Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Methanococcales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Methanococcus: A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Haloferax volcanii: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Pyrococcus furiosus: A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal: The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Pyrococcus abyssi: A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Archaeoglobus fulgidus: A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pyrococcus horikoshii: Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Acidianus: A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Nanoarchaeota: A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Pyrococcus: A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.Thermoplasma: A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Thermoproteaceae: A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Methanosarcinales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Methanobacteriales: An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ribosome Subunits, Small, Archaeal: The small subunit of archaeal RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 28 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Desulfurococcaceae: A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Methanococcaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Sulfolobales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Korarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA, comprising thermophilic organisms from terrestrial hot springs that are among the most primitive of all life forms. They have undergone comparatively little evolutionary change since the last common ancestor of all extant life.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Halobacterium salinarum: A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haloarcula: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Methanosarcinaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Halorubrum: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Thermosomes: Group II chaperonins found in species of ARCHAEA.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Methanomicrobiales: An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLHalobacteriaceae: A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Ribonuclease P: An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Chaperonins: A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Pyrobaculum: A genus of rod-shaped, almost rectangular ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. Organisms are facultatively aerobic or strictly anaerobic, grow on various organic substrates, and are found in continental solfataras.

Quantitative immunologic analysis of the methanogenic flora of digestors reveals a considerable diversity. (1/5)

To determine which methanogens occur in digestors, we performed a quantitative immunologic analysis of a variety of samples. A comprehensive panel of calibrated polyclonal antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra was used. This allowed precise identification of bacteria by antigenic fingerprinting. A considerable diversity of methanogens was uncovered, much larger than previously reported, encompassing at least 14 strains of 11 species. Strategies were developed to measure the load of any given methanogen in a sample and to compare samples quantitatively. Two methanogens were found to predominate which were antigenically closely related with either Methanobacterium formicicum MF or Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ. Fundamental data, probes, and methods are now available to monitor methanogenic subpopulations during digestor operation and thus learn about their respective roles and predictive significance.  (+info)

Direct characterization of methanogens in two high-rate anaerobic biological reactors. (2/5)

The methanogenic flora from two types of turbulent, high-rate reactors was studied by immunologic methods as well as by phase-contrast, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. The reactors were a fluidized sand-bed biofilm ANITRON reactor and an ultrafiltration membrane-associated suspended growth MARS reactor (both trademarks of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, Pa.). Conventional microscopic methods revealed complex mixtures of microbes of a range of sizes and shapes, among which morphotypes resembling Methanothrix spp. and Methanosarcina spp. were noticed. Precise identification of these and other methanogens was accomplished by antigenic fingerprinting with a comprehensive panel of calibrated antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra. The methanogens identified showed morphotypes and antigenic fingerprints indicating their close similarity with the following reference organisms: Methanobacterium formicicum MF and Methanosarcina barkeri W in the ANITRON reactor only; Methanosarcina barkeri R1M3, M. mazei S6, Methanogenium cariaci JR1, and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ in the MARS reactor only; and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI and Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon in both reactors. Species diversity and distribution appeared to be, at least in part, dependent on the degree of turbulence inside the reactor.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from landfills. (3/5)

Methanogenic bacteria were isolated from landfill sites in the United Kingdom. Strains of Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri, several different immunotypes of Methanobacterium bryantii, and a coccoid methanogen distinct from the reference immunotypes were identified.  (+info)

Shifts in methanogenic subpopulations measured with antibody probes in a fixed-bed loop anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate. (4/5)

A fixed-bed loop, high-rate anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate was sampled when it reached steady state and afterwards following perturbations during a 14-month period. By using immunotechnology, it was observed that shifts in methanogenic subpopulations occurred in association with perturbations, such as restarting and relocating the biomass into a different tank. Methanogens related to Methanobacterium bryantii MoHG and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI were numerous throughout the observation period, while Methanosarcina mazei S6 and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 were found in the early and late samples, respectively. Also, Methanobacterium formicicum was more numerous at the top portion of the bioreactor, while Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and DC were at the bottom. Sample formalinization required for prolonged storage proved suitable for antigen preservation.  (+info)

Diversity and population dynamics of methanogenic bacteria in a granular consortium. (5/5)

Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor granules were used as an experimental model microbial consortium to study the dynamics and distribution of methanogens. Immunologic methods revealed a considerable diversity of methanogens that was greater in mesophilic granules than in the same granules 4 months after a temperature shift from 38 to 55 degrees C. During this period, the sizes of the methanogenic subpopulations changed with distinctive profiles after the initial reduction caused by the shift. Methanogens antigenically related to Methanobrevibacter smithii PS and ALI, Methanobacterium hungatei JF1, and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 increased rapidly, reached a short plateau, and then fell to lower concentrations that persisted for the duration of the experiment. A methanogen related to Methanogenium cariaci JR1 followed a similar profile at the beginning, but it soon diminished below detection levels. Methanothrix rods weakly related to the strain Opfikon increased rapidly, reaching a high-level, long-lasting plateau. Two methanogens related to Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH emerged from very low levels before the temperature shift and multiplied to attain their highest numbers 4 months after the shift. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed thick layers, globular clusters, and lawns of variable density which were distinctive of the methanogens related to M. thermoautotrophicum DeltaH, M. thermophila TM1, and M. arboriphilus AZ and M. soehngenii Opfikon, respectively, in thin sections of granules grown at 55 degrees C for 4 months. Mesophilic granules showed a different pattern of methanogenic subpopulations.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.125 - ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.500 - htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.510 - htlv-ii ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 -- antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.107 -- ... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.107 -- antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.125 -- ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.179 -- antibodies, ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.179 -- antibodies, ...

*S-layer

In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic ... Subsequently, S-layer fusion proteins with specific functional domains (e.g. enzymes, ligands, mimotopes, antibodies or ... High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales ... Albers SV, Meyer BH (2011). "The archaeal cell envelope". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9: 414-426. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2576. ...

*Affitin

... s are antibody mimetics and are being developed as an alternative to antibodies as tools in biotechnology. They have ... Pacheco, S; Béhar, G; Maillasson, M; Mouratou, B; Pecorari, F (2014). "Affinity transfer to the archaeal extremophilic Sac7d ... Unlike antibodies, affitins are produced in vitro, and therefore can be generated more quickly. Due to their small size and ... small compared to antibodies with some 130-150 kDa. Being obtained from a thermophile organism, they are unusually heat ...

*Methanobrevibacter oralis

"Evidence of Archaeal Methanogens in Brain Abscess". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 65 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1093/cid/cix286. Hirai, ... Kimito; Maeda, Hiroshi; Omori, Kazuhiro; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Takashiba, Shogo (2013). "Serum antibody response to group II ...

*Caldococcus

Sequences from the latter shared about 50% identity with the archaeal ICDH. The gene was expressed in E. coli by ligating it to ... Its RNA polymerase does not react with antibodies against Desulfurococcus RNA polymerase. It has a GC-content of 41.0 ± 0. 2 ...

