Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (1/1058)

Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney.  (+info)

The role of alpha and beta platelet-derived growth factor receptor in the vascular response to injury in nonhuman primates. (2/1058)

Restenosis remains a significant clinical problem associated with mechanical interventional procedures for arterial revascularization or repair, including coronary angioplasty and stenting. Studies with rodents have established that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent chemotactic and mitogenic agent for vascular smooth muscle cells, is a key mediator of lesion formation after vascular injury. To further explore this hypothesis in a more clinically relevant model, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to examine the effect of selective inhibition of alpha or beta PDGF receptor (PDGFR) on neointima formation in nonhuman primates. Carotid arteries were injured by surgical endarterectomy and femoral arteries by balloon catheter dilatation. Immunostaining revealed that both injuries induced cell proliferation and the upregulation of beta PDGFR but not alpha PDGFR. By 7 days after injury, beta PDGFR staining was limited to the luminal region of the media, the small areas of neointima, and the adventitia. Nearly all bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells were found in these regions as well. After 30 days, a concentric neointima that stained strongly for beta PDGFR had formed in the carotid and femoral arteries. Treatment of baboons with anti-beta PDGFR mAb 2A1E2 for 6 days after injury reduced the carotid artery and femoral artery lesion sizes by 37% (P<0.05) and 48% (P<0.005), respectively, when measured at 30 days. Under the same conditions, treatment with anti-alpha PDGFR mAb 2H7C5 had no effect. These findings suggest that PDGF mediates neointima formation through the beta PDGFR, and that antagonism of this pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy for reducing clinical restenosis.  (+info)

Ectopic expression of DNA encoding IFN-alpha 1 in the cornea protects mice from herpes simplex virus type 1-induced encephalitis. (3/1058)

A novel approach to combat acute herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has recently been developed by administration with a plasmid DNA construct encoding cytokine genes. Cytokines, especially type I IFNs (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) play an important role in controlling acute HSV-1 infection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential efficacy of ectopically expressed IFN-alpha 1 against ocular HSV-1 infection following in situ transfection of mouse cornea with a naked IFN-alpha 1-containing plasmid DNA. Topical administration of the IFN-alpha 1 plasmid DNA exerted protection against ocular HSV-1 challenge in a time- and dose-dependent manner and antagonized HSV-1 reactivation. In addition, IFN-alpha 1-transfected eyes expressed a fivefold increase in MHC class I mRNA over vector-treated controls. The protective efficacy of the IFN-alpha 1 transgene antagonized viral replication, as evidenced by the reduction of the viral gene transcripts (infected cell polypeptide 27, thymidine kinase, and viral protein 16) and viral load in eyes and trigeminal ganglia during acute infection. The administration of neutralizing Ab to IFN-alpha beta antagonized the protective effect of the IFN-alpha 1 transgene in mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of using naked plasmid DNA transfection in the eye to achieve ectopic gene expression of therapeutically active agents.  (+info)

CTLA4 signals are required to optimally induce allograft tolerance with combined donor-specific transfusion and anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody treatment. (4/1058)

Sensitization to donor Ags is an enormous problem in clinical transplantation. In an islet allograft model, presensitization of recipients through donor-specific transfusion (DST) 4 wk before transplantation results in accelerated rejection. We demonstrate that combined DST with anti-CD154 (CD40L) therapy not only prevents the deleterious presensitization produced by pretransplant DST in the islet allograft model, it also induces broad alloantigen-specific tolerance and permits subsequent engraftment of donor islet or cardiac grafts without further treatment. In addition, our data strongly indicate that CTLA4-negative T cell signals are required to achieve prolonged engraftment of skin allograft or tolerance to islet allograft in recipients treated with a combination of pretransplant DST and anti-CD154 mAb. We provide direct evidence that a CD28-independent CTLA4 signal delivers a strong negative signal to CD4+ T cells that can block alloimmune MLR responses. In this study immune deviation into a Th2 (IL-4) response was associated with, but did not insure, graft tolerance, as the inopportune timing of B7 blockade with CTLA4/Ig therapy prevented uniform tolerance but did not prevent Th2-type immune deviation. While CTLA4-negative signals are necessary for tolerance induction, Th1 to Th2 immune deviation cannot be sufficient for tolerance induction. Combined pretransplant DST with anti-CD154 mAb treatment may be attractive for clinical deployment, and strategies aimed to selectively block CD28 without interrupting CTLA4/B7 interaction might prove highly effective in the induction of tolerance.  (+info)

Negative selection of immature B cells by receptor editing or deletion is determined by site of antigen encounter. (5/1058)

Immature B cells that encounter self-antigen are eliminated from the immune repertoire by negative selection. Negative selection has been proposed to take place by two distinct mechanisms: deletion by apoptosis or alteration of the antigen receptor specificity by receptor editing. While convincing evidence exists for each, the two models are inherently contradictory. In this paper, we propose a resolution to this contradiction by demonstrating that the site of first antigen encounter dictates which mechanism of negative selection is utilized. We demonstrate that the bone marrow microenvironment provides signals that block antigen-induced deletion and promote RAG reinduction. In the periphery, the absence of these signals allows the immature B cell to default to apoptosis as a result of BCR engagement.  (+info)

IgG anti-endothelial cell autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or systemic vasculitis stimulate the release of two endothelial cell-derived mediators, which enhance adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte adhesion in an autocrine manner. (6/1058)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) to modulate endothelial cell function. METHODS: The effects of purified IgG from 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 4 patients with systemic vasculitis on the expression of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, E-selectin) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on the adhesion of the human promyelocytic cell line U937 were examined in vitro. RESULTS: IgG from 6 of 8 AECA-positive SLE patients and 3 of 3 AECA-positive systemic vasculitis patients up-regulated adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. The 4 AECA-negative samples had no effect. Transfer experiments demonstrated that at later time points (2-8 hours) after AECA addition, endothelium-derived interleukin-1 (IL-1) accounted for the ability of AECA to increase leukocyte adhesion. However, even within very short times after addition of AECA (<30 minutes), endothelial cells released a distinct transferable mediator with similar effects. CONCLUSION: AECA in patients with SLE or systemic vasculitis may contribute to pathogenesis by increasing leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. AECA act by inducing the release of at least two endothelium-derived mediators, one (as-yet-unidentified) rapidly and another (IL-1) more slowly, both of which stimulate endothelial cells in an autocrine manner.  (+info)

