Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.

T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (1/1058)

Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney.  (+info)

The role of alpha and beta platelet-derived growth factor receptor in the vascular response to injury in nonhuman primates. (2/1058)

Restenosis remains a significant clinical problem associated with mechanical interventional procedures for arterial revascularization or repair, including coronary angioplasty and stenting. Studies with rodents have established that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent chemotactic and mitogenic agent for vascular smooth muscle cells, is a key mediator of lesion formation after vascular injury. To further explore this hypothesis in a more clinically relevant model, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to examine the effect of selective inhibition of alpha or beta PDGF receptor (PDGFR) on neointima formation in nonhuman primates. Carotid arteries were injured by surgical endarterectomy and femoral arteries by balloon catheter dilatation. Immunostaining revealed that both injuries induced cell proliferation and the upregulation of beta PDGFR but not alpha PDGFR. By 7 days after injury, beta PDGFR staining was limited to the luminal region of the media, the small areas of neointima, and the adventitia. Nearly all bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells were found in these regions as well. After 30 days, a concentric neointima that stained strongly for beta PDGFR had formed in the carotid and femoral arteries. Treatment of baboons with anti-beta PDGFR mAb 2A1E2 for 6 days after injury reduced the carotid artery and femoral artery lesion sizes by 37% (P<0.05) and 48% (P<0.005), respectively, when measured at 30 days. Under the same conditions, treatment with anti-alpha PDGFR mAb 2H7C5 had no effect. These findings suggest that PDGF mediates neointima formation through the beta PDGFR, and that antagonism of this pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy for reducing clinical restenosis.  (+info)

Ectopic expression of DNA encoding IFN-alpha 1 in the cornea protects mice from herpes simplex virus type 1-induced encephalitis. (3/1058)

A novel approach to combat acute herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has recently been developed by administration with a plasmid DNA construct encoding cytokine genes. Cytokines, especially type I IFNs (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) play an important role in controlling acute HSV-1 infection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential efficacy of ectopically expressed IFN-alpha 1 against ocular HSV-1 infection following in situ transfection of mouse cornea with a naked IFN-alpha 1-containing plasmid DNA. Topical administration of the IFN-alpha 1 plasmid DNA exerted protection against ocular HSV-1 challenge in a time- and dose-dependent manner and antagonized HSV-1 reactivation. In addition, IFN-alpha 1-transfected eyes expressed a fivefold increase in MHC class I mRNA over vector-treated controls. The protective efficacy of the IFN-alpha 1 transgene antagonized viral replication, as evidenced by the reduction of the viral gene transcripts (infected cell polypeptide 27, thymidine kinase, and viral protein 16) and viral load in eyes and trigeminal ganglia during acute infection. The administration of neutralizing Ab to IFN-alpha beta antagonized the protective effect of the IFN-alpha 1 transgene in mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of using naked plasmid DNA transfection in the eye to achieve ectopic gene expression of therapeutically active agents.  (+info)

CTLA4 signals are required to optimally induce allograft tolerance with combined donor-specific transfusion and anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody treatment. (4/1058)

Sensitization to donor Ags is an enormous problem in clinical transplantation. In an islet allograft model, presensitization of recipients through donor-specific transfusion (DST) 4 wk before transplantation results in accelerated rejection. We demonstrate that combined DST with anti-CD154 (CD40L) therapy not only prevents the deleterious presensitization produced by pretransplant DST in the islet allograft model, it also induces broad alloantigen-specific tolerance and permits subsequent engraftment of donor islet or cardiac grafts without further treatment. In addition, our data strongly indicate that CTLA4-negative T cell signals are required to achieve prolonged engraftment of skin allograft or tolerance to islet allograft in recipients treated with a combination of pretransplant DST and anti-CD154 mAb. We provide direct evidence that a CD28-independent CTLA4 signal delivers a strong negative signal to CD4+ T cells that can block alloimmune MLR responses. In this study immune deviation into a Th2 (IL-4) response was associated with, but did not insure, graft tolerance, as the inopportune timing of B7 blockade with CTLA4/Ig therapy prevented uniform tolerance but did not prevent Th2-type immune deviation. While CTLA4-negative signals are necessary for tolerance induction, Th1 to Th2 immune deviation cannot be sufficient for tolerance induction. Combined pretransplant DST with anti-CD154 mAb treatment may be attractive for clinical deployment, and strategies aimed to selectively block CD28 without interrupting CTLA4/B7 interaction might prove highly effective in the induction of tolerance.  (+info)

Negative selection of immature B cells by receptor editing or deletion is determined by site of antigen encounter. (5/1058)

Immature B cells that encounter self-antigen are eliminated from the immune repertoire by negative selection. Negative selection has been proposed to take place by two distinct mechanisms: deletion by apoptosis or alteration of the antigen receptor specificity by receptor editing. While convincing evidence exists for each, the two models are inherently contradictory. In this paper, we propose a resolution to this contradiction by demonstrating that the site of first antigen encounter dictates which mechanism of negative selection is utilized. We demonstrate that the bone marrow microenvironment provides signals that block antigen-induced deletion and promote RAG reinduction. In the periphery, the absence of these signals allows the immature B cell to default to apoptosis as a result of BCR engagement.  (+info)

IgG anti-endothelial cell autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or systemic vasculitis stimulate the release of two endothelial cell-derived mediators, which enhance adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte adhesion in an autocrine manner. (6/1058)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) to modulate endothelial cell function. METHODS: The effects of purified IgG from 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 4 patients with systemic vasculitis on the expression of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, E-selectin) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on the adhesion of the human promyelocytic cell line U937 were examined in vitro. RESULTS: IgG from 6 of 8 AECA-positive SLE patients and 3 of 3 AECA-positive systemic vasculitis patients up-regulated adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. The 4 AECA-negative samples had no effect. Transfer experiments demonstrated that at later time points (2-8 hours) after AECA addition, endothelium-derived interleukin-1 (IL-1) accounted for the ability of AECA to increase leukocyte adhesion. However, even within very short times after addition of AECA (<30 minutes), endothelial cells released a distinct transferable mediator with similar effects. CONCLUSION: AECA in patients with SLE or systemic vasculitis may contribute to pathogenesis by increasing leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. AECA act by inducing the release of at least two endothelium-derived mediators, one (as-yet-unidentified) rapidly and another (IL-1) more slowly, both of which stimulate endothelial cells in an autocrine manner.  (+info)

CD8+ T cells are a biologically relevant source of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha in vivo. (7/1058)

Chemokines are small proteins that direct the migration of leukocytes to inflammatory foci. Many cell types, including macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and lymphocytes, produce chemokines in vitro, but biologically relevant sources of chemokines in vivo have not been well characterized. To investigate the pertinent sources of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in vivo, we used MIP-1 alpha-deficient (MIP-1 alpha-/-) mice as donors and as recipients in adoptive transfer experiments after a lethal infection with Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Unexpectedly, we found that the production of MIP-1 alpha by CD8+ T cells was critical in this system, as the cells from MIP-1 alpha-/- mice primed with LM were significantly less effective in protecting naive mice against a lethal infection by LM than were the CD8+ T cells from wild-type (wt) mice. This requirement for donor T cell production of MIP-1 alpha was confirmed by the observation that wt donor T cells do not mediate protection when coadministered with an anti-MIP-1 alpha polyclonal antiserum. Production of MIP-1 alpha by the recipient mice was not required for protection, because wt and MIP-1 alpha-/- recipients were equally well protected by wt T cells. A 2- to 3-fold decrease in the number of transferred lymphocytes was seen in the spleens of mice receiving T cells from MIP-1 alpha-/- mice compared with those receiving wt T cells. In addition, CD8+ T cells from MIP-1 alpha-/- mice had a reduced ability to kill LM-infected target cells in vitro. These findings demonstrate that T cell production of MIP-1 alpha is required for clearance of an intracellular pathogen in vivo.  (+info)

DNA immunization with HIV-1 tat mutated in the trans activation domain induces humoral and cellular immune responses against wild-type Tat. (8/1058)