*Lysin

Quemin, ERJ; Quax, TEF (5 June 2015). "Archaeal viruses at the cell envelope: entry and egress". Frontiers in Microbiology. 6: ... Unlike most antibiotics, proteins are prone to antibody recognition and binding, which means that lysins could be ineffective ... Cell-wall-containing Archaea are also lysed by specialized pseudomurein-cleaving lysins, while most archaeal viruses employ ... Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Kok, Jan (2010). "Two Major Archaeal Pseudomurein Endoisopeptidases: PeiW and ...

*Ankyrin repeat

They appear in bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic proteins, but are far more common in eukaryotes. Ankyrin repeat proteins, ... an engineered antibody mimetic based on the structure of ankyrin repeats PDB: 1N11​; Michaely P, Tomchick DR, Machius M, ... a technique that has been presented as a possible alternative to antibody design for applications requiring high-affinity ...

*Sodium/phosphate cotransporter

Other organisms that possess PNaS family members include many in eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal phyla. Bacterial sodium: ... "Monoclonal antibody MX35 detects the membrane transporter NaPi2b (SLC34A2) in human carcinomas". Cancer Immun. 8: 3. PMC ... Lifastuzumab vedotin is a monoclonal antibody for the sodium/phosphate cotransporter that is under development for the ...

*LSm

The three archaeal LSm proteins (Sm1, Sm2 and Sm3) also cluster as a group, distinct from the eukaryote LSm proteins. Both the ... Smith produced antibodies to a set of nuclear proteins, which they named the 'smith antigen' (Sm Ag). About 30% of SLE patients ... One of the two main branches of archaea, the crenarchaeotes have a third known type of archaeal LSm protein, Sm3. This is a two ... The Sm proteins were first discovered as antigens targeted by so-called Anti-Sm antibodies in a patient with a form of Systemic ...

*Gut flora

These cytokines and antibodies can have effects outside the gut, in the lungs and other tissues. The immune system can also be ... and is the most abundant methane-producing archaeal species in the human gastrointestinal microbiota. Apart from carbohydrates ... IgA is an important type of antibody that is used in mucosal environments like the gut. It has been shown that IgA can help ... Gut flora can also regulate the production of antibodies by the immune system. One function of this regulation is to cause B ...

*Virus

IgG antibody is measured when tests for immunity are carried out. Antibodies can continue to be an effective defence mechanism ... Other archaeal viruses resemble the tailed bacteriophages, and can have multiple tail structures. An enormous variety of ... Two types of antibodies are important. The first, called IgM, is highly effective at neutralising viruses but is produced by ... A protein that is in cells, called TRIM21, can attach to the antibodies on the surface of the virus particle. This primes the ...

*Transfer RNA

However, the existence of the P/I site in eukaryotic or archaeal ribosomes has not yet been confirmed. The P-site protein L27 ... "Production of antibodies to soluble RNA (sRNA)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 54 (4): 1281-1285. doi:10.1073/pnas.54.4.1281. PMC ... or archaeal counterpart. This initial tRNA binding site is called the A/T site. In the A/T site, the A-site half resides in the ...

*Protein domain

1973). "Antibody structure and molecular immunology". Science. 180 (4088): 830-40. Bibcode:1973Sci...180..830E. doi:10.1126/ ... "Domain combinations in archaeal, eubacterial and eukaryotic proteomes". J Mol Biol. 310 (2): 311-325. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ... Teale JM, Benjamin DC.; Benjamin (1977). "Antibody as immunological probe for studying refolding of bovine serum albumin. ...

*Transcription (biology)

... an ortholog of archaeal TFB), TFIID (a multisubunit factor in which the key subunit, TBP, is an ortholog of archaeal TBP), ... Transcription factories can also be localized using fluorescence in situ hybridization or marked by antibodies directed against ... TFIIE (an ortholog of archaeal TFE), TFIIF, and TFIIH. In archaea and eukaryotes, the RNA polymerase-promoter closed complex is ...

*Exosome complex

... for detecting these antibodies. In these diseases, antibodies are mainly directed against two of the proteins of the complex, ... three resemble the archaeal Rrp41 protein and the other three proteins are more similar to the archaeal Rrp42 protein. Located ... At the current time, the most sensitive way to detect these antibodies is by using a peptide, derived from the PM/Scl-100 ... Structure of the human exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank Structure of an archaeal exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank ...

*ERCC1

Sgouros J, Gaillard PH, Wood RD (Mar 1999). "A relationship between a DNA-repair/recombination nuclease family and archaeal ... validation of a novel antibody". Scientific Reports. 4: 4313. doi:10.1038/srep04313. PMC 3945488 . PMID 24603753. Chen HY, Shao ...

*Proteasome

The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... In bacteria that express a 20S proteasome, the β subunits have high sequence identity to archaeal and eukaryotic β subunits, ... Mallery DL, McEwan WA, Bidgood SR, Towers GJ, Johnson CM, James LC (Nov 2010). "Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity ...

*Cell nucleus

The archaeal origin of the nucleus is supported by observations that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain ... Antibodies to certain types of chromatin organization, in particular, nucleosomes, have been associated with a number of ... As in the case of progeria, the role played by the antibodies in inducing the symptoms of autoimmune diseases is not obvious. ... These are known as anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and have also been observed in concert with multiple sclerosis as part of ...

*Type I topoisomerase

Autoantibodies targeted against type I topoisomerase are called anti-Scl-70 antibodies, named by the association with ... bacterial and archaeal topoisomerase I, topoisomerase III and reverse gyrase) and type IB (eukaryotic topoisomerase I and ... of the antibodies. Wang JC (June 2002). "Cellular roles of DNA topoisomerases: a molecular perspective". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell ...