CD8+ T cells are a biologically relevant source of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha in vivo. (7/1058)

Chemokines are small proteins that direct the migration of leukocytes to inflammatory foci. Many cell types, including macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and lymphocytes, produce chemokines in vitro, but biologically relevant sources of chemokines in vivo have not been well characterized. To investigate the pertinent sources of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in vivo, we used MIP-1 alpha-deficient (MIP-1 alpha-/-) mice as donors and as recipients in adoptive transfer experiments after a lethal infection with Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Unexpectedly, we found that the production of MIP-1 alpha by CD8+ T cells was critical in this system, as the cells from MIP-1 alpha-/- mice primed with LM were significantly less effective in protecting naive mice against a lethal infection by LM than were the CD8+ T cells from wild-type (wt) mice. This requirement for donor T cell production of MIP-1 alpha was confirmed by the observation that wt donor T cells do not mediate protection when coadministered with an anti-MIP-1 alpha polyclonal antiserum. Production of MIP-1 alpha by the recipient mice was not required for protection, because wt and MIP-1 alpha-/- recipients were equally well protected by wt T cells. A 2- to 3-fold decrease in the number of transferred lymphocytes was seen in the spleens of mice receiving T cells from MIP-1 alpha-/- mice compared with those receiving wt T cells. In addition, CD8+ T cells from MIP-1 alpha-/- mice had a reduced ability to kill LM-infected target cells in vitro. These findings demonstrate that T cell production of MIP-1 alpha is required for clearance of an intracellular pathogen in vivo.  (+info)

DNA immunization with HIV-1 tat mutated in the trans activation domain induces humoral and cellular immune responses against wild-type Tat. (8/1058)

Intramuscular immunization of mice with plasmids encoding two transdominant negative mutants of the HIV-1 Tat protein (Tat22 and Tat22/37) elicited a humoral response to wild-type Tat that is comparable to that induced by inoculation of wild-type tat DNA or Tat protein. The percentage of the responders and the Ab titers continued to increase after three additional DNA boosts and pretreatment with bupivacaine at the site of inoculation, without a significant difference (p > 0.05) among the three groups of mice immunized with mutant and wild-type tat genes. By utilizing synthetic peptides representing the amino acid sequence of Tat, one major B cell epitope was defined within the cysteine-rich domain of Tat. Anti-Tat IgG Abs directed against this epitope were found in mice immunized with all tat DNA constructs, whereas different Tat epitopes were detected in mice immunized with the Tat protein. Similarly, IgG2a was the predominant isotype in DNA-immunized mice, with both mutants and wild-type tat genes, as compared with protein immunization, which induced mostly IgG1 and IgG3. Sera from most immunized mice neutralized the effect of extracellular Tat in activating HIV-1 replication. A cellular response was also elicited as indicated by the proliferation of splenocytes when stimulated with wild-type Tat. These results indicate that the wild-type Tat Ag is recognized by Abs and T cells induced by DNA immunization with mutated tat genes, suggesting the possible use of these Tat transdominant mutants, lacking viral trans activation activity and capable of blocking wild-type Tat activity, in the development of an anti-HIV-1 vaccine.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced T-cell immunity to osteosarcoma through antibody blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. AU - Lussier, Danielle M.. AU - ONeill, Lauren. AU - Nieves, Lizbeth M.. AU - McAfee, Megan S.. AU - Holechek, Susan A.. AU - Collins, Andrea W.. AU - Dickman, Paul. AU - Jacobsen, Jeffrey. AU - Hingorani, Pooja. AU - Blattman, Joseph. PY - 2015/3/27. Y1 - 2015/3/27. N2 - Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents. Although 70% of patients with localized disease are cured with chemotherapy and surgical resection, patients with metastatic osteosarcoma are typically refractory to treatment. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) limit the development of metastatic osteosarcoma. We have investigated the role of PD-1, an inhibitory TNFR family protein expressed on CTLs, in limiting the efficacy of immune-mediated control of metastatic osteosarcoma. We show that human metastatic, but not primary, osteosarcoma tumors express a ...
Man was I singin the blues yesterday. Seriously. School turns out to be a lot tougher than I thought. Although we went and signed in and visited last week, somehow I missed the little detail about going back again on a regular basis and having to be there for hours with all these new people and new routines. Suffice to say that yesterday really sucked. I was pretty scared the whole time. The teachers were nice and I loved being outside..its just that it was all so NEW and had to cry a whole lot to let Mom know how uneasy I felt. I think I will get the hang of it, after all, I really liked the playground and they gave me my very own cubby! I even got to sit in a big kid chair for snack time (Mom said I may need velcro on my seat and plate). There are little kids like me I can be friends with (once I get over my nerves!) I think maybe Mom had a tougher time than I did because she was sooo excited about my new school and then I freaked out. I promise to try harder on Friday, Mom ...
Minnesota Overall Rankings Health Outcomes Map Health Factors Map Health Outcomes Rankings Health Factors Rankings 2010 Air pollution-particulate matter days Summary Information Range in Minnesota (Min-Max): 0-3 Overall in Minnesota: 1 Target Value: 0 (90th percentile) Ranking Methodology Summary Measure: Health Factors - Physical Environment (Air Quality) Weight in Health Factors: 2.5% Years of Data…
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Hybridoma technology is used to fuse fusion a B cell and myeloma to form a hybridoma that produces identical monoclonal antibodies.
Hybridoma technology is used to fuse fusion a B cell and myeloma to form a hybridoma that produces identical monoclonal antibodies.
Jordyn takes you through one of her ab workouts to help you get defined. This is the best ab workout for lower abs. The reps and sets are here to follow.