Intramuscular immunization of mice with plasmids encoding two transdominant negative mutants of the HIV-1 Tat protein (Tat22 and Tat22/37) elicited a humoral response to wild-type Tat that is comparable to that induced by inoculation of wild-type tat DNA or Tat protein. The percentage of the responders and the Ab titers continued to increase after three additional DNA boosts and pretreatment with bupivacaine at the site of inoculation, without a significant difference (p > 0.05) among the three groups of mice immunized with mutant and wild-type tat genes. By utilizing synthetic peptides representing the amino acid sequence of Tat, one major B cell epitope was defined within the cysteine-rich domain of Tat. Anti-Tat IgG Abs directed against this epitope were found in mice immunized with all tat DNA constructs, whereas different Tat epitopes were detected in mice immunized with the Tat protein. Similarly, IgG2a was the predominant isotype in DNA-immunized mice, with both mutants and wild-type tat genes, as compared with protein immunization, which induced mostly IgG1 and IgG3. Sera from most immunized mice neutralized the effect of extracellular Tat in activating HIV-1 replication. A cellular response was also elicited as indicated by the proliferation of splenocytes when stimulated with wild-type Tat. These results indicate that the wild-type Tat Ag is recognized by Abs and T cells induced by DNA immunization with mutated tat genes, suggesting the possible use of these Tat transdominant mutants, lacking viral trans activation activity and capable of blocking wild-type Tat activity, in the development of an anti-HIV-1 vaccine.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced T-cell immunity to osteosarcoma through antibody blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. AU - Lussier, Danielle M.. AU - ONeill, Lauren. AU - Nieves, Lizbeth M.. AU - McAfee, Megan S.. AU - Holechek, Susan A.. AU - Collins, Andrea W.. AU - Dickman, Paul. AU - Jacobsen, Jeffrey. AU - Hingorani, Pooja. AU - Blattman, Joseph. PY - 2015/3/27. Y1 - 2015/3/27. N2 - Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents. Although 70% of patients with localized disease are cured with chemotherapy and surgical resection, patients with metastatic osteosarcoma are typically refractory to treatment. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) limit the development of metastatic osteosarcoma. We have investigated the role of PD-1, an inhibitory TNFR family protein expressed on CTLs, in limiting the efficacy of immune-mediated control of metastatic osteosarcoma. We show that human metastatic, but not primary, osteosarcoma tumors express a ...
Man was I singin the blues yesterday. Seriously. School turns out to be a lot tougher than I thought. Although we went and signed in and visited last week, somehow I missed the little detail about going back again on a regular basis and having to be there for hours with all these new people and new routines. Suffice to say that yesterday really sucked. I was pretty scared the whole time. The teachers were nice and I loved being outside..its just that it was all so NEW and had to cry a whole lot to let Mom know how uneasy I felt. I think I will get the hang of it, after all, I really liked the playground and they gave me my very own cubby! I even got to sit in a big kid chair for snack time (Mom said I may need velcro on my seat and plate). There are little kids like me I can be friends with (once I get over my nerves!) I think maybe Mom had a tougher time than I did because she was sooo excited about my new school and then I freaked out. I promise to try harder on Friday, Mom ...
Minnesota Overall Rankings Health Outcomes Map Health Factors Map Health Outcomes Rankings Health Factors Rankings 2010 Air pollution-particulate matter days Summary Information Range in Minnesota (Min-Max): 0-3 Overall in Minnesota: 1 Target Value: 0 (90th percentile) Ranking Methodology Summary Measure: Health Factors - Physical Environment (Air Quality) Weight in Health Factors: 2.5% Years of Data…
This phase I clinical investigation was undertaken in an effort to obtain a preliminary assessment of the biologic activity and toxicity of MDX-CTLA-4 in previously vaccinated metastatic melanoma and ovarian carcinoma patients. The study was motivated by compelling preclinical data indicating that the combination of CTLA-4 antibody blockade and cancer vaccination stimulated greater levels of antitumor immunity than either approach alone. Because the combination treatment also provoked a loss of tolerance to normal differentiation antigens, the risk of serious toxicities to patients was of some concern. Hence, we initially elected to administer CTLA-4 antibody blockade to previously vaccinated cancer patients.. Our initial results suggest that a single infusion of MDX-CTLA-4 may be safely delivered in this clinical setting. The generation of low titers of autoantibodies shows that the therapy may at least partially compromise systemic tolerance, but no evidence for autoimmune disease was noted. ...
This phase I clinical investigation was undertaken in an effort to obtain a preliminary assessment of the biologic activity and toxicity of MDX-CTLA-4 in previously vaccinated metastatic melanoma and ovarian carcinoma patients. The study was motivated by compelling preclinical data indicating that the combination of CTLA-4 antibody blockade and cancer vaccination stimulated greater levels of antitumor immunity than either approach alone. Because the combination treatment also provoked a loss of tolerance to normal differentiation antigens, the risk of serious toxicities to patients was of some concern. Hence, we initially elected to administer CTLA-4 antibody blockade to previously vaccinated cancer patients.. Our initial results suggest that a single infusion of MDX-CTLA-4 may be safely delivered in this clinical setting. The generation of low titers of autoantibodies shows that the therapy may at least partially compromise systemic tolerance, but no evidence for autoimmune disease was noted. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Hybridoma technology is used to fuse fusion a B cell and myeloma to form a hybridoma that produces identical monoclonal antibodies.
Hybridoma technology is used to fuse fusion a B cell and myeloma to form a hybridoma that produces identical monoclonal antibodies.
Researchers have revealed how one antibody (in green) is able to neutralize a protein that is central to the dengue viruss ability to cause disease, by...
Jordyn takes you through one of her ab workouts to help you get defined. This is the best ab workout for lower abs. The reps and sets are here to follow.
Cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-GAD antibodies[edit]. Antibodies against the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD: ... an ouabain block of Na+. -K+. pumps in the cerebellum of a live mouse results in it displaying ataxia and dystonia.[35] Ataxia ... GAD antibodies related ataxia is part of the group called immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias.[38] The antibodies induce a ... Part 3: Anti-Yo/CDR2, anti-Nb/AP3B2, PCA-2, anti-Tr/DNER, other antibodies, diagnostic pitfalls, summary and outlook". Journal ...
". "NIBAN3 Gene - GeneCards , NIBA3 Protein , NIBA3 Antibody". "NCBI - WWW Error Blocked Diagnostic". ... "NCBI - WWW Error Blocked Diagnostic". Retrieved 2015-05-09. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "NCBI ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)[permanent dead link] "NCBI - WWW Error Blocked Diagnostic". ... WWW Error Blocked Diagnostic". Retrieved 2015-05-09. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "SDSC ...
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors. Myasthenia gravis is often ... Allergies involve mainly IgE, antibodies, and histamine. Mast cells release the histamine. Sometimes an allergen may cause a ...
The antibody that fails to react is known as the blocking antibody and prevents the precipitating antibody from binding to the ... where blocking antibodies can interfere with other antibodies involved in hypersensitivity and thus improve allergy treatment. ... One kind of relevance that he hypothesized for this in vivo blocking antibody concept was as a driver of human susceptibility ... However, when the serum is diluted, the blocking antibody is as well and its concentration decreases enough for the proper ...
Monoclonal antibodies that can be used to block pro-inflammatory cytokines. *Antigen-specific immunotherapy which allows immune ... Antinuclear antibody[edit]. A test used to identify abnormal proteins, known as antinuclear antibodies, produced when the body ... "Antinuclear Antibody (ANA)". Retrieved 14 April 2020.. *^ "Complete blood count (CBC)". ... In this case, a normal immune response to C. jejuni can result in the production of antibodies that also react to a lesser ...
Martz L. "Nav-i-gating antibodies for pain". SciBX. Sheila Yong (May 22, 2014). "One Molecule To Block Both Pain And Itch". ... Mutations of Nav1.7 have been linked to itching (pruritus), and genetic knockouts of Nav1.7 and an antibody that inhibits ... June 2014). "A monoclonal antibody that targets a NaV1.7 channel voltage sensor for pain and itch relief". Cell. 157 (6): 1393- ... Martz L (2014). "Nav-i-gating antibodies for pain". Science-Business EXchange. 7 (23): 662. doi:10.1038/scibx.2014.662. ISSN ...
Removal of cyclin E with antibodies blocks replication. Cyclin E-CDk2 is also important in Drosophila. Levels of cyclin E rise ... Mutations in S. pombe cdt1 blocked DNA replication. Mcm 2-7 form a six-subunit complex and is thought to have helicase activity ... DNA replication is inhibited when Cdc7 homologs are inhibited with antibodies in frog or human cells. It is not known whether ... Mutations in this protein in budding yeast, and in its homolog in fission yeast block initiation of replication. Cdc7 is highly ...
... antibodies to the γδ TCR block recognition. Thus, the presence of a functional Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR appears mandatory for a response to ... but the fact that Vδ1+ T-cell responses are not blocked by monoclonal antibody directed against known classical or non- ... They can also lyse tumor cells by antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) (through binding Fc region of IgG deposited ... This table refers to variable chain Vγ gene segments and to monoclonal antibodies that detect the corresponding Vγ protein ...
The monoclonal antibodies block the extracellular ligand binding domain. With the binding site blocked, signal molecules can no ... However the former is of the IgG1 type, the latter of the IgG2 type; consequences on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ... CimaVax-EGF, an active vaccine targeting EGF as the major ligand of EGF, uses a different approach, raising antibodies against ... Interruption of EGFR signalling, either by blocking EGFR binding sites on the extracellular domain of the receptor or by ...
"Analysis of B-cell epitopes from the allergen Hev b 6.02 revealed by using blocking antibodies". Molecular Immunology. 46 (4): ... Brehler, R.; Theissen, U.; Mohr, C.; Luger, T. (1997). "'Latex-fruit syndrome': frequency of cross-reacting IgE antibodies". ... The immune system of some susceptible individuals produces antibodies that react immunologically with these antigenic proteins. ... for type I natural rubber latex allergy is through blood testing to determine if the patient is producing IgE antibodies to ...
Neutralizing antibodies can block binding of the toxin to CR3. Antobodies against adenylate cyclase toxin are also present in ... Not only the phagocytic uptake of bacteria is blocked, but subsequent production of ROS by neutrophils and monocytes, NETs by ... Adenylate cyclase toxin based constructs have been proven to elicit the production of neutralizing antibodies, but lack the ... research shows that immunization with adenylate cyclase toxin elicits neutralizing antibodies. ...
These transmission-blocking vaccines induce antibodies in the human blood; when a mosquito takes a blood meal from a protected ... Vaccine candidates that target antigens on gametes, zygotes, or ookinetes in the mosquito midgut aim to block the transmission ... individual, these antibodies prevent the parasite from completing its development in the mosquito. Other vaccine candidates, ...
Embryos with areas of blocked gap junctions failed to develop normally. The mechanism by which antibodies blocked the gap ... It was discovered that gap junction communication could be disrupted by adding anti-connexin antibodies into embryonic cells.[ ... Warner, AE (1987). "The use of antibodies to gap junction protein to explore the role of gap junctional communication during ... Bastide, B; Jarry-Guichard, T; Briand, JP; Délèze, J; Gros, D (April 1996). "Effect of antipeptide antibodies directed against ...
These monoclonal antibodies block EGFR and stop the uncontrolled cell division. It has a humanized human-mouse h-R3 heavy chain ... "Humanization of a mouse monoclonal antibody that blocks the epidermal growth factor receptor: recovery of antagonistic activity ... January 2014). "Trial Watch: Tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy". Oncoimmunology. 3 (1): e27048. doi: ... is a humanized monoclonal antibody that as of 2014 had orphan status in the US and EU for glioma, and marketing approval in ...
Scheinfeld N (2005). "Omalizumab: a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgE-blocking antibody". Dermatol. Online J. 11 (1): 2. ... In the next year, the company converted one candidate antibody to a chimeric antibody (which was later named CGP51901 and ... The antibody molecules are secreted by the host cells in a cell culture process employing large-scale bioreactors. At the end ... Unlike an ordinary anti-IgE antibody, it does not bind to IgE that is already bound by the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) ...
Opsonization: Coating antigen with antibody enhances phagocytosis. *Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity: Antibodies ... Neutralization: Blocks adhesion of bacteria and viruses to mucosa. Like the T cell, B cells express a unique B cell receptor ( ... Passive - Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta or infant via the mother's milk.. Passive - Preformed antibodies in ... An antibody is made up of two heavy chains and two light chains. The unique variable region allows an antibody to recognize its ...
November 2014). "Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies". Nature. 515 (7527 ...
Also those with the antibodies show that they can block this recognition. The papillomavirus genome is divided into an early ... The way they work is that they stimulate unnatural growth of cells and block their natural defenses. Also they act on many ... PDB entry 6bt3 shows how antibodies surfaces attack the surface of the virus to disable it. Some sexually transmitted HPV types ... This probably reflects a mechanism for evasion of neutralizing antibody responses elicited by previous papillomavirus ...
Nup98 antibodies introduced in the nucleus block the export of many RNAs. A large body of data exists which supports the role ...
Hence antibodies that block CD47 might be useful as a cancer treatment. In mice models of myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin ... Calreticulin binds to antibodies in certain area of systemic lupus and Sjögren patients that contain anti-Ro/SSA antibodies. ... "Congenital heart block not associated with anti-Ro/La antibodies: comparison with anti-Ro/La-positive cases". The Journal of ... The reason why most of the cells are not destroyed is the presence of another molecule with signal CD47, which blocks CRT. ...
They are: ICM3, an antibody blocking ICAM-3, designed to treat psoriasis. IC14, an antibody blocking CD14, designed to treat ... Eos's antibody inhibited angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and was being researched as a treatment for solid ... Icos also manufactured antibodies for other biotechnology companies. Icos is famous for tadalafil (Cialis), a drug used to ... In Canada, Pfizer moved to block sales of Cialis five months after it was approved there, arguing that there could be consumer ...
In April 2018, the first human antibody that blocks Epstein-Barr Virus was discovered, called AMMO1. It blocks glycoproteins gH ... "First human antibody found to block Epstein-Barr virus". Fred Hutch. Retrieved 2018-12-01. "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) vaccine ( ... April 2018). "An Antibody Targeting the Fusion Machinery Neutralizes Dual-Tropic Infection and Defines a Site of Vulnerability ... The viral proteins Gp350/220 are a primary target, but this would only block infection of B cells, not epithelial cells. A ...
Anti-NGF antibodies have demonstrated the greatest promise as potential medications. Wise BL, Seidel MF, Lane NE (January 2021 ... NGF inhibition may be achieved by sequestering free NGF molecules, blocking receptor binding, or inhibiting receptor function. ... Schmelz M, Mantyh P, Malfait AM, Farrar J, Yaksh T, Tive L, Viktrup L (October 2019). "Nerve growth factor antibody for the ... NGF inhibitors may take the form of monoclonal antibodies that bind to NGF, or small molecule inhibitors of NGF receptors. ...
Subtypes of antinuclear antibodies include anti-Smith and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies (which are linked to SLE ... and sometimes with systemic abnormalities such as heart block or enlargement of the liver and spleen.[41] Neonatal lupus is ... These antibodies clump into antibody-protein complexes which stick to surfaces and damage blood vessels in critical areas of ... Simplest classification tree: SLE is diagnosed if a person has an immunologic disorder (anti-DNA antibody, anti-Smith antibody ...
Microfilariae block this pathway by cleaving C3b-an important protein in this process-to form iC3b. iC3b cannot go on to ... The immune response involves raising antibodies (IgG, IgM and IgE type) that can react with soluble antigens released by ... Little evidence indicates that antibodies made are specific to O. volvulus. However, after the age of 40, the number of ... The complement system is used to enhance the effect of antibodies and phagocytic cells, which engulf and destroy other cells. ...
Occasionally such antibodies block but do not activate the receptor, leading to symptoms associated with hypothyroidism.[77] In ... These antibodies activate the receptor, leading to development of a goitre and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as heat ... Antibodies against thyroid peroxidase can be found on testing. The inflammation usually resolves without treatment, although ... If successful, thyroglobulin should be undetectable.[82] Lastly, antibodies against components of the thyroid, particularly ...
... blockade (using blocking antibodies) resulted in increased mortality for infected mice. Blockade reduced TNFα and nitric ...
Many are immunodominant, and antibodies against select domains block invasion of host cells. "DPDx - Cryptosporidiosis". ... In vitro, hyperimmune sera, as well as antibodies directed at specific epitopes on the GP900 protein, inhibit the invasion of C ... Lectins directed at GP900 carbohydrate moieties (alpha-N-galactosamine) were able to block adhesion and prevent C. parvum ... of Cryptosporidium parvum Infection In Vitro by Mucin-Like Glycoproteins Defined by a Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody". Infect ...
Sensitizing cells for apoptosis by selectively blocking cytokines. EP1592449 - 2005-11-09. Antibody specific for Human IL-4 for ... He has recently identified the role of certain cytokines, most importantly of IL-4, to block apoptosis in cancer cells in an ... Cover Issue in Gastroenterology 138: 2010 Sensitizing cells for apoptosis by selectively blocking cytokines. US2006257401 - ...
These monoclonal antibodies are used to block GD2 expression, and are thus referred to as anti-GD2 agents. They can be used for ... While anti-GD2 antibodies are effective in clearing the remaining tumors in neuroblastoma patients, there have also been major ... Anti-GD2 antibodies have been developed for immunotherapy treatment of neuroblastoma and can be grouped into first-generation ... The most extensively studied of these antibodies is ch14.18. Through randomized trials, it has been found that treatment with ...
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by preventing the STAT1 signalling protein in the ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ... Survivors develop antibodies against Ebola that last at least 10 years, but it is unclear whether they are immune to additional ...
... immunogenicity and characterization of antibodies". J. Reprod. Immunol. 79 (2): 137-47. doi:10.1016/j.jri.2008.09.002. PMID ... "ZP domain" module, a consensus furin cleavage site (CFCS), a polymerization-blocking external hydrophobic patch (EHP), and a C ...
This genetic trait confers resistance to HIV infection by blocking attachment of HIV to the cell. Roughly one in 1000 people of ... Levels of HIV-specific antibodies have also declined, leading to speculation that the patient may have been functionally cured ...
... people with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titers, people with symptoms of hypothyroidism and TSH levels between 5-10 mIU ... Block conversion of. T4 to T3. *Propylthiouracil#. *Ipodate. Sodium-iodide symporter. inhibitor. *Perchlorate (Potassium ...
The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ... About half the people with Lyme carditis progress to complete heart block, but it usually resolves in a week.[37] Other Lyme ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics.[23] As antibody levels ... because the IgM antibodies may remain after the initial infection, and IgG antibodies may remain for years.[120] ...
They act by blocking the androgen receptor (AR) and/or inhibiting or suppressing androgen production.[1][2] Antiandrogens are ... The generation of antibodies against androstenedione by these agents is thought to decrease circulating levels of ... Androgen receptor antagonists: drugs that bind directly to and block the AR.[57][58] These drugs include the steroidal ... AR antagonists may not bind to or block membrane androgen receptors (mARs), which are distinct from the classical nuclear AR.[ ...
Fluorescently tagged antibodies or streptavidin are bound to the dye molecule. These secondary components are selected so that ... Repetitive DNA sequences must be blocked by adding short fragments of DNA to the sample. The probe is then applied to the ... The probe is tagged directly with fluorophores, with targets for antibodies or with biotin. Tagging can be done in various ways ... or imaged simultaneously with a fluorescent antibody assay. The technology has potential applications in cancer diagnosis,[14] ...
For example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival. ... The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target called an antigen.[1][2] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody ... These allow vertebrate B cells to generate a huge pool of antibodies from a relatively small number of antibody genes.[9] The ... Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily; the terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used ...
Barley has more 1-4 linkages with a degree of polymerization higher than 4. However, the majority of barley blocks remain ... "Mechanism by which orally administered β-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in ...
Immunofluorescence and antibody techniques were used to localise the mutant V12rac1 protein after being microinjected into the ... Mutational variants of PRK2 were used to discover that although initial formation of pre-apical junctions isn't blocked, the ... the staining of the cells with antibodies showed that the increases in neurite branching was directly linked to the presence of ...
FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ... They are given following a heart attack to dissolve the thrombus blocking the coronary artery; experimentally after a stroke to ...
B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ...
... and all NR1 phosphorylation activity is lost if the TrKB receptor is blocked.[45] PI3 kinase and Akt are also essential in BDNF ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ... exon IV expression because normally CREB interaction with CRE and the subsequent translation of the BDNF transcript is blocked ...
It can also be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may ... Policy requires that we block those who repeatedly post copyrighted material without express permission. ...
... most common hybridization methods use salmon or herring sperm DNA for blocking of the membrane surface and target DNA, ... Proteins from Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gels to Unmodified Nitrocellulose and Radiographic Detection with Antibody ...
1984). "Natural killer-like function of activated T lymphocytes: differential blocking effects of monoclonal antibodies ...
With the discovery of CLEC5A interactions with different viruses, scientists are testing blocking anti-CLEC5A antibodies, Syk ... In the case of dengue virus, monoclonal anti-CLEC5A antibodies are able to suppress the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines ...
The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... A primary function of the 19S regulatory ATPases is to open the gate in the 20S that blocks the entry of substrates into the ... The blue patch is the catalytic threonine residue whose activity is blocked by the presence of bortezomib. ... form a gate that blocks unregulated access of substrates to the interior cavity.[18] The inner two rings each consist of seven ...
RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to ... Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or dead ... Invertebrates do not possess lymphocytes or an antibody-based humoral immune system, and it is likely that a multicomponent, ...
... works as an antagonist to VEGF, which when injected into the eye blocks the actions of VEGF. This then reduces the ... a monoclonal antibody, Novartis) being developed and sold,[7] and the off-label use of the cheaper Bevacizumab.[8] ... pegaptanib was successful at blocking VEGF-mediated vascular leakage almost entirely. The sustained release of the drug was ...
The part of an enzyme or antibody at which substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.. active transport. ... with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.. nucleoid. An irregularly shaped region ... They are a major component of the group of immune defense molecules collectively called antibodies.. infection. The invasion of ... Rajewsky, Klaus (1996). "Clonal selection and learning in the antibody system". Nature. 381 (6585): 751-758. doi:10.1038/ ...
This inhibition can be achieved with a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab (Remicade) binding directly to TNFα, adalimumab ( ... TNF phosphorylates insulin receptor serine residues, blocking signal transduction.. *On metabolism and food intake: regulates ... and identified the therapeutic effects of monoclonal anti-TNF antibodies.[20][21] More recently, research in the Laboratory of ... "Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia". Nature. 330 (6149): 662-64. Bibcode: ...
Some PRNP mutations lead to a change in single amino acids (the building-blocks of proteins) in the prion protein. Others ... Modulation of signal transduction pathways has been demonstrated in cross-linking with antibodies and ligand-binding (hop/STI1 ... only anti-PrPC antibodies prevented long-term memory and spatial learning deficits.[55][56] This would suggest either an ...
They can also completely block the esophagus.[43] Stomach diseases are often chronic conditions and include gastroparesis, ... It also has an immunological role in supplying antibodies to the system, such as immunoglobulin A.[16] This is seen to be key ... Air enters the larynx anteriorly but anything swallowed has priority and the passage of air is temporarily blocked. The pharynx ...
... they are antigens to which antibodies can be raised. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on antibody ... The M2 ion channel is blocked by amantadine drugs, preventing infection.[76] ... The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses.[47] The ... There has been some research success towards a "universal flu vaccine" that produces antibodies against proteins on the viral ...
Thalidomide has also been shown to block NF-κB activity through the blocking of IL-6, and NF-κB has been shown to be involved ... This enhances natural and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Lenalidomide and pomalidomide are about 100-1000 times more ...
This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... Antihistamines block the action of histamine, which causes blood vessels to dilate and become leaky to plasma proteins. ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - ...
Unlike the other types, it is not antibody-mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. ... TB bacteria are able to block the fusion of their enclosing phagosome with lysosomes which would destroy the bacteria. Thereby ...
"Facilitated antigen presentation and its inhibition by blocking IgG antibodies depends on IgE repertoire complexity". J. ... "Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.. *^ Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE ... Chang TW, Wu PC, Hsu CL, Hung AF (2007). Anti-IgE antibodies for the treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Adv. Immunol ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ...
... acts as a bradykinin inhibitor by blocking the binding of native bradykinin to the bradykinin B2 receptor. Little is ... Antibodies: Xentuzumab (against IGF-1 and IGF-2). Kisspeptin. *Agonists: Kisspeptin. *Kisspeptin-10 ...
an antibody that partly combines with an antigen and interferes with cell-mediated immunity, thereby preventing an allergic ... blocking antibody n. *. An antibody that combines with an antigen without a reaction but that blocks another antibody from ... an antibody that partly combines with an antigen and interferes with cell-mediated immunity, thereby preventing an allergic ...
HIV-blocking antibodies with increased potency and breadth. ... HIV-blocking antibodies. This research has been published in ... HIV-blocking antibodies.. *This new type of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) is most potent and can be used as a ... Broadly neutralizing, HIV-specific antibodies (bnAbs) are neutralizing antibodies that can neutralize HIV viral strains. They ... "A small fraction of people living with HIV can naturally produce exceptionally powerful and broad antibodies that could prevent ...
Rational design of a Kv1.3 channel-blocking antibody as a selective immunosuppressant. Rongsheng E. Wang, Ying Wang, Yuhan ... We generated antibody fusions by grafting potent Kv1.3 blocking peptides into complementary-determining regions (CDRs) of ... We generated antibody fusions by grafting potent Kv1.3 blocking peptides into complementary-determining regions (CDRs) of ... It has proven challenging to generate small molecules or antibodies that potently and selectively block Kv1.3 function. ...
It may also be used as a blocking agent in fluorescence and enzyme immunoassays. ...
Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between Antigen and other antibodies or sensitized T-Lymphocytes (e. ... g., antibodies of the Immunoglobulin g class that compete with Ige antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic ... Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by Cytotoxic t-lymphocytes have also been called ...
Blockage of the Siglec-1 receptor by anti-Siglec-1 monoclonal antibodies halted Ebola viral uptake and cytoplasmic entry, ... and anti-Siglec-1 monoclonal antibodies can antagonize this process. ... Anti-Siglec-1 antibodies block Ebola viral uptake and decrease cytoplasmic viral entry. *Daniel Perez-Zsolt1,2. , ... Perez-Zsolt, D., Erkizia, I., Pino, M. et al. Anti-Siglec-1 antibodies block Ebola viral uptake and decrease cytoplasmic viral ...
Pfs25-IMX313 elicited similar quality antibodies to dual-antigen vaccines, but higher antibody titres. ... Pfs25-IMX313 elicited similar quality antibodies to dual-antigen vaccines, but higher antibody titres. ... the antibody response in mice to each antigen was comparable to a mono-antigen vaccine, without immunological interference. ... the antibody response in mice to each antigen was comparable to a mono-antigen vaccine, without immunological interference. ...
... blocking antibody explanation free. What is blocking antibody? Meaning of blocking antibody medical term. What does blocking ... Looking for online definition of blocking antibody in the Medical Dictionary? ... blocking antibody. Haematology. An antibody which competes with another for an antigenic binding site. Blocking antibodies (Bas ... "blocking" available IgE class (reaginic) antibody activity. blocking antibody. an antibody that reacts with an antigen but ...
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... antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). ... Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called ... Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., ... enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989) ...
A blocking antibody is an antibody that does not have a reaction when combined with an antigen, but prevents other antibodies ... Blocking antibodies have been described as a mechanism for HSV-1 to evade the immune system. Blocking antibodies can be used in ... Blocking antibodies have been used in clinical trials of cancer treatments. The blocking antibody ipilimumab has been ... Some blocking antibodies may inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes, while other blocking antibodies prevent the binding of ...
Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. G Nussbaum, R Yuan, A Casadevall, M D ... Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. G Nussbaum, R Yuan, A Casadevall, M D ... To our knowledge this is the first report of blocking antibodies to a fungal pathogen. The results have important implications ... to determine if nonprotective mAbs blocked the activity of the protective mAbs. Antibody isotype and epitope specificity are ...
Blocking antibody An antibody used in a reaction to prevent some other reaction taking place, for example one antibody ... Retrieved from "" ...
Crystal structure of Pfs25 in complex with the transmission blocking antibody 1276. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb6B08/pdb ... Molecular definition of multiple sites of antibody inhibition of malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen Pfs25.. Scally, ... Importantly, one of these sites broadly overlaps with the epitope of the well-known 4B7 mouse antibody, which can be targeted ... We report six crystal structures of Pfs25 in complex with antibodies elicited by immunization via Pfs25 virus-like particles in ...
... and that PD-L1 antibodies are superior to PD-1 antibodies in reverting PD-1 signaling. ... We used an efficient T cell reporter platform to evaluate the efficacy of five clinically used PD-1 inhibitors to block PD-1 ... In conclusion, a functional assay evaluating antibodies targeting PD-1 inhibition in vitro revealed that pembrolizumab is a ... PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies have been approved for the treatment of cancer. To date, therapeutic PD-1 inhibitors have not been ...
Entry and egress of varicella virus blocked by same anti-gH monoclonal antibody.. Rodriguez JE1, Moninger T, Grose C. ... Addition of antibody to other viral proteins did not alter the infection. Thus, a monoclonal antibody to a single viral ... Since the same monoclonal antibody can inhibit entry, this study greatly expands the role of antibody in the modulation of ... Removal of the antibody was followed by rapid progression of cytopathic effect. ...
An international team of investigators has identified the first human antibodies that can neutralize different strains of the ... Human Antibodies that Block Human and Animal SARS Viruses Identified An international team of investigators has identified the ... The second antibody, m396, was taken from a library of human antibodies the researchers developed from the blood of 10 healthy ... The antibodies also neutralized samples of the virus taken from wild civets (a cat-like mammal in which strains of the virus ...
3XABA oligonucleotide blocks the interaction of Flag-tagged proteins with the M2 antibody. (a)-(b) The 3XABA oligo blocks the ... The 3XABA Oligo Blocks the Association of Flag-Tagged Proteins with the M2 Antibody. If the ABA oligo and the Flag peptide ... A ssDNA Aptamer That Blocks the Function of the Anti-FLAG M2 Antibody. Amanda S. Lakamp1 and Michel M. Ouellette1,2 ... Figure 3: The 3XFLAG peptide blocks the binding of ABA to the M2 antibody. (a) The 3XFLAG peptide prevents formation of the ABA ...
Our optimized antibodies are tested in relevant bioassays. ... A blocking antibody binds its target and directly interferes ... Find products for blocking antibodies and neutralizing Antibodies for immune checkpoint blockade, chemokine functions, ... With over 1,400 antibodies that have been validated, our selection of neutralization and blocking antibodies is unmatched. Our ... R&D Systems offers a wide selection of blocking and neutralizing antibodies across many different research areas. Some research ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between the development of antidrug antibodies, specific IgG4 antibodies ... Associations between antidrug antibodies, specific IgG4 antibodies, and adverse reactions were not significant for any of the ... The patients were also tested for serum antidrug antibodies and IgG4 antibodies against TNF inhibitors. After 24 weeks of ... Patients with injection-site reactions and IgG4 against ETN may show a decreased response.Keywords: antidrug antibodies, TNF- ...
Try Intercept (TBS) Blocking Buffer and Intercept T20 (TBS) Antibody Diluent for improved results in your quantitative Western ... Intercept (TBS) Blocking Buffer and Intercept T20 (TBS) Antibody Diluent can be used for many immunoassays and applications, ... Intercept T20 Antibody Diluents improve the specificity of the primary and secondary antibodies, reducing off-target effects. ... Intercept Blocking Buffers provide excellent blocking performance with low background and low variability. ...
Blocking Buffer and Intercept T20 (PBS) Antibody Diluent. ... Intercept (PBS) Blocking Buffer, 1 x 500 mL. *Intercept T20 ( ... Try Intercept (PBS) Blocking Buffer and Intercept T20 (PBS) Antibody Diluent for improved results in your quantitative Western ... Intercept (PBS) Blocking Buffer and Intercept T20 (PBS) Antibody Diluent can be used for many immunoassays and applications, ... Intercept T20 Antibody Diluents improve the specificity of the primary and secondary antibodies, reducing off-target effects. ...
... Study uncovers new potential therapeutic ... The E06 antibody also prolonged the life of the mice. After 15 months, all of the E06 antibody-producing mice were alive, ... The antibody also decreased aortic valve calcification (hardening and narrowing of the aortic valves), hepatic steatosis (fatty ... Even while on a high-fat diet, the antibody protected the mice from arterial plaque formation, hardening of the arteries and ...
Here we report a generic approach to introduce protease sensitivity into antibody-based targeting by taking advantage of the in ... Antibody-based molecular recognition plays a dominant role in the life sciences ranging from applications in diagnostics and ... dsDNA conjugate and antibody is 500-fold stronger than that of the monovalent peptide. , allowing effective blocking of the ... Reversible blocking of antibodies using bivalent peptide. -DNA conjugates allows protease-activatable targeting B. M. G. ...
Autoimmunity-blocking Antibody for Tolerance in Recently Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (AbATE). This study has been completed. ... Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (a.k.a. hOKT3gamma1 [Ala-Ala],teplizumab, MGA031) is a humanized antibody that is commonly used to ... Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody in new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2002 May 30;346(22):1692-8. ... The Experimental Group will be treated with the antibody for the first 14 days of the study and again one year later. These ...
Fab 218 anti-SIRP-alpha antibody Variable Heavy ChainFab 218 anti-SIRP-alpha antibody Variable Light ChainTyrosine-protein ... 6NMV: Non-Blocking Fab 218 anti-SIRP-alpha antibody in complex with SIRP-alpha Variant 1. ...
... antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell ... BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and ...
Even stented vessels may become blocked again ...,Antibody-coated,stents:,Indication,of,disadvantages,medicine,medical news ... If narrowed or blocked coronary vessels have to be widened or opened ... Focus on patients with a high risk of restenosis ... ... Antibody-coated stents: Indication of disadvantages. ...If narrowed or blocked coronary vessels have to be widened or opened ... Mechanism of action of antibody-stents is questionable The manufacturer of the antibody-stent claims that clopidogrel can be ...
Atezolizumab: A PD-L1-Blocking Antibody for Bladder Cancer. Brant A. Inman, Thomas A. Longo, Sundhar Ramalingam and Michael R. ... Atezolizumab: A PD-L1-Blocking Antibody for Bladder Cancer. Brant A. Inman, Thomas A. Longo, Sundhar Ramalingam and Michael R. ... Atezolizumab: A PD-L1-Blocking Antibody for Bladder Cancer. Brant A. Inman, Thomas A. Longo, Sundhar Ramalingam and Michael R. ... Managing immune checkpoint-blocking antibody side effects. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2015:76-83. ...
This invention provides MAbs for blocking and alleviating nasal colonization by staphylococci and methods for their use in the ... chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies, human antibodies, and modified antibodies and will be referred to collectively as " ... Blocking of Nasal Colonization is Specific to the Presence of Anti-Staphylococcal Antibodies [0072] To ensure that the blocking ... The term "chimeric antibody," as used herein, includes antibodies that have variable regions derived from an animal antibody, ...
  • Monoclonal antibodies have some similarities to convalescent plasma, which is a complex cocktail of antibodies and other immune molecules drawn from the blood of recovered patients. (
  • The compound also has the advantage of very low toxicity, he said, noting that "most monoclonal antibodies are incredibly well-tolerated. (
  • Blockage of the Siglec-1 receptor by anti-Siglec-1 monoclonal antibodies halted Ebola viral uptake and cytoplasmic entry, offering cross-protection against other ganglioside-containing viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (
  • In this study we used mixtures of protective and nonprotective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to determine if nonprotective mAbs blocked the activity of the protective mAbs. (
  • The monoclonal antibodies that prevent the invasion of merozoites bind to the parasitic antigen MSP-1 (merozoite surface protein 1). (
  • The collection contains about 27 billion monoclonal antibodies generated by a mixture of blood cells from 57 human donors. (
  • Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised against a synthetic peptide containing the 15 carboxy-terminal amino acids (497-511) of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). The polyclonal antibodies (alpha P4) reacted with epitopes distributed along the 15-residue peptide, whereas the monoclonal antibody (P5D4) reacted with one epitope containing the five carboxy-terminal amino acids. (
  • Here we report the experimental derivation and properties of such cell variants obtained from recurrent tumor xenografts of the human A431 squamous cell carcinoma, after two consecutive cycles of therapy with one of three different anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies: mR3, hR3, or C225. (
  • The present invention is concerned with a series of novel monoclonal antibodies directed against CD22, a B lineage-restricted member of the Ig-superfamily which serves as an adhesion receptor expressed by mature B lymphocytes and is believed to function in the regulation of B cell activation. (
  • The monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specifically block red blood cell and leukocyte adhesion (80-100%) to COS cells transfected with CD22 cDNA and also identify a region of CD22 distinct from those defined by previously described CD22 mAb. (
  • The Monoclonal Antibodies .alpha.S-HCL 1 (.alpha.Leu-14) and .alpha.S-HCL 3 (.alpha.Leu-M5) Allow the Diagnosis of Hairy Cell Leukemia," Blood 65(4):974-983 (1985). (
  • Writing in the April issue of the prominent journal Nature Medicine, Dr. Haigwood and her colleagues reported employing a "passive immunotherapy" strategy based on a cocktail of two potent monoclonal antibodies, isolated from patients with HIV, capable of neutralizing a broad spectrum of AIDS viruses. (
  • Mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium gallinaceum can block sporozoite invasion of Aedes aegypti salivary glands. (
  • While some fHbp-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) block binding of fH to fHbp, the stoichiometry of blocking in the presence of high serum concentrations of fH and its effect on complement-mediated bactericidal activity are unknown. (
  • These are known as monoclonal antibodies and they can be produced in large quantities in a laboratory setting. (
  • Here's where monoclonal antibodies could help. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies that target vulnerable sites on viral surface proteins are an emerging approach for treating infectious diseases. (
  • CMV-hyperimmune globulin or monoclonal antibodies targeting gB, gH/gL, or the PC were incapable of blocking the entry of uCMV into either fibroblasts or epithelial cells. (
  • The DNA aptamer and FLAG peptide competed for binding to the antigen-binding pocket of the M2 antibody. (
  • Several reports have also described antinuclear antibodies cross-reacting with peptide self-antigens and depositing in the brain, kidneys, and skin [ 5 - 9 ]. (
  • In mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus, attempts were made to block the function of these cross-reacting antibodies using peptide aptamers, derived either from their cognate peptide self-antigens or from phage display libraries [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • In some cases, the peptide aptamer competitively associated with the antinuclear autoantibodies, thereby preventing antibody-mediated tissue damage [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • Bivalent peptide ligands with dsDNA as a rigid linker were shown to effectively bridge the relatively large distance between the two antigen binding sites within the same antibody, yielding exclusively the cyclic 1 : 1 antibody- ligand complex. (
  • Size exclusion chromatography and small angle X-scattering were used to study the types of complexes formed between a model antibody and peptide -dsDNA conjugates displaying 1 or 2 peptide ligands and different linker lengths. (
  • Competitive binding assays using fluorescence anisotropy revealed that the interaction between bivalent peptide -dsDNA conjugate and antibody is 500-fold stronger than that of the monovalent peptide , allowing effective blocking of the antigen binding sites in a non-covalent manner. (
  • Cleavage of the linker between the peptide epitope and the DNA by matrix metalloprotease 2 disables this strong bivalent interaction and was shown to effectively restore the binding activity of the antibody in an in vitro binding assay. (
  • The binding of HIV-1 Env 1086 C gp140 to HG129 was studied by immobilizing HG129 IgA antibody onto biotin-peptide M coated Streptavidin sensor tips and dipping them in various concentrations of 1086 C gp140 samples. (
  • By combining a blocking peptide and antibody to the same epitope under defined conditions, the actual signal to noise ratios for proteins can often be determined. (
  • We demonstrated that when Pfs25 was administered with other antigens Pfs28 or Pfs230C, either concurrently as a mixed vaccine or co-expressed as a dual-antigen vaccine, the antibody response in mice to each antigen was comparable to a monoantigen vaccine, without immunological interference. (
  • TBVs elicit antibodies that target sexual-stage antigens of the Plasmodium parasite or mosquito antigens when taken up by the mosquito, thereby blocking parasite development and preventing the vector from transmitting the disease. (
  • cytotoxic antibody any specific antibody directed against cellular antigens, which when bound to the antigen, activates the complement pathway or activates killer cells, resulting in cell lysis. (
  • In a vaccination model, antibodies directed to sexual-stage antigens, when ingested in the mosquito blood meal, can inhibit parasite growth in the midgut and consequently arrest transmission. (
  • Despite multiple datasets for the Plasmodium sexual-stage transcriptome and proteome, there have been no rational screens to identify candidate antigens for transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) development. (
  • This protocol describes antigen blocking optimized for PrEST Antigens and the corresponding Triple A Polyclonals and PrecisA Monoclonals. (
  • Antibodies to noncapsular antigens can confer protection against group B meningococcal disease ( 9 ). (
  • Sequential expression of antigens on sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum accessible to transmission-blocking antibodies in the mosquito. (
  • These antigens are targets of transmission blocking antibodies that are effective at two distinct points after gametogenesis: fertilization of the macrogamete and ookinete to oocyst development. (
  • There are versions of the hook effect with excess antibodies and versions with excess antigens. (
  • Since the antibodies do not bridge between antigens, no agglutination occurs. (
  • The antibody that fails to react is known as the blocking antibody and prevents the precipitating antibody from binding to the antigens. (
  • Addition of antibody to other viral proteins did not alter the infection. (
  • In addition, the aptamer eluted FLAG-tagged proteins from the antibody, suggesting a commercial application in protein purification. (
  • By utilizing our selection of in-house manufactured proteins, we are able to leverage our bioassay expertise to ensure that our antibodies block/neutralize the appropriate cellular function. (
  • We have the ability to generate new antibodies by using our full length recombinant proteins as well as offer panels of antibodies from our hybridomas so you can screen multiple clones at once. (
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (
  • We have previously demonstrated that mouse antisera against yeast-produced recombinant forms of the ookinete surface proteins of Plasmodium vivax (Pvs25 and Pvs28) blocks transmission of the homologous P. vivax (Sal I strain). (
  • In this study, we describe an improved protocol for a multiplexed high-throughput antibody microarray with lectin detection method that can be used in glycosylation profiling of specific proteins. (
  • By visualising the interaction between antibody and prion protein at a molecular level using X-ray crystallography, the researchers at Liverpool's Molecular Biophysics group were able to see exactly which parts of the two proteins stick together. (
  • Interestingly, they found that the point where the two prion proteins come together is exactly where a key building block of the protein resides at position 129. (
  • The crystallographic structure, that allowed the research team to look inside the molecule at atomic details, explains why this single building block is so important in determining a person's risk of developing prion disease, as the M and V proteins interact less readily than two M or two V amino acids. (
  • It is well established that antibodies are characterized by a tendency to react with homologous proteins and misleading results are occasionally problematic. (
  • Following antibody treatment of HCE cells, immuno-localization assays were performed to determine the subcellular distribution TJ and AJ proteins. (
  • These findings tell us that we can really have an effect on the virus's pathogenesis by blocking these sites on just the circulating proteins," says Janet Smith, Ph.D., a professor at the U-M Life Sciences Institute and U-M Medical School. (
  • Antibodies are proteins that are produced by certain cells of the immune system known as B cells. (
  • Using a mixture of two blocking mAb reacting against the Mr 48/45 and 25 K proteins, respectively, an additive blocking effect could be demonstrated. (
  • when included in the wash buffer, detergents can actively block sites on the plate surface that become exposed as weakly associated proteins are washed away. (
  • The most common blocking proteins include: bovine serum albumin (BSA), nonfat dry milk, and whole normal serum. (
  • Their research into the spike glycoprotein, the part of the virus that binds and allows entry into human cells, provided the knowledge needed to identify several human antibodies against the SARS virus. (
  • Dimitrov's team next determined the structure of m396 and its complex with the SARS RBD and showed that the antibody binds to the region on the RBD that allows the virus to attach to host cells. (
  • Using SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment), we serendipitously discovered a ssDNA aptamer that binds selectively to the anti-FLAG M2 antibody. (
  • A blocking antibody binds its target and directly interferes with its function, such as blocking cell adhesion or receptor-ligand binding. (
  • A neutralizing antibody binds its target and negates its downstream cellular effects, such as cell proliferation or chemotaxis. (
  • Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine discovered that they can block inflammation in mice with a naturally occurring antibody that binds oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), molecules on cell surfaces that get modified by inflammation. (
  • The 1G8 antibody binds to prostate stem cell antigen or PSCA, a cell surface protein discovered by Reiter that is found in about 95 percent of early stage prostate cancers and about 87 percent of prostate cancers that have spread to the bones. (
  • Dr. Bosch noted that the antibody binds to a domain that is conserved in both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, explaining its ability to neutralize both viruses. (
  • Conclusions- Collectively, our findings demonstrate that EL2Ab binds to and exhibits P2Y 1 R-dependent function-blocking activity in the context of platelets. (
  • An anti-circumsporozoite monoclonal antibody, N2H6D5, whose corresponding heavy- and light-chain gene variable regions were engineered as a single-chain antibody construct, binds to P. gallinaceum sporozoites and prevents infection of Ae. (
  • This study reveals that the ability of an antibody to reduce prion infection is dependent on how well it binds to normal PrP. (
  • In conclusion, a functional assay evaluating antibodies targeting PD-1 inhibition in vitro revealed that pembrolizumab is a slightly more effective PD-1 blocker than nivolumab, and that PD-L1 antibodies are superior to PD-1 antibodies in reverting PD-1 signaling. (
  • Thus, direct antibody inhibition might be an effective therapy in patients with autoimmune diseases driven by the presence of antinuclear antibodies. (
  • The binding of blocking antibodies to MSP-1 is shown to result in the inhibition of secondary processing, resulting in the inability for merozoites to invade host erythrocytes. (
  • Importantly, one of these sites broadly overlaps with the epitope of the well-known 4B7 mouse antibody, which can be targeted simultaneously by antibodies that target a non-overlapping site to additively increase parasite inhibition. (
  • All inhibition occurred in an antibody dose dependent fashion. (
  • Consistent with a role for the KKXX retrieval motif found at the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of p53/58 in retrograde traffic, inhibition of transport through VTCs correlates with the ability of the antibody to block recruitment of COPI coats to the p53/58 cytoplasmic tail and to p53/58-containing membranes. (
  • Inset) Antibody inhibition precedes the Ca2+-dependent fusion of VTCs to the Golgi stack. (
  • The studies demonstrating anti-fHbp inhibition of fH binding, however, were done under conditions that favored detection of inhibition (i.e., high concentrations of antibody and low concentrations of fH) ( 5 , 8 , 30 , 41 ). (
  • The PPR bELISA uses an anti-haemagglutinin (H) monoclonal antibody (MAb) as a competitor antibody, and tests results are interpreted using the percentage of inhibition (PI) of MAb binding generated by the serum sample. (
  • In this study, we showed that co-culturing of the B7-H1-expressing A549 cells with T cells in vitro resulted in inhibition of T-cell proliferation, and the addition of B7-H1 blocking antibody markedly relieved the inhibition of T-cell proliferation. (
  • Scientists at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) show that some human beings living with HIV generate powerful, HIV-blocking antibodies. (
  • This new type of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) is most potent and can be used as a template for vaccine design. (
  • Scientists at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have new data to show that some human beings living with HIV generate powerful, HIV-blocking antibodies. (
  • Uncovering the process by which neutralizing antibodies develop is critical to HIV vaccine design," said Elise Landais, Senior Research Scientist with IAVI and lead author of the study. (
  • The new findings of powerful neutralizing antibodies against various HIV strains could offer a possible template for vaccine design that would protect healthy people from HIV infection. (
  • Scientists at the IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center (NAC) at TSRI are using data from IAVI's partner network of clinical research centers in Africa and India, to translate laboratory findings into a workable vaccine and other long-acting HIV prevention . (
  • SAN DIEGO, Calif. - About 70 companies worldwide are working on therapies for COVID-19 using cloned antibodies, according to an estimate by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative . (
  • A malaria transmission-blocking vaccine would be a critical tool in achieving malaria elimination and eradication. (
  • Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) are widely considered an essential tool for malaria elimination, either on their own or as components of a multistage vaccine or other control interventions ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • What we need to prove for any vaccine, therapeutic, antibody, or drug is that it is effective not only against the strain of SARS virus isolated from people, but also against a variety of animal strains, because animals will be a likely source for re-emergence of the SARS virus. (
  • The blocking of MSP-1 has been proposed to be a method of creating a vaccine against malaria by preventing its invasion and multiplication. (
  • The Plasmodium falciparum Pfs25 protein (Pfs25) is a leading malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen. (
  • Transmission-blocking vaccine of vivax malaria. (
  • Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden. (
  • This article, published in Scientific Reports , describes the assessment of antibodies against leading transmission-blocking vaccine candidates, Pfs 25 and Pfs 230, using naturally-occurring parasites and local mosquito strains in direct membrane feeding assay (DMFA) experiments. (
  • These observations will influence how and where a transmission-blocking vaccine can be tested in the field, and where it could have the most impact in accelerating malaria parasite elimination. (
  • However, antibody function responsible for the neutralizing activity induced by the MVA-PC vaccine is uncharacterized. (
  • We have recently introduced a vaccine strategy based on a widely used, safe, and well-characterized poxvirus vector platform to elicit potent and durable neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses targeting the HCMV envelope pentamer complex (PC), which has been suggested as a critical component for a vaccine to prevent congenital HCMV infection. (
  • A vaccine that elicits autoreactive group B anticapsular antibodies also presents safety concerns. (
  • Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. (
  • A small fraction of people living with HIV can naturally produce exceptionally powerful and broad antibodies that could prevent HIV from infecting their immune cells , but not until several years post-infection - long after that protection can help them. (
  • Researchers now say that they've discovered a human antibody that blocks infection caused by the SARS virus. (
  • Researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and elsewhere discovered an antibody -- called the 80R antibody -- that neutralizes the SARS infection by blocking the virus from entering certain cells. (
  • Fig. 6: Anti-Siglec-1 mAbs block HIV-1 trans -infection and cytoplasmic Ebola entry. (
  • Protective monotherapy against lethal Ebola virus infection by a potently neutralizing antibody. (
  • Vaccination and infection can elicit protective and nonprotective antibodies to the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. (
  • Antibody isotype and epitope specificity are important in determining the ability to prolong survival in mice given a lethal C. neoformans infection. (
  • Since the same monoclonal antibody can inhibit entry, this study greatly expands the role of antibody in the modulation of herpesvirus infection. (
  • The investigators next tested the antibodies in a mouse model of SARS virus infection. (
  • Similar to the experiments in cells in the laboratory, mice that received either antibody were also protected against infection by SARS from civets, though not completely. (
  • Antibodies to PfSEA-1 block parasite egress from RBCs and protect against malaria infection. (
  • Newswise -- An antibody plucked from a 'library' of human antibodies has powerfully blocked infection by the SARS virus in laboratory tests, scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute report. (
  • Researchers from Dana-Farber, Brigham and Women's Hospital, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Children's Hospital Boston discovered that the antibody neutralized SARS infection in a laboratory setting by blocking the virus from entering cultured cells. (
  • From this vast collection, they selected eight antibodies that recognized and bound to the S1 protein, and thus might be able to interfere with the virus's infection mechanism. (
  • Using this collection of SARS-CoV antibodies, we identified an antibody that also neutralizes infection of SARS-CoV-2 in cultured cells. (
  • Such a neutralizing antibody has potential to alter the course of infection in the infected host, support virus clearance or protect an uninfected individual that is exposed to the virus. (
  • The paper is titled, "A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-VoV-2 Infection. (
  • The control monkeys, exposed to the virus but not given the antibodies, were found to have growing virus in their tissues as early as 24 hours following infection (it was previously thought that it takes several days for HIV to take hold in the body. (
  • The antibodies could potentially be a less toxic alternative to ART, if they prove to be effective in preventing early HIV infection in humans. (
  • Virus-expressed, recombinant single-chain antibody blocks sporozoite infection of salivary glands in Plasmodium gallinaceum-infected Aedes aegypti. (
  • In contrast to FB infection, HCMV entry into EpC/EnC is additionally blocked by extremely potent NAb to conformational epitopes of the gH/gL/UL128/130/131A pentamer complex (PC). (
  • Vaccination of mice and rhesus macaques with MVA-PC resulted in a high titer and sustained NAb that blocked EpC/EnC infection and lower-titer NAb that inhibited FB entry. (
  • Four SIV-infected monkeys with high plasma virus and CNS injury were treated with an anti-α4 blocking antibody (natalizumab) once a week for three weeks beginning on 28 days post-infection (late). (
  • Antibody treatment of six SIV infected monkeys at the time of infection (early) for 3 weeks blocked monocyte/macrophage traffic and infection in the CNS, and significantly decreased leukocyte traffic and infection in the gut. (
  • Having antibodies against one strain of the virus can actually increase severity of a subsequent infection from another strain, a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement. (
  • By binding only to the NS1 protein and not to the virus particle itself, however, the 2B7 antibody does not lead to antibody-dependent enhancement of the infection. (
  • a human antibody known as 47D11 was found to bind to SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, and to potently inhibit the virus' infection of Vero cells, a type of cell line. (
  • Neutralizing antibodies in maternal saliva have the potential to prevent maternal infection and, in turn, fetal infection. (
  • Antibodies may be ineffective in preventing maternal oral CMV acquisition but may limit viral spread in blood or tissues, thereby reducing or preventing fetal infection and disease. (
  • Adhesion elicited by Recombinant Human Osteopontin/OPN (1 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rabbit Anti-Human Osteopontin/OPN Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB14334) . (
  • Chemotaxis elicited by Recombinant Human CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 (0.05 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Mouse Anti-Human CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB8012) . (
  • By having the ability to create recombinant antibodies in-house, we can also immortalize your antibody by converting your existing clone to a recombinant antibody or modifying your current antibody to meet your needs. (
  • Tanzanian children with antibodies to recombinant PfSEA-1A (rPfSEA-1A) did not experience severe malaria, and Kenyan adolescents and adults with antibodies to rPfSEA-1A had significantly lower parasite densities than individuals without these antibodies. (
  • antibodies-online offers you more than 48,000 native, recombinant, labelled and unlabelled peptides in various grades of purity. (
  • Recombinant Pfs25 protein of Plasmodium falciparum elicits malaria transmission-blocking immunity in experimental animals. (
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombinant Pfs25 adsorbed to alum elicits antibodies that block transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • Antinuclear antibodies also occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and scleroderma. (
  • These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using SELEX to develop ssDNA aptamers that block the function of a specific antibody, a capability that could lead to the development of novel therapeutic modalities for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune diseases. (
  • Antinuclear antibodies are diagnostic markers of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune diseases [ 1 ]. (
  • To investigate the dynamics of IgG1 and IgG4 anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) subclasses during anti-TNF treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (
  • Now, a new study published by Vanderbilt mechanobiology researchers details a possible solution for fine-tuning inflammation and cellular activity in cardiac recovery - thanks to an antibody initially developed for rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • By using the antibody developed for blocking cadherin-11 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the researchers were able to similarly target and fine-tune the level of inflammation in cardiac recovery, thereby allowing the heart to better recover and return to operating at a healthier pace. (
  • Research from @MerrymanLab finds an antibody, originally developed for rheumatoid arthritis, could be a necessary "road block" for better recovery from heart attacks. (
  • The antibody response of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to vaccination against influenza does not seem to be affected by the use of prednisone, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), or TNF-α blockers ( 4 , 9 ). (
  • For established targets we seek to add antibodies that recognize new epitopes, including post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and methylation. (
  • The Fab portion of the antibodies made against epitopes of the virus attachment site blocks the virus from adsorbing to the receptor site on the host cell membrane. (
  • Another viable approach to block antinuclear antibodies might be to use DNA aptamers, given the high-affinity of these antibodies for DNA and evidence of nucleotide base specificity. (
  • Intercept T20 Antibody Diluents improve the specificity of the primary and secondary antibodies, reducing off-target effects. (
  • Any scientist working with antibodies has experienced the frustration of ambiguous results due reactive antibodies characterized by lack of specificity or low affinity. (
  • Hybridoma clones were screened for analogous function to volociximab, including specificity for α5β1 heterodimer and blocking of integrin binding to fibronectin. (
  • A panel of antibodies was characterized for specificity and potency. (
  • Every blocking buffer represents a compromise between reducing background and maintaining specificity. (
  • An antibody is a special blood protein that defends against bacteria, viruses, and other substances that enter the body. (
  • Some new treatments hypothesize the blocking of PD-1, a programmed cell-death protein, which will result in longer-lived T-cells. (
  • Shortly afterward, Sui and her colleagues started to identify antibodies against a synthetic S1 protein that was made in the lab of Michael Farzan, PhD, of the Partners AIDS Research Center at Brigham and Women's. (
  • The S1 protein is a building block of the virus' 'spike' structure that enables it to infect host cells. (
  • The researchers coated test tubes with the S1 protein, and poured in a solution containing the antibody libraries. (
  • A novel malaria protein, Pfs28, and Pfs25 are genetically linked and synergistic as falciparum malaria transmission-blocking vaccines. (
  • As a control, use the primary antibody without PrEST Antigen, or a different PrEST Antigen (not corresponding to the target protein). (
  • In the presence of cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of endocytosis and antibody uptake, enolase activity was not affected, suggesting that after rapid cellular entry, the antibody interacts with the enolase protein. (
  • Commenting on the significance of the study findings, lead partner for structural studies Professor Samar Hasnain, Max Perutz Professor of Molecular Biophysics at the University of Liverpool said: ''The key to this research has been our ability to visualise the exact crystal structure of the prion protein when it is bound to the most effective monoclonal antibody. (
  • In a new study published in the journal Science , researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Michigan revealed how an antibody called 2B7 neutralizes one specific protein made by the virus - a protein that is key to the dengue virus's ability to both replicate and cause disease. (
  • By analyzing the precise way that the 2B7 antibody attaches to the protein, they found that the antibody is able to neutralize both of these regions - simply by getting in the protein's way. (
  • The antibody connects to NS1 in such a way that the wing regions cannot reach the endothelial cells, preventing the protein from latching onto (and thus interacting with and damaging) the endothelial cells. (
  • And because the NS1 protein is produced by many flaviviruses, the scientists believe the antibody that targets NS1 may be useful in treating or preventing multiple flaviviruses. (
  • We were able to show not only the mechanism of how the antibody protects the host cells, but also the actual mechanism of pathogenesis of this protein that is conserved across other flaviviruses," Harris says. (
  • Blocking the initial binding of the virus to the ACE2 receptor via the spike protein is one potential treatment avenue. (
  • Upon discovery that the molecule 47D11 displayed ELISA-cross-reactivity with the SARS spike protein subunits from both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2, it was reformatted and expressed as a fully human IgG1 isotope antibody for further study. (
  • Researchers identified a human antibody (a protein in the blood) that prevents the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus from infecting cells in a lab. (
  • The Mr 230 K coprecipitating protein probably plays no part in transmission block. (
  • mAb directed against the Mr 25 K ookinete surface protein blocked transmission without inhibiting ookinete formation, indicating that this protein has an important role in the transformation of ookinete into oocyst. (
  • In conclusion, anti-apoA-1 antibodies seem to have a role in blocking tumoral cell proliferation and survival, by activating a major tumor suppressor protein and by modulating the inflammatory and oxidative stress response. (
  • Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies. (
  • Protein blockers are a permanent blocking solution, and plates only need to be treated once for effective blocking. (
  • Broadly neutralizing, HIV-specific antibodies (bnAbs) are neutralizing antibodies that can neutralize HIV viral strains. (
  • Our neutralizing antibodies are manufactured to ensure low endotoxin levels. (
  • What Is The Difference Between Blocking And Neutralizing Antibodies? (
  • R&D Systems offers a wide selection of blocking and neutralizing antibodies across many different research areas. (
  • Together, these results offer a preclinical proof of concept for the application of ERBB3-neutralizing antibodies to enhance the efficacy of RAF inhibitors in melanoma to delay or prevent tumor regrowth. (
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) elicits neutralizing antibodies (NAb) of various potencies and cell type specificities to prevent HCMV entry into fibroblasts (FB) and epithelial/endothelial cells (EpC/EnC). (
  • Blocking peptides for a wide range of antibodies are also available. (
  • Within the same easy to search database housing our extensive antibody collection we feature individual or antibody-paired blocking peptides. (
  • An international team of investigators has identified the first human antibodies that can neutralize different strains of the virus responsible for outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). (
  • Because humans already have immune cells that express antibodies that are very close to those that can effectively neutralize the SARS virus, m396 could be fished out from healthy volunteers. (
  • According to new findings, it's at least partly due to the fact that our body's natural HIV antibodies simply don't have a long enough reach to effectively neutralize the viruses they are meant to target. (
  • The SARS virus-specific human monoclonal antibody isolated by Marasco's team in Dana-Farber's Center for Cancer Immunology and AIDS was selected from Marasco's collection, one of the world's largest human antibody phage display libraries. (
  • Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (
  • Dimitrov and his colleagues identified two human antibodies that bind to a region on the SARS virus' spike glycoprotein that is called the receptor binding domain (RBD). (
  • Anti-DNA antibodies bind with high-affinity to either single- or double-stranded DNA and many tend to favor association with pyrimidine bases [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • The blocking antibody BMS-936559 has been shown to bind to PD-L1 and prevent its binding to PD-1. (
  • Studies have shown that blocking antibodies can bind to and prevent thyrotropin binding, resulting in reduced cAMP levels in human thyroid cells. (
  • Witztum, Que and team engineered mice with two special attributes: 1) they have a gene mutation that makes them a good model for atherosclerosis and 2) they generate a piece of an antibody called E06 that's just enough to bind OxPL and prevent their ability to cause inflammation in immune cells, but not enough to cause inflammation on its own. (
  • Surprisingly, antibody-derivatized beads that have been incubated with mt+ gametes acquire the ability to bind mt- gametes. (
  • Using a precise visualisation technique, called X-ray crystallography, scientists have identified an antibody that has the best ability to bind to PrP in the brain. (
  • A subset of antibodies that met these criteria were further characterized for their capacities to bind to mouse endothelial cells, inhibit cell migration and block angiogenesis in vitro . (
  • The IgG1 mAb was unable to bind human Clq and could block but did not mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. (
  • Without appropriate blocking, the plate would bind the detection antibody alongside the antigen or detection antibody, resulting in high background signal and low sensitivity. (
  • However, if too many antibodies are present that can bind to the antigen, then the antigenic sites are coated by antibodies, and few or no antibodies directed toward the pathogen are able to bind more than one antigenic particle. (
  • We found that despite the lack of immunological interference of dual-antigen vaccines, they are still not as effective at blocking malaria transmission as Pfs25-IMX313, the current leading candidate for viral vectored vaccines. (
  • Blocking antibodies can be used in a variety of medical and scientific manners, thus far been to treat cancer, Graves' disease, and prevent the growth of malaria in mosquitoes. (
  • Blocking antibodies have a variety of functions on the merozoite form of parasitic malaria. (
  • Transmission blocking malaria vaccines. (
  • Current developments in malaria transmission-blocking vaccines. (
  • Here, we report two serologic tests for VHSV that are nonlethal, rapid, and species independent, a virus neutralization (VN) assay and a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • Conclusions: When analysing sera from patients with RA with multiplex bead ELISA, the assay should be evaluated for interference by heterophilic antibodies, and if present corrected with, for example, HeteroBlock. (
  • Cultured HCE cells and organ cultured mouse eyes were employed to determine the effects of these antibodies on cell adhesion (immunofluorescent staining), RhoA activation (Elisa assay), and mouse model corneal wound healing. (
  • The antibody was discovered by Wang and colleagues using an ELISA-(cross)reactivity approach, assessing antibody-containing supernatant derived from transgenic mice. (
  • Cell lines established from such resistant tumors retained high EGFR expression, normal sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibody or ligand, and unaltered growth rate when compared with the parental line in vitro . (
  • Approach and Results- Our goal is to determine whether a novel antibody targeting the ligand-binding domain, ie, second extracellular loop (EL2) of the P2Y 1 R (EL2Ab) could inhibit platelet function and protect against thrombogenesis. (
  • BAVENCIO (avelumab) is a human programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) blocking antibody indicated in the US for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy, concluded the companies. (
  • A meta-analysis of biomarkers in three randomized, phase 2 studies of MM-121, a ligand-blocking anti-ErbB3 antibody, in patients with ovarian, lung. (
  • Pfs25-IMX313 elicited similar quality antibodies to dual-antigen vaccines, but higher antibody titers. (
  • Pfs25 has elicited high antibody titers and transmission-blocking activity (TBA) in preclinical animal studies ( 11 ). (
  • According to this article's findings, data shows the transmission-blocking activity of both candidates depends on the level of parasite exposure and antibody titers. (
  • No statistically significant difference in virus-blocking titers was observed between pre- and postpandemic sera. (
  • Moreover, paired sera showed that blocking titers of ≥160 were maintained over a 6-year period against MD145, Grimsby, and Houston VLPs. (
  • Our results indicate that serum IgG possesses antibody-blocking capacity and that blocking titers can be maintained for at least 6 years against 3 decades of pandemic GII.4 NoV. (
  • At baseline, antibody (Ab) titers were measured and subjects were randomized (1:1) to a single 300-mg canakinumab dose administered subcutaneously (s.c.) or received no treatment (control group). (
  • Researchers say the 80R antibody potently blocked live SARS viruses from entering cultured human cells. (
  • When tested in cells in the laboratory, both antibodies potently neutralized samples of the virus from both outbreaks. (
  • The eight antibodies were tested in the CDC laboratories in Atlanta, where scientists found that one of the antibodies (labeled the 80R antibody) potently blocked live SARS viruses from entering cultured human cells. (
  • Some blocking antibodies may inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes, while other blocking antibodies prevent the binding of inhibitory antibodies, allowing merozoite invasion of erythrocytes despite the presence of inhibitory antibodies. (
  • Our molecular characterization of inhibitory antibodies informs on the natural disposition of Pfs25 on the surface of ookinetes and provides the structural blueprints to design next-generation immunogens. (
  • Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. (
  • PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. (
  • Mice were given an injection of one of the two antibodies and then were exposed 24 hours later either to samples of the SARS virus from one of the two outbreaks or to virus isolated from civets. (
  • Even while on a high-fat diet, the antibody protected the mice from arterial plaque formation, hardening of the arteries and liver disease, and prolonged their lives. (
  • Here's what happened: Compared to control mice, the mice with E06 antibodies had 28 to 57 percent less atherosclerosis, even after one year and despite having high levels of cholesterol. (
  • E06 antibody-producing mice had 32 percent less serum amyloid A, a marker of systemic inflammation. (
  • The E06 antibody also prolonged the life of the mice. (
  • After 15 months, all of the E06 antibody-producing mice were alive, compared to 54 percent of the control mice. (
  • We report six crystal structures of Pfs25 in complex with antibodies elicited by immunization via Pfs25 virus-like particles in human immunoglobulin loci transgenic mice. (
  • Treating TBI mice with cis antibody blocks cistauosis, prevents tauopathy development and spread, and restores many TBI-related structural and functional sequelae. (
  • Tumor cells treated with the same antibody and injected into nude mice had significantly reduced number and size of tumors in nude mice. (
  • In preclinical studies with mice, antibodies elicited by fHbp vaccines bound to the bacterial surface, activated complement-mediated bactericidal activity directly ( 8 , 16 , 17 , 33 , 47 ), and inhibited binding of fH to fHbp ( 8 , 30 , 47 ). (
  • In vivo administration of IL1RAP antibodies in mice transplanted with chronic and blast phase CML cells resulted in therapeutic effects mediated by murine effector cells. (
  • A team of researchers has discovered an antibody that blocks the dengue virus's ability to cause disease in mice. (
  • The patients were also tested for serum antidrug antibodies and IgG 4 antibodies against TNF inhibitors. (
  • In an agglutination test, a person's serum (which contains antibodies) is added to a test tube, which contains a particular antigen. (
  • However, when the serum is diluted, the blocking antibody is as well and its concentration decreases enough for the proper precipitation reaction to occur. (
  • This activity is assisted by complement , which interacts with the antigen-antibody complex in such a way that the cell ruptures and there is dissolution ( lysis ) of the cell body. (
  • Rabbit polyclonal antibodies (Y666) against BVES' extracellular region (aa 3-16) were generated. (
  • MRG1, a murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody, was raised against human CEACAM1. (
  • To investigate this question, we constructed chimeric antibodies in which the human IgG1 constant region was paired with three murine fHbp-specific binding domains designated JAR 3, JAR 5, and MAb502. (
  • Even though the humanized mAb was an IgG1 isotype it still retained the functional blocking characteristics of the rat mAb while failing to mediate cell killing. (
  • Explain to interested patients that several small-molecule drugs are now either approved or in the pipeline to block HIV from entering its target cells. (
  • The antibody blocks the CCR5 receptor and, in that respect, is similar to several small-molecule drugs now on the market and in the pipeline, including maraviroc (Selzentry) and vicriviroc, Dr. Jacobson said. (
  • Dr. Gulick, who has been a leading figure in studying small-molecule CCR5 inhibitors, said the long lifetime of the antibody is also a plus. (
  • an immunoglobulin molecule having a specific amino acid sequence that gives each antibody the ability to adhere to and interact only with the antigen that induced its synthesis. (
  • This is accomplished through the blocking of the coinhibitory molecule CTLA-4. (
  • In the studies reported here, we describe a monoclonal antibody directed against an mt+ flagellar surface molecule. (
  • This is achieved by binding of the antibody to an antigen, a specific molecule present on the pathogen. (
  • This antibody does not significantly cross-react with human integrin, however 339.1 inhibits murine endothelial cell migration and tube formation and elicits cell death in these cells (EC 50 = 5.3 nM). (
  • Antibody that inhibits the reaction between antigen and other antibodies or sensitized T lymphocytes. (
  • This invention provides MAbs for blocking and alleviating nasal colonization by staphylococci and methods for their use in the anterior nares. (
  • Overall results of this investigation demonstrate that the two HIV-1 Env-specific IgA mAbs, HG129 and HG130 mediate monocyte phagocytosis and block HIV-1 Env glycoprotein binding to Galcer. (
  • To identify functional molecules on this cell line, we screened for mAbs that could block its proliferation. (
  • While all three MAbs elicited similar C1q-dependent C4b deposition on live bacteria (classical complement pathway), only those antibodies that inhibited binding of fH to fHbp (JAR 3 and JAR 5) had bactericidal activity with human complement. (
  • an antibody that partly combines with an antigen and interferes with cell-mediated immunity, thereby preventing an allergic reaction. (
  • An antibody that combines with an antigen without a reaction but that blocks another antibody from later combining with that antigen. (
  • cross-reacting antibody one that combines with an antigen other than the one that induced its production. (
  • But this approach has clearly been underexplored, perhaps due to the lack of reports on the feasibility of developing DNA aptamers to block the function of specific antibodies. (
  • Disclosure: Co-authors Xuchu Que, Sotirios Tsimikas and Joseph Witztum are co-inventors and receive royalties from patents owned by the University of California San Diego on the use of oxidation-specific antibodies. (
  • The third generation of stents act by using specific antibodies to stimulate cells growing into the vascular wall to form epithelium. (
  • Evolution has equipped the immune system to generate specific antibodies to fight almost any foreseeable invader, through a mechanism that uses genetic material from immune cells in a powerful combinatorial way that can produce billions of antibodies. (
  • To mitigate these problems, MyBioSource carries thousands of high quality, well-characterized and species-specific antibodies from our worldwide network of manufacturers. (
  • The plasma from the 11 Chinese patients contained thousands of antibodies, and scientists with Active Motif set about selecting the one that was most effective, dubbed 414-1. (
  • The antibody, called 1G8 and discovered by UCLA scientists, signals the prostate cancer cells to stop growing and die, said Dr. Robert E. Reiter, a Jonsson Cancer Center researcher and professor of urology. (
  • Scientists were inspired by antibodies produced by this llama, named Winter, to develop their antibody against SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Scientists are now able to create antibodies that target one specific antigen. (
  • These observations led us to postulate that antibodies blocking BVES will induce increased corneal healing. (
  • Auto-antibodies against apoA-1 (anti-apoA-1 IgGs) have been identified as important actors of atherosclerosis development through pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic properties and to also induce apoptosis in tumoral neuronal and lymphocyte derived cell lines through unknown mechanisms. (
  • We observed that anti-apoA-1 antibodies induce growth arrest (in G2/M phase) and cell apoptosis through caspase 3 activation, accompanied by a selective p53 phosphorylation on serine 15. (
  • Lewis Thomas described in his memoir a physiologic experiment of 1941 in which he observed the prozone effect in vivo: immunity in rabbits to meningococcus, which was robust, unexpectedly decreased when immunization was used to induce a heightened antibody response. (
  • In contrast, the A431 cell variants exhibited an accelerated growth rate and a significantly attenuated response to anti-EGFR antibodies in vivo relative to the parental line. (
  • In addition, elevated expression of VEGF in variants of A431 cells obtained by gene transfection rendered the cells significantly resistant to anti-EGFR antibodies in vivo . (
  • Taken together, the results suggest that, at least in the A431 system, variants displaying acquired resistance to anti-EGFR antibodies can emerge in vivo and can do so, at least in part, by mechanisms involving the selection of tumor cell subpopulations with increased angiogenic potential. (
  • Here, we present substantial evidence in vitro and in vivo that blocking of CEACAM1 function with a novel monoclonal antibody (MRG1) is a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. (
  • One kind of relevance that he hypothesized for this in vivo blocking antibody concept was as a driver of human susceptibility to certain infectious diseases. (
  • Antibody-based molecular recognition plays a dominant role in the life sciences ranging from applications in diagnostics and molecular imaging to targeted drug delivery and therapy. (
  • From the viewpoint of an overly simplistic notion of the antibody/antigen relationship, this seems paradoxical, although it is clearly logical from a viewpoint duly informed by present-day molecular biology. (
  • Note that this study suggests a monoclonal antibody aimed at the same receptor is effective and safe. (
  • If the antibodies were successful in binding to the SARS RBD, they would prevent the virus from attaching to the SARS coronavirus receptor, ACE2, on the outside of human cells, effectively neutralizing it. (
  • An antibody used in a reaction to prevent some other reaction taking place , for example one antibody competing with another for a cell surface receptor . (
  • Alternative mechanisms of coronavirus neutralization by receptor binding domain-targeting antibodies have been reported including spike inactivation through antibody-induced destabilization of its prefusion structure, which may also apply for 47D11. (
  • This assay is most useful when the acetylcholinesterase receptor modulating antibodies are positive. (
  • Nivolumab, a programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) blocking antibody , has been approved as a single agent for the first-line treatment of patients with BRAF V600 wild-type unresectable or metastatic melanoma, the manufacturer has announced. (
  • Among the 4 etiologies for transient hypothyroidism (maternal thyrotropin receptor-blocking antibodies, exposure to maternal antithyroid medications, iodine deficiency, and iodine excess), there is little evidence of increases in the incidence rate from thyrotropin receptor-blocking antibodies. (
  • The blocking antibody does not directly target tumor cells, but rather blocks the regulatory functions of CTLA-4, resulting in enhanced T-cell function. (
  • By blocking the PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoint, atezolizumab reduces immunosuppressive signals found within the tumor microenvironment and, consequently, increases T-cell-mediated immunity against the tumor. (
  • Initial response to a 2-week period of treatment was generally total tumor regression and was not significantly different among the three antibody groups. (
  • Studies on the terminal stages of antibody-complement-mediated killing of a tumor cell. (
  • In a recently developed human breast cancer model, treatment of tumor cells in a 3-dimensional culture with inhibitory β1-integrin antibody or its Fab fragments led to a striking morphological and functional reversion to a normal phenotype. (
  • On the other hand, nonmalignant cells when treated with either α6 or β4 function altering antibodies continued to grow, and had disorganized colony morphologies resembling the untreated tumor colonies. (
  • Increased risk of serious infections in patients with autoinflammatory diseases like Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) or systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) who are treated with immunosuppressive agents such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibody therapy, corticosteroids, or other agents has been previously reported ( 2 , 7 ). (
  • The novel humanized antibody targeting Fzd7 (SHH002-hu1) exhibited extremely high affinity with Fzd7, and specifically targeted to Fzd7 + cells and tumor tissues. (
  • This antigen-specific property of the antibody is the basis of the antigen-antibody reaction that is essential to an immune response . (
  • Fortunately, the immune response of antibody and complement can be transferred passively from one individual to another, as for example the transfer of maternal antibody across the placental barrier to the fetus, who has not yet developed a mature immune system. (
  • Blocking antibodies have been described as a mechanism for HSV-1 to evade the immune system. (
  • Blocking antibody access to neutralizing domains on glycoproteins involved in entry as a novel mechanism of immune evasion by herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins C and E". J. Virol. (
  • The antibody used in this work is 'fully human,' allowing development to proceed more rapidly and reducing the potential for immune-related side effects. (
  • Animals produce antibodies much like those made by the human immune system. (
  • Centrifuge the tube with antibody/ PrEST Antigen for 15 min at maximum speed (15,000 rpm) to pellet any immune complexes. (
  • The hook effect or the prozone effect is an immunologic phenomenon whereby the effectiveness of antibodies to form immune complexes is sometimes impaired when concentrations of an antibody or an antigen are very high. (
  • If the antibodies agglutinate with the antigen to form immune complexes, then the test is interpreted as positive. (
  • The results have important implications for the development of vaccines and passive antibody therapy against C. neoformans. (
  • By blocking schizont egress, PfSEA-1 may synergize with other vaccines targeting hepatocyte and RBC invasion. (
  • Data from this study clearly demonstrates that antibodies raised against Sal I-based vaccines overcome the genetic polymorphism of Pvs25 and Pvs28 present in natural isolates of P. vivax , suggesting the wide range applicability of Sal I based vaccines. (
  • Transmission-blocking vaccines: uses and current status of development. (
  • The ability of fHbp vaccines to elicit protective antibodies, therefore, is likely to be enhanced if the antibody repertoire is of high avidity and includes fH-blocking activity. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of influenza and meningococcal vaccines in healthy subjects exposed to the anti-interleukin-1β (anti-IL-1β) monoclonal antibody canakinumab. (
  • Secondary efficacy variables were the antibody response to vaccines at different thresholds and time points. (
  • We concluded that a single dose of 300 mg canakinumab s.c. does not affect the induction or persistence of antibody responses after vaccination with unadjuvanted influenza or alum-adjuvanted MenC vaccines in healthy subjects. (
  • In a placebo-controlled, randomized study, the monoclonal antibody PRO 140 had a prolonged, potent, and dose-dependent antiviral effect, Jeffrey Jacobson, M.D., of Drexel University in Philadelphia, reported at the Interscience Conference on Anti-microbial Agents and Chemotherapy here. (
  • The antibody proved effective in several different animal models of prostate cancer, Reiter said, indicating that is could be a potent cancer fighter. (
  • Structural Basis for Potent Neutralization of Betacoronaviruses by Single-Domain Camelid Antibodies. (
  • We demonstrated that anti-enolase antibody is a potent inducer of mitochondrial injury and the caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway. (
  • Here, we describe the development of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) that allows testing of a large number of samples for specific detection of antibodies directed against PPR virus in sheep and goat sera. (
  • Conventional therapeutic antibodies are first developed in other species and then must undergo additional work to 'humanize' them. (
  • When virus-infected cells were covered postinfection with medium supplemented with a monoclonal antibody to glycoprotein gpIII (gH homolog), syncytial formation was completely blocked and no progeny viral particles were observed on the surface of the monolayer. (
  • Thus, a monoclonal antibody to a single viral determinant on glycoprotein gpIII (gH) can prevent syncytial formation postinfection and block progression of infectivity. (
  • Here we present evidence that this antibody arrests the anterograde transport of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein and leads to the accumulation of p58 in pre-Golgi intermediates. (
  • As CMV uses different viral glycoprotein complexes to enter different cell types, the first cells to be infected in the oral cavity could determine the type of antibodies needed to disrupt oral transmission. (
  • Antibodies targeting the pentameric complex (PC) should block CMV entry into epithelial cells but not into fibroblasts or Langerhans cells (which do not require the PC for entry), while antibodies targeting glycoprotein complexes gB or gH/gL would be needed to block entry into fibroblasts, Langerhans cells, or other cell types. (
  • A few of these treatments, known officially as monoclonal antibody therapies, have advanced to clinical trials. (
  • Although the clinical indications for which regulatory authorities have approved antibodies targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 only partially overlap, the mode of action of these drugs is blocking PD-1 signaling. (
  • This function of blocking antibodies has had a variety of clinical and experimental uses. (
  • Blocking antibodies have been used in clinical trials of cancer treatments. (
  • The blocking antibody ipilimumab has been effectively used in the clinical treatment of melanoma, RCC, and NSCLC with some degree of success. (
  • Almirall will further progress the antibody with the goal of taking it through clinical trials in humans and onto the market. (
  • Normal human tissue microarray displays limited binding to luminal epithelial cells on some secretory ducts, which was weaker than the broad normal cell binding of other anticancer antibodies in clinical use. (
  • In 2010, 1.6 million cases of dengue were reported in the Americas alone, of which 49,000 cases involved severe hemorrhagic-related clinical symptoms ( ). (
  • The aims of this study were to develop a protocol for blocking the interaction of present heterophilic antibodies and to validate this procedure by evaluating the effect on correlations of cytokine levels to clinical response in RA patients treated with adalimumab. (
  • According to Merryman, the antibody has already been tested for clinical use, and thanks to this new research, is likely to generate excitement as a post-myocardial infarction treatment. (
  • Although volociximab has already been tested in open label, pilot phase II clinical trials in melanoma, pancreatic and renal cell cancer, evaluation of the mechanism of action of volociximab has been limited because this antibody does not cross-react with murine α5β1, precluding its use in standard mouse xenograft models. (
  • In the decades since, the concept has also been found to have clinical relevance in allergen immunotherapy, where blocking antibodies can interfere with other antibodies involved in hypersensitivity and thus improve allergy treatment. (
  • Here we report a generic approach to introduce protease sensitivity into antibody-based targeting by taking advantage of the intrinsic ability of antibodies to engage in multivalent interactions. (
  • To assess the potential for antibodies to disrupt oral acquisition, CMV from culturepositive urine samples (uCMV) was used to study cell tropisms and sensitivity to antibody neutralization. (
  • Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between Antigen and other antibodies or sensitized T- Lymphocytes (e.g., antibodies of the Immunoglobulin g class that compete with Ige antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). (
  • Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. (
  • Fab fragments prepared from the immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibody (MAb) 4C12, which reacts with a determinant expressed on the hyphal extension of germ tubes of Candida albicans, inhibited germ tube formation, but intact MAb 4C12 did not. (
  • blocking antibody any antibody that by combining with an antigen blocks another immunologic reaction with the antigen. (
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (
  • The affinity of antibody 339.1 for mouse integrin α5β1 was determined to be 0.59 nM, as measured by BIAcore. (
  • The second antibody, m396, was taken from a library of human antibodies the researchers developed from the blood of 10 healthy volunteers. (
  • Cell Adhesion Mediated by Osteopontin/OPN and Neutralization by Human Osteopontin/OPN Antibody. (
  • Chemotaxis Induced by CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 and Neutralization by Human CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 Antibody. (
  • Witztum and team are now testing E06 antibody in mouse models of human diseases linked to inflammation, such as osteoporosis (bone loss) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, a type of liver disease). (
  • UTRECHT & ROTTERDAM, The Netherlands & CAMBRIDGE, Mass. & SUZHOU, China--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Researchers at Utrecht University, Erasmus Medical Center and Harbour BioMed (HBM) today reported that they have identified a fully human monoclonal antibody that prevents the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus from infecting cultured cells. (
  • The discovery, published online today in Nature Communications , is an initial step towards developing a fully human antibody to treat or prevent the respiratory disease COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. (
  • But some animals, such as llamas, also produce another type of antibody that's only about a quarter of the size of a typical human antibody. (
  • Amplification of Human B Cell Activation by a Monoclonal Antibody to the B Cell-Specific Antigen CD22, Bp 130/140," J. Immunol. (
  • The DMF10 62.3 mAb stained a number of immortalized murine and human cell lines and, where tested, blocked their proliferation and caused death to varying extents by apoptosis. (
  • To address this hypothesis, we measured the ability of human sera collected between 1979 and 2010 to block glycan binding of four pandemic GII.4 noroviruses isolated in the last 4 decades. (
  • Factor H concentrations in human sera typically range from 300 to 600 μg/ml ( 6 ), which would favor binding of fH to the bacteria in the presence of anti-fHbp antibody. (
  • Whether or not it will have the same impact in people who have vCJD or other prion diseases is yet to be established, but we are trying to make human versions of these antibodies for future trials in people. (
  • A preprint of a study conducted by researchers from Utrecht University , in collaboration with Erasmus MC and Harbor BioMed , outlines the first report of a human monoclonal antibody that can block SARS-CoV-2. (
  • A "human" monoclonal antibody is one that is entirely derived from a human source. (
  • The best blocking mAb in these studies, a rat anti-human CD18, YFC51.1, was subsequently humanized by complementarily-determining region grafting, associated with human C regions and expressed. (
  • They showed that addition of a blocking antibody against IL-34 to SF conditioned media reduced the migration of human mononuclear cells in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • Both types of antibodies recognized the cytoplasmic domain of VSV-G synthesized by tissue culture cells infected with the temperature-sensitive 045-VSV mutant (ts045-VSV). (
  • The researchers used a mouse model and in vitro assays (lab tests) to test the neutralizing activity of the antibodies. (
  • Our commitment to quality antibodies allows you to be confident in your results and help you generate publication-quality data. (
  • With over 1,400 antibodies that have been validated, our selection of neutralization and blocking antibodies is unmatched. (
  • Researchers say the 80R antibody could be tested in humans and may lead to the development of a drug to prevent or treat SARS. (
  • Researchers at UCLA's Jonsson Cancer Center have uncovered the mechanism by which an antibody blocks the growth of prostate cancer in animal models, a discovery that could pave the way for development of a new molecularly targeted prostate cancer treatment. (
  • Based on antibodies isolated from llamas, researchers engineered an antibody that prevented SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, from entering cells in laboratory experiments. (
  • We used an efficient T cell reporter platform to evaluate the efficacy of five clinically used PD-1 inhibitors to block PD-1 signaling. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between the development of antidrug antibodies, specific IgG 4 antibodies against TNF inhibitors, and resistance to therapy in RA patients. (