*Bacteria

... or antibodies. Because of their importance for research in general, samples of bacterial strains are isolated and preserved in ... and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. The most recent common ancestor ...
Treatment of sulfite evaporator condensates for recovery of volatile components. Assay of condensate samples from supporting mills. Project 3100, report one : a progress report to members of Group Project 3100. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Eloquent exploration of Global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Market 2019 including competitive, segmentation, forecast, and regional analysis.. The Global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Report enlists several considerable facets in the global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators industry that holds the potential to fuel growth or declines in the market. The report enfolds valuable analysis of significant factors such as market size, share, sales volume, product demand, market value, revenue, and growth rate. The report also deeply considers influential factors including Anesthesia Gas Evaporators market trends, dynamics, growth driving forces, and other elements.. The global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators market is exhibiting a substantial CAGR figure in 2018 and it is exacted to report more vigorous growth during the forecast period of 2019 to 2024. Market growth is being boosted by raw material affluence, product awareness, rapidly growing Anesthesia Gas Evaporators demand, financial stability, and favorable ...
China Single Effect Evaporator for Concentration Crystallization, Separation and Reclamation, Find details about China Evaporator, Single Effect Evaporator from Single Effect Evaporator for Concentration Crystallization, Separation and Reclamation - Shandong Wintech Technology Co., Ltd.
Reasons for Buying Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Market Research Report:. Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Market Research Report provides a forward looking perspective on different factors driving or restraining market growth. It provides pin point analysis of changing competition dynamics and keeps you ahead of competitors. This report provides pin-point analysis for changing competitive dynamics. With all the accumulated data analyzed using SWOT analysis, there is a clear interpretation of the competitive landscape of the United States Anesthesia Gas Evaporators market. Potential for the markets growth was unveiled and outlying competitive threats also transpired. There is a prominent strategic direction in the market and this is sighted in the key trends and developments studied. By obtaining market background and using prevailing norms, policies, and trends of other leading markets for cross-references, market data was achieved.. Complete Report Available @: ...
To regulate the magnitude and the direction of the heat flux in an exchanger-based methanol evaporator of a fuel cell system, thermoelectric (TE) modules can be deployed as active heat pumps. The performance of the TE-integrated evaporator is strongly influenced by its heat exchange structure. The structure transfers the fuel cell exhaust heat to the evaporation chamber to gasify the methanol, where TE modules are installed in between to facilitate the heat regulation. In this work, firstly, a numerical study is conducted to determine the working currents and working modes of the TE heat regulators under the system working condition fluctuations and during the system cold start. A 3-dimensional evaporator model is generated in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS FLUENT® by combining a compact TE model with a number of various heat exchange structure geometries. The compact TE model adopts order-reduction technique in both gridding and computing to improve the computation ...
Hi everybody! I need some help and suggestion. About a couple of weeks ago, our air conditioner was replaced with a new one. The technician changed the outside condensor as well as the inside evaporator. The problem is when he was trying to get into the evaporator which was inside the insulation box he had to open the alluminum and as well as CUT and MAKE A WHOLE of the INSULATION which covers the evaporator. As I was watching him making a whole through the insulation, I noticed the
FIG. 1 is an exploded first perspective view of the substance evaporator of the instant invention showing the separation of the container and the upper portion of the substance evaporator thereof;. FIG. 2 is a second perspective view of the assembled substance evaporator thereof;. FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;. FIG. 4 is a back elevational view thereof;. FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof;. FIG. 6 is a right side elevational view thereof;. FIG. 7 is a top plan view thereof; and,. FIG. 8 is a bottom plan view thereof.. ...
Evaporator System099A EV2012S [G099A EV2012S] - Heated single block 20 well evaporator system for 15-16mm tubes, includes block, 15ga needles, 1.5 LPDF Download
China Four-Effect Falling Film Evaporator, Find details about China Alcohol, Effect from Four-Effect Falling Film Evaporator - Feicheng Jinta Machinery Co., Ltd.
Article DESMI ROTAN® Pump Geared for Thin Film Evaporator. DESMI ROTAN® Pump Geared for Thin Film Evaporator Suzhou Dalong & Ningbo Dahongying Bio-Engineering & Beijing Ginko Group & Wuxi Hexiang Chemical Machinery Separation techno...
Product guide for selecting an evaporator or cencentrator and includes nitrogen blowdown, vortex, rotary evaporators and vacuum systems for solvent
China Triple Effect Falling Film Evaporator, Find details about China Evaporation, Ethanol Project from Triple Effect Falling Film Evaporator - Feicheng Jinta Machinery Co., Ltd.
Hard scales and organic deposits in evaporators and heat exchangers can require excessive acid and steam use and frequent, costly maintenance. Thats why Buckman developed a series of evaporator deposit control (EDC) products. Buckmans proprietary blend of inhibitors and dispersants effectively prevents mineral scaling and reduces organic fouling in the process, so you can scale back on acid use, cleaning frequency and all the related costs. W848. ...
Solar steam generation by heat localization is considered to be a highly efficient, sustainable way to alleviate water shortage in resource-limited regions. However, most of the interfacial photothermal evaporators demonstrated so far involve non-biodegradable nanoscale materials, which can quickly pose a si
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PRINCIPLE OF WORKING :. The aim of evaporation is to concentrate a solution consisting of a volatile solvent and a non volatile solute. Climbing film evaporation is a continuous operation in which the solution is heated in a continuous jacketed stainless steel evaporator at high temperature. In the liquid - gas separator, the concentrate solution is collected and the vapour is evacuated, condensed and collected in the solvent receiver.. ...
A heat transfer system includes an evaporator having a heated wall, a liquid barrier wall containing working fluid, a primary wick positioned between the heated wall and an inner side of the liquid barrier wall, a vapor removal channel located at an interface between the primary wick and the heated wall, and a liquid flow channel located between the liquid barrier wall and the primary wick. Methods of transferring heat include applying heat energy to a vapor barrier wall, flowing liquid through a liquid flow channel, pumping the liquid from the liquid flow channel through a primary wick, and evaporating at least some of the liquid at a vapor removal channel.
Find wastewater treatment evaporator articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
In a rotary evaporator, the rotating speed of the rotating flask is automatically controlled or regulated dependent upon a detected process value, particularly the vibration behavior or the mass moment of inertia of the rotating flask.
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The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.
I had a Bryant system (355CAV + 186B + CNPVP) installed recently and it passed the code inspection. However, I just realized there is no trap on the evaporator coil drain line and Im trying to figure out if my arrangement is as it should be. For now, the attached drawing will have to do. My furnace is configured for upflow. There appears to be that internal trap on the furnace drain line but there is no trap on the evaporator drain line. The two drain lines merge into one which runs
TOMY MV-100 Features MV-100 MicroVac Mini Vacuum-Centrifugal Evaporator The TOMY MV-100 MicroVac is a compact and complete vacuum centrifugal evaporator. This tiny... read more ...
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Sample Preparation products, including dialysis membranes, automation and centrifugal evaporators, on SelectScience.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Sample Preparation products, including dialysis membranes, automation and centrifugal evaporators, on SelectScience.
Chemistry diaphragm pump MV 10C EX - ATEX chemistry diaphragm pumps offer all advantages of oil-free chemistry diaphragm pumps. Typical applications are rotary evaporators and...
Organomation, a leading US manufacturer of nitrogen blowdown evaporators for sample concentrations will unveil a redesigned version of its nitrogen generator, branded as the NITRO-GEN™ at analytica 2020. Click to read more...
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China Concentration Equipment for Food Industry, Find details about China Evaporator, Plate Evaporator from Concentration Equipment for Food Industry - Shanghai Ruipai Machinery Co., Ltd.
Hello all, Currently I am Working on a 600W Concentric Heat Exchanger Type Evaporator. Compressor is Emerson Based KCN415LAG as Mentioned in my Previous Post. No. of Thermal On off Cycles Were Observed To be 2 minutes to 4 minutes. I am Planning to Introduce Latent Heat Storage Into the System & Got Somewhere Suggestions to Use Proylene Glycol - Water Solution for Holding Evaporator for Certain Minutes After Compressor Shuts Off. My Questions Are: 1. What Percentage of Propylene
Evaporators are used to minimize VOC emissions from chemical industry, use of multi effect evaporator is started to recover DM water which can be further used in process. These evaporators are also used to recover product present in water wash.. In a multiple-effect evaporator, water is boiled in a sequence of vessels, each vessel at a lower pressure than the previous. As the boiling temperature of water decreases as pressure decreases, the vapor boiled off in one vessel can be used to heat the next, and only the first vessel requires an external source of heat.. Evaporators with more than four stages are rarely practical except in systems where the liquid is the desired product in chemical recovery systems where up to seven effects are used.. ...
... A predictive mathematical model for fixed-bed adsorber design which incorporates both liquid and solid phase resistances to mass transfer is formulated; numeric solutions are described and checked for accuracy. Laboratory bench scale studies used to estimate model parameters independently from adsorber break-through profiles are described, and experimental results presented. The bench scale tests involve both adsorption rate and isotherm measurements that are used to determine isotherm equation parameters and surface diffusion coefficients for model calibration. Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients for fixed-bed operation are obtained from literature correlations; parameter values used for model calibration are presented. This paper sets the stage for single- and multi-component model verifications to be presented in two subsequent papers.
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AccuCold CP351WLLF2MEDADA 19 Inch Compact Top Freezer Refrigerator with Dual Evaporator Cooling, Combination Lock, High/Low Temperature Alarm, Access Port, Interior Light, Adjustable Shelves, Cycle Defrost and Medical Use Approved: White, Medical Unit, ADA Compliant
China Low Power Electric Air Cooling Fan, Find details about China Portable Water Air Cooler with Remote Control, Evaporator Water Cooler from Low Power Electric Air Cooling Fan - Ningbo Aucst Industrial Co., Limited
As discussed in chapter 3.4, compressor performance depends on the evaporating and condensing pressures. The saturation pressure of the evaporator determines the density of the refrigerant gas at the inlet of the compressor, thus affecting the refrigerant mass flow per compressor revolution. The total pressure difference between the evaporating and condensing sides also affects the required compressor power consumption.. The evaporator and condenser affect these pressure levels though their ability to transfer energy between the refrigerant and the secondary fluids. The evaporator operating point is the equilibrium point at which the performance of the evaporator matches the performance of the compressor. The refrigerant mass flow is determined by the compressor, and at the operating point the refrigerant is evaporated at a stable saturation temperature.. The compressor curve in Figure 6.24 has a positive slope, indicating that the available cooling capacity increases with higher evaporation ...
China 100% Pure Natural Sex Medicine Maca Extraction Machine, Find details about China Solvent Herbal Evaporator, Extract Equipment from 100% Pure Natural Sex Medicine Maca Extraction Machine - Shanghai Better Industry Co., Ltd.
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Organomations high temperature dry block MULTIVAP (http://bit.ly/2m2P5e0) products are an ideal choice for laboratories needing to gently and efficiently concentrate large batches of identical samples for a wide array of applications. The 100 position MULTIVAP comes with a heated aluminum dry block, which provides reliable uniform heat up to 120 degrees Celsius. Easily select the precise temperature needed for your procedure and the digital controller automatically maintains your chosen set point, ensuring consistent heating to delicate samples. The built-in timer allows the user to easily shut off the heat and nitrogen gas once the evaporation is complete. Nitrogen gas is delivered to samples through individual stainless steel needles connected to the hand built gas distribution manifold. The gas is controlled with the internally installed pressure reducing gas regulator and adjustable flow meter. When the user is operating the instrument with less than a full load, they can save valuable ...
Hamilton Sundstrand has developed a scalable evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It was designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. The MFE would be used from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. This system combines the functions of the Space Shuttle flash evaporator and ammonia boiler into a single compact package with improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing surface area to keep the back pressure low. The multiple layer construction of the core allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate. A full-scale unit uses multiple core sections that, combined with a novel control scheme, manage the risk of freezing the heat exchanger cores. A four-core MFE prototype was built in 2007 ...
How about Carbeurator jets? You could either go large with a set from "Holley" or go small with mikuni 2-Stroke carbs? Use an electric fuel pump for injected engines (high Pressure) and run the BD through steel or braided stainless fuel line. Try http://www.Jegs.com or http://www.Summitracing.com for all kinds of fuel pump jet/nozzle accessories. We are pumping fuel here so instead of modifying items that are not designed to do what you want, just get the items that have millions of dollars in engineering already done to produce your desired results. I am not trying to be a weiner here, but as I started reading this thread that is the first thing that came to mind. If you need smaller diameters than fuel jetting provides, take a look at some torch tips for Ox/acetylene torches. hell most even come with tip-cleaners, the are already threaded in NPT so there leak proof. Maybe even look into "NOS Systems" they are a Nitrous oxide kit company they have almost anything you could ever want for this ...
View Website ». The Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) is focused on developing tools and processes to enable high-rate/high-volume bottom-up, precise assembly of nanoelements (such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles) and polymer nanostructures.. ...
Our Central A/C has been blowing warm air for about the past week or so. I have tested with a new thermostat, completely cleaned the outside unit, cleaned the evaporator coils/fins, and tested continuity and voltage on the wiring harnesses. All components appear to be running properly, although I have very little knowledge of A/C systems. I finally decided to fork out the cash for a service call and the technician came to the conclusion that the Expansion Valve was stuck in the closed
Figure 6: SEM images of beads dried during: (a) room temperature process (batch 8); (b) oven process (batch 11); (c) rotary evaporator process (batch 4 ...
Originally I was more sanguine about the film than about Expelled, because Ben Steins film is a clear piece of propaganda with the clear ideological aim of undermining the audiences confidence in evolution and making the case for allowing the teaching of ID in classrooms. It is at first blush much harder to find a clear ideological message, or aim, in House of Numbers. During the discussion I asked Brent several times what he was trying to achieve with the film - what his aim was. His platitudes about informed consent and trying to help the search for a system of testing that makes no mistakes at all sounded naive and unconvincing. But (and I still think this for now) whether it is because the film is not actually very well put together, or because it really wasnt made, at least initially, strictly as propaganda, I still think it poses questions that encourage the audience to think and seek out more information. If they do that, as I have done, they quite quickly find plenty of evidence to ...
China Stainless Steel Vacuum Juce Concentrator Evaporator, Find details about China Juce Concentrator Evaporator, Juce Concentrator from Stainless Steel Vacuum Juce Concentrator Evaporator - Wenzhou Kosun Fluid Equipment Co., Ltd.
A first evaporator evaporates refrigerant, which is outputted from an ejector. A refrigerant outlet of the first evaporator is connected to a suction inlet of a compressor, which is connected to a radiator. A branched passage branches a flow of the refrigerant at a corresponding branching point located between the radiator and the ejector. The branched passage conducts the branched flow of the refrigerant to a suction inlet of the ejector. A flow rate control valve is arranged in the branched passage between a radiator and an ejector on a downstream side of the radiator to depressurize refrigerant outputted from the radiator. A second evaporator is arranged in the first branched passage.
After strontium/transuranics removal by precipitation followed by cesium/technetium removal by ion exchange, remaining low activity waste in the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to be concentrated by evaporation prior to being mixed with glass formers and vitrified. To provide a technical basis to permit the waste treatment facility, a relatively organic-rich Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 waste simulant was spiked with 14 target volatile, semi-volatile and pesticide compounds, and evaporated under vacuum in a bench-scale natural circulation evaporator fitted with an industrial stack off-gas sampler at the Savannah River Technology Center. An evaporator material balance for the target organics was calculated by combining liquid stream mass and analytical data with off-gas emissions estimates obtained using EPA SW-846 Methods.
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China Easy Operation Solvent Herb Extractor for Tea, Find details about China Solvent Herbal Evaporator, Extract Equipment from Easy Operation Solvent Herb Extractor for Tea - Shanghai Better Industry Co., Ltd.
A settlement has been reached between plaintiffs and Lennox Industries in a class action lawsuit over defective evaporator coils. Look inside for more info.
It takes approximately 40 liters (10 gal) of sap to be boiled down to 1 liter (1 quart) of syrup. A mature sugar maple produces about 40 liters of sap during the 4-6 week sugaring season. Trees are not tapped until they have a diameter of 25 cm (10 in) at chest-height and the tree is at least 40 years old. If the tree is more than 45 cm it can be tapped twice on opposite sides. It is recommended that the drilled tap hole have a width of 8 mm (⅓ in) and a depth of 25 to 40 mm (1.0 to 1.6 in). During cooking, the sap is fed automatically by pipe from a storage tank to a long and narrow ridged pan called the evaporator. The evaporator is usually divided into two sections, the front pan and the back pan. As the sap boils, the water evaporates; it becomes denser and sweeter. As the density of the sap increases, it works its way from the rear of the back evaporator pan to the front evaporator pan. The syrup is boiled until it reaches the correct density of maple syrup, 1333 kg/m3.[citation needed] ...
The Büchi R-300 rotary evaporator meets the highest expectations in convenience and versatility. Its modular design allows extensions of the R-300 to a fully integrated system in which a central interface regulates each component. It replaces the former Büchi R-210 model. With the I-300 or I-300 Pro interface the R-300 replaces the former R-215. The R-300 Rotavapor can be purchased with either a V-type Vertical Condenser, a C-type Dry-Ice Condenser, an A-type Diagonal Condenser or an S-type Vertical Reflux Condenser. The V-type or vertical condenser is the most common for standard applications and has a surface area of 1460 cm2. The C-type or Dry-Ice Condenser is ideally suited for the distillation of solvents with low boiling points and has a surface area of 500 cm2. The R-300 is available with a choice of two heating baths for exacting applications. The B-301 is a classical water bath that quickly goes up to 95ºC (4 minutes to reach 50ºC) and accommodates up to a 1 liter evaporation flask
Auto-defrost, automatic defrost or self-defrosting is a technique which regularly defrosts the evaporator in a refrigerator or freezer. Appliances using this technique are often called frost free, frostless or no-frost. The defrost mechanism in a refrigerator heats the cooling element (evaporator coil) for a short period of time and melts the frost that has formed on it. The resulting water drains through a duct at the back of the unit. Defrosting is controlled by an electric or electronic timer: For every 6, 8, 10, 12 or 24 hours of compressor operation it turns on a defrost heater for 15 minutes to half an hour. The defrost heater, having a typical power rating of 350 W to 600 W, is mounted just below the evaporator in top- and bottom-freezer models and below and sometimes also in the middle of the evaporator in side-by-side models. It may be protected from short circuits by means of fusible links. In older refrigerators the timer ran continuously. In newer designs the timer only runs while ...
Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an environmentally hazardous, corrosive, and toxic gas, mostly generated in gas and oil industry. For small-scale natural gas processing sites (less than 10 tonne S/day), the use of regenerable iron oxide adsorbent to adsorb H2S from natural gas is still an economical and effective method. The objective of this research project was to understand the performance of an iron oxide adsorbent, recently emerging in the Canadian market, in removing H2S from gas streams. To accomplish this, the breakthrough behaviors of H2S adsorption in a fixed-bed reactor under elevated pressures were studied. The effects of variations in superficial velocity from 0.09 m/s to 0.26 m/s, operating pressure from 4 to 50 atm absolute, and the height of the fixed-bed from 11.7 cm to 24.5 cm on breakthrough curves and sulfur loading were investigated. In all the experiments, the H2S concentration profiles of the exiting gas from the reactor were measured until the bed was saturated. It was ...
Recently interest has been increasing in these cycles because of their potential use as part of energy-saving plants and also because they use more environmentally friendly refrigerants than vapor-compression cycles. A basic vapor-absorption system is shown schematically in Figure 6. The condenser, throttling valve and evaporator are essentially the same as in the vapor compression system (Figure 3). The major difference is the replacement of the compressor with an absorber, a generator, and a solution pump. A second throttling valve is also used to maintain the pressure difference between the absorber (at the evaporator pressure) and the generator (at the condenser pressure).. The refrigerant on leaving the evaporator is absorbed in a low-temperature absorbing medium, some heat, QA, being rejected in the process. The refrigerant-absorbent solution is then pumped to the higher pressure and is heated in the generator, QG. Refrigerants vapor then separates from the solution due to the high ...
An anaerobic bioreactor allows the efficient degradation of HCH isomers in soil slurry.: The insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH or lindane), whi
A loop thermosyphon system has a semiconductor die with a plurality of microchannels. A condenser is in fluid communication with the microchannels. A wicking structure wicks fluid between the condenser to the semiconductor die.
Organomations S-EVAP instruments are designed for easy solvent removal of up to 10 samples through a distillation process. The solvent can be evaporated into a fume hood or collected in an individual or central collection system.
The conventional A/C cycle develops high pressure refrigerant that is throttled (via a small opening) to low pressure and temperature for cooling an evaporators airflow. This paper explores the conceptual and practical development of deriving useful work from that pressure potential by replacing the throttling device with an expander/motor. One key technical challenge is to maintain a large pressure drop across the expander/motor. This translates into a strict control requirement of the location of the refrigerant flows phase change within the motor. The cycles COP benefits from recovered work and the evaporators refrigerant energy content reduction while delivering conventional cooling performance ...
I am a semi-retired Virtual Assistant. I do transcription work when I am not writing mysteries and documenting my family history. I am a member of the Genealogy Club of Newtown, CT, Fredericksburg Regional Genealogical Society, Manatee (FL) Genealogical Society, Anna Maria (FL) Historical Society, Ulysses (NY) Historical Society, and Historic Fredericksburg Foundation, Inc. I am a member of the Central Virginia Chapter of Sisters in Crime, Old Town Sleuths, and the CRRL Inklings Writing Group ...
... ,The TurboVap Concentration Workstations from Caliper provide an automated alternative to Kuderna-Danish, Rotary, Vacuum-Style and Nitrogen Blow-Down Evaporators. For over ten years TurboVap concentration technology has received enormous acclaim with over 4,000 units in use around the world today.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
The most important thing about assembling the fireplace is that it has to be the exact right width to support whatever evaporator you own. The vent is on the side of her house and comes out the side wall about 20 feet up. The efficiency of stove combustion is therefore increased and provides significant savings on heating costs for the much does gas fireplace insert cost Theres no doubt that a nip of scotch and a crackling fireplace are a match made in heaven, and thats exactly what awaits you at this suave whisky bar.
Most of these tests, particularly repellent tests and the evaluation of attractants, are performed by our partner, Biogents AG. Evaluation of evaporators or aerosols are conducted in our own facilities at Insect Services.. ...
... ,The TurboVap Concentration Workstations from Caliper provide an automated alternative to Kuderna-Danish, Rotary, Vacuum-Style and Nitrogen Blow-Down Evaporators. For over ten years TurboVap concentration technology has received enormous acclaim with over 4,000 units in use around the world today.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Bob, I compiled some information on this for one of the folks in our region who was looking into zero discharge. Some of the information that I found may be useful; Ive included it below. One other cavet: much of the information listed is more process-specific, but still may be helpful. Good luck. cmd ---------- Articles * Fosberg, Ted. "Using Evaporators to Achieve Zero Effluent at a BCTMP Pulp Mill." Seattle, WA: Resources Conservation Company; 1993 Aug. * Beroiz, Denny. "Zero Discharge Goal Setting: Does It Work?" Pico Rivera, CA: Northrop; 1991 conference. * Hennepin Paper Company. "Zero Discharge Program at an Uncoated Groundwood Paper Mill." St. Paul, MN: Hennepin Paper Company; 1993 Jun 11. * "Zero Discharge Wire Pickling Through Evaporative Recovery." Vendor information. * Spencer, Gary & Greg, Jim Miille, Greg White, and Pat Bennett. "Zero Water Discharge in the Metal Plating Industry using an Improved Ion Exchange Process." Sacramento, CA: California EPA, Department of Toxic ...
Understanding the evaporator, condenser, compressor, and other components in your reach-in refrigerator can help you take better care of the equipment.
According to the creatives, the reason is that the development of the new game of the series began in 2014 and at that time nothing was known about Switch, which is why they focused on the consoles with more power at the time, PS4 and Xbox One.. Monster Hunter: World is slated to hit Xbox One and PlayStation 4 on January 26, ahead of a PC release expected later this year. If you pick him up and take him around, something good may happen.Mascot character Poogie added to Research Commission HQ. As well as Poogie, the patch also incorporates Event Quests and in-game chat for multiplayer mode, alongside content in your room and a Gallery Mode to rewatch previous cut-scenes. So [the decision was made] before the Switch was even announced or on sale. We dont just look at everything. But well also have a new collaborative dungeon that pits you against Nergigante.. blockquote{ background-color: transparent; border-top: 3px double black; border-bottom: 3px double black; padding: 5px; font-style: ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: New Projects for Epi4K Genetics and Genomics of Human Epilepsies Center without Walls (U01) RFA-NS-13-005. NINDS
Examination of food chain-derived Listeria monocytogenes strains of different serotypes reveals considerable diversity in inlA genotypes, mutability, and adaptation to cold temperatures.
0034] In this configuration, liquid CO2 from liquid CO2 source 23 is vaporized by vaporizer 24, and thus, even when the liquid CO2 contains moisture or organic matter, the moisture or organic matter is adsorbed and removed by adsorption device 27. Furthermore, adsorption device 27 may generate particles resulting from the adsorbent. However, the particles generated by adsorption device 27 are removed by filter 25 along with particles derived from liquid CO2 source 23, and particles having failed to be removed by filter 25 are removed by evaporator 16 and filter 17. Thus, moisture, organic matter, and particles are prevented from being fed to point-of-use 30. For example, refractory particles or particles which have a low vapor pressure and which are thus likely to be dispersed or dissolved into liquid CO2 are shifted to the liquid phase side in evaporator 16 and thus removed from the CO2 given that the evaporator has a gas-liquid separation function. The particles having shifted to the liquid ...
Continuous anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) for wastewater treatment with low solids and low applied organic loading content
Among alternative refrigerants, ammonia with zero Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP), and favorable thermodynamic properties is a sensible choice as a replacement for the synthetic refrigerants, which are powerful greenhouse gases.. In this paper, the results of experiments done on a new ammonia water-to-water heat pump prototype at different evaporation temperatures and compressor speeds are reported. The heat pump is designed to deliver 7 kW heat at evaporation temperature of -5°C and condensation temperature of 40°C. The hot discharge gas from compressor is utilized to provide sanitary hot water, and the rest of the heat is used for preheating the tap water and space heating of a single-family house. The compact design of the heat pump helps reducing the refrigerant charge. To reduce the charge further and to prevent oil accumulation at the bottom of evaporator, a minichannel aluminum heat exchanger is used as evaporator.. ...
Solar steam generation holds great promise for a broad range of important industrial processes including power generation, seawater desalination and wastewater treatment. As natural sunlight is too weak, solar steam generation usually requires pricey optical concentrators. Meanwhile, photo-thermal materials which can convert sunlight into heat are introduced to facilitate evaporation. Nevertheless, bulk water heating still has low efficiency because much heat is consumed to heat bulk water or is lost to the atmosphere.1,2 Recently, it has been recognized that confining the photo-thermal material generated heat at the air-water interface using a self-floating evaporator is an effective solution to this problem. Substantial progress has been made in the past 3 years by building efficient evaporators with plasmonic absorbers and carbon materials.3-16 For example, using airlaid paper as the substrate for assembled gold nanoparticles, an efficiency of 77.8% at 6 sun illumination was obtained.9 ...
using this info it is possible to guesstimate the flow for any given size orifice. There are a couple "rules of thumb" here that sort of cancel each other out. -- the oil burner gal/hour rating is based on 100 pounds pressure, I want to use 150 pounds pressure. The flow is doubled only if you apply 4 times the pressure. - SO- First rule of thumb - If you run an oil burner at 150 pounds you need to increase the gallon/hour rating by 20% to give you the rating at 150 pounds. -- unfortunatly there is another rule concerning the thickness of the metal plate that the orifice hole is placed in that says if the metal is thin the orifice will flow 1/4 to 1/3 more than if the same sized orifice hole is placed in a thick metal plate. -- The LP nozzles use a thick orifice plate but the oil burner nozzles use a thin orifice plate. -- -so- now we have to SUBTRACT 20%-30% of the flow we calculated for an oil burner nozzle with 150 pounds pressure to get the actual flow through a LP nozzle that has the same ...
An analytical investigation was conducted to examine and predict the capillary dryout and rewetting behaviors occurring at the evaporator section of room-temperature heat pipes during startup. The physical model is based on the displacement of a leading-edge front of a thin liquid layer flowing on finite groove uniformly heated with a constant heat flux. Numerical solutions were obtained by a fully implicit Finite Difference Method, accounting for the movement of the liquid and a known time-variable temperature boundary condition at the liquid front. The velocity and position of the liquid front were found to vary with the applied heat flux, the initial conditions, and the thermophysical properties of the working fluid. The wall temperature distribution in the dried region was also predicted. The working fluid temperature compared well with experimental results. The analysis indicated that a partial or full dryout at the evaporator section may exist for certain heat fluxes.. Copyright © 2005 by ...
LIQUID MATERIAL VAPORIZER AND FILM DEPOSITION APPARATUS USING THE SAME - The present invention is a liquid material vaporizer comprising a liquid-material supply part configured to make a liquid material into a droplet state and to discharge the same, and a vaporizing part configured to vaporize the liquid material in a droplet state so as to generate a source gas, the vaporizing part including: an inlet port to which the liquid material in a droplet state is introduced from the liquid-material supply part; a housing body of a bottomed tubular shape, the housing body having an opening end on a side of the inlet port; a columnar block having a flange for closing the opening end of the housing body, the columnar block being fitted in the housing body in such a manner that a gap serving as a vaporizing path is defined between the columnar block and an inside surface of the housing body; a breathable mist trap member disposed in the vaporizing path formed between the inside surface of the housing ...
There are no specific diagnostic markers for functional dyspepsia. As with many other conditions, a thorough and detailed history taken by a physician is the most important component of the assessment and often leads to the correct diagnosis. The history needs to include dietary, psychological, and social factors.. A history may disclose a relationship between symptoms and food, activity, or stressors. It is often helpful for the child and parents to maintain a symptom diary detailing the time, location, intensity and character of the pain or discomfort, time and content of the meals, daily activities, and stool pattern.. Considerable diversity of opinion remains among physicians regarding the extent of diagnostic tests to perform in a child who seems to have a symptom constellation pointing towards a functional cause of the dyspepsia.. The diagnostic procedure needs to be individualized, according to the information obtained during the history taking and the physical examination. An upper ...
There are no specific diagnostic markers for functional dyspepsia. As with many other conditions, a thorough and detailed history taken by a physician is the most important component of the assessment and often leads to the correct diagnosis. The history needs to include dietary, psychological, and social factors.. A history may disclose a relationship between symptoms and food, activity, or stressors. It is often helpful for the child and parents to maintain a symptom diary detailing the time, location, intensity and character of the pain or discomfort, time and content of the meals, daily activities, and stool pattern.. Considerable diversity of opinion remains among physicians regarding the extent of diagnostic tests to perform in a child who seems to have a symptom constellation pointing towards a functional cause of the dyspepsia.. The diagnostic procedure needs to be individualized, according to the information obtained during the history taking and the physical examination. An upper ...
This study made it possible to determine by the application of thermodynamics in finished time, the points of instruction necessary to the development of a regulation system for the rationalization of the power consumption in a cold store. These points were obtained by determining the optimal variations of temperature as well to the condenser and the evaporator corresponding to the minimum capacity absorptive by the compressor for a maximum COP.
FASTENERS BATTERY BOLT ACCESSORY STUD SUPER MS PAN COMBO NEW Overall Length 1 3 4 Diameter 5 16 Thread Pitch 18 Material Brass Long Side 1 1 4 Accessory Side 1 2 Hardware not included NUTS SQUARE ANSI ASME B18 2 2 UNC P N 320 01 14 320 01 516 320 01 38 320 01 716 320 01 12 320 01 58 320 01 34 Material Steel Plating Zinc A C SERVICE Part No 971 4696 6 Nissan O Ring 469 4901 91 Pieces GM Capillary Tube O Ring 469 4008 6 Hose Fitting O Ring 469 4011 Cross Section Cross Section 8 Hose Fitting O Ring 469 4013 Hitachi Suction Discharge Valve O Ring 469 2121 Height H 7 32 17 64 21 64 3 8 7 16 35 64 21 32 Measurement Inch Origin USA Thread Type Coarse Threads Per Inch 24 More sizes available see flyer or new catalog for complete list of sizes F A C EVAPORATOR CONDENSOR LEAK STOP W DYE Part No 528 1050 Cross Section 8 Nissan O Ring 469 4010 Cross Section 5 Hose Fitting Toyota Liquid Line O Ring 469 2102 Diesel Kiki Pressure Relief Valve O Ring 469 2122 Cross Section Nissan Liquid Line O Ring 469 4111 ...
MBRAUN provides services and solutions for clean environments by specializing in gloveboxes, evaporators, gas purifiers, solvent purifiers and deposition tools.
From cabin filter changes to major system repairs involving compressors and evaporators, we have the replacement A/C & heating parts for your 2002 Ford E-series.
Serbuk tumbuhan Jambu Keling (Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce.), HCl (p), NH4OH, Khloroform, Metanol, Pereaksi Maeyer, Pereaksi Dragendorf. Alat Corong Pisah, Rotary Evaporator, Khromatografi kolom, I.R, HNMR, CNMR 82 FTIR Isolasi Daun Jambu endapan. Pada daerah paling utama dari senyawa alkaloid munculnya bilangan gelombang 1635. Destruksi Bagian daun tumbuhan jambu Keling (Eugenia cumini (L. Pemisahan dan Pemurnian Ekstrak pekat khloroform (2 g) dikhromatografi kolom dengan fasa diam silika gel 60 sebanyak 60 gram dengan fasa gerak khloroform: metanol dengan menaikkan kepolaran bertingkat.25 cm-1 dengan puncak melebar menunjukkan adanya vibrasi O-H dengan puncak tajam menunjukkan vibrasi C=O pada bilangan gelombang 2959.47 cm-1 dengan puncak lemah menunjukkan serapan kharakteristik -NH3.18 - 1. Gambar 2.97 -2. 1H.) Druce) didestruksi basah dengan HCl dalam metanol sebesar 2M kemudian dinetralisasi dengan penambahan basa NH4OH dan terjadi padatan berupa Gambar 1. Fraksi yang keluar kolom ...
comfort systems efficiency and reduce your cooling costs. Here are five ways proven to help lower your cooling load: • Clean the filter for your air handler. Nothing lowers your cooling efficiency faster than a dirty air filter. Dust and debris in the filter slow the passage of air through the air handler, making components work harder and longer. When dirt collects on the evaporator coil, it doesnt cool as quickly, which can lead to frozen coils. When this happens, the compressor continues to run and if it gets too hot, it can break, causing a repair or replace- ment. • Inspect the outdoor unit. Remove any vegetation from the sides of the unit, and be sure that all four sides are clear and nothing covers the top. The compressor blows heat away from your home, and when nothing obstructs it, it wont have to run as long, which will reduce cooling costs. • Check your ducts for leaks, even if your home is relatively new. If you have rooms that are too hot or cold, you might have problems ...
In this research project, a multifunctional catalytic reactor has been designed for producing green and renewable H2 from different types of feedstocks such as bio-derived ethanol and methane. The novel reactor system consists of gas manifold, liquid feedstock supplier, mixer and tubular fixed-bed reactor (the schematic diagram of reactor system is attached with this application). The gaseous reactants ...
Isolation and Characterization of a New Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1 from an Anaerobic Digester Using Pig Slurry - Methanogen;Anaerobic Digester;16S rRNA;mcrA;Methanobacterium formicicum;
An axial flow staged zone oligomerization reaction process includes the steps of passing a hydrocarbon feedstock into the lower portion of the axial flow staged zone reactor which includes axial circulation of the hydrocarbon reaction fluid serially in each of the reaction zones, passing catalyst through a constriction zone located between successive upper and lower catalytic reaction zones which includes heat exchanging of the fluids being the constriction zone within the reactor and further includes withdrawing the oligomerized product from the top of the reactor.
Standard Specifications and Optional Features Chromatography units designed for the application of most separation equipment. System designed to operate @ +4C. Exceeding U.S. efficiency guidelines provides maximum energy savings. Non-conductive epoxy coated wire shelves with ½ adjustable increments State of the art construction materials include high density, CFC free closed cell, expanded polyurethane injected foam insulation. Copeland R-134a semi hermetic condensing units. (top mount standard) Condensate evaporator pan. Port holes with seals allow the insertion of thermocouples without disturbing settings.. Product URL : http://www.tempurescientific.com/medical- ...
At the present time, there is considerable diversity in the dietary reference values and recommendations used across Europe, both in terms of terminology and guideline values. Harmonization of dietary
An air conditioner uses an evaporator coil to cool your home. This chilled coil collects water vapor from warm air as it passes over it. The water condenses and drips below into a drainage system.
4. After enough juice is collected to fill the first section of the evaporator pan it is strained to remove pieces of stalk that might have been left in the juice. It is poured into the first compartment of the evaporating pan. A fire is built under the pan using wood or sometimes more modernly gas. The pan is divided into compartments so that several batches can be cooked at one time facilitating a continuous cooking process. The juice must boil. While the first batch is cooking, more cane is being squeezed and juice collected. When enough for another batch is collected the first batch is moved into the second compartment and the second batch is poured into the first compartment. The process is repeated eventually filling all compartments in the pan. When the juice reaches the last compartment it must be watched carefully so that it is removed at just the right time. This is the part that takes practice and know-how. Remove it to soon and it will not be done. Wait to long and it will be thick ...
To show why we designed our evaporator as we did, I offer the following assumptions that are based upon tests completed at the Ohio State University and the extension department of Virginia Tech.. Fact #1: It is generally accepted that evaporation is affected by humidity, temperature and wind conditions. The greater the temperature, the less the humidity and the greater the wind conditions (which lengthen hang time), the greater the amount of evaporation. We have accepted these factors as truths.. Fact #2: The smaller the droplet size, the faster it will evaporate and the greater the potential there is for drift.. ...
1. Introduction. When new engines are developed, they will be expected to operate under severe conditions and demanding load profiles as studied by Kem and Abros (1997), thus, increasing the demand of effective engine cooling systems. The automotive industry is continuously involved in a strong competitive market to obtain the best automobile design in multiple aspects. Some of the aspect includes performance, low fuel consumption, aesthetics, safety,- cheaper and low maintenance.. According to Oliet et al., (2007), the air-cooled heat exchangers found in a vehicle radiator, Air-Conditioning (AC) condenser, evaporator and charge air cooler, has an important role in its weight and also in the design of its front-end module. In addition, it has a strong impact on the car aerodynamic behaviour. Looking at these challenges, the design process is optimized to obtain the optimum design.. The high working temperatures of the internal combustion engine which are the cause of its high efficiency are at ...
The Essick Air 1043 Humidifier Wick Filter Replacement is an evaporator filter wick that helps to keep the air in your home fresh and moist. Also known as part number 1043SS, this Essick wick filter replacement provides an AHAM certified output for your filter.
Harlows is still a family-run operation, four generations on now from when they opened over 80 years ago, and everyone is just as friendly now as they were when I first stumbled upon the place back in the 70s. They werent too busy at the time - probably because it was so early in the season - and everyone had plenty of time to chat and make us feel welcome. The two girls were invited in to see the evaporator running, and they stood in rapt wonder in an indoor cloud as the process was explained to them, culminating with a sip of still-warm syrup tapped right from the spigot at the end of the line. You can imagine how that made their day. The kids each got a serving of sugar on snow and sat on the floor of the showroom getting the maple candy stuck to their teeth and watching a video about syrup production while their mom and Maryanne and I poked around the sales area. I ended up buying a half gallon of first-of-the-season syrup and a bag of maple candies. (My grandmother passed away a few ...
View of PTAC unit removed from wall sleeve-room side is to right. Inset in upper left shows front view of unit in sleeve with cover removed. Supply fan draws unconditioned outdoor air (red arrows) into supply fan plenum. Fan also draws room return air (yellow arrows) through evaporator coil cooling room air (blue arrows). Unconditioned outside air mixes with conditioned room air and discharges to room (green arrows) through supply air louvers.. ...
BIGS EASY REFERENCE CUSTOMS TARIFF SEPTEMBER 2011 Direct and back geared miniature punch presses suitable for mounting on assembly tables; Multislide punching and amperes at voltage not exceeding 250Volts AC or DC; Resistors;potentiometers Capper / capping equipment & parts thereof; Carbonising / Resistors; Potentiometers; Capacitors; EMI metallising or combination machines; Machine for blending or pressing or spraying of resistive compositions or films; Vacuum coater ; evaporator; sputtering unit ; heat aided coater for depositing variousmetal / metal oxide/ photo resist films; Triple roll mills / ball mills;Machine for board cropping, piercing, tagging or a combination thereof;Machine for carbon track and terminal assembly; Automatic colourcoding machine with auto feeder; High precision pneumatic / hydraulicpress with variable steps and variable capacity suitable for mounting onassembly tables; Printer for thick films ; Screen washer; Resistorcoating machines ; Markers ; Vacublast apparatus ; ...
A CHP system includes a combustor (heat source), a Rankine cycle apparatus, and a second heat exchanger. The Rankine cycle apparatus includes, as an evaporator, a first heat exchanger that absorbs th
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective adsorption of vitamin E from palm fatty acid distillate on silica-packed fixed-bed columns. AU - Chu, Boon-Seang. AU - Baharin, Badlishah Sham. AU - Che Man, Yaakob B.. AU - Quek, Siew Young. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - Understanding the behavior of vitamin E adsorption during chromatographic separation was useful for a better control of the process. In this study, a pre-concentrated vitamin E fraction from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) was subjected to a normal phase silica-packed fixed-bed column for further purification. The effect of various operational parameters i.e. column bed height, vitamin E inlet concentration, column temperature and flow rate on column performance were detailed. It appeared that the breakthrough curves of all systems showed a typical S-shaped profile. The service time of the column increased when increasing the column bed height, or reducing the inlet concentration, column temperature and flow rate. It was found that column ...
The laboratory conditions under which synthetic uranyl silicates are made are almost identical to SRS evaporator conditions,with the exception of differences in sodium ion concentration. Synthetic uranyl silicates have been made only under low sodium ion concentration (less than 0.02 M), while attempts to synthesize uranyl silicates in this study in the presence of high sodium ion concentration (5.6 M), which are typical of SRS evaporators have proved unfruitful. In the presence of soluble silica and uranyl ion, uranyl silicates (sodium weeksite, sodium boltwoodite and uranophane) have been synthