Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.

The indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of antibodies in cattle naturally infected mycoplasmas. (1/11816)

Stable mycoplasma antigens for the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) were prepared employing glutaraldehyde treated sheep erythrocytes sensitized with Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium antigens. Employing these antigens mycoplasma antibodies were detected in sera from cattle which had mastitic symptoms due to natural infection with either M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. A total of 200 cows from four herds were examined at varying intervals for the presence of M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and for the detection of antibody using growth inhibition and IHA tests. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 37 animals. Growth inhibiting antibody was detected from 56 of the 200 animals. In the IHA tests, antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:80 were detected in 148 animals, 76 of these having antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:160, while sera of 116 normal control animals had no growth inhibiting antibody and none had IHA antibody titers greater than 1:40. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the milk of three of 26 animals in a fifth herd during an outbreak of mastitis. Growth inhibiting antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of ten of the 26 animals. However, the IHA test detected antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 in 13 animals and of 1:80 in one of the 26 animals. To determine the specificity of the IHA tests, M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens were reacted with rabbit hyperimmune typing sera produced against 12 species of bovine mycoplasmatales. Homologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of 1:1280 and 1:2560 against M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium respectively, whereas heterologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:20. Also eight type-specific bovine antisera were reacted with M agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens in homologous and heterologous tests. Homoogous reactions showed IHA antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:320, whereas heterologous reactions showed IHA titers of less than or equal to 1:20. This IHA test promises to be useful for the detection of bovine mycoplasma antibodies in sera from cattle infected with M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Thes test is sensitive, reproducible and specific and the technique is relatively simple and rapid. The antigens were stable for at least seven months.  (+info)

Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture. (2/11816)

Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method.  (+info)

Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis. (3/11816)

The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice.  (+info)

The effect of route of immunization on the lapine immune response to killed Pasteurella haemolytica and the influence of aerosol challenge with the live organism. (4/11816)

Appearance of anti-Pasteurella haemolytica antibody in the serum and broncho-alveolar washings of rabbits is independent of the route of immunization and is similar in both locations. The most influential factor in development of a humoral response is exposure to live P. haemolytica and prior exposure to the killed bacterium has no significant effect upon titre determined following aerosol challenge with live organisms.  (+info)

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (5/11816)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Immune response capacity after human splenic autotransplantation: restoration of response to individual pneumococcal vaccine subtypes. (6/11816)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate features of general immune function, in particular the restoration of the humoral immune response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides, in humans undergoing a spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: After splenectomy, patients have an increased risk of overwhelming infection or sepsis involving encapsulated bacteria such as pneumococci. The value of human spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma has long been questioned. Mononuclear phagocyte system function appeared to be similar to that in splenectomized persons. The presence of specific antipneumococcal antibodies would allow other parts of the mononuclear phagocyte system, such as those in the liver, to phagocytose opsonized bacteria. METHODS: Ten consecutive patients undergoing splenectomy followed by autotransplantation were compared with the next 14 consecutive patients undergoing splenectomy alone. After a minimum of 6 months, the patients were vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Blood samples were taken at the time of vaccination and after 3 and 6 weeks for antipneumococcal capsular polysaccharides IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against types 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 23. Splenic regrowth was evaluated by scintigraphy. RESULTS: Surprisingly, several of the nonautotransplanted patients showed scintigraphic activity, indicating the presence of either accessory spleens or traumatic seeding (splenosis). Significant antibody titer increases (more than twofold) were found for both IgM and IgG in the autotransplanted patients. Splenectomized-only patients showed no significant increase in Ig levels in patients without splenic regrowth and partial improvement in patients with splenosis/accessory spleens. CONCLUSIONS: Considering this significant antipneumococcal antibody increase, spleen autotransplants can be expected to permit an adequate humoral response to pneumococcal infections and presumably also to other TI-2 antigens, and to protect against overwhelming postsplenectomy infection or sepsis.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. (7/11816)

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)

Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (8/11816)

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

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BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
Blair, P B. and Lane, M, Age- and tumor-correlated changes in functional antibody responses to mtv in neonatally infected mice. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 2387 ...
4. (Middle and Africa) Latin America Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market.. Report also includes Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market growth rate XXXX % during forecast period. Worldwide Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) industry report covers competitors/Manufacturers Profiles in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market with their Business Overview. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market report also includes Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market by Type and Applications, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Sales, Revenue, Price and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Industry Share. This research (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market Research) study also includes worldwide Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market Competition, by Manufacturer, by Manufacturer. Worldwide Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Sales and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Revenue by Regions (2011-2016). Purchase ...
can be a pathogen with increasing severity for which host antibody responses provide protection from disease. changes Favipiravir in the rates and severity of disease generating renewed interest in novel approaches to disease treatment and prevention, including toxin-specific vaccines [4, 13C20]. It has been observed that toxin-specific, host antibodies influence the outcome of colonization and infection [21]. Patients with anti-toxin A antibodies at the time of colonization with spores are at lower risk of progression to active and severe disease [22]. Once infected, individuals who develop strong anti-toxin antibody responses clear their disease following antimicrobial treatment and remain disease free [23]. Such studies provide scientific rationale for development of a vaccine against toxins. While numerous studies have presented candidate vaccines [21, 24C28], to date, none has examined the DNA vaccine platform. DNA vaccination has a several advantages versus other modalities including ...
Booster responses to pertussis antigens [pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM)] were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Booster responses were defined as participants with either a pre-vaccination antibody concentration less than lower limit of quantitation (,LLOQ), achieving a post-vaccination level ≥4X LLOQ, or pre-vaccination antibody concentrations ≥LLOQ but ,4X LLOQ, achieving a 4-fold rise rate of post-vaccination, or a pre-vaccination antibody concentration ≥4X LLOQ, achieving a 2-fold response ...
The anti-Pertussis concentration were determined by ELISA. The criteria for demonstrating booster response are: (i) Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations less than the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for each anti-pertussis antibody (PT, FHA, FIM, and PRN) but a post-vaccination levels ≥ 4 x LLOQ; or (ii) Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations ≥ LLOQ but , 4 x LLOQ with a 4-fold rise rate; or (iii) Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations ≥ 4 x LLOQ but with a 2-fold rise rate ...
With the Antibody Dynamics platform, investigators have access to technologies that allow the interrogation of the biophysical and functional properties of antibody isotypes and subclasses to a variety of global health diseases. These properties can lead to the identification of correlates of protection, which is essential for enabling product development and licensure of highly efficacious vaccines. Moreover, characterization of antibody responses can enable a greater understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of immune protection, leading to further innovations in therapeutic and prevention strategies to improve human health.. The Antibody Dynamics platform uses customizable, antigen-specific binding, avidity, and functional assays in a GCLP-compliant environment to profile biophysical and functional antibody responses to infection and vaccination. Profiling is available for all antibody isotypes and subclasses and for several global health diseases, including malaria, TB, hepatitis B, ...
This recommendation leaves loopholes to vaccinate just about anyone, but is there any science to defend it? How could the benefit of vaccinating a severely-ill patient, or a patient who has organ impairment (and may not mount a significant antibody response anyway) outweigh the risk? Why is there such a rush to vaccinate all hospital patients even though any potential protection will not be present for weeks? Could it have more to do with medical policy and reimbursement than with what is in the best interest of a sick patient?. As doctors, this CDC recommendation isnt adhered to, because before we evaluate a patient, vaccines have already been given by nurses and others who have no medical mandate. This often occurs on the first hospital-day, not when they are well enough to be discharged. My efforts to change the hospital vaccine policy to wait until discharge was categorically refused by the administration and hospital policy makers - at a meeting that I was not permitted to ...
COVID-19: diagnostic tests have taken over the normal diagnostic test pipeline for all tests in the United States. Today for the first time in months we have seen the need move .001% back in favor of all other tests and .00001% for Cancer tests. Stay strong things will change back into our favor soon.. Two kinds of tests are available for COVID-19: diagnostic tests and antibody blood tests. Diagnostic tests check samples from your respiratory system (such as swabs of the inside of the nose) to tell you if you currently have an infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Antibody blood tests, also called serologic tests, check your blood for antibodies that would show if you have had a previous infection. Antibodies are proteins that help fight off germs. A serologic test may not be able to show if you have a current infection, because it can take 1 to 3 weeks to make antibodies after symptoms occur.. We do not know yet if having antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 can protect someone from ...
The kits are optimized for labeling antibodies with a concentration between 0.5-1.0 mg/mL. If your antibody solution is too dilute, you can concentrate it by centrifugation using the ultra-filtration vial provided in the kit. If your antibody solution is too concentrated, you can dilute it with 1x PBS. Antibody concentrations outside the recommended range may result in either under or over labeling ...
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44 In addition to showing the vaccines safety, flonase price a clinical trial found that patients who attained high antibody levels significantly reduced cocaine use. This service is an adjunct to your regular in-office doctors visits and yearly physical exams. Биодоступность амитриптилина при разных путях введения составляет 30-60%, flonase price его метаболита - нортриптилина - 46-70%? When it comes to the [WADA prohibited] list, alavert and flonase there is no due process available to athletes? Find gloomily emsam buy online out the newest pictures of L Apres Cytotec here, so you can have the picture here simply! Faintness weightily metaglip price in india may be more a high doses are unaffected. [266] The following year, she topped Forbes List of Top-Earning Celebs Under 30, [263] and in February 2016, the magazine estimated Gagas net worth to be $275 million. Bacterial infections may be caused by a ...
RESULTS:. In relation to HBV, the study showed 0.5% of carriers, 8.3% with a previous infection profile, 1.1% with a previous or current infection profile, and 33.6% with a vaccine response, characterizing that municipality as low endemicity for this virus. HBV DNA was detected in 66.7% of the HBsAg+ samples, with viral load between , 55 IU/mL and , 38,000 IU/mL; 69.2% of these samples were A1 subgenotype, 15.4% F2, and 15.4% F4. Of the total, 1.1% were samples from individuals anti-HBc total+ isolated whose molecular biology tests showed that 9.3% had HBV DNA, with viral load between , 15 IU/mL and 48 IU/mL. ...
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antibodies IgMs are the first circulating antibodies to appear in response to an antigen. However, their concentration in the blood declines rapidly. This is diagnostically useful, because the presence of IgM usually indicates a current infection by the pathogen causing its formation. IgM consists of five Y-shaped monomers arranged in a pentamer structure. The numerous antigen-binding sites make it very effective in agglutinating antigens. IgM is too large to cross the placenta and hence does not confer maternal immunity ...
Serological tests for SARS-CoV-2, while not intended as a primary diagnostic tool for COVID-19, are used to detect antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These antibodies are produced following activation of the bodys adaptive immune response. This process is triggered after viral exposure and results in the viruss destruction and subsequent elimination from the body.
There is no contraindication for receiving steroid injections when someone is HIV positive. Current infection would mean having an additional active infection, particularly in the area where...
Optimizing the concentration of primary and secondary antibodies prior to Western blot leads to improved data, a reduction in time and savings in valuable resources.
MSP1-19 particular rabbit antisera plus the AMA1 MAb were when compared in one cycle and two cycle development inhibition assays to ascertain whether or not a next cycle of parasite advancement would boost the sensitivity of your assay. Growth from the PcMSP1-19 parasite line in the presence of inhibitory antibodies confirmed that a next cycle elevated antibody mediated development inhibition for both equally the PcMSP1-19 and AMA1 antibodies but not the PfMSP1-19 antibodies (Figure 3A ...
Patients will not be able to join the trial if:. · Infection not caused by S. aureus alone in the opinion of the infection specialist (e.g. S. aureus is considered a blood culture contaminant, or polymicrobial culture with another organism likely to be contributing clinically to the current infection ...
The COVID-19 saliva test we are offering access to measures the current infection of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. This test does not...
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I have A- blood and my Dr. sent me to get an antibody screening since we dont know the fathers blood type.he told me to go 2 days before my appt. So I went Monday.when I went to the results hadn...
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The introduction of vaccines containing the capsular polysaccharides of N. meningitidis, S. pneumonia, and H. influenzae type b has driven a significant reduction in cases of disease caused by these bacteria. The polysaccharide-specific antibody responses following vaccination are well characterized, however less is known about the B cells underlying this response. Here, we summarize the plasma cell (PC) and memory B cell (BMEM) responses following plain polysaccharide and protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccination, drawing together studies covering a range of vaccines and age groups. These studies show that infant primary PC and BMEM responses to polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines are low in relation to older age groups but are significantly higher following booster doses. PC kinetics have generally been found to follow a similar pattern irrespective of vaccine type or age group, whereas divergent BMEM responses have been reported following plain polysaccharide and conjugate vaccination. A degree of
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There have been many attempts to identify functional activity of serum or salivary antibodies in vitro and in addition some conclusions can be drawn from in
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When exposed to cold temperatures, your body begins to lose heat faster than it can be produced. Prolonged exposure to cold will eventually use up you
People who have had the Pfizer vaccine have lower antibody levels targeting the Indian variant, also known as Delta, than those against previously circulating variants in the UK, new data suggests. The research from the Francis Crick Institute, the National Institute for Health Research and the UCLH Biomedical Research Centre also suggests the levels of these antibodies are lower with increasing age and that levels decline over time. The study found that after just one dose of the Pfizer jab, people are less likely to develop antibody levels against the Indian (B.1.617.2) variant, as high as those seen against the previously dominant Kent variant (B.1.1.7) also known as Alpha.
CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS AB (IGG,IGA,IGM) XE C. TRACHOMATIS IGG ,1:64 C. TRACHOMATIS IGA ,1:16 C. TRACHOMATIS IGM 1:80 INTERPRETATION SEE NOTE EQUIVOCAL COMMENTDue to a low/negative IgG and a positive IgM, the presence of a recent/current infection should be confirmed by running acute and convalescent sera in parallel and an increasing IgG value ...
The Research Study. Dr. Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, vice chair of Clinical Research and Innovation in the Renaissance School of Medicine Department of Anesthesiology, is heading up the research study. He said the hospital needs approximately 100 volunteers who have recovered from the coronavirus to donate blood plasma, possibly once a week or every other week. Subjects must have contracted COVID-19 and be free of symptoms for 14 days. As of April 22, the doctor said they have received a large number of inquiries leading to 180 people being screened and 90 have been identified as having high levels of antibodies. Currently 25 have either donated blood plasma or are scheduled to do so.. Bennett-Guerrero said researchers are looking for those with high antibody levels of the virus and testing takes about 15 minutes. The donors must also meet regular criteria to be a blood donor, the doctor said, which includes being at least 17 years old, weighing more than 100 pounds, and having no infections ...
Enlightened veterinarians and pet parents have become increasingly wary of the health risks, and lack of benefits, associated with repeatedly vaccinating dogs after their initial puppy shots. Is titer testing the solution to the over-vaccination problem? Heres a crash course to help you muddle through the mire of misinformation surrounding this simple blood test, and to help you decide whether or not to test your dogs antibody titers.. What is titer testing?A titer test (pronounced TIGHT er) is a laboratory test measuring the existence and level of antibodies to disease in blood. Antibodies are produced when an antigen (like a virus or bacteria) provokes a response from the immune system. This response can come from natural exposure or from vaccination. (Note: titering is also called serum vaccine antibody titering and serologic vaccine titering.). How is the test performed? Your test result will have an explanation of what your pets test result means. But if you want to know more, heres ...
Antibody responses peaked by day 28 (median 157 ELISA units - studied in 127 participants) and remained high until the measurement at day 56 in the trial (median 119 ELISA units - studied in 43 participants) for those given a single vaccine. This response was boosted by a second dose (median 639 ELISA units at day 56 in these 10 participants). 28 days after vaccination, neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 32 of 35 participants (91%) (when measured in MNA80 neutralisation assay), and in 35 of 35 participants (100% - when measured in PRNT50 neutralisation assay) who received a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. These responses were present in all participants who had a booster dose of the vaccine (nine of nine participants in MNA80 assay at day 42, and ten of ten in Marburg VN assay on day 56 ...
View Notes - micro report 4 from MICRO 400 at Kansas State University. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Matthew Ricke TA: Meg and Smita I ntroduction: The ELISA test is an Antibody based test. The
Specific antibodies against p185. (A) Anti p185-antibody titre in vaccinated and control animals. Mean antibody titres are indicated by full line (**P=0.0024).
Comparative antibody response to vaccine candidates.(A) Individual serum antibody titers towards wild-type Hla determined after three immunizations (B) Neutrali
Complete Report Details @ Regional Insights:. The report lets you have an edge across the targeted regions with the comprehensive competitive framework. It analyzes the market on the basis of segmentation at a regional level coupled with price rate, profit, forecast, and estimates. The report studies the use of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) across several sectors to study and projects the future growth prospects. The report covers regional analysis of the market with respect to the existing market size and future prospects. It features historical stats, data and revenue estimation of the market segments and sub-segments in accordance with the top geographic regions and their countries. It discusses the current scenario of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market across major geographic segments North America, China, Europe, Asia (Ex. China) ...
Antibody tests check your blood by looking for antibodies, which can show if you had a past infection with the virus that causes COVID-19.
The absence of PspA or presence of antibody to PspA facilitates the complement-dependent phagocytosis of pneumococci in vitro.: Pneumococcal surface protein A (
Mexicos president said Monday he wont get a COVID-19 vaccine because his doctors told him he still has a high level of antibodies from when he was infected in January.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market Research is expecting to accrue strong growth in forecasts frame, drive By Type, Application, End User .
Some health officials are citing current infection data as a hopeful sign that the country could achieve herd immunity against COVID-19 by April.
Buy Herpesin Online! Herpesin belongs to a class of drugs called antivirals. However, this drug doesnt cure herpes infections. Your symptoms may occur again later even after the symptoms of your current infection go away.
Invitrogen Anti-S100G Polyclonal, Catalog # PA5-68289. Tested in Western Blot (WB) applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse, Rat samples. Supplied as 100 µL purified antibody (1 mg/mL).
Rabbit polyclonal Endo G antibody validated for WB and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment
Rabbit polyclonal Endo G antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 20 publications and 3 independent…
Professor Anne-Claude Gingras* and her colleagues designed a blood test that can detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and evaluate the quality of...
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anti-PRP39a | premRNA-processing factor 39 antibodies, At1g04080, AS14 2784, Q93ZR3, F4I448, RNA processing, mRNA 5-splice site recognition, regulation of timing of transition from vegetative to reproductive phase
Does anyone know of a supplier for an antibody (polyclone or monoclone) to E. coli (either the whole bacteria or bacteria fragment/ epitope)? Thanks in advance. /==========*===========*===========*===========*===========*=========*========, , ___ , , /, /, , , / , mlwillia at , , / , / , , ,/ ,__ Chemical Research Development and , , / , / , , , \ , Engineering Center , , / , / , , , \ ,___ Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD USA , , , ,==========*===========*===========*===========*===========*=========*========, ...
A diagnostic test can tell you if you have an active infection. An antibody determines whether your body has developed antibodies to a previous infection.
This case involves transfusing a patient who has a positive antibody screen with crossmatch-compatible RBC before the antibody has been identified. A...
Here you can find Western Blot WB protocol, WB troubleshooting guide, Flow Cytometry FC protocol, Elisa Titre determination, Cell lysate preparation, Immunofluorescence IF Protocol
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab4066 交差種: Ms,Rat,Cow,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,ICC/IF…S100抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
ヤギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab14708 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P…S6K1抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
titers - MedHelps titers Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for titers. Find titers information, treatments for titers and titers symptoms.
This page highlights the benefits of the recently developed strong emitting dioxetanes (AquaSpark(TM)), which are ideal for applications in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).
Hofer, Ursula (2014). "Bacterial physiology: Mycoplasmal protein binds antibodies". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 12 (4): 234- ... It is presumably a universal antibody-binding protein, as it is known to be reactive against all antibody types tested so far. ... It is capable of preventing the antigen-antibody interaction due to its high binding affinity to any antibody. The Scripps ... He found that M. genitalium was particularly responsive to all types of antibodies he tested from 20 patients. The antibody ...
"Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601): 2195-2199. Bibcode ...
"Retargeting pre-existing human antibodies to a bacterial pathogen with an alpha-Gal conjugated aptamer". J. Mol. Med. 93 (6): ... Why not divert a fraction of those antibodies to the influenza strain you just picked up? A chemical linker synthesized with an ... The first proof-of-principle of this technology, re-targeting pre-existing antibodies to the surface of a pathogenic strep ... Atomic Tags sought to develop technology using atomic-force microscopy and bar-coded antibodies tagged with heavy metals to ...
December 13, 2002). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601 ...
Known triggers include bacterial infections, certain medications, autoimmune diseases such as lupus, and pregnancy. The ... It may be supported by measuring activity of or antibodies against ADAMTS13. With plasma exchange the risk of death has ... idiopathic TTP but in 1998 the majority of cases were shown to be caused by the inhibition of the enzyme ADAMTS13 by antibodies ... underlying mechanism typically involves antibodies inhibiting the enzyme ADAMTS13. This results in decreased break down of ...
... and is the most common antibody of the five types of antibodies found in the body. IgG antibodies protects against bacterial ... blood would be obtained for the antibodies. Patients who are immunized with the antibodies from animals may develop serum ... Antibody treatments can be time consuming and are given through an intravenous injection or IV, while a vaccine shot or jab is ... In humans, maternal antibodies (MatAb) are passed through the placenta to the fetus by an FcRn receptor on placental cells. ...
Phage typing of bacterial culture or antibodies for F-antigen. Treatment for gastroenteritis due to Y. enterocolitica is not ...
Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation. Science. 2002-12-13, 298 (5601): 2195- ...
Both bacterial as well as viral pathogens have been implicated in the etiology of LS. A disease that is similar to LS, ... Specific antibodies have been found in LS. Furthermore, there seems to be a higher prevalence of other autoimmune diseases such ...
Serological tests to measure pathogen-specific antibody titer. Bacterial culture/viral culture, which is considered as the gold ... Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to related pathogen to determine existence the pathogen in tissues. ... Using random hexamers priming, reverse transcriptase (RT) convert all mRNA into cDNA and cloned into bacterial vectors. ...
Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes[edit]. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... However bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides, and some polymeric proteins, can stimulate B lymphocytes without ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... The most commonly released isotype of antibodies in this type of immune reaction is low affinity IgM.[1] ...
... cuniculi will produce antibodies as a result of this exposure. Serology is used to detect the level of the antibody to the ... Head tilt, for example, has many causes other than E. cuniculi, including bacterial or viral infections, trauma and toxicity. A ... Antibodies to E. cuniculi can be detected through serology (a blood test). A rabbit who has been exposed to E. ... false negative titre may also result if an infected animal produces an inadequate amount of antibodies. Microsporidia are ...
The glow is self-sustained, works by converting plants' caffeic acid into luciferin and, unlike for bacterial bioluminescence ... 1975 - Method for producing monoclonal antibodies developed by Köhler and César Milstein. 1978 - North Carolina scientists ... They combined thylakoids, which are used for photosynthesis, from spinach with a bacterial enzyme and an artificial metabolic ... 1973 - Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer perform the first successful recombinant DNA experiment, using bacterial genes. ...
The vaccine acts by inducing antibodies against both the bacterial components and CTB. The antibacterial intestinal antibodies ... Bacterial strains of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes and of El Tor and Classical biotypes are included in the vaccine. Dukoral ... The anti-toxin intestinal antibodies prevent the cholera toxin from binding to the intestinal mucosal surface, thereby ...
Agglutination can detect the binding of antibodies and antigens, resulting in clumped bacterial cells. Since antibodies to the ... Measuring IgA antibodies in vaginal mucus is used as a diagnostic test. Specificity of ELISA may reach 98.5%, however antibody ... Rather than the bacterial colonization itself, the ensuing inflammatory response in the uterus and oviducts is often the cause ... The S-layer prevents complement-mediated bacterial killing by impairing the binding of C3b to the surface of the bacteria. The ...