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors. Myasthenia gravis is often ... Allergies involve mainly IgE, antibodies, and histamine. Mast cells release the histamine. Sometimes an allergen may cause a ...
"Nav-i-gating antibodies for pain". SciBX. Sheila Yong (May 22, 2014). "One Molecule To Block Both Pain And Itch". Altman RB, ... Lee JH, Park CK, Chen G, Han Q, Xie RG, Liu T, Ji RR, Lee SY (June 2014). "A monoclonal antibody that targets a NaV1.7 channel ... Mutations of Nav1.7 have been linked to itching (pruritus), and genetic knockouts of Nav1.7 and an antibody that inhibits ... Martz L (2014). "Nav-i-gating antibodies for pain". Science-Business eXchange. 7 (23). doi:10.1038/scibx.2014.662. ISSN 1945- ...
Blocking the DAMP receptors or their signaling [RAGE small molecule antagonists; TLR4 antagonists; antibodies to DAMP-R]. Seong ... Neutralizing or blocking DAMPs extracellularly [anti-HMGB1; rasburicase; sRAGE, etc.]; ...
Removal of cyclin E with antibodies blocks replication. Cyclin E-CDk2 is also important in Drosophila. Levels of cyclin E rise ... Mutations in S. pombe cdt1 blocked DNA replication. Mcm 2-7 form a six-subunit complex and is thought to have helicase activity ... DNA replication is inhibited when Cdc7 homologs are inhibited with antibodies in frog or human cells. It is not known whether ... Mutations in this protein in budding yeast, and in its homolog in fission yeast block initiation of replication. Cdc7 is highly ...
... antibodies to the γδ TCR block recognition. Thus, the presence of a functional Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR appears mandatory for a response to ... but the fact that Vδ1+ T-cell responses are not blocked by monoclonal antibody directed against known classical or non- ... This table refers to variable chain Vγ gene segments and to monoclonal antibodies that detect the corresponding Vγ protein ... This table summarizes the nomenclature of mouse Vγ chains and indicates monoclonal antibodies often used to identify these ...
Embryos with areas of blocked gap junctions failed to develop normally. The mechanism by which antibodies blocked the gap ... It was discovered that gap junction communication could be disrupted by adding anti-connexin antibodies into embryonic cells.[ ... Warner, AE (1987). "The use of antibodies to gap junction protein to explore the role of gap junctional communication during ... Bastide, B; Jarry-Guichard, T; Briand, JP; Délèze, J; Gros, D (April 1996). "Effect of antipeptide antibodies directed against ...
The monoclonal antibodies block the extracellular ligand binding domain. With the binding site blocked, signal molecules can no ... However the former is of the IgG1 type, the latter of the IgG2 type; consequences on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ... CimaVax-EGF, an active vaccine targeting EGF as the major ligand of EGF, uses a different approach, raising antibodies against ... Interruption of EGFR signalling, either by blocking EGFR binding sites on the extracellular domain of the receptor or by ...
Moving towards a cure: blocking pathogenic antibodies in SLE. JOIM 269:36-44 (2011) PMC 3069637 Diamond, B. and Tracey, KJ. ... She identified the first idiotype marker on anti-DNA antibodies in patients with lupus, and discovered that anti-DNA antibodies ... Antibodies against the epitope are present in the cerebrospinal fluid and in brain tissue of patients with neuropsychiatric ... Cognition and Immunity: Antibody impairs memory. Immunity 21:179-201(2004). Grimaldi, CM., Hill, L., Xu, H., Peeva, E., and ...
Chemically, it is a humanized monoclonal antibody. The substance acts by blocking interleukin 17, reducing inflammation. The ... The antibody has affinity to the homodimer IL-17A and the heterodimer IL-17A/F, but not to other members of the interleukin 17 ... The antibody is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Clinical trials included a Phase II trial of patients with moderate to ... Like other antibodies, ixekizumab is probably degraded by proteolysis. Its elimination half-life is 13 days. Ixekizumab is a ...
will bring in CM-24, an antibody designed to block the immune checkpoint CEACAM1.[36] ... Remicade (infliximab) is a monoclonal antibody directed toward the cytokine TNF-alpha and used for the treatment of a wide ... gaining Afferents lead compound-AF-219-used to block P2X3 receptors.[40] ... "Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of existing TNF blocking agents in treatment of rheumatoid ...
Occasionally such antibodies block but do not activate the receptor, leading to symptoms associated with hypothyroidism.[77] In ... These antibodies activate the receptor, leading to development of a goitre and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as heat ... Antibodies against thyroid peroxidase can be found on testing. The inflammation usually resolves without treatment, although ... If successful, thyroglobulin should be undetectable.[82] Lastly, antibodies against components of the thyroid, particularly ...
These monoclonal antibodies block EGFR and stop the uncontrolled cell division. It has a humanized human-mouse h-R3 heavy chain ... Mateo C, Moreno E, Amour K, Lombardero J, Harris W, Pérez R. Humanization of a mouse monoclonal antibody that blocks the ... Trial Watch: Tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy. Oncoimmunology. 2014 Jan 1;3(1):e27048. PMID 24605265 ... is a humanized monoclonal antibody that as of 2014 had orphan status in the US and EU for glioma, and marketing approval in ...
Microfilariae block this pathway by cleaving C3b-an important protein in this process-to form iC3b. iC3b cannot go on to ... The immune response involves raising antibodies (IgG, IgM and IgE type) that can react with soluble antigens released by ... Little evidence indicates that antibodies made are specific to O. volvulus. However, after the age of 40, the number of ... The complement system is used to enhance the effect of antibodies and phagocytic cells, which engulf and destroy other cells. ...
Lumbar puncture and serum test for anti-ganglioside antibodies. These antibodies are present in the branch of CIDP diseases ... These findings include: a reduction in nerve conduction velocities; the presence of conduction block or abnormal temporal ... It is a polyclonal antibody. Although chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agents have shown to be effective in treating CIDP ... A treatable multifocal motor neuropathy with antibodies to GM1 ganglioside. Ann Neurol 24: 73-78 Nobile-Orazio E. Multifocal ...
Subtypes of antinuclear antibodies include anti-Smith and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies (which are linked to SLE ... and sometimes with systemic abnormalities such as heart block or enlargement of the liver and spleen.[41] Neonatal lupus is ... These antibodies clump into antibody-protein complexes which stick to surfaces and damage blood vessels in critical areas of ... Simplest classification tree: SLE is diagnosed if a person has an immunologic disorder (anti-DNA antibody, anti-Smith antibody ...
Nup98 antibodies introduced in the nucleus block the export of many RNAs. A large body of data exists which supports the role ...
Hence antibodies that block CD47 might be useful as a cancer treatment. In mice models of myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin's ... Calreticulin binds to antibodies in certain area of systemic lupus and Sjogren patients that contain anti-Ro/SSA antibodies. ... "Congenital heart block not associated with anti-Ro/La antibodies: comparison with anti-Ro/La-positive cases". The Journal of ... The reason why most of the cells are not destroyed is the presence of another molecule with signal CD47, which blocks CRT. ...
Scheinfeld N (2005). "Omalizumab: a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgE-blocking antibody". Dermatol. Online J. 11 (1): 2. ... In the next year, the company converted one candidate antibody to a chimeric antibody (which was later named CGP51901 and ... A a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgE blocking antibody". Dermatology Online Journal. 11 (1). "CTRI". " ... The antibody molecules are secreted by the host cells in a cell culture process employing large-scale bioreactors. At the end ...
They are: ICM3, an antibody blocking ICAM-3, designed to treat psoriasis. IC14, an antibody blocking CD14, designed to treat ... Eos's antibody inhibited angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and was being researched as a treatment for solid ... Icos also manufactured antibodies for other biotechnology companies. Icos is famous for tadalafil (Cialis), a drug used to ... In Canada, Pfizer moved to block sales of Cialis five months after it was approved there, arguing that there could be consumer ...
These monoclonal antibodies are used to block GD2 expression, and are thus referred to as anti-GD2 agents. They can be used for ... While anti-GD2 antibodies are effective in clearing the remaining tumors in neuroblastoma patients, there have also been major ... Anti-GD2 antibodies have been developed for immunotherapy treatment of neuroblastoma and can be grouped into first-generation ... The most extensively studied of these antibodies is ch14.18. Through randomized trials, it has been found that treatment with ...
Monoclonal antibodies. Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody to HER2 (a cell receptor that is especially active in some breast ... These ER+ cancers can be treated with drugs that either block the receptors, e.g. tamoxifen, or alternatively block the ... Hormone blocking therapy. Some breast cancers require estrogen to continue growing. They can be identified by the presence of ... Monoclonal antibodies, or other immune-modulating treatments, may be administered in certain cases of metastatic and other ...
... blockade (using blocking antibodies) resulted in increased mortality for infected mice. Blockade reduced TNFα and nitric ...
Many are immunodominant, and antibodies against select domains block invasion of host cells. "Cryptosporidiosis." Laboratory ... In vitro, hyperimmune sera, as well as antibodies directed at specific epitopes on the GP900 protein, inhibit the invasion of C ... Lectins directed at GP900 carbohydrate moieties (alpha-N-galactosamine) were able to block adhesion and prevent C. parvum ... of Cryptosporidium parvum Infection In Vitro by Mucin-Like Glycoproteins Defined by a Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody". Infect ...
Viral entry inhibitors block dengue antibody-dependent enhancement in vitro. Antiviral Research 89: 71-74, 2011. Computational ...
Sensitizing cells for apoptosis by selectively blocking cytokines. EP1592449 - 2005-11-09. Antibody specific for Human IL-4 for ... He has recently identified the role of certain cytokines, most importantly of IL-4, to block apoptosis in cancer cells in an ... Cover Issue in Gastroenterology 138: 2010 Sensitizing cells for apoptosis by selectively blocking cytokines. US2006257401 - ...
This genetic trait confers resistance to HIV infection by blocking attachment of HIV to the cell. Roughly one in 1000 people of ... Levels of HIV-specific antibodies have also declined, leading to speculation that the patient may have been functionally cured ...
To block interference by RF, a commercial blocker... (More). Objectives: Heterophilic antibodies, such as rheumatoid factor (RF ... The aims of this study were to develop a protocol for blocking the interaction of present heterophilic antibodies and to ... The aims of this study were to develop a protocol for blocking the interaction of present heterophilic antibodies and to ... The aims of this study were to develop a protocol for blocking the interaction of present heterophilic antibodies and to ...
an antibody that partly combines with an antigen and interferes with cell-mediated immunity, thereby preventing an allergic ... blocking antibody n. *. An antibody that combines with an antigen without a reaction but that blocks another antibody from ... an antibody that partly combines with an antigen and interferes with cell-mediated immunity, thereby preventing an allergic ...
HIV-blocking antibodies with increased potency and breadth. ... HIV-blocking antibodies. This research has been published in ... HIV-blocking antibodies.. *This new type of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) is most potent and can be used as a ... Broadly neutralizing, HIV-specific antibodies (bnAbs) are neutralizing antibodies that can neutralize HIV viral strains. They ... "A small fraction of people living with HIV can naturally produce exceptionally powerful and broad antibodies that could prevent ...
An antibody that blocks HIV entry to its target T-lymphocytes was found to be well tolerated and effective in the first study ... 19 -- An antibody that blocks HIV entry to its target T-lymphocytes was found to be well tolerated and effective in the first ... The antibody blocks the CCR5 receptor and, in that respect, is similar to several small-molecule drugs now on the market and in ... The antibody was administered once and produced a quick and prolonged reduction in viral load starting within five days. Indeed ...
... called the 80R antibody -- that neutralizes the SARS infection by blocking the virus from entering certain cells. An antibody ... Researchers now say that theyve discovered a human antibody that blocks infection caused by the SARS virus. ... Researchers say the 80R antibody potently blocked live SARS viruses from entering cultured human cells. Researchers say the 80R ... Researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and elsewhere discovered an antibody -- ...
It may also be used as a blocking agent in fluorescence and enzyme immunoassays. ...
Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between Antigen and other antibodies or sensitized T-Lymphocytes (e. ... g., antibodies of the Immunoglobulin g class that compete with Ige antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic ... Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by Cytotoxic t-lymphocytes have also been called ...
Rational design of a Kv1.3 channel-blocking antibody as a selective immunosuppressant. Rongsheng E. Wang, Ying Wang, Yuhan ... We generated antibody fusions by grafting potent Kv1.3 blocking peptides into complementary-determining regions (CDRs) of ... We generated antibody fusions by grafting potent Kv1.3 blocking peptides into complementary-determining regions (CDRs) of ... It has proven challenging to generate small molecules or antibodies that potently and selectively block Kv1.3 function. ...
Pfs25-IMX313 elicited similar quality antibodies to dual-antigen vaccines, but higher antibody titres. ... Pfs25-IMX313 elicited similar quality antibodies to dual-antigen vaccines, but higher antibody titres. ... the antibody response in mice to each antigen was comparable to a mono-antigen vaccine, without immunological interference. ... the antibody response in mice to each antigen was comparable to a mono-antigen vaccine, without immunological interference. ...
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... antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). ... Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called ... Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., ... enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989) ...
Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. G Nussbaum, R Yuan, A Casadevall, M D ... Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. G Nussbaum, R Yuan, A Casadevall, M D ... To our knowledge this is the first report of blocking antibodies to a fungal pathogen. The results have important implications ... to determine if nonprotective mAbs blocked the activity of the protective mAbs. Antibody isotype and epitope specificity are ...
... and that PD-L1 antibodies are superior to PD-1 antibodies in reverting PD-1 signaling. ... We used an efficient T cell reporter platform to evaluate the efficacy of five clinically used PD-1 inhibitors to block PD-1 ... In conclusion, a functional assay evaluating antibodies targeting PD-1 inhibition in vitro revealed that pembrolizumab is a ... PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies have been approved for the treatment of cancer. To date, therapeutic PD-1 inhibitors have not been ...
Entry and egress of varicella virus blocked by same anti-gH monoclonal antibody.. Rodriguez JE1, Moninger T, Grose C. ... Addition of antibody to other viral proteins did not alter the infection. Thus, a monoclonal antibody to a single viral ... Since the same monoclonal antibody can inhibit entry, this study greatly expands the role of antibody in the modulation of ... Removal of the antibody was followed by rapid progression of cytopathic effect. ...
3XABA oligonucleotide blocks the interaction of Flag-tagged proteins with the M2 antibody. (a)-(b) The 3XABA oligo blocks the ... The 3XABA Oligo Blocks the Association of Flag-Tagged Proteins with the M2 Antibody. If the ABA oligo and the Flag peptide ... A ssDNA Aptamer That Blocks the Function of the Anti-FLAG M2 Antibody. Amanda S. Lakamp1 and Michel M. Ouellette1,2 ... Figure 3: The 3XFLAG peptide blocks the binding of ABA to the M2 antibody. (a) The 3XFLAG peptide prevents formation of the ABA ...
Our optimized antibodies are tested in relevant bioassays. ... A blocking antibody binds its target and directly interferes ... Find products for blocking antibodies and neutralizing Antibodies for immune checkpoint blockade, chemokine functions, ... With over 1,400 antibodies that have been validated, our selection of neutralization and blocking antibodies is unmatched. Our ... R&D Systems offers a wide selection of blocking and neutralizing antibodies across many different research areas. Some research ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between the development of antidrug antibodies, specific IgG4 antibodies ... Associations between antidrug antibodies, specific IgG4 antibodies, and adverse reactions were not significant for any of the ... The patients were also tested for serum antidrug antibodies and IgG4 antibodies against TNF inhibitors. After 24 weeks of ... Patients with injection-site reactions and IgG4 against ETN may show a decreased response.Keywords: antidrug antibodies, TNF- ...
A blocking antibody is an antibody that does not have a reaction when combined with an antigen, but prevents other antibodies ... Blocking antibodies have been described as a mechanism for HSV-1 to evade the immune system. Blocking antibodies can be used in ... Blocking antibodies have been used in clinical trials of cancer treatments. The blocking antibody ipilimumab has been ... Some blocking antibodies may inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes, while other blocking antibodies prevent the binding of ...
... Study uncovers new potential therapeutic ... The E06 antibody also prolonged the life of the mice. After 15 months, all of the E06 antibody-producing mice were alive, ... The antibody also decreased aortic valve calcification (hardening and narrowing of the aortic valves), hepatic steatosis (fatty ... Even while on a high-fat diet, the antibody protected the mice from arterial plaque formation, hardening of the arteries and ...
... blocking antibody explanation free. What is blocking antibody? Meaning of blocking antibody medical term. What does blocking ... Looking for online definition of blocking antibody in the Medical Dictionary? ... blocking antibody. Haematology. An antibody which competes with another for an antigenic binding site. Blocking antibodies (Bas ... "blocking" available IgE class (reaginic) antibody activity. blocking antibody. an antibody that reacts with an antigen but ...
Here we report a generic approach to introduce protease sensitivity into antibody-based targeting by taking advantage of the in ... Antibody-based molecular recognition plays a dominant role in the life sciences ranging from applications in diagnostics and ... dsDNA conjugate and antibody is 500-fold stronger than that of the monovalent peptide. , allowing effective blocking of the ... Reversible blocking of antibodies using bivalent peptide. -DNA conjugates allows protease-activatable targeting B. M. G. ...
... antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell ... BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and ...
Antibodies to PfSEA-1 block parasite egress from RBCs and protect against malaria infection.. Raj DK1, Nixon CP1, Nixon CE1, ... Antibodies to PfSEA-1 block parasite egress from RBCs and protect against malaria infection ... Antibodies to PfSEA-1 block parasite egress from RBCs and protect against malaria infection ... Antibodies to PfSEA-1 block parasite egress from RBCs and protect against malaria infection ...
