IgG2a antibody recognizing an 85,000-dalton molecular weight surface glycoprotein, and a second clone was found to produce an IgM antibody recognizing a heat-stable determinant present on a glycolipid. (
  • Methods: To generate antibodies, we purified nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) from fetal livers and used them as the immunogen to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against surface antigens. (
  • When RhD is present on the red cell surface, the red cells are called RhD positive. (
  • Note that Group O RhD negative (O negative) red cells have neither ABO nor RhD antigens on their surface. (
  • Phenotypic analyses of several cell surface markers reveal that even this rare population is heterogeneous (6). (
  • In the case of the ABO blood groups , the antigens are present on the surface of the red blood cell, while the antibodies are in the serum. (
  • This is a rare type II autoimmune disorder in which antibodies that attack red blood cells have enhanced activity at temperatures of less than 99° F (37.2° C). The term agglutinin refers to an antibody that causes antigens, such as red blood cells or bacteria, to adhere to each each other. (
  • The term agglutinin refers to an antibody that causes antigens, such as red blood cells or bacteria, to adhere to each each other. (
  • Westminster, Colo. (August 26, 2010) -- The term "macrophage" conjures images of a hungry white blood cell gobbling invading bacteria. (
  • A University of Washington study is the first to provide visualizations of tuberculosis infections in an intact living organism and reveals how tuberculous granulomas, the tight aggregates of macrophages that are the hallmarks of this infection, are formed within infected organisms (Macrophages are a specialized class of white blood cells that patrol tissues and ingest foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, as well as dead and dying cells. (
  • c. causes bacteria cells to burst. (
  • Besides this, the white blood cells are perpetually waging war against the bacteria in our bodies. (
  • The war between the white blood cells and the bacteria is a bitter one. (
  • Some white blood cells act as scavengers by engulfing foreign particles (such as bacteria ) and destroying them. (
  • T cells -- immune cells that help your body fight germs like bacteria, as well as cancer -- are taken out of it. (
  • In addition to the irregularly shaped leukocytes, both red blood cells and many small disc-shaped platelets are visible. (
  • All white blood cells have nuclei , which distinguishes them from the other blood cells , the anucleated red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets . (
  • Pro-Im1 and Pro-Im2 were absent from peripheral blood monocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets, but Pro-Im2 was expressed on granulocytes. (
  • This is a clear, pale yellow liquid, which carries all the blood cells and platelets and chemicals such as hormones and glucose. (
  • The platelets are sticky little cells that move around in the blood until a blood vessel is injured in some way (when bleeding starts). (
  • The platelets join together with a protein called fibrinogen (say fy-brin-o-jen) to make a sort of web to form a clot, which stops the flow of blood out of a blood vessel. (
  • There are many other antigen systems expressed on red cells, white cells and platelets. (
  • Platelets help your blood clot when you have an injury. (
  • This can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn, usually not affecting the first baby but affecting subsequent children when the mother's antibodies cross the placenta, attach to the baby's RBCs, and hemolyze them. (
  • This is of particular importance in pregnancy where anti-D antibodies can cross the placenta from mother to unborn child and lead to haemolytic disease of the newborn. (
  • Effects of Infection on Red and White Blood Cells? (
  • Children with SCID are born without certain types of white blood cells because their own stems do not make these cells, and are highly susceptible to serious infections. (
  • IgE binds to white blood cells called mast cells and basophils. (
  • White blood cells from six Icelanders with high levels of COVID-19 antibodies have been flown to Canada for use in a project developing a treatment for the coronavirus, RÚV reports. (
  • Over the weekend, three Icelanders' white blood cells were flown to a laboratory in British Columbia owned by biopharmaceutical company Amgen, which owns Iceland's deCODE Genetics. (