These antibodies are usually picked up in young women with recurrent spontaneous abortions. In anti-cardiolipin-mediated ... It is the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain located in the inner mitochondrial or bacterial membrane. It ... Hokama Y, Campora CE, Hara C, Kuribayashi T, Le Huynh D, Yabusaki K. Anticardiolipin antibodies in the sera of patients with ... Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can also be increased in numerous other conditions, including systemic lupus erythematosus, malaria ...
These antigen-antibody complexes are thought to be caused by excessive exposure to bacterial antigens (especially ... These antibodies possibly stimulate migration of neutrophils into the affected joints and skin. The effect of antibacterial ... Ely PH (June 1980). "The bowel bypass syndrome: a response to bacterial peptidoglycans". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2 (6): 473-87. ... peptidoglycans). Bacterial overgrowth appears to be a frequent underlying condition. ...
They are also involved in the production of cross-reactive antibodies. These are antibodies produced by the immune system ... Other bacterial products include gas (flatus), which is a mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of the ... Bacterial fermentation of undigested polysaccharides produces these. Some of the fecal odor is due to indoles, metabolized from ... largely bacterial) fermentation of unabsorbed material occurs. Unlike the small intestine, the colon does not play a major role ...
Here, the anti-bacterial antibodies cross react with the heart antigens causing inflammation.[citation needed] Inflammatory ...
Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and ... Adalimumab, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. ... The invention of antibody phage display revolutionised antibody drug discovery. Initial work was done by laboratories at the ...
"Antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in European wild boars from southcentral Spain". Journal of Wildlife ... Antibodies to the virus are also common in pigs in other countries. The main route of transmission is through direct contact ... Of the 25 swine exhibitors aged 9 to 19 at the fair, 19 tested positive for antibodies to SIV, but no serious illnesses were ... Studies by the National Institutes of Health show a single dose creates enough antibodies to protect against the virus within ...
For example, a common bacterial strategy is to produce proteins that bind host antibodies. The polysaccharide capsule of ... Many bacterial and host molecules that are involved in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells have been identified. Often, the ... Other bacterial toxins are chemically altered and inactivated by the heat of cooking. Virus virulence factors allow it to ... Therefore, strategies to combat certain bacterial infections by targeting these specific virulence factors and mobile genetic ...
December 13, 2002). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601 ...
SP-A opsonizes a number of bacterial and viral pathogens for clearance by lung alveolar macrophages. Antibody opsonization Punt ... Antibody may also tag tumor cells or virally infected cells, with NK cells responding via the FcR; this process is known as ... though interaction between complement proteins and antibodies constitutes an adaptive immune response. Antibodies independently ... Antibodies are synthesized by B cells and are secreted in response to recognition of specific antigenic epitopes, and bind only ...
"Bacterial-derived antibody binders as small adapters for DNA-PAINT microscopy". ChemBioChem. 20 (8): 1032-1038. doi:10.1002/ ... Each of these immunoglobulin-binding proteins has a different antibody binding profile in terms of the portion of the antibody ... In addition to Protein G, other immunoglobulin-binding bacterial proteins such as Protein A, Protein A/G and Protein L are all ... The native molecule also binds albumin, but because serum albumin is a major contaminant of antibody sources, the albumin ...
Because this process is often long and tedious, the presence of antibodies to E. canis in blood can be used to effectively ... E. canis is commonly treated via chemoprophylaxis with doxycycline, a prescription drug used in the treatment of bacterial ... Additionally, some cats have been found to have antibodies to E. canis suggesting that it can occasionally infect cats, as well ... These antibodies typically appear within seven days after infection. ...
Over time a horse will build up enough antibodies to overtake and fight the disease. Other treatment options can be applying ... A blood test or bacterial cultures can be taken to confirm the horse is fighting Pigeon Fever. Anti-inflammatory such as ...
"Diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus lactis and assisted by immunoblotting of serum antibodies". J. ... Another route involves L. lactis taken up by M cells because of its bacterial size and shape, and the major part of the effect ... These results highlight the potential use of L. lactis for preventing infections by multiple bacterial species. Secretion of ... Type strain of Lactococcus lactis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ...
For the most part, the genetic approach is the most extensive way in identifying the bacterial virulence factors. Bacterial DNA ... Immunoglobulins are antibodies expressed and secreted by hosts in response to an infection. These immunoglobulins play a major ... As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used ...
Conducted field trials in US of feed peas for pigs that produced anti-bacterial antibodies. Former CSO is now with another ... a chimeric antibody produced in a hybridoma. Epicyte - spermicidal antibodies in corn Epicyte was purchased by Biolex in 2004 ... antibodies against Streptococcus mutans, antibodies against doxorubicin, and ICAM 1 receptor in tobacco PlantForm Corporation ... Dow Chemical Company made a deal with Sunol Molecular in 2003 to develop antibodies against tissue factor in plants and in ...
Mucosal-associated invariant T-cells: new players in anti-bacterial immunity. Frontiers in Immunology. 2014-10-08, 5: 450. PMC ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... in immune function in patients with sepsis are associated with PD-1 or PD-L1 expression and can be restored by antibodies ...
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... balance as well as treating any bacterial infections that may develop.[33] Dialysis may be needed for kidney failure, and ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ... Survivors develop antibodies against Ebola that last at least 10 years, but it is unclear whether they are immune to additional ...
"Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.5 (2010): 340-349. Kourkoumpetis, ... an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Other forms of immunodeficiency which ... including salivary immunoglobulin A antibodies, which aggregate candida organisms and prevent them adhering to the epithelial ...
Clinical trials have been conducted on mice using tomatoes expressing antibodies or proteins that stimulate antibody production ... has been introduced into tomato plants and in vivo studies show significant resistance to bacterial wilt and bacterial spot.[27 ... In 2000, the concentration of pro-vitamin A was increased by adding a bacterial gene encoding phytoene desaturase, although the ... "Control of Ethylene Synthesis by Expression of a Bacterial Enzyme in Transgenic Tomato Plants". The Plant Cell. 3 (11): 1187- ...
The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ... In the US, the National Institutes of Health has supported research into bacterial persistence.[282] ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics.[23] As antibody levels ... because the IgM antibodies may remain after the initial infection, and IgG antibodies may remain for years.[120] ...
These germinal centres are places where B memory cells are created and secretory antibody (IgA) is produced. ... or if bacterial in origin, antibiotics, e.g. amoxicillin and azithromycin. Surgical removal (tonsillectomy) may be advised if ...
Bacterial FISH probes are often primers for the 16s rRNA region. FISH is widely used in the field of microbial ecology, to ... Fluorescently tagged antibodies or streptavidin are bound to the dye molecule. These secondary components are selected so that ... The probe is tagged directly with fluorophores, with targets for antibodies or with biotin. Tagging can be done in various ways ... Biofilms, for example, are composed of complex (often) multi-species bacterial organizations. Preparing DNA probes for one ...
Mcintosh, M (19 October 2004). "Curdlan and other bacterial (1→3)-β-D-glucans". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 68 (2 ... "Mechanism by which orally administered β-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in ...
In the 1980s, Cuban scientists developed a vaccine against a strain of bacterial meningitis B, which eliminated what had been a ... The Center of molecular immunology (CIM) developed nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody used to treat cancer. Nimotuzumab is an ...
Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial production of a toxin. Tetanus toxin is ... Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... because the antibodies which are transferred have a lifespan of only about 3-6 months.[18] Every placental mammal (which ... known as antibodies or immunoglobulins. This was first performed (and is still sometimes performed) by taking blood from a ...
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ... B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ...
Infliximab, an immune-suppressing antibody, has been tested in COPD; there was a possibility of harm with no evidence of ... COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants.[9] Chronic bacterial infections may also ... People with COPD can experience flare-ups that are often triggered by a viral or bacterial respiratory infection.[100] The ...
It is now widely presumed that the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are responsible for the inflammation in GPA.[ ... Bacterial colonization with Staphylococcus aureus has been hypothesized as an initiating factor of the autoimmunity seen in ... Seo P, Stone JH (July 2004). "The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides". The American Journal of ... Determination of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) can aid in the diagnosis, but positivity is not conclusive and ...
The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps antibodies clear pathogens or mark them for ... The binding of bacterial molecules to receptors on the surface of a macrophage triggers it to engulf and destroy the bacteria. ... rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ...
Arendrup, M; Hansen JE, Clausen H, Nielsen C, Mathiesen LR, Nielsen JO (April 1991). "Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen ... "Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells". Nat Biotechnol 25 (4): 454-64. doi:10.1038/nbt1298 ... இதனுடன் தொடர்புடைய எதிர்-A பிறபொருளெதிரி (Anti-A Antibody) மற்றும் எதிர்-B பிறபொருளெதிரி பொதுவாக IgM (Immunoglobulin M) வகை ... லெட்டர் டூ தி எடிட்டர்: "(இயற்கையும் வழக்கமான ஆன்டிபாடிகளும்)Letter to the Editor: "Natural" Versus Regular Antibodies ஜர்னல் ...
The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... Some prokaryotes, including many archaea and the bacterial order Actinomycetales, also share homologs of the 20S proteasome, ... "Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21)". Proceedings of the National ...
When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to ... Gómez-Gómez L, Boller T (June 2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor ... Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or dead ...
The part of an enzyme or antibody at which substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.. active transport. ... A type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.. apoptosis. A highly regulated form ... A lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.. flavin adenine dinucleotide ... A membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal, and bacterial cells.. ...
... named the hypothetical substances halfway between bacterial constituents and antibodies "substances immunogenes ou antigenes" ( ... In most cases, an adapted antibody can only react to and bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may ... Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after ... While antigens are the "target" of antibodies, immunoglobulin-binding proteins "attack" antibodies. ...
This inhibition can be achieved with a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab (Remicade) binding directly to TNFα, adalimumab ( ... other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the skin, mast cells appear to be the predominant source of pre-formed ... and identified the therapeutic effects of monoclonal anti-TNF antibodies.[20][21] More recently, research in the Laboratory of ... "Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia". Nature. 330 (6149): 662-64. Bibcode: ...
In 1995 a team at The Institute for Genomic Research sequenced the first bacterial genome; Haemophilus influenzae.[6] A few ... The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... For bacterial identification, the use of metabolic or enzymatic characteristics are common due to their ability to ferment ... Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterials (often called antibiotics) whereas fungal and viral infections are treated ...
It also has an immunological role in supplying antibodies to the system, such as immunoglobulin A.[16] This is seen to be key ... Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome. *Whipple's. *Short bowel syndrome. *Steatorrhea. *Milroy disease ...
... they are antigens to which antibodies can be raised. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on antibody ... Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred."[193] The majority of deaths were from bacterial ... The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses.[47] The ... Occasionally, influenza can cause severe illness including primary viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.[31][32] ...
Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies. References[edit]. *^ Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody- ... Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.[1] It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ...
vaccines, immunoglobulins, immunosuppressants, interferons, monoclonal antibodies For allergic disordersEdit. anti-allergics, ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... cytotoxic drugs, therapeutic antibodies, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitors, somatostatin inhibitors, recombinant interleukins ... monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy (for instance, stem-cell therapies). Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of ...
This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - ... Anaphylaxis occurs when IgE antibodies are involved, and areas of the body that are not in direct contact with the food become ...
Unlike the other types, it is not antibody-mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. ...
"Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.. *^ Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE ... but may be also effective in bacterial infections. Epidemiological research shows that IgE level is increased when infected by ... Chang TW, Wu PC, Hsu CL, Hung AF (2007). Anti-IgE antibodies for the treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Adv. Immunol ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is ...
The first is that peptides allow the creation of peptide antibodies in animals without the need of purifying the protein of ... According to the Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, some groups of peptides include plant peptides, bacterial/antibiotic ... Bulinski JC (1986). "Peptide antibodies: new tools for cell biology". International Review of Cytology. International Review of ... These will then be used to make antibodies in a rabbit or mouse against the protein. ...
The production of stable hybrid cell lines that secrete human monoclonal antibodies against bacterial toxins by fusing post- ... SUMMARY OF CLONED MOUSE-HUMAN HYBRID CELL LINES Tissue Culture Duration of Binding Antibody Antibody Levels Antibody Production ... The human monoclonal antibodies of this invention can be used to separate bacterial toxins from biological samples by forming ... Human monoclonal antibodies specific to bacterial toxins can be used clinically for the prevention or treatment of disease. The ...
Immunity Provided by an Outer Membrane Vesicle Cholera Vaccine Is Due to O-Antigen-Specific Antibodies Inhibiting Bacterial ... Antibody Response to Lyme Disease Spirochetes in the Context of VlsE-Mediated Immune Evasion Artem S. Rogovskyy, David C. ... Neutrophils Are Central to Antibody-Mediated Protection against Genital Chlamydia Elizabeth K. Naglak, Sandra G. Morrison, ... Antibodies against In Vivo-Expressed Antigens Are Sufficient To Protect against Lethal Aerosol Infection with Burkholderia ...
Antibody engineering: comparison of bacterial, yeast, insect and mammalian expression systems.. Verma R1, Boleti E, George AJ. ... Engineered antibody molecules, and their fragments, are being increasingly exploited as scientific and clinical tools. However ... There is no universal expression system, that can guarantee high yields of recombinant product, as every antibody-based ... In this review we describe the relative advantages and disadvantages of bacterial, yeast, insect and mammalian expression ...
BioLegend offers a wide array of Bacterial Proteins And Toxins Antibodies Products. BioLegend develops and manufactures world- ...
This antibody reacts with Bacteria, Luciferase samples. Supplied as 100 µL purified antibody (10 mg/ml) in 0.02M potassium ... Bacterial luciferase Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin conjugate from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, ... Cite Bacterial luciferase Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Bacterial luciferase ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet, well replace the product at no cost to ...
We report a fully automated sandwich immunoassay for the determination of human insulin using antibody-protein A-bacterial ... Fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassay of insulin using antibody-protein A-bacterial magnetic particle complexes.. ... The luminescence intensity ((kilocounts/s)/microg of antibody) from antibody-protein A-BMP complexes after immunoreaction was ... human insulin antibodies by specific binding between the Z domain of protein A and the Fc component of IgG to form the antibody ...
To determine the prevalence and specificity of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with nonspirochetal subacute ... Occurrence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with nonspirochetal subacute bacterial endocarditis.. * ... Only 1 of 20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis without known bacterial infections had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. ... Cross-reactive antibodies to shared epitopes between B. burgdorferi and the endocarditis organism may account for the high ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in cellular response to triacyl bacterial lipopeptide pathways, according to their Panther/ ... Custom Antibody Service. Searching for an antibody we dont offer? We make custom antibodies for specific targets, species and ... Antibodies for proteins involved in cellular response to triacyl bacterial lipopeptide pathways; according to their Panther/ ... If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesnt perform as described on our website or datasheet,well replace the product at no cost to you ...
Bacterial Vaccines, Immunomodulators available in on, also read synopsis and reviews. ... Antibody-drug conjugates. Subject:. HIV antibodies.. Subject:. HIV -- immunology -- congresses.. Subject:. Antibodies, ... Bacterial vaccines.. Subject:. Aids. Subject:. Bacterial Vaccines -- immunology -- congresses.. Subject:. HIV. Subject:. ... Immunobiology of Proteins & Peptides, VI: Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Antibody Immunoconjugates, Bacterial Vaccines, ...
Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation. By Paul Wentworth Jr., Jonathan E. ... Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation. By Paul Wentworth Jr., Jonathan E. ... Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation Message Subject. (Your Name) has ...
Firstly, bacterial toxins will be categorized according to their antibody binding properties into low and high molecular weight ... the types of antibodies and new techniques for producing antibodies are discussed, including poly- and mono-clonal antibodies, ... for labeling antibodies and toxins or for readout techniques will be summarized. Fourthly, microscale analysis or minimized ... single-chain variable fragments (scFv), as well as heavy-chain and recombinant antibodies. Thirdly, the use of different ...
... Volk, Anna Luisa KTH, School of ... Here, we describe a high-resolution method for mapping epitopes of antibodies based on bacterial surface expression of antigen ... Antibody, Cell surface display, Epitope mapping, FACS, Gram-positive, S. carnosus National Category Cell and Molecular Biology ... 2014 (English)In: Monoclonal antibodies, Humana Press, 2014, 485-500 p.Chapter in book (Refereed) Abstract [en] The unique ...
We provide a method to simultaneously screen a library of antibody fragments for binding affinity and cytoplasmic solubility by ... Bacterial Inner-membrane Display for Screening a Library of Antibody Fragments. doi: 10.3791/54583 Published: October 15, 2016 ... Martineau, P., Jones, P., Winter, G. Expression of an antibody fragment at high levels in the bacterial cytoplasm. J Mol Biol. ... Bacterial inner-membrane display relies on the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway for transporting displayed antibodies ...
Our data on sequence similarity and cross-reactivity with bacterial enolase may indicate a role for bacterial infection, ... and the levels of antibodies to citrullinated alpha-enolase peptide 1 correlated with the levels of antibodies to the bacterial ... Antibodies to citrullinated alpha-enolase peptide 1 are specific for rheumatoid arthritis and cross-react with bacterial ... Our data on sequence similarity and cross-reactivity with bacterial enolase may indicate a role for bacterial infection, ...
... Nordenfelt, Pontus LU ; Waldemarson, Sofia LU ; ... the antibodies preferentially bind via Fab, facilitating opsonization and bacterial killing. IgG-poor environments represent ... the antibodies preferentially bind via Fab, facilitating opsonization and bacterial killing. IgG-poor environments represent ... the Fc-binding proteins were removed from the bacterial surface. Further... (More). Several of the most significant bacterial ...
... and herald a new approach to developing antibodies to fight emerging viruses. ... Antibody building blocks stuck together with bacterial superglue can protect against bunyaviruses, ... Synthetic antibodies built with bacterial superglue could help fight emerging viruses. Antibody building blocks stuck together ... Synthetic antibodies constructed using bacterial superglue can neutralise potentially lethal viruses, according to a study ...
... effect of bacterial strains and pathway engineering using GroES/L chaperonins. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or ... and extracellular expression of an scFv antibody fragment in E. coli: ... Gene cloning, bacterial expression, in vitro refolding, and characterization of a single-chain Fv antibody against PreS1(21-47 ... We have studied the influence of bacterial host on the secretion of single-chain Fv antibody fragment (scFv), the production of ...
Limiting CDR-H3 Diversity Abrogates the Antibody Response to the Bacterial Polysaccharide α 1→3 Dextran. Tamer I. Mahmoud, ... The mouse antibody response to infection with Cryptococcus neoformans: VH and VL usage in polysaccharide binding antibodies. J ... Limiting CDR-H3 Diversity Abrogates the Antibody Response to the Bacterial Polysaccharide α 1→3 Dextran ... Limiting CDR-H3 Diversity Abrogates the Antibody Response to the Bacterial Polysaccharide α 1→3 Dextran ...
Antibody-mediated bacterial clearance was observed to occur within 2 days of antibody administration, so this explanation would ... and the active component was determined to be the antibody. The transferred antibodies caused bacterial elimination and ... Antibody production in C57BL/6 mice.Serum from normal mice was ineffective at bacterial clearance, so it was likely that the ... Bacterial clearance was E. chaffeensisspecific and was mediated by antibodies. (a) C57BL/6 scidmice were infected by transfer ...
Strain-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were developed for three different bacterial isolates obtained from a freshwater ... Development and application of monoclonal antibodies for in situ detection of indigenous bacterial strains in aquatic ... Development and application of monoclonal antibodies for in situ detection of indigenous bacterial strains in aquatic ... Development and application of monoclonal antibodies for in situ detection of indigenous bacterial strains in aquatic ...
In addition to the IgG4 antibodies, a number of subjects produced IgE antibodies. The presence of the IgG4 antibodies was ... Conclusions: The antibodies of subjects allergic to a bacterial antigen included IgE and IgG4 (particularly for males) compared ... Differences in the antibody response to a mucosal bacterial antigen between allergic and non-allergic subjectsSmoke-free ... Differences in the antibody response to a mucosal bacterial antigen between allergic and non-allergic subjectsSmoke-free ...
... antibodies, FRET peptides, toxoids, vaccine carrier proteins & adjuvants and more. ... Purified reagents have been used to sort out the mechanisms of bacterial disease by understanding how the virulence factors ... There are many examples of how bacterial research reagents provide both an understanding of disease and tools to counter ...
Abstract The ever-increasing threat of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections has spurred renewed interest in alternative ... In this study, we examine whether these anti-Gal antibodies can be recruited and redirected to exert anti-bacterial activity. ... Oleksiewicz MB, Nagy G, Nagy E (2012) Anti-bacterial monoclonal antibodies: back to the future? Arch Biochem Biophys 526:124- ... Retargeting pre-existing human antibodies to a bacterial pathogen with an alpha-Gal conjugated aptamer. ...
Hen egg yolk antibodies (IgY), production and use for passive immunization against bacterial enteric infections in chicken: a ... Hen egg yolk antibodies (IgY), production and use for passive immunization against bacterial enteric infections in chicken: a ... 72The major mode of action is obviously the binding of antibodies to certain specific components on the bacterial surface such ... Yolk antibody titres should be checked 14 days after the last immunization. If antibodies titres begin to decrease, booster ...
Mouse Anti-Bacterial Monoclonal Antibody validated in IF, E (ABD10778), Abgent ... Anti-Streptococcus pneumoniae Antibody, clone 128/390 Mouse Anti-Bacterial Monoclonal Antibody. ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ...
Mouse Anti-Bacterial Monoclonal Antibody validated in IF, E (ABD10374), Abgent ... Anti-Campylobacter Fetus Antibody, clone 1053/350 Mouse Anti-Bacterial Monoclonal Antibody. ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ... Submit your citation using an Abgent antibody to. [email protected], and receive a free "I Love Antibodies" mug. ...
Background Low avidity of antibodies against viral, parasitic and bacterial agencies. By Celina Scott in General Calcium ... Background Low avidity of antibodies against viral, parasitic and bacterial agencies continues to be employed for differential ... Ercalcidiol F2 GHR GSK1059615 GSK2118436A Itga11 Ixabepilone Kenpaullone LATS1 antibody LIMK2 antibody LIN28 antibody LY2484595 ... Regular ELISA for HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45 antibodies was utilized [10,24-27], with adjustments [17-19] for HPV16 antibody ...
All sera tested seronegative for SVDV and CSFV antibodies. These results, recorded for the first time in Campania, support the ... Samples were tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogan, Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Aujeszky disease virus (ADV), ... Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Campania Region, Italy.. @ ... article{Montagnaro2010PrevalenceOA, title={Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in wild boar (Sus ...
Arabidopsis antibody, chlamydomonas antibody, physcomitrella antibody, Antibodies for research on plant and algal cell biology ... AS05 085 , Clonality: Polyclonal , Host: Rabbit , Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant, green alga, animal and bacterial F- ... AS05 085-10 , Clonality: Polyclonal , Host: Rabbit , Reactivity: [global antibody] for plant, green alga and bacterial F-type ...
Antibodies. read more. Bacterial Isolation. read more. Cell Culture Basics. read more ... you will experiment with bacterial growth and test the impact of different factors on bacterial growth. Will you be able to ... Bacterial Quantification by Culture. Did you know that its possible to count bacteria with your naked eye? In this simulation ... Bacterial Growth Curves. From a single cell to billions of bacteria in just a few hours… In this simulation, ...
  • Our data on sequence similarity and cross-reactivity with bacterial enolase may indicate a role for bacterial infection, particularly with P gingivalis, in priming autoimmunity in a subset of patients with RA. (
  • Antibody orientation at bacterial surfaces is related to invasive infection. (
  • However, analysis of samples from a patient with invasive S. pyogenes infection revealed dramatic differences in the presence and orientation of IgG antibodies at the surface of bacteria from different sites. (
  • However, studies of some of these pathogens have provided evidence that antibodies can provide immunity if present during the initiation of infection. (
  • Transfer of immune serum or antibodies obtained from immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice to C57BL/6 scid mice provided significant although transient protection from infection. (
  • Bacterial clearance was observed when administration occurred at the time of inoculation or well after infection was established. (
  • Although cellular immunity is required for complete bacterial clearance, the data show that antibodies can play a significant role in the elimination of this obligate intracellular bacterium during active infection and thus challenge the paradigm that humoral responses are unimportant for immunity to such organisms. (
  • Indeed, it has often been difficult to demonstrate a significant role for humoral immunity during intracellular bacterial infection, although exceptions exist ( 12 , 28 ). (
  • The failure in many studies to observe a role for antibodies has led to general acceptance of the tenet that antibodies play little or no role in host defense during intracellular bacterial infection, although antibodies are well known to exert neutralizing effects during virus infections. (
  • To further address the role of cellular and humoral immunity during intracellular bacterial infection, we have examined the immunological basis of resistance and susceptibility to infection by Ehrlichia chaffeensis , an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. (
  • Further validation of this novel therapeutic approach of applying α-Gal technology in in vivo models of bacterial infection is warranted. (
  • In conclusion, our study provides a lead candidate for further development of therapeutic antibodies for IBDV infection. (
  • IBD is an acute and highly contagious among chicken, and characterized as highly contagious immunosuppressive in chickens by rapid replication of IBD virus within the bursa of Fabricius and depleting B cell populations [3], and increased susceptibility to other diseases such as bacterial infection or viral infections [4]. (
  • WEDNESDAY, April 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A single injection of a powerful HIV -fighting antibody protected monkeys from an HIV -like infection for up to six months, scientists report. (
  • The researchers found that all four antibodies temporarily protected macaque monkeys from infection with SHIV -- a combination of HIV and the simian form of HIV that naturally infects many primates. (
  • A single infusion of one of the antibodies -- dubbed 10-1074 -- kept the infection at bay for up to 23 weeks. (
  • And even if one or more antibodies can safely stave off HIV infection in humans, there are practical barriers to using them in the real world, both Johnston and Hardy said. (
  • Furthermore, this research opens up exciting possibilities for new antibody-mediated therapies for conditions ranging from bacterial and viral infection to cancer. (
  • These antibodies then alert the immune system to the presence of the invaders and attract lethal "effector" immune cells to the site of infection. (
  • This suggests that rather than simply recognizing foreign antigens and then activating other parts of the immune system to the site of infection, the antibodies may further enhance the immune response by directly killing some of the bacteria themselves. (
  • can also result from subacute bacterial endocarditis, a chronic infection of damaged heart valves. (
  • is the increased risk of bacterial endocarditis (inflammation of the heart lining as a result of bacterial infection). (
  • Furthermore, protection from specific types of clinical infection syndromes may require antibody responses to different sets of staphylococcal antigens. (
  • Bacterial Infection of Mice. (
  • Mice receiving the treatment produced their own monoclonal antibodies and survived infection with the life-threatening pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (
  • Anthrax Lethal Factor Antibody: Anthrax infection is initiated by the inhalation, ingestion, or cutaneous contact with Bacillus anthracis endospores. (
  • B) Higher powered magnification of a cardiac microlesion shows S. pneumoniae bacterial aggregates by 30 hours post-infection. (
  • Over the past decade, monoclonal antibodies specific to the B. anthracis cell wall polysaccharide antigen were shown to be useful in diagnosing B. anthracis infection ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • Hou and colleagues used mouse pulmonary bacterial infection models to see how inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) mediates protective and detrimental responses. (
  • The duration of therapy depends on the severity of infection and is continued for at least 48 hours after the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. (
  • When C. diff bacteria bind to the antibodies, they trigger an electrical change that signals the presence of an infection. (
  • A positive test may not necessarily indicate active infection, since antibodies may persist for years. (
  • Kits and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antibodies are also provided in addition to methods of treating, inhibitng or preventing S. pneumoniae infection or conditions or disorders caused by such infection by administering to a patient the pharmaceutical compositions described herein. (
  • To understand the long-term M. genitalium infection, Rajesh Grover, a senior staff scientist in the Lerner laboratory, tested antibodies from the blood samples of patients with multiple myeloma against different Mycoplasma species. (
  • Contrary to the initial hypothesis that the antibody reactions could be an immune response to mass infection with the bacterium, they found that Protein M evolved simply to bind to any antibody it encounters, with specifically high affinity. (
  • Those that remain can be eluted, used to produce more phage (by bacterial infection with helper phage) and to produce a phage mixture that is enriched with relevant (i.e. binding) phage. (
  • These methods are powerful and effective for identifying antibodies that bind to targets, yet they depend on the secretory pathway to transport proteins that will be displayed 14-16 . (
  • To improve the efficiency of engineering antibodies that are well folded in the cytoplasm, we previously reported the success of MAD-TRAP (membrane-anchored display for Tat-based recognition of associating proteins), a method for screening an scFv antibody library using Escherichia coli inner-membrane display 19 . (
  • Several of the most significant bacterial pathogens in humans, including Streptococcus pyogenes, express surface proteins that bind IgG antibodies via their fragment crystallizable (Fc) region, and the dogma is that this protects the bacteria against phagocytic killing in blood. (
  • In infected and necrotic tissue, the Fc-binding proteins were removed from the bacterial surface. (
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (
  • Antibodies against bacterial host cell proteins, including those from E. coli , L. lactis , P. fluoerescens , and S. aureus strains. (
  • Also called immunoglobulins, antibodies are secreted proteins produced by immune cells that are designed to recognize a wide range of foreign pathogens. (
  • After a bacterium, virus, or other pathogen enters the bloodstream, antibodies target antigens-proteins, fat molecules, and other pieces of the pathogen-specific to that foreign invader. (
  • The use of fusion proteins provides another means of immunisation to produce anti-tumour antibodies. (
  • The TTSS is a needle-like device that S . Typhimurium uses to translocate bacterial effector proteins into the host cell to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton and drive invasion through a ruffling mechanism ( Brumell and Grinstein, 2004 ). (
  • Page 694 - Western Blotting': Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels to unmodified nitrocellulose and radiographic detection with antibody and radioiodinated Protein A. Anal. (
  • As proof of concept, we have generated single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies that specifically target the IgG-binding surface proteins M1 and H of Streptococcus pyogenes. (
  • Additionally, the capacity of the developed scFv antibodies to enrich their target proteins from both simple and complex backgrounds, thereby allowing for detection and quantification with LC-SRM MS, was demonstrated. (
  • Antibodies, (seen in green, red and orange) bind with specific membrane proteins present on the cell surface. (
  • The research team showed that DNA-based genetic immunization, using a device known as a gene gun, could successfully express membrane proteins in mice and induce the animals to produce a range of critical antibodies to bacterial and viral targets. (
  • The new study also describes a method for expressing and purifying membrane proteins in a test tube and examining their binding activities with specific antibodies in blood extracted from gene immunized mice. (
  • Use of the specific antibodies present in blood from gene-immunized mice demonstrated for the first time that both membrane proteins could be recombinantly expressed in a live organism, correctly fold into proper 3-D structures and migrate to the membranes within E. coli . (
  • Hansen and her colleagues outline new strategies to produce antibodies--specialized proteins produced naturally by the immune system in response to pathogens or other threatening biological agents. (
  • Activation of this system leads to a deposition of complement proteins on the bacterial surface, which results in opsonization of pathogens. (
  • Bacterial display can be used to find target proteins with desired properties and can be used to make affinity ligands which are cell-specific. (
  • Bacterial display was then introduced in 1986, allowing the surface display of larger proteins. (
  • in 1986, when they used bacterial surface proteins OmpA and LamB to display peptides. (
  • They showed that the proteins were now subject to cleavage by proteinase K. The non-OmpA peptides inserted were therefore a target of proteinase K. Insertion of the foreign peptides did not affect bacterial cell growth. (
  • This was the first evidence of using bacterial surface display techniques to express proteins on the surface of cells, without altering the function of the cell. (
  • Many surface proteins are involved in bacterial cell attachment and invasion of the host cell. (
  • By using bacterial display, target proteins on the host cell can be identified. (
  • These surface proteins need to first be translocated across the bacterial cell membranes from the cytoplasm to the cell surface. (
  • The display of heterologous proteins on the bacterial cell surface normally requires the fusion of the protein with a surface protein, called a scaffold. (
  • Proteins can also be displayed on the bacterial cell surface through the use of autotransporters. (
  • Phage display technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Richard Lerner and Carlos Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Frank Breitling and Stefan Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (
  • Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and the relevant DNA sequence excised and sequenced to identify the relevant, interacting proteins or protein fragments. (
  • A murine anti-human PDC-E2 monoclonal antibody (mAB) was used as control. (
  • We have shown previously that a monoclonal antibody (mAb IN-1) capable of binding and neutralizing Nogo-A, a myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite growth, can induce long-distance axonal regeneration and increased structural plasticity with improved functional recovery in rat models of CNS injury. (
  • A monoclonal antibody (mAb IN-1) was raised against a myelin fraction enriched in Nogo-A that was able to bind Nogo-A and neutralize its neurite growth inhibitory properties. (
  • A number of directed evolution approaches have been employed to engineer antibodies with high affinities for target antigens 8-10 . (
  • The immune response to bacterial antigens on mucosal surfaces may be modified in individuals allergic to aeroallergens due to a maturational or genetic difference or from the interaction between inhaled allergens and bacteria at the mucosa. (
  • Chemiluminescence's Immunoassay is the method used for the detection of the presence of antibodies directed against the antigens of HIV-1, HIV -2 viruses, Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis B surface antigen. (
  • Earlier studies demonstrated the advantages of immunofluorescence assays, based on polyclonal antibodies to B. anthracis cell-surface antigens, for identifying B. anthracis isolates ( 8 ) and directly evaluating clinical specimens from infected guinea pigs ( 9 ). (
  • Page 701 - Nakane, PK : Simultaneous localization of multiple tissue antigens using the peroxidaselabeled antibody method: A study on pituitary glands of the rat. (
  • Peptide microarrays that display overlapping peptide scans through antigens from infectious organisms or tumor associated antigens for antibody or serum profiling. (
  • A test apparatus for the determination of immunoassays of antigens and their antibodies which comprises a receptacle tray having a plurality of wells for receiving and samples, a holder for receiving and holding balls, coated with an immunologic composition and for depositing the balls into the wells. (
  • This invention relates to diagnostic apparatus for use in radioimmunoassay for antigens and their antibodies. (
  • More particularly, this invention relates to a diagnostic apparatus for a direct radioimmunoassay for determining hapatitis associated antigen or its antibodies or antigens and antibodies. (
  • Viral hepatitis, including so called serum hepatitis, which is a relatively common disease, has not been heretofore easily detected by a sensitive test which is both specific and reproducible for quickly determining whether or not the serum from a patient or a donor contains hepatitis associated antigens or antibodies. (
  • The antibody sets represented the human isotypes IgG1, IgG3 and IgM, which dominate during immune response against protein antigens. (
  • Systemic antibody responses were measured against total antigens and surface antigens of these organisms in UC and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, together with healthy controls. (
  • As a consequence, the bacteria are protected against phagocytic killing, whereas in blood plasma where the concentration of IgG is high, the antibodies preferentially bind via Fab, facilitating opsonization and bacterial killing. (
  • To address this, the team used 'superglue' derived from bacteria to stick multiple VHHs together as a single antibody complex. (
  • 13 The possibility that immune responses to bacteria may be different in people with aeroallergies has been indicated by studies examining IgE antibodies or allergic responses to bacterial extracts. (
  • The anti-GAS alphamer was shown to recruit anti-Gal antibodies to the streptococcal surface in an α-Gal-specific manner, elicit uptake and killing of the bacteria by human phagocytes, and slow growth of invasive GAS in human whole blood. (
  • These studies provide a first in vitro proof of concept that alphamers have the potential to redirect pre-existing antibodies to bacteria in a specific manner and trigger an immediate antibacterial immune response. (
  • From a single cell to billions of bacteria in just a few hours… In this simulation, you will experiment with bacterial growth and test the impact of different factors on bacterial growth. (
  • In this study, we investigated a technology to produce therapeutic recombinant antibodies against IBDV in bacteria by constructing a bacterial displayed recombinant scFv library from immunized chickens, followed by screening the scFv library by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) with FITC-labeled VP2. (
  • The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) President Richard A. Lerner, Associate Professor Paul Wentworth, Jr., Ph.D., and a team of investigators at TSRI is reporting that antibodies can destroy bacteria, playing a hitherto unknown role in immune protection. (
  • Now, Lerner, Wentworth, and their colleagues have demonstrated that antibodies also have the ability to kill bacteria. (
  • In the Science paper, the TSRI team reports the effective killing of E. coli bacteria through hydrogen peroxide production by antibodies specific for that bacteria. (
  • La Jolla, CA. November 14, 2002-Professor Richard A. Lerner, M.D., Associate Professor Paul Wentworth, Jr., Ph.D., and a team of investigators at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is reporting that antibodies can destroy bacteria, playing a hitherto unknown role in immune protection. (
  • Now University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers have moved a step closer to possible clinical testing of this treatment, say Elson and co-first authors Katie Alexander, Ph.D., and Qing Zhao, M.D., Ph.D. Their study, published in the journal Gastroenterology , is the first to describe IgG antibodies in Crohn's disease specific for human-derived flagellins of bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family. (
  • Zhao, MD, Ph.D. Their study, published in the journal Gastroenterology , is the first to describe IgG antibodies in Crohn's disease specific for flagellins of human origin of bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family. (
  • The thixotropic-like nature of 60:40 saline-glycerol semisolid droplets with differing amounts of antibodies was observed when bacteria were captured, and their presence detected using a fluorescently-labeled antibody. (
  • With capture antibody concentrations greater than 0.125 ng-nL, the excess biotinylated capture antibody i.e., that which was residing in the three-dimensional, semisolid droplet space above the surface was utilized to capture more bacteria. (
  • The aim of this investigation was to compare the principal culturable bacterial populations on the rectal mucosa of UC patients, and to determine whether specific antibodies towards these bacteria can activate infiltrating PMN through opsonisation. (
  • Changes in mucosal bacteria, and a switch from internal to surface antigen/antibody reactivity of a predominantly IgG1 type, leads to greater opsonisation of the respiratory burst in PMN, providing a mechanism for maintaining the inflammatory state in UC. (
  • Bacterial toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of many bacteria, some of which are responsible for severe diseases in human and animals, but can also be used as tools in cell biology to dissect cellular processes or used as therapeutic agents. (
  • Bacterial display (or bacteria display or bacterial surface display) is a protein engineering technique used for in vitro protein evolution. (
  • The fully automated sandwich immunoassay system using antibody-protein A-BMP complexes made possible precise assays of human insulin in serum. (
  • Both oral administration and intraperitoneal inoculation of L. helveticus SBT2171 reduced joint swelling, body weight loss, and the serum level of bovine type II collagen (CII)-specific antibodies in the CIA mouse model. (
  • and profiling the antibody repertoire in body fluids, such as serum from patients with autoimmune diseases. (
  • Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are the serum hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). (
  • The Crohn's disease patients-but not the ulcerative colitis patients-had augmented serum IgG antibodies to Lachnospiraceae flagellins from various species of Roseburia and one species of Eubacterium. (
  • Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an accurate, sensitive, specific, reproducible, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in human serum (C. P. Quinn, V. A. Semenova, C. M. Elie et al. (
  • Percentage of participants with treatment-emergent positive antibodies to bezlotoxumab in serum through 12 weeks following a single dose of bezlotoxumab. (
  • Serum samples from 52 free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) collected in Croatia over a period of 10 yr (1998-2007) were tested by microscopic agglutination test for specific antibodies (Ab) to 12 Leptospira spp. (
  • In contrast to incubation with normal human serum, NTHi 3655 showed a reduced survival in vitronectin-depleted human serum, thus demonstrating that vitronectin mediates a protective role at the bacterial surface. (
  • In a previous study, we showed that NTHi binds C4BP and that this interaction significantly contributes to bacterial serum resistance ( 11 ). (
  • Whereas after i.v. challenge with 1000 LD 50 of LPS, anti-TNF-α antibody fully protected mice from death and reduced serum IL-1 and IL-6 levels, anti-TNF-α antibody did not improve the survival of mice nor reduced serum IL-1 and IL-6 levels after i.p. bacterial challenge. (
  • Protection was accompanied by a striking reduction of bacterial numbers and of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 levels in the serum, but the levels of these cytokines were only marginally affected in the peritoneal lavage fluid. (
  • This makes VHHs smaller and able to bind to pathogens in ways that human antibodies cannot. (
  • To work in humans optimally, antibodies need to have all the effector functions of natural human antibodies. (
  • We have constructed chimaeric (ch) mouse/human antibodies with identical binding regions isolated from the V-genes of two mouse parent hybridoma cell lines, with specificity against the P1.7 and P1.16 epitopes on the outer-membrane protein PorA on meningococci. (
  • The invention described herein provides human antibodies produced in non-human animals that specifically bind to Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (PPS-3). (
  • The antibody reactivity was found to be due to an undiscovered protein that is chemically responsive to all types of human and non-human antibodies available. (
  • Immunoblots of the 3 controls with increased antibodies showed only isolated 41-kd reactivity. (
  • To map the antibody response to human citrullinated alpha-enolase, a candidate autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to examine cross-reactivity with bacterial enolase. (
  • Cross-reactivity with other citrullinated epitopes was investigated by inhibition ELISAs, and cross-reactivity with bacterial enolase was investigated by immunoblotting. (
  • We developed one MAb each for the bacterial isolates PX54 and PU7718 that did not show any cross-reactivity with other bacterial strains by immunofluorescence microscopy. (
  • They found selective patterns of antibody reactivity to microbiota flagellins among the inflammatory bowel disease patients. (
  • However, the limitations of polyclonal antibodies, such as the problem of cross-reactivity with closely related Bacillus species known as B. cereus complex ( 10 ), were also apparent. (
  • Here we show that mouse IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies specific for the commensal Streptococcus mitis cross-react with pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 2 and 4, although the cross-reactivity conferred by IgG2a is stronger than that by IgG1 antibodies. (
  • In line with this, we have recently shown that mouse IgG antibodies specific for S. mitis exhibited cross-reactivity toward S. pneumoniae strains D39 (serotype 2) and TIGR4 (serotype 4) [ 4 ]. (
  • Only 1 of 20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis without known bacterial infections had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. (
  • After vaccines, antiviral and antibody therapies are considered the most effective tools to fight emerging life-threatening virus infections," explains author Paul Wichgers Schreur, a senior scientist of Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, The Netherlands. (
  • Moreover, when interpreted as part of the Th1/Th2 paradigm, humoral immune responses have often been considered to be antagonistic to protective cellular responses during intracellular bacterial infections ( 3 ). (
  • The latter possibility has been demonstrated by experiments with viral and bacterial infections of sensitised mice. (
  • The ever-increasing threat of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections has spurred renewed interest in alternative approaches to classical antibiotic therapy. (
  • Les anticorps du jaune d'œuf de poule (IgY), production et utilisation en immunisation passive contre les infections entériques bactériennes : une revue. (
  • Unfortunately poultry meat is one of the major sources of food borne bacterial infections in humans such as Salmonellosis (Mayrhofer et al. (
  • Background Low avidity of antibodies against viral, parasitic and bacterial agencies continues to be employed for differential medical diagnosis of severe versus latest/previous infections. (
  • Keywords: antibody, avidity, genital infections, HPV, prevalence Background Consistent attacks with high-risk individual papillomavirus (hrHPV) type 16 trigger half of cervical cancers (CxCa) morbidity/mortality [1,2]. (
  • Passive hyper immune therapy (PHT) is an alternative for standard vaccination, and is characterize by the advantage of immediate acquired the immunity once injection, and passive immunization with antibodies are widely used to prevent or treat infections like measles, hepatitis A, tetanus, varicella, and vaccinia [7,8]. (
  • But it's not yet clear, according to Hardy, whether antibody infusions could be realistically adopted in the low-income countries where most HIV infections occur. (
  • As strange as it may sound, recent studies reveal that bacterial infections may directly damage the heart. (
  • The primary objective of this study is to detect differences in anti-S. aureus antibody assays (IgM, IgA, IgG and its subclasses) between (1) a group of patients with bacteremia due to a chronic wound (cases) and (2) a group of patients with localized chronic wound infections (control). (
  • Humoral immune response via production of anti-staphylococci antibodies in patients with bacteraemia versus those with localized wound infections. (
  • Disease and death caused by bacterial infections are global health problems. (
  • Although recent studies have indicated a crucial role for IgG antibodies in defense against pneumococcal infections, it is unclear as to how S. mitis stimulates the host's immune system to generate humoral responses [ 5 ]. (
  • Abstract The thixotropic-like properties of saline-glycerol drops, containing biotinylated capture antibodies, on streptavidin-coated glass slides have been investigated, along with their implications for bacterial detection in a fluorescent microarray immunoassay. (
  • Cellular immune responses have long been considered to be a hallmark of immunity to intracellular bacterial pathogens (reviewed in references 17 and 32 ). (
  • Classical studies of well-characterized intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have provided clear evidence for a critical role for cellular immunity in host defense ( 19 , 22 , 26 ). (
  • These data suggest that both cellular and humoral immune responses can contribute to immunity to intracellular bacterial pathogens. (
  • Purified reagents have been used to sort out the mechanisms of bacterial disease by understanding how the virulence factors made by replicating pathogens alter the host. (
  • Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Campania Region, Italy. (
  • The ozone may be part of a previously unrecognized killing mechanism that would enhance the defensive role of antibodies by allowing them to subject pathogens to hydrogen peroxide and participate directly in their killing. (
  • For the last hundred years, immunologists have firmly held that the role of antibodies was solely to recognize pathogens and signal the immune system to make an immune response. (
  • Conversely, bacterial pathogens exposed to e-cigarette vapor benefited. (
  • Fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassay of insulin using antibody-protein A-bacterial magnetic particle complexes. (
  • We report a fully automated sandwich immunoassay for the determination of human insulin using antibody-protein A-bacterial magnetic particle (BMP) complexes and an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibody. (
  • Protein A-BMP complexes harvested from transconjugant AMB-1 were subsequently complexed with anti-human insulin antibodies by specific binding between the Z domain of protein A and the Fc component of IgG to form the antibody-protein A-BMP complexes. (
  • The luminescence intensity ((kilocounts/s)/microg of antibody) from antibody-protein A-BMP complexes after immunoreaction was higher than that from BMPs chemically conjugated to an antibody. (
  • Hence knowledge of the precise binding site (epitope) of antibodies on the target protein is one of the most important features for understanding its performance and determining its reliability in immunoassays. (
  • We provide a method to simultaneously screen a library of antibody fragments for binding affinity and cytoplasmic solubility by using the Escherichia coli twin-arginine translocation pathway, which has an inherent quality control mechanism for intracellular protein folding, to display the antibody fragments on the inner membrane. (
  • Commonly used methods for the display and screening of recombinant antibody libraries do not incorporate intracellular protein folding quality control, and, thus, the antigen-binding capability and cytoplasmic folding and solubility of antibodies engineered using these methods often must be engineered separately. (
  • We have studied the influence of bacterial host on the secretion of single-chain Fv antibody fragment (scFv), the production of this antibody fragment as intracellular fusion protein, and the effect of chaperonin coexpression on intracellular antibody expression. (
  • Expression and secretion of this antibody fragment were highest in the W3110 strain, as determined by Western blot analysis and enzyme immunoassay, where the scFv fragment amounted to approximately 30% of the total periplasmic protein. (
  • Co-expression of chaperonin-encoding plasmid pGroES/L with pIL-2f/scFv increased the intracellular production of the fusion protein twofold, with a similar increase in the final amount of active scFv antibody fragment that could be obtained after in vitro refolding. (