Even stented vessels may become blocked again ...,Antibody-coated,stents:,Indication,of,disadvantages,medicine,medical news ... If narrowed or blocked coronary vessels have to be widened or opened ... Focus on patients with a high risk of restenosis ... ... Antibody-coated stents: Indication of disadvantages. ...If narrowed or blocked coronary vessels have to be widened or opened ... Mechanism of action of antibody-stents is questionable The manufacturer of the antibody-stent claims that clopidogrel can be ...
Blocking antibody An antibody used in a reaction to prevent some other reaction taking place, for example one antibody ... Retrieved from "" ...
  • The aims of this study were to develop a protocol for blocking the interaction of present heterophilic antibodies and to validate this procedure by evaluating the effect on correlations of cytokine levels to clinical response in RA patients treated with adalimumab. (
  • Antibody isotype and epitope specificity are important in determining the ability to prolong survival in mice given a lethal C. neoformans infection. (
  • They described the exact viral component, or epitope that triggered the antibody. (
  • Giving patients a modified gp120 that contains little more than the epitope that both antibodies target could act to "prime" the immune system, followed by a booster that contains trimer spikes in the most natural configuration possible. (
  • Antibodies against the epitope are present in the cerebrospinal fluid and in brain tissue of patients with neuropsychiatric lupus. (
  • Antibodies to a GM1 epitope as well as to one with the GT1a or GD3 epitope were found in different strains of Campylobacter jejuni and patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome have a high occurrence of C. jejuni infection. (
  • When creating a vaccine, the isotype appears to matter: compared to IgG, the IgA isotype bound the epitope with higher affinity, blocked HIV transmission to target cells, and inhibited endocytosis of HIV-1 by dendritic cells, though it did have lower ADCC activity than IgG. (
  • Besides the conformation of the linear epitope, 2F5-like responses to vaccine are complicated by the fact that antibody recognition of the epitope may also be dependent on interactions with other areas of the env region, accessibility, or interactions with membrane lipids on target cells. (
  • Since the antibodies in a well are produced by the same B cell, they will be directed towards the same epitope, and are known as monoclonal antibodies. (
  • This antibody is reactive with a distinct epitope of the target cytokine and thus is employed to detect the captured cytokine. (
  • Scientists at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) show that some human beings living with HIV generate powerful, HIV-blocking antibodies. (
  • This new type of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) is most potent and can be used as a template for vaccine design. (
  • Scientists at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have new data to show that some human beings living with HIV generate powerful, HIV-blocking antibodies. (
  • Uncovering the process by which neutralizing antibodies develop is critical to HIV vaccine design," said Elise Landais, Senior Research Scientist with IAVI and lead author of the study. (
  • The new findings of powerful neutralizing antibodies against various HIV strains could offer a possible template for vaccine design that would protect healthy people from HIV infection. (
  • Scientists at the IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center (NAC) at TSRI are using data from IAVI's partner network of clinical research centers in Africa and India, to translate laboratory findings into a workable vaccine and other long-acting HIV prevention . (
  • A malaria transmission-blocking vaccine would be a critical tool in achieving malaria elimination and eradication. (
  • Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) are widely considered an essential tool for malaria elimination, either on their own or as components of a multistage vaccine or other control interventions ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • The blocking of MSP-1 has been proposed to be a method of creating a vaccine against malaria by preventing its invasion and multiplication. (
  • What we need to prove for any vaccine, therapeutic, antibody, or drug is that it is effective not only against the strain of SARS virus isolated from people, but also against a variety of animal strains, because animals will be a likely source for re-emergence of the SARS virus. (
  • Our work has implications for the development of transmission-blocking interventions, both through improving vaccine designs and the testing of passive delivery of mAbs in humans. (
  • Transmission-blocking vaccine of vivax malaria. (
  • Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden. (
  • This article, published in Scientific Reports , describes the assessment of antibodies against leading transmission-blocking vaccine candidates, Pfs 25 and Pfs 230, using naturally-occurring parasites and local mosquito strains in direct membrane feeding assay (DMFA) experiments. (
  • These observations will influence how and where a transmission-blocking vaccine can be tested in the field, and where it could have the most impact in accelerating malaria parasite elimination. (
  • However, antibody function responsible for the neutralizing activity induced by the MVA-PC vaccine is uncharacterized. (
  • We have recently introduced a vaccine strategy based on a widely used, safe, and well-characterized poxvirus vector platform to elicit potent and durable neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses targeting the HCMV envelope pentamer complex (PC), which has been suggested as a critical component for a vaccine to prevent congenital HCMV infection. (
  • Ideally a vaccine would enable the development of anti-plasmodial antibodies in addition to generating an elevated cell-mediated response. (
  • CimaVax is an active vaccine with which patients are immunized with epidermal growth factor (EGF), thus raising antibodies targeting EGF itself. (
  • More antibodies are raised when the vaccine is formulated with Montanide ISA 51 rather than aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant, and when patients receive a low dose of cyclophosphamide three days before vaccine administration. (
  • The blocking antibody does not directly target tumor cells, but rather blocks the regulatory functions of CTLA-4, resulting in enhanced T-cell function. (
  • By blocking the PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoint, atezolizumab reduces immunosuppressive signals found within the tumor microenvironment and, consequently, increases T-cell-mediated immunity against the tumor. (
  • Together, these results offer a preclinical proof of concept for the application of ERBB3-neutralizing antibodies to enhance the efficacy of RAF inhibitors in melanoma to delay or prevent tumor regrowth. (
  • Here we report the experimental derivation and properties of such cell variants obtained from recurrent tumor xenografts of the human A431 squamous cell carcinoma, after two consecutive cycles of therapy with one of three different anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies: mR3, hR3, or C225. (
  • Initial response to a 2-week period of treatment was generally total tumor regression and was not significantly different among the three antibody groups. (
  • Taken together, the results suggest that, at least in the A431 system, variants displaying acquired resistance to anti-EGFR antibodies can emerge in vivo and can do so, at least in part, by mechanisms involving the selection of tumor cell subpopulations with increased angiogenic potential. (
  • Studies on the terminal stages of antibody-complement-mediated killing of a tumor cell. (
  • In a recently developed human breast cancer model, treatment of tumor cells in a 3-dimensional culture with inhibitory β1-integrin antibody or its Fab fragments led to a striking morphological and functional reversion to a normal phenotype. (
  • Tumor cells treated with the same antibody and injected into nude mice had significantly reduced number and size of tumors in nude mice. (
  • On the other hand, nonmalignant cells when treated with either α6 or β4 function altering antibodies continued to grow, and had disorganized colony morphologies resembling the untreated tumor colonies. (
  • We reported that there was a rapid decrease in tumor-associated VEGF in childhood sarcoma xenografts responding to an IGF-1R-targeted antibody (Kurmasheva RT Cancer Res, 2010). (
  • Subsequently the IGF-1R targeted antibody SCH717454 (SCH) was shown to reduce blood vessel formation in tumor xenografts (Wang Y Mol Cancer Ther. (
  • Many childhood cancers secrete IGF-2, suggesting that tumor-derived IGF-2 in the microenvironment maintains angiogenesis in the presence of antibodies such as SCH. (
  • Increased risk of serious infections in patients with autoinflammatory diseases like Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) or systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) who are treated with immunosuppressive agents such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibody therapy, corticosteroids, or other agents has been previously reported ( 2 , 7 ). (
  • Trial Watch: Tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy. (
  • He has recently identified the role of certain cytokines, most importantly of IL-4, to block apoptosis in cancer cells in an autocrine fashion, i.e. the tumor cell itself provides the apoptosis-inhibitory stimulus by production of IL-4. (
  • Nivolumab acts by blocking a negative regulator of T-cell activation and response, thus allowing the immune system to attack the tumor. (
  • pembrolizumab appears to facilitate clearance of any such tumor by the immune system, by preventing the self-checkpoint system from blocking the clearance. (
  • In 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Simponi, a human monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha co-developed with Johnson & Johnson's Janssen Biotech, for treatment of arthritis. (
  • MM-151 can be used to block these oncogenic signaling pathways in order to prevent tumor growth and survival. (
  • CPX-016 is similar to anti-CD73 antibodies described by others 2 , and inhibits CD73 activity allosterically by binding to a distal site. (
  • This antibody does not significantly cross-react with human integrin, however 339.1 inhibits murine endothelial cell migration and tube formation and elicits cell death in these cells (EC 50 = 5.3 nM). (
  • Co-ligation of CD32B on dendritic cells inhibits maturation and blocks cell activation. (
  • This contrasts with the major, specific, activity of AAHA, defining a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies that specifically interacts with Apo-H. AHAA only inhibits the anti-coagulation activity in the presence of Apo-H and the AAHA component of ACLA correlates with a history of frequent thrombosis. (
  • Monomethyl auristatin F is an antimitotic agent which inhibits cell division by blocking the polymerisation of tubulin. (
  • Cell lines established from such resistant tumors retained high EGFR expression, normal sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibody or ligand, and unaltered growth rate when compared with the parental line in vitro . (
  • By raising antibodies against EGF, which is EGFR's major ligand, the concentrations of EGF in the blood are reduced. (
  • However, these values are not available for therapeutic PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies, and the ability of these agents to block PD-1 signaling have not been compared in a functional assay. (
  • View our flow cytometry blocking assay for ACE-2 and SARS-CoV-2 and learn about additional COVD-19 research products. (
  • Conclusions: When analysing sera from patients with RA with multiplex bead ELISA, the assay should be evaluated for interference by heterophilic antibodies, and if present corrected with, for example, HeteroBlock. (
  • Cultured HCE cells and organ cultured mouse eyes were employed to determine the effects of these antibodies on cell adhesion (immunofluorescent staining), RhoA activation (Elisa assay), and mouse model corneal wound healing. (
  • Here, we describe the development of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) that allows testing of a large number of samples for specific detection of antibodies directed against PPR virus in sheep and goat sera. (
  • As the sample migrates along the assay it first encounters a conjugate, usually colloidal gold, which is labelled with antibodies specific to the target analyte. (
  • The ELISPOT method was developed by Cecil Czerkinsky's group in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1983, for the purpose of detecting antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in a B cell ELISPOT assay, which was a modification of a traditional sandwich ELISA immunoassay. (
  • Our molecular characterization of inhibitory antibodies informs on the natural disposition of Pfs25 on the surface of ookinetes and provides the structural blueprints to design next-generation immunogens. (
  • UTRECHT & ROTTERDAM, The Netherlands & CAMBRIDGE, Mass. & SUZHOU, China--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Researchers at Utrecht University, Erasmus Medical Center and Harbour BioMed (HBM) today reported that they have identified a fully human monoclonal antibody that prevents the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus from infecting cultured cells. (
  • In a placebo-controlled, randomized study, the monoclonal antibody PRO 140 had a prolonged, potent, and dose-dependent antiviral effect, Jeffrey Jacobson, M.D., of Drexel University in Philadelphia, reported at the Interscience Conference on Anti-microbial Agents and Chemotherapy here. (
  • Structural Basis for Potent Neutralization of Betacoronaviruses by Single-Domain Camelid Antibodies. (
  • Sorrento's COVID-SHIELD is meant to address this through a potent mix of different antibodies that provide protection against different strains of the virus, but the company says it also will be pursuing development of the STI-1499 antibody on its own as a dedicated, standalone therapy. (
  • Writing in the April issue of the prominent journal Nature Medicine, Dr. Haigwood and her colleagues reported employing a "passive immunotherapy" strategy based on a cocktail of two potent monoclonal antibodies, isolated from patients with HIV, capable of neutralizing a broad spectrum of AIDS viruses. (
  • We demonstrated that anti-enolase antibody is a potent inducer of mitochondrial injury and the caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway. (
  • It is well established that gD can induce potent virus-neutralizing antibodies (Abs) ( 7 , 9 , 25 , 34 , 40 , 43 , 49 ). (
  • We used an efficient T cell reporter platform to evaluate the efficacy of five clinically used PD-1 inhibitors to block PD-1 signaling. (
  • As with other drugs, dose response curves and half maximal effective concentrations (EC 50 ) provide valuable information on the efficacy of these antibodies. (
  • This study is important because the viral strain that caused the outbreak in people in 2002 probably no longer exists in nature, explains Kanta Subbarao , MD , of the NIAID, whose laboratory verified the efficacy of the anti-SARS antibodies in animal models. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of influenza and meningococcal vaccines in healthy subjects exposed to the anti-interleukin-1β (anti-IL-1β) monoclonal antibody canakinumab. (
  • Secondary efficacy variables were the antibody response to vaccines at different thresholds and time points. (
  • ADCC is important in the efficacy of cancer antibodies, but with many approved cancer antibodies there is less ADCC that could be desired due to nonspecific IgG competing with the drugs for binding to FcγIIIa on natural killer cells. (
  • For this reason, the second-generation antibodies have been developed, which have fewer associated toxicities but are continuing trials to determine their therapeutic efficacy. (
  • The presence of maternal antibodies in infants limits the efficacy of inactivated, attenuated and subunit vaccines. (
  • Adhesion elicited by Recombinant Human Osteopontin/OPN (1 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rabbit Anti-Human Osteopontin/OPN Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB14334) . (
  • Chemotaxis elicited by Recombinant Human CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 (0.05 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Mouse Anti-Human CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB8012) . (
  • Despite the long-established association of maternal antibodies in directly inducing CHB both with in vitro and in vivo studies, the pathogenic mechanisms involved remain unclear and identification of cross-reactive targets of anti-Ro52 antibodies in the fetal heart is matter of debate. (
  • It is thought that maternal antibodies may cross the placenta and attack the heart tissue during gestation. (
  • Further, the maternal antibodies outcompete B cell receptors on the infant's B cells for binding to the antigen. (
  • The researchers used a mouse model and in vitro assays (lab tests) to test the neutralizing activity of the antibodies. (
  • It was an in vitro laboratory study (meaning not in an actual human being), but it's still a promising development as the company continues to work on production of an antibody "cocktail" that could provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 even in case of mutations in the virus. (
  • These novel antibodies were characterized in vitro and in vivo studies using various ovarian cancer cell lines. (
  • As well, they are easily isolated using the same phage panning procedure used for traditional antibodies, allowing them to be cultured in vitro in large concentrations. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies can be generated for human use without mice by using in vitro techniques. (
  • Rabbit anti-TsNTxP antibodies displayed cross-reactivity with the scorpion toxins and showed in vitro neutralizing capacity. (
  • When virus-infected cells were covered postinfection with medium supplemented with a monoclonal antibody to glycoprotein gpIII (gH homolog), syncytial formation was completely blocked and no progeny viral particles were observed on the surface of the monolayer. (
  • Thus, a monoclonal antibody to a single viral determinant on glycoprotein gpIII (gH) can prevent syncytial formation postinfection and block progression of infectivity. (
  • Microinjected antibodies against the cytoplasmic domain of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein block its transport to the cell surface. (
  • Overall results of this investigation demonstrate that the two HIV-1 Env-specific IgA mAbs, HG129 and HG130 mediate monocyte phagocytosis and block HIV-1 Env glycoprotein binding to Galcer. (
  • Here we present evidence that this antibody arrests the anterograde transport of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein and leads to the accumulation of p58 in pre-Golgi intermediates. (
  • Anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies are specific for the autoantigen TPO, a 105kDa glycoprotein that catalyses iodine oxidation and thyroglobulin tyrosyl iodination reactions in the thyroid gland. (
  • The results have important implications for the development of vaccines and passive antibody therapy against C. neoformans. (
  • By blocking schizont egress, PfSEA-1 may synergize with other vaccines targeting hepatocyte and RBC invasion. (
  • Data from this study clearly demonstrates that antibodies raised against Sal I-based vaccines overcome the genetic polymorphism of Pvs25 and Pvs28 present in natural isolates of P. vivax , suggesting the wide range applicability of Sal I based vaccines. (
  • Transmission-blocking vaccines: uses and current status of development. (
  • We concluded that a single dose of 300 mg canakinumab s.c. does not affect the induction or persistence of antibody responses after vaccination with unadjuvanted influenza or alum-adjuvanted MenC vaccines in healthy subjects. (
  • In the case of Ebola vaccines, this method allows the antibody to target intracellular targets not usually accessible by traditional monoclonal antibody treatments. (
  • Causes of breakthrough infections include improper administration or storage of vaccines, mutations in viruses and antibody blocking. (
  • Antibody-based molecular recognition plays a dominant role in the life sciences ranging from applications in diagnostics and molecular imaging to targeted drug delivery and therapy. (
  • However, immunostaining now encompasses a broad range of techniques used in histology, cell biology, and molecular biology that use antibody-based staining methods. (
  • By 2006, researchers had identified a few so-called "broadly neutralizing antibodies" (bNAbs) that worked on multiple HIV strains. (
  • A major goal recently in HIV-1 vaccinations is eliciting the broadly neutralizing antibodies before the virus is actually established, since the virus integrates itself into the host's DNA. (
  • Other anti-migraine antibodies blocking the CGRP pathway Eptinezumab Erenumab Galcanezumab "International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN)" (PDF). (
  • IL-10 can block NF-κB activity, and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. (
  • The trick is that aminopterin blocks DNA de novo synthesis, which is absolutely required for cell division to proceed, but hypoxanthine and thymidine provide cells with the raw material to evade the blockage (the "salvage pathway"), provided that they have the right enzymes, which means having functioning copies of the genes that encode them. (
  • Aminopterin in the medium blocks the de novo pathway. (
  • The range of relatively high antibody concentrations within which no reaction occurs is called the prozone. (