  • Amgen hopes that these Icelanders' white blood cells may help researchers develop antibodies to use as a treatment for critically ill COVID-19 patients. (
  • They donated blood over a two-hour period, then scientists extracted the white blood cells to be transported to Amgen. (
  • For the album by the band the White Stripes, see White Blood Cells (album) . (
  • Types of white blood cells can be classified in standard ways. (
  • The normal white cell count is usually between 4 × 10 9 /L and 1.1 × 10 10 /L. In the US, this is usually expressed as 4,000 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter of blood. (
  • [3] White blood cells make up approximately 1% of the total blood volume in a healthy adult, [4] making them substantially less numerous than the red blood cells at 40% to 45% . (
  • White blood cells act as the defenders of the body against germs or foreign bodies (such as splinters). (
  • MDS is a relatively rare condition that can lead to a depletion of red or white blood cells , anemia, heavy bleeding. (
  • The white blood cells grow into the sides of cuts, and so heal them. (
  • Then your white blood cells can gain strength to fight the disease germs. (
  • By careful study he learned that the white blood cells had in the first case killed the germs. (
  • Then the white blood cells gather at the spot so as to kill the disease germs. (
  • Some of the white blood cells and the liquid from the blood run out, and we have to blow the nose. (
  • The white blood cells help to make us well whenever we catch a cold or other kind of sickness. (
  • The cold harms the cells of his body, and then the white blood cells cannot easily fight disease germs. (
  • White blood cells are far less numerous in the blood than red blood cells, but their amount usually increases in response to infection and can be monitored as part of a clinical assessment. (
  • The complexity of this system is enormous, since as many as 10 10 erythrocytes and 10 8 -10 10 white blood cells are produced each hour each day during the lifetime of the individual. (
  • A lack of white blood cells called neutrophils in your blood. (
  • Until recently, treatment was based upon relieving the acute complications as well as maintenance transfusions of red blood cells, folic acid and iron supplementation, and glucocorticoids. (
  • The number of packed red blood cell transfusions dropped to zero in the actively-treated group versus 10 units per patient in the placebo group. (
  • These antibodies can cause problems during blood transfusions or, if you're pregnant, with your unborn baby. (
  • Blood transfusions save millions of lives every year, but over half the world's countries do not have sufficient blood supply to meet their needs. (
  • Isolation of alpaca anti-idiotypic heavy-chain single-domain antibody for the aflatoxin immunoassay. (
  • Anti-idiotypic antibodies recognize the antigenic determinants of an antibody, thus they can be used as surrogate antigens. (
  • Single-domain antibodies from camlid heavy-chain antibodies with the benefit features of small size, thermostability, and ease in expression, are leading candidates to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies. (
  • Three anti-idiotypic VHH antibodies were isolated and applied to immunoassay toward aflatoxin as a coating antigen. (
  • Blood flow and vascular permeability were found to be significantly greater in the RCC tumor xenografts than in Clouser tumors. (
  • Interestingly, a positive association was found between the percentage of Tregs and granulocytic cells (Lin − CD11b + CD14 − CD15 + ) infiltrating melanoma tumors. (
  • Anti-HER2/CD3 T-cell-dependent bispecific (TDB) antibody is highly efficacious in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing tumors in mice. (
  • We further describe the mechanism for TDB-induced T-cell recruitment to tumors. (
  • The immunologic effects and the mechanism of CD3-bispecific antibody-induced T-cell recruitment into spontaneous HER2-overexpressing mammary tumors was studied using human HER2 transgenic, immunocompetent mouse models. (
  • Anti-HER2/CD3 TDB treatment induced an inflammatory response in tumors converting them from poorly infiltrated to an inflamed, T-cell abundant, phenotype. (
  • Multiple mechanisms accounted for the TDB-induced increase in T cells within tumors. (
  • Our results demonstrate that high T-cell infiltration in tumors is not necessary for potent antitumor activity of anti-HER2/CD3 TDB. (
  • Therapies that direct T cells to tumors, including adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells and T-cell-dependent bispecific (TDB) antibodies, have been clinically validated for the treatment of B-cell leukemias as well as lymphomas, ( 1, 2 ) and have demonstrated promising activity for the treatment of multiple myeloma ( 3, 4 ). (
  • Anti-HER2/CD3 TDB redirected T cells to eradicate HER2-expressing cancer cells and exhibited potent antitumor activity in preclinical mouse models of HER2-overexpressing tumors. (
  • We examined the systemic influence ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exerted on levels of peripheral blood DCs and inflammatory mediators in comparison to the effects exerted by other pancreatic tumors, chronic pancreatitis, and age-matched controls. (
  • Our results prove that solid pancreatic tumors, including PDAC, systemically affect blood DCs. (
  • These myeloma cells may form tumors called plasmacytomas. (
  • There, they produce tumors secreting an antibody-rich fluid called ascites fluid. (
  • The RBC antibody screen looks for circulating antibodies in the blood directed against red blood cells (RBCs). (
  • The mother may be exposed during pregnancy or at delivery to the foreign antigens on her baby's RBCs when some of the baby's cells enter the mother's circulation as the placenta separates. (
  • Antibodies to the ABO antigens are naturally-occurring so do not require exposure to foreign RBCs. (
  • In this episode, Dr. Gehrie describes some of the things that blood bankers should be thinking when we transfuse RBCs to sickle cell patients. (
  • Researchers from Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), MIT's research enterprise in Singapore, have discovered a new way to manufacture human red blood cells (RBCs) that cuts the culture time by half compared to existing methods and uses novel sorting and purification methods that are faster, more precise and less costly. (
  • Traditional methods for producing human RBCs usually require 23 days for the cells to grow, expand exponentially and finally mature into RBCs. (
  • Our optimised protocol stores the cultured cells in liquid nitrogen on what would normally be Day 12 in the typical process, and upon demand thaws the cells and produces the RBCs within 11 days. (
  • On testing the purified RBCs, they were found to retain their cellular functionality, as demonstrated by high malaria parasite infectivity which requires highly pure and healthy cells for infection. (
  • The current work detected and quantified the Duffy antigen on Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus erythrocyte surfaces using a polyclonal antibody in order to investigate if differences in susceptibility to Babesia are due to different levels of Duffy antigen expression on the RBCs of these animals, as is known to be the case in human beings for interactions of Plasmodium vivax-Duffy antigen. (
  • For example if group A red cells are infused into a recipient who is group O, the recipient's anti-A antibodies bind to the transfused cells. (
  • Knowledge of MDSC has been primarily established in preclinical models and the phenotypic diversity of MDSC as well as the lack of common markers to study these cells in mice and humans has generated ambiguity in their characterization in patients with cancer. (
  • For instance, in the case of anti-TNF antibodies, ADA characterization showed that 90% of anti-infliximab antibodies are neutralizing and more than 97% of anti-adalimumab antibodies are also neutralizing ( 4 ). (
  • What Is the Anti-M Blood Antigen Antibody? (
  • The anti-M blood antigen antibody is an unpredictable antibody that is an uncommon cause of hemolytic disease in newborns, according to the National Institutes of Health. (
  • Next, we identified T cells as the direct target cells of the immunopotentiating LAB strain L32, suggesting that L32 induced antibody production by PBMCs through T-cell activation. (
  • Multivariate regression analysis revealed anti-topo I antibodies as the only independent predictor of high production of APRIL by PBMC. (
  • Production of APRIL is increased in SSc-PBMC and is associated with the presence of anti-topo I antibodies and more severe disease. (
  • Characteristics of cancer-initiating cells also include high levels of the antiapoptotic genes, the ability to form neurospheres, nonadherence, possession of marker characteristics for astrocytic, neuronal, and oligodendroglial lineages ( 16 ), and tumorigencity in vivo . (
  • Thus, after exposure to different agents, these cells are able to express antigens of diverse cellular lineages, including the neural type [ 26 - 31 ]. (
  • These cells are defined by their ability to self-renew as well as to differentiate into committed progenitors of the different myeloid and lymphoid compartments generating all of the blood cell lineages (1). (
  • we selected 546 cases of jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia neonates in our hospital from February 2013 to February 2016, tested the maternal serum IgG anti-A (B) titer, neonatal direct anti globulin, free antibody and RBC antibody, calculated the prevalence ratio of ABO haemolytic disease and analysed the effects of these indexes in the occurrence and development of ABO-HDN. (
  • Some scholars believed that it had some effects on the prenatal diagnosis of HDN to test the maternal serum IgG anti-A (B) titer, but other researchers pointed that IgG antibody titer change only had limited directive effects on the clinical preventive treatment [ 2 ]. (
  • We tried to combine neonatal direct anti globulin, free antibody and RBC antibody to the laboratory testing of ABO-HDN on the basis of the maternal serum IgG anti-A (B) titer testing and some references [ 3 ], and achieved satisfactory results. (
  • Genotypes R5R5 and R6R6 had significantly higher primary total antibody titer to SRBC compared with R1R1, R2R2, R3R3 and R4R4. (
  • a. raises the antibody titer. (
  • c. raises the antibody titer and is given after the initial vaccine. (
  • Two patients had circulating tumor cells and in both cases 90% of malignant cells were eliminated from the blood stream within four hours of initiation of serotherapy. (
  • Antigenic modulation did not occur, and sustained reduction of circulating tumor cells was observed throughout the duration of the infusions. (
  • High doses (100 to 800 mg/m2/d and high serum 1F5 levels (13 to 190 micrograms/mL) were required to coat tumor cells in these compartments in contrast to the low doses that were adequate for depletion of circulating cells. (
  • Treatment of monocyte culture fluids with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antibody largely abolished the activation effect (as measured by endothelial cell expression of ICAM-1), whereas treatment with IL-1beta receptor antagonist had a much smaller inhibitory effect on activation. (
  • The specific uptake of 125 I-A6H antibody by xenografts of the human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) TK177G in the athymic mouse was considerably greater than that seen for other human tumor xenografts and their associated antibodies ( e.g. , 125 I-B6.2 uptake by the human breast carcinoma, Clouser). (
  • Relative blood flow to the tumor was determined using the 86 Rb method. (
  • Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as an immune-regulatory cell type that is expanded in tumor-bearing mice, but less is known about their immune-suppressive role in patients with cancer. (
  • To study the importance of MDSC in patients with melanoma, we characterized the frequency, phenotype, and suppressive function of blood myeloid-derived cells and tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in 26 freshly resected melanomas. (
  • Blood and tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells (Lin − CD11b + ) could be phenotypically and morphologically classified into monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, and immature myeloid cells according to marker expression (CD14 + , CD14 − CD15 hi , CD14 − CD15 int , and CD14 − CD15 − , respectively). (
  • In contrast to the expansion of MDSC reported in tumor-bearing mice, we found no differences in the frequency and phenotype of myeloid subsets in the blood of patients with melanoma compared with healthy donors. (
  • Myeloid cells represented 12% of the live cells in the melanoma cell suspensions, and were phenotypically diverse with high tumor-to-tumor variability. (
  • Our study evaluates the frequency, phenotype, and suppressive function of myeloid-derived cells in peripheral blood, but also in the tumor of patients with metastatic melanoma. (
  • Unlike the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) found in tumor-bearing mice, the frequency and phenotype of the different myeloid subsets found in peripheral blood of patients with metastatic melanoma and healthy donors were similar. (
  • The response to cancer immune therapy is dependent on endogenous tumor-reactive T cells. (
  • Efficacy and immunologic effects of anti-HER2/CD3 TDB were investigated in mammary tumor model with very few T cells prior treatment. (
  • CD3-bispecific antibodies bridge T cells to tumor cells by binding the T-cell receptor (TCR) CD3 subunit and a tumor antigen expressed on cancer cells, thereby facilitating T-cell-mediated killing of target cells. (
  • Atopic dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated disease and characterized with strong inflammatory cytokines production such as tumor necrosis factor- a (TNF- a ) [ 10 ]. (
  • Thus, a challenge for novel therapeutic strategies will be the fine tuning of intracellular ROS signaling to effectively deprive cells from ROS-induced tumor promoting events, towards tipping the balance to ROS-induced apoptotic signaling or ROS inhibition using antioxidants. (
  • Accordingly, the individuals with O blood are termed universal donors. (
  • Furthermore, antibodies have been detected in blood donors and some patients with leukemia or lymphoma living in the Sahel and savanna zones of northern Nigeria (3). (
  • Activation of endothelial cells via antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection of peripheral blood monocytes. (
  • Although endothelial cells have been speculated to be a target in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), there has been little evidence linking dengue virus infection to any alteration in endothelial cell function. (
  • Antibodies are an extremely important part of the body's defense against infection. (
  • This seems to confer with previous studies suggesting that T-cell level in asymptomatic individuals was lower than in symptomatic patients, as these studies were conducted up to three months after the initial infection had passed. (
  • The presence of EV-RNA in the blood cells of most newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic children supports the hypothesis that a viral infection acts as an exogenous factor. (
  • Colorless cells in the blood that help combat infection . (
  • Microscopic immunofluorescence analysis showed that the MEC mAbs localized at the cell-cell contacts in EC. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are powerful tools useful for both fundamental research and in biomedicine. (
  • The current way of generating such discriminative mAbs involves extensive screening of multiple Ab-producing B cells, which is both costly and time consuming. (
  • Within as little as 1 month, it is possible to produce milligrams of highly discriminative human mAbs directed against virtually any desired antigen naturally detected by the B cell repertoire. (
  • Our aim was to determine the marker profile of different leukemic NHLs with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) of the Biowissenschaften Leipzig (BL) series. (
  • Here, we report the development of a humanized murine model that can be used to analyze the pharmacodynamics and antitumor properties of immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in settings where the receptors targeted by the mAbs are expressed. (
  • One is an antibody that appears to recognize an altered form of the Band 3 membrane protein (2). (
  • The cells contain hemoglobin, a red protein that binds to the air so that it can be distributed throughout the body. (
  • GAD65, heat shock protein 60/65, proinsulin, and several other β-cell components have been suggested as key antigens because of successful modification of the natural course of disease in the NOD mouse, the autoimmune model of type 1 diabetes. (
  • To explore the expression of maternal serum IgG anti-A (B) and neonatal direct anti globulin, free antibody and Red Blood Cell (RBC) antibody on the occurrence and development of ABO Haemolytic Disease of the New-born (ABO-HDN) and provide a valuable reference for the early diagnosis of the disease. (
  • The combined detection of pregnant women's serum IgG anti-A (B) and neonatal erythrocyte antibody expression is expected to provide evidence for the clinical early diagnosis of ABOHDN. (
  • VWR provides the cell culture community with access to the most reliable supply of exceptional quality Fetal Bovine Serum: VWR Life Science Seradigm. (
  • Microtiter methods were used to assay total anti-SRBC and mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER) serum antibody. (
  • Such antibodies may sometimes not be detected in recipient serum. (
  • Peripheral blood B cells were obtained from 36 subjects, including 16 allograft recipients, 12 sensitized patients, three multiparous women with serum HLA antibodies, and five healthy non-transfused male subjects. (
  • serum and cells. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies specific for endothelial cells of mouse blood vessels. (
  • Two monoclonal antibodies (mAb), MEC 7.46 (IgG1) and MEC 13.3 (IgG2a) that specifically recognize mouse endothelial cells (EC) of blood vessels, were produced immunizing a Lewis rat with a polyoma middle T transformed EC line. (
  • Staining of the endothelial lining of blood vessels was greater at cell-to-cell contacts. (
  • In this study, we show that human umbilical vein endothelial cells become activated when exposed to culture fluids from dengue virus-infected peripheral blood monocytes. (
  • Activation was strongest for endothelial cell expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. (
  • In contrast, activation of endothelial cell E-selectin expression appeared to be more transient, as indicated by its detection at 3 h, but not at 16 h, of treatment. (
  • Endothelial cells inoculated directly with dengue virus or with virus-antibody combinations were poorly infectable (compared to Vero cells or peripheral blood monocytes), and virus-inoculated endothelial cells showed no increased expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, or E-selectin. (
  • Taken together, the results strongly indicate that dengue virus can modulate endothelial cell function by an indirect route, in which a key intermediary is TNF-alpha released from virus-infected monocytes. (
  • The endothelial cell-specific antibody PAL-E identifies a secreted form of vimentin in the blood vasculature. (
  • During mammalian vascular development, endothelial cells form a complex array of vessels that differ markedly in structure and function, but the molecular basis for this vascular complexity is poorly understood. (
  • Recent insights into endothelial diversity have come from the identification of molecular markers expressed on distinct endothelial cell populations. (
  • Researchers in Malaysia wanted to know how the numbers of ' endothelial progenitor cells ' (EPCs), which play a role in new vessel formation, changed with increasing grades of astrocytoma. (
  • They found that the numbers of endothelial progenitor cells were higher in the tumours than they were in surrounding healthy tissue. (
  • Increased Endothelial Progenitor Cells with Age and Grade of Malignancy in Astrocytic Glioma Patients. (
  • Whole Blood Eosinophil Isolation Kit has been developed for the fast isolation of untouched eosinophils from freshly drawn anticoagulated whole blood without density gradient centrifugation and red blood cell lysis. (
  • Whole Blood Eosinophil Isolation Kit, a MACSmix™ Tube Rotator, and a MACSxpress Separator. (
  • Isolation of NRBCs from 252 maternal blood samples using these antibodies in magnetic activated cell sorting after an initial density gradient centrifugation yielded 0-419 NRBCs per 25 mL of maternal blood. (
  • Conclusion: Antibody 2B7.4 shows promise for the isolation of NRBCs from maternal blood and should allow studies concerning the source of these cells, fetal vs maternal, and the factors controlling their prevalence. (
  • Blood (2017) 129 (19): 2636-2644. (
  • In 2017, the FDA approved the first CAR T-cell therapy for PMBL and a few other types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (
  • Monoclonal antibidies to red cells membren antigens were the products derived freom th hybridoma obtained by fusing mouse myelomacells(NS-1) and splenocytes of the BALB/c mice immunized with blood group substances prepared from human saliva and red cells. (
  • All the energy-giving substances coming from food are carried along by the blood to where they are needed. (
  • The ABO blood group substances are glycoproteins, the basic molecule of which is known as the H substance. (
  • Alleles at a locus independent of the ABO blood group locus, known as the secretor locus, determine an individual's ability to secrete the ABO blood group substances in saliva and other body fluids. (
  • Thus the presence of ABO blood group substances act as a protective agent against the development of stomach and peptic ulcers. (
  • These naturally occurring antibodies are mainly IgM immunoglobulins. (
  • These antibodies are unique to the ABO system and are termed "naturally occurring antibodies. (
  • For therapeutic antibodies, ADAs are mainly directed against epitopes recognized as foreign, e.g., mouse remaining epitopes in chimeric or humanized antibody paratopes, human allotopes, or human idiotopes ( 3 ). (
  • Studies exploring peptide sequences targeted by these ADAs identified B-cell epitopes notably on infliximab and adalimumab variable regions, close to the paratope ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Results: The four antibodies recognized at least two conformationally sensitive epitopes of the transferrin receptor. (
  • eVols at University of Hawaii at Manoa: Epitopes Of Tilapia Red Blood Cells. (
  • Epitopes Of Tilapia Red Blood Cells. (
  • A diagnosis of anemia should be demonstrated by blood tests to help distinguish warm antibody hemolytic anemia (autoimmune disease) from other causes of red blood cell destruction/loss. (
  • Targeting the APRIL pathway might represent a therapeutic possibility for treatment of patients with SSc, in particular those with anti-topo I antibodies. (
  • These findings indicate that cancer-initiating cells contribute to the immune evasion of GBM and that blockade of the STAT3 pathway has therapeutic potential. (
  • The LNPs can then fuse with neurons and other cells in the brain to deliver their therapeutic payload. (
  • The advance could have major repercussions for fundamental biological science as well as industries that use antibodies for sensors, biodetectors, diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents. (
  • Therefore, for patients who do not sufficiently benefit from therapeutic IgG antibodies, IgA antibodies may complement current regiment options and represent a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. (
  • This active T-cell recruitment by TDB-induced chemokine signaling was the dominant mechanism and necessary for the therapeutic activity of anti-HER2/CD3 TDB. (
  • Furthermore, they have been reported to play an important role in the therapeutic activity of anti-CD20 as well as anti-HER2 and melanoma antibodies in several in vivo mouse models. (
  • CLL is an adult B-cell malignancy with highly variable disease course 1 and unpredictable response to therapeutic agents. (
  • Mainly three phenotypically and functionally distinct DC subsets are described in the human peripheral blood (PB): plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), which express the key marker CD303 (BDCA-2), and two myeloid DC subsets (CD1c(+) DC (mDC1) and CD141(+) DC (mDC2)), which express the key markers CD1c (BDCA-1) and CD141 (BDCA-3), respectively. (
  • In addition, we have determined the number of binding sites of each type of antibody on different density populations that had been stripped of in situ antibody. (
  • However, once the genes are rearranged, the B cell is committed to making only one type of antibody. (
  • The y-shaped antibody molecule have two arms that can bind to specific antigens. (
  • Secondly, large numbers of antibodies can bind large numbers of antigens, forming an immune complex. (
  • This is because phagocytes can bind to antibodies, allowing phagocytes to more easily recognize the antigen. (
  • Antibodies attach (bind) to red blood cells. (
  • The antibodies secreted by the different clones are then assayed for their ability to bind to the antigen (with a test such as ELISA or antigen microarray assay) or immuno-dot blot. (
  • T-cells are a specialized type of leukocyte (white blood cell) designed to target specific antigens, such as SARS-CoV-2. (
  • In the adaptive response, B cells make the antibodies to the specific antigens. (
  • Following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), full lymphocyte reconstitution and resolution of hypogammaglobulinemia may be protracted. (
  • Both antibodies mediated complement-dependent inhibition of CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM formation assayed by soft agar colony and burst formation, indicating the expression of these antigens by early hematopoietic precursor cells. (
  • Analysis of 150 cases of various myeloid and lymphoid malignancies demonstrated Pro-Im1 and Pro-Im2 expression on myeloblasts and promyelocytes from some acute myelogenous leukemias as well as some B cell malignancies, suggesting that these antigens are shared by early hematopoietic cells and a subset of B cells. (
  • The abnormal red cells are prone to complement-mediated hemolysis, which leads to leakage of the dark, pigmented hemoglobin into the urine. (
  • Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are efficient phagocytes for antibody- or complement-opsonized microorganisms. (
  • Moreover, the presence of high-affinity ADAs suggests a CD4 T-cell dependent adaptive immune response and therefore a pivotal role for antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs). (
  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma exerts systemic effects on the peripheral blood myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells: an indicator of disease severity? (