  • To study immune responses to an antigen presented at the respiratory mucosa, the IgE and IgG subclass antibodies induced by a conserved outer membrane protein of Haemophilus influenzae has been examined. (
  • In this work, we engineered a mutation in the cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding protein PilT and showed that this mutation increased piliation and abolished the dispersal phase of bacterial clumps as well as the loss of piliation. (
  • Pili emanate from the bacterial surface and are assembled from protein subunits called pilin. (
  • Although secondary antibodies are widely used for antibody-mediated target detection and signal amplification, the mass production of secondary antibodies requires expensive animal use as well as high manufacturing costs and time compared to those of recombinant protein production with bacterial overexpression systems. (
  • Protein A full length protein and extracellular domain of Fcγ receptors have been used as templates for developing recombinant secondary antibody mimics, because they have an antibody-binding capability. (
  • For the first application, we have incubated these protein chips with anti-RGSHis 6 , anti-GAPDH, and anti-HSP90β antibodies. (
  • They used protein arrays of microbiota bacterial flagellins of both mouse and human origin, and they analyzed sera for IgG and IgA antibody responses. (
  • The graph shows the binding of an RGS-His fusion protein to immobilised antibodies against a tetra-His, a penta-His and an RGS-His epitope. (
  • All antibodies recognize the epitope but only the anti-RGS-His antibody shows no dissociation when bound to the RGS-fusion protein after an association time of 450 seconds. (
  • Production of anti-breast cancer monoclonal antibodies using a glutathione-S-transferase-MUC1 bacterial fusion protein. (
  • Two murine Mabs VA1(IgG1) and VA2(IgG1) were produced against a bacterial fusion protein comprising glutathione S-transferase and five tandem repeats of the MUC1 protein. (
  • To ensure that the phagosomal maturation of Δ invA /Inv S . Typhimurium is not manipulated by virulence factors apart from the SPI-1 TTSS, such as the PhoP/PhoQ regulon or the SPI-2 encoded TTSS ( Brumell and Grinstein, 2004 ), we inhibited bacterial protein synthesis through addition of tetracycline 15 min after internalization. (
  • The authors then investigated whether antibodies against pneumolysin or choline binding protein A (CbpA), an adhesin required for S. pneumonia translocation across the vascular endothelium, can reduce microlesion formation. (
  • If the membrane protein is naturally immunogenic, we easily generated high levels of antibodies using the genes alone," Hansen says. (
  • This design subjected the antibody fusion protein (Ox lpp-scFv) to an in vivo enzymatic addition of a glycerolipid moiety to the N-terminal cysteinyl residue of lpp. (
  • The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, Fourth Edition, contains chapters written by internationally known and well-respected specialists. (
  • It is presumably a universal antibody-binding protein, as it is known to be reactive against all antibody types tested so far. (
  • Rajesh Grover estimated that the protein can bind to an average of 100,000,000 different kinds of antibodies circulating in human blood. (
  • In addition, Protein M has a C-terminal domain with 115 amino acid residues that probably protrudes over the antibody binding site. (
  • Scaffolds are used to display the heterologous protein on the bacterial cell surface. (
  • Bacterial vaccines. (
  • Bacterial Vaccines -- immunology -- congresses. (
  • But Hardy also pointed to the bigger picture: Now that researchers are learning which antibodies neutralize HIV, they may be able to "work backwards" to develop vaccines that spur the immune system to produce those antibodies. (
  • that were all located in surface-exposed loops of the trimeric outer membrane porin, aiming at developing multivalent live bacterial vaccines (12-15). (
  • The production of stable hybrid cell lines that secrete human monoclonal antibodies against bacterial toxins by fusing post-immunization human peripheral blood lymphocytes with nonsecretor mouse myeloma cells is described. (
  • Comparison of a multiplexed fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of human immunoglobulin G antibodies to anthrax toxins. (
  • Binding was inhibited with homologous peptide but not with the arginine-containing control peptide or with 4 citrullinated peptides from elsewhere on the molecule, indicating that antibody binding was dependent on both citrulline and flanking amino acids. (
  • Seven bacterial strains were transformed with a vector carrying the genes encoding the variable regions of an anti-CEA scFv antibody and the ompA leader sequence (ptrp/ompA/scFvCEA). (
  • The chaperonins had no effect on secretion of scFv antibody fragments, using the ptrp/ompA/scFvCEA. (
  • Abgent offers single-use antibody panel for cost- and time-efficient screening assays. (
  • Antibody assays for S. aureus at Day 0, Day 2, Day 4, Day 7, Day 30 and Month 6. (
  • An immunoassay is a biochemical method that uses antibodies to detect the presence of specific biomolecules of interest and to measure their concentrations in a complex biological sample. (
  • Semisolid, gel-like drops of biotinylated capture antibody became liquefied and moved, and then returned to semisolid state, during the normal immunoassay procedures for bacterial capture and detection. (
  • With increased volumes of capture antibody, abnormal spots were visualized, along with decreased signal intensity, after bacterial detection, indicating that the increased droplet volume detrimentally affected the immunoassay. (
  • To determine the prevalence and specificity of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with nonspirochetal subacute bacterial endocarditis and assess whether increased levels of antibodies to B. burgdorferi were attributable to rheumatoid factor. (
  • The method described here has been useful for the mapping of both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies with varying sizes of epitopes. (
  • I work for ImmunoReagents-a leader in polyclonal antibodies and we have referred to this book many times over the years. (
  • We always keep it handy and use it with confidence when we manufacture our polyclonal antibodies. (
  • With the ban on sub-therapeutic antibiotic usage in Europe and the increasingly strictness of the European legislation on food hygiene, passive immunization by oral administration of pathogen-specific hen egg yolk antibody (IgY) may be a useful and attractive alternative. (
  • Out of which, IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies play an important role in pathogen defense by opsonization/complement fixation and immune effector functions, respectively [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Microtiter wells were coated with a polyclonal antibody targeting the pathogen of interest. (
  • Development and application of monoclonal antibodies for in situ detection of indigenous bacterial strains in aquatic ecosystems. (
  • Therefore, the appropriate primary antibodies should be chosen to guarantee the successful detection and accurate quantification of target molecules in immunoassays. (
  • The secondary antibodies are generally conjugated with enzymes, such as horseradish peroxidases (HRP), which repeatedly convert undetectable substrates to detectable products, resulting in significant signal amplification for the detection of low abundance target molecules. (
  • Indirect haemagglutination test is used for the detection of anti-treponemal antibodies. (
  • However, the detection and quantification of bacterial virulence factors in complex biological samples are technically demanding challenges. (
  • These can be addressed by combining targeted affinity enrichment of antibodies with the sensitivity of liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-SRM MS). However, many virulence factors have evolved properties that make specific detection by conventional antibodies difficult. (
  • We here present an antibody format that is particularly well suited for detection and analysis of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding virulence factors. (
  • Streaking patterns were observed that indicated thixotropic-like characteristics, and this appeared to have allowed excess biotinylated capture antibody to participate in bacterial capture and detection. (
  • When developing a microarray for bacterial detection, this must be considered for optimization. (
  • Except for BMH71-18, the other strains were unsuitable for antibody fragment expression, suggesting screening of bacterial strains as an important parameter. (
  • The bacterial strains used in this study included S. mitis CCUG31611 (type strain, equivalent to NCTC12261), S. pneumoniae D39 (serotype 2), and S. pneumoniae TIGR4 (serotype 4). (
  • The major goals of this thesis were: (i) to characterize the repertoire of protective anti-PPS binding antibody (Ab), (ii) to evaluate the contribution of capsules from strains that demonstrate virulence differences in their ability to induce lethal disease in mice, and iii) to investigate the effect of a MAb to PPS that does not promote host cell killing of pneumococcus in vitro on pneumococcal competence and quorum sensing. (
  • Thus, the specificity of the B. burgdorferi antibody test in patients with endocarditis was only 60% (95% CI, 42% to 78%), compared with 90% (CI, 79% to 100%) in controls. (
  • Current methods to determine antibody binding and specificity are still labor-intensive and complicated. (
  • A complete characterization of monoclonal antibodies also includes the determination of epitope specificity for a given set of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • The specificity of pairs of antibodies can easily be determined by testing the simultaneous binding to the antigen. (
  • BIA technology (Biomolecular Interaction Analysis) is ideally suited to automatically test panels of monoclonal antibodies and define their epitope specificity pattern. (
  • This report provides you with information about the epitope specificity pattern for your set of monoclonal antibodies i.e. which antibodies bind to the same epitope and which can bind simultaneously because they have different binding sites on the antigen. (
  • The chimaeric antibodies can be used to analyse relationships between specificity, binding activity (avidity and kinetics), isotype (antibody class and antibody subclass) and in vitro anti-bacterial activity of meningococcal antibodies. (
  • Engineered antibody molecules, and their fragments, are being increasingly exploited as scientific and clinical tools. (
  • Here, we describe a high-resolution method for mapping epitopes of antibodies based on bacterial surface expression of antigen fragments followed by antibody-based flow cytometric sorting. (
  • The reducing cytoplasmic environment prevents the formation of the disulfide bonds normally required for the stable folding of full-length antibodies and antibody fragments, including single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies 6,7 . (
  • The antibodies of subjects allergic to a bacterial antigen included IgE and IgG4 (particularly for males) compared with the almost exclusive IgG1 response of non-allergic subjects. (
  • Murine IgG antibodies are heterogeneous consisting of four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3). (
  • Furthermore, nasopharyngeal colonization of mice with S. pneumoniae triggers a significant rise in the levels of antigen-specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies [ 8 ]. (
  • It however remains unknown whether S. mitis -specific IgG antibody responses that are cross-reactive to S. pneumoniae are biased to an IgG subclass, such as IgG2a and IgG1. (
  • Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore whether (1) S. mitis induces the production of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and (2) these antibodies cross-react with S. pneumoniae serotypes. (
  • The antibody was typically administered to the CNS by implanting antibody-producing hybridoma cells into the brain, either encapsulated or directly as suspension, leading to tumor growth and immunological problems. (
  • Using the method, protective monoclonal antibodies against tetanus toxin and diphtheria toxin were produced that bind tetanus toxin and diphtheria toxin in vitro, respectively, and prevent tetanus and diphtheria in vivo in animals, respectively. (
  • Although antibodies have much potential for intracellular applications, engineering them for proper folding and solubility in the intracellular environment while maintaining the ability to bind to a target antigen is challenging. (
  • We construct a novel recombinant secondary antibody mimic, GST-ABD, which can bind to the Fc regions of target-bound primary antibodies and acquire multiple HRPs simultaneously. (
  • GST-ABD is effectively conjugated with 3 HRPs per molecule on an average and selectively bind to the Fc region of primary antibodies derived from three different species (mouse, rabbit, and rat). (
  • On the other hand, the secondary antibodies recognize and bind to the target-bound primary antibodies regardless of the target molecules. (
  • However, it is possible to replace enzyme-conjugated secondary antibodies if there are simple secondary antibody mimics that can specifically bind to the Fc region of the primary antibodies and provide sites for the conjugation of signal-amplifying enzymes simultaneously. (
  • Moreover, universal secondary antibody mimics that can broadly bind to the Fc region of the primary antibodies derived from multiple species such as mouse, rabbit, and rat are particularly useful because they would eliminate the need to prepare individual primary-secondary antibody pairs. (
  • The antibodies both bind to the key virulence factor pertussis toxin at distinct sites, mitigating its damaging effects. (
  • In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the oral administration of L. helveticus SBT2171 on CIA development and on the regulation of antigen-specific antibody production and inflammatory immune cells, which have been implicated in the development of RA. (
  • These findings demonstrate the ability of L. helveticus SBT2171 to downregulate the abundance of immune cells and the subsequent production of CII-specific antibodies and IL-6, thereby suppressing the CIA symptoms, indicating its potential for use in the prevention of RA. (
  • With any traditional vaccine, the idea is to get the immune system to generate antibodies that will recognize and attack a specific foreign invader, explained Rowena Johnston, vice president of research for amfAR, a nonprofit that supports HIV/AIDS research. (
  • Previously, antibodies were believed only to signal an immune response. (
  • Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System report data suggesting that e-cigarettes are toxic to human airway cells, suppress immune defenses and alter inflammation, while at the same time boosting bacterial virulence. (
  • Cross-reactive antibodies to shared epitopes between B. burgdorferi and the endocarditis organism may account for the high false-positive results. (
  • Epitopes are determined by DNA sequencing of the sorted antibody-binding cells followed by sequence alignment back to the antigen sequence. (
  • For established targets we seek to add antibodies that recognize new epitopes, including post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and methylation. (
  • Occurrence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with nonspirochetal subacute bacterial endocarditis. (
  • Each primary antibody binds to its own specific target molecules with extremely high affinity and selectivity, thus ensuring the accuracy and precision of the assay. (
  • It binds to an antibody at either κ or λ light chains using hydrogen bonds and salt bridges, from backbone atoms and conserved side chains, and some conserved van der Waals interactions with other nonconserved interactions. (
  • These approaches commonly use phage display, yeast surface display, or bacterial surface display to screen large libraries of antibodies 11-13 . (
  • In the throat, IgG was mostly bound to the bacterial surface via Fc, whereas in the blood IgG was mostly bound via fragment antigen-binding (Fab). (
  • GST-ABD also successfully serves as an anchoring adaptor on the surface of GSH-coated plates for immobilizing antigen-capturing antibodies in an orientation-controlled manner for sandwich-type indirect ELISA through simple molecular recognition without any complicated chemical modification. (
  • These inhibitors are captured on the bacterial surface in such a way that they are still functionally active. (
  • The new device will use 3D gold nanostructures, which have more surface area for the antibodies to adhere to, making the biosensor more sensitive and allowing it to be much smaller than the original prototype. (
  • Antibodies to B. burgdorferi were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis. (
  • Regular ELISA for HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45 antibodies was utilized [10,24-27], with adjustments [17-19] for HPV16 antibody avidity evaluation. (
  • HRP-conjugated GST-ABD (HRP-GST-ABD) is successfully used as an alternative to secondary antibodies to amplify target-specific signals in both ELISA and immunohistochemistry regardless of the target molecules and origin of primary antibodies used. (
  • Most immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, commonly use two different types of antibodies or immunoglobulins (Igs), those are, primary and secondary antibodies. (
  • The antibodies were also tested by ELISA-VA1 reacted weakly with glycosylated HMFG but strongly with deglycosylated HMFG, whereas VA2 reacted strongly with both forms of HMFG. (
  • The development of the antibody responses to P6 was subsequently examined in the plasma from 35 children aged 1, 2 and 5 years taken from a prospective birth cohort. (
  • A subset of the Crohn's disease patients had very high responses, with antibodies against more than 10 different flagellins. (
  • Distinct differences were observed in some bacterial populations in UC biopsies, which were generally reflected in antibody responses towards these organisms. (
  • There are several problems attached to these experiments, however, mostly related to the fact that mAb IN-1, as an antibody of the immunoglobulin (Ig)M/κ subclass, has relatively low stability when concentrated and stored. (
  • Studies in mice with the best performing VHH antibody complexes showed that these complexes were able to prevent death. (
  • When administered prophylactically to mice as a binary cocktail, antibody treatment completely mitigated the Bordetella pertussis -induced rise in white blood cell counts and decreased bacterial colonization. (
  • injected BALB/c mice with S. pneumoniae strain TIGR4 intraperitoneally, they found that bacterial titers from the mice correlated significantly with the animals' Tn-I levels. (
  • Regulation of secondary antibody response by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps) in lps responder and non-res- ponder mice. (
  • He found that M. genitalium was particularly responsive to all types of antibodies he tested from 20 patients. (
  • Neutralization of endogenous nerve growth inhibitors represents a novel use of recombinant antibody technology with potential therapeutic applications after traumatic CNS lesions. (
  • Strain-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were developed for three different bacterial isolates obtained from a freshwater environment (Lake Plusssee) in the spring of 1990. (
  • Hybridoma cell lines are described which produce MAbs capable of binding to a high extent to specific bacterial cells as compared to their low extent of binding or no binding to other kinds of bacterial cells. (
  • The described MAbs are mostly such capable of binding to a high extent to bacterial cells which it is comparatively easy to grow in culture. (
  • In Chapter II, we generated mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to a conjugate consisting of the PPS of ST8 (PPS8) cells and tetanus toxoid. (
  • α-Gal-tagged aptamers lead to GAS opsonization with anti-Gal antibodies. (
  • Bottom line Association of the reduced avidity HPV16 antibody "phenotype" with feasible susceptibility to attacks with various other HPV types warrants analysis. (
  • We humanized two murine monoclonal antibodies that neutralize pertussis toxin and expressed them as human immunoglobulin G1 molecules with no loss of affinity or in vitro neutralization activity. (
  • In this study, we have evaluated and validated a two-component direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) assay, using the monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody EAII-6G6-2-3 against the cell wall polysaccharide antigen (CW) ( 12 ) and the monoclonal IgG antibody FDF-1B9 against the capsule antigen (CAP) ( 16 ) for rapid identification of B. anthracis . (
  • The unique property of specific high-affinity binding to more or less any target of interest has made antibodies tremendously useful in numerous applications. (
  • Antibodies specific for the immunodominant epitope were raised in rabbits or were purified from RA sera. (
  • We have identified an immunodominant epitope in citrullinated alpha-enolase, to which antibodies are specific for RA. (
  • Specific antibodies called VHHs have shown great promise in neutralising a respiratory virus of infants. (
  • As a result of exposure of humans to α-Gal in the environment, a large proportion of circulating antibodies are specific for the trisaccharide. (
  • The binding of an antibody to the antigen defines a specific binding site or epitope which sterically interferes with the binding of another antibody which has the same or a closely located binding site. (
  • Details of the work appeared September 15 in the journal PLoS Biology, in an article entitled, "Sequence-Specific Targeting of Bacterial Resistance Genes Increases Antibiotic Efficacy. (
  • The sensitizing effect of the antisense oligomer is highly specific to the targeted gene's sequence, which is conserved in several bacterial genera, and the oligomer does not have any detectable toxicity against human cells. (
  • In addition VA1 gave weak reactions with normal breast tissues whereas VA2 was non-reactive and could be a relatively tumour specific antibody for breast cancer. (
  • This review offers summarized information about IgY production and the use of these antibodies for passive immunization, particularly in poultry. (
  • The secondary and primary antibodies were incubated for 90 and 60 min. (
  • Scientists are working to improve the abilities of therapeutic antibodies to flag cancer cells (orange) for destruction by macrophages (blue). (
  • There are many examples of how bacterial research reagents provide both an understanding of disease and tools to counter disease and manipulate living systems. (
  • During this right time, HPV is solved through T helper cell activation of cytotoxic T cells and B cells to create neutralizing IgG antibodies [12]. (
  • Hydrogen peroxide is lethal to bacterial cells because it pokes holes in their cell walls, bursting the cells and killing them. (
  • Antibodies are able to activate human nerve cells within milliseconds and hence modify their function - that is the surprising conclusion of a study carried out at Human Biology at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). (
  • To lyse the bacterial cells, a Precellys lysing kit and a homogenizer (Precellys 24, Bertin Instruments) were used as per the manufacturer's instructions. (
  • The mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) is replete with antibody producing plasma B cells and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN). (
  • This combination of effector cells requires a crosslinking antigen to evoke an antibody driven PMN inflammatory response via their Fc receptors. (
  • The invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells. (
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into E. coli bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (
  • Emerging evidence reveals that rabbits immunized with S. mitis generate IgG antibodies that are reactive with both S. mitis and S. pneumoniae [ 3 ]. (
  • In this study, we examine whether these anti-Gal antibodies can be recruited and redirected to exert anti-bacterial activity. (
  • In contrast to anti-TNF-α antibodies, anti-LPS antibodies were protective in the peritonitis model. (
  • A case of tricuspid valve non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis presenting as pulmonary embolism in a patient with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome -- Unnikrishnan et al. (
  • When administered therapeutically to baboons, antibody-treated, but not untreated control animals, experienced a blunted rise in white blood cell counts and accelerated bacterial clearance rates. (
  • In order to circumvent chemical treatment for constructing a membrane-anchored antibody, the advantage of genetic engineering was utilized and the signal peptide with nine N-terminal amino acid residues of the major lipoprotein (lpp) of E.coli was fused to the N-terminus of the Ox scFv. (
  • The Ox lpp-scFv was expressed in E.coli and, unlike its soluble counterpart, it was firmly associated with the bacterial outer membrane and was metabolically labeled with radioactive palmitate, indicating the biosynthetic lipid-tagging. (
  • Biosynthetic lipid-tagging in E.coli is an alternative to present chemical in vitro conjugation for converting the otherwise soluble antibody to membrane-anchored form. (
  • However, accumulating evidence from both older and more recent studies indicates that humoral immunity may be important for immunity to a number of intracellular bacterial and fungal parasites (reviewed in reference 6 ). (
  • A single-chain antibody (Ox scFv) was constructed by combining the variable domains of the heavy and light chains of an anti-2-phenyloxazolone IgG via a 28-amino acid residue long natural linker peptide derived from a fungal cellulase. (
  • Bacterial inner-membrane display relies on the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway for transporting displayed antibodies, in contrast to other common display methods that use the secretory pathway. (
  • The lipid-tagged antibody was introduced to liposomes by two different methods: by dialysis or by direct adsorption to premade Eu-chelate-loaded liposomes. (
  • This ability of antibodies to generate toxic compounds may also link them to a number of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Antibodies engineered for intracellular function must not only have affinity for their target antigen, but must also be soluble and correctly folded in the cytoplasm. (
  • Antigen-binding and cytoplasmic solubility can be improved with subsequent rounds of mutagenesis and screening to engineer antibodies with high affinity and high cytoplasmic solubility for intracellular applications. (
  • Antibodies capable of folding and functioning in the intracellular environment are promising tools for both research and therapeutic applications. (
  • As a result, antibodies isolated using these techniques will not necessarily fold well in the cytoplasm, and intracellular solubility must often be engineered separately if the antibodies will be used in intracellular applications. (
  • When a bacterial machine called the efflux pump is in working order, it expels antibiotics, contributing to antibiotic resistance. (
  • This approach contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. (
  • All antibodies have the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide, the report adds, but they need to first have available a molecule known as "singlet" oxygen-another highly reactive oxygen species-to use as a substrate. (
  • There is no 'universal' expression system, that can guarantee high yields of recombinant product, as every antibody-based molecule will pose its own problems in terms of expression. (
  • They have not yet demonstrated conclusively that what they found is ozone, but they are highly confident that ozone is what the antibodies are producing because no other known molecule has the same chemical signature. (
  • ince its publication in 1988, Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, by Harlow and Lane, has become a classic, an essential resource for molecular biology, immunology, and cell culture labs. (
  • We examined whether existence of low-avidity of HPV16 antibodies is definitely associated with an increased risk of prevalence for additional HPV types. (
  • 1. A continuous cell line which produces human anti-exotixin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a human peripheral blood lymphocyte immunized by a toxin, or an imunogenic fragment thereof, or a toxoid prepared from an exotoxin, or an immunogenic fragment thereof, and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the antibodies are capable of neutralizing exotoxin. (
  • 3. A continuous cell line which produces human anit-tetanus toxin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a tetanus toxin-immunized or toxoid-immunized human peripheral blood lymphocyte and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the anitbodies are capable of neutralizing tetanus toxin. (
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (
  • In murine and baboon models, antibody treatment increased bacterial clearance and curtailed the rise in white blood cell counts associated with poor prognosis in infants. (
  • Flagellins are building blocks of the hairlike motility flagella that extend from the bacterial cell wall. (
  • In this interview, Dr. Rich Jones introduces bacterial cell counting and an example of when the Multisizer 4e from Beckman Coulter has been used for this application. (
  • What are the main applications of bacterial cell counting and sizing? (
  • Alternatively, microbiologists might have performed a serial dilution of bacterial cultures and then transferred these to Petri dishes in order to have a more accurate determination of cell counts. (
  • After homogenization, the bacterial cell lysate was centrifuged at 1000g for 5 min at 4°C and the supernatant was collected and stored at −80°C for further use. (
  • It interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis during active replication, causing bactericidal activity against susceptible organisms. (
  • Aztreonam is a monobactam, not a beta-lactam, antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis during bacterial growth. (
  • Bacterial display is often coupled with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) techniques. (
  • The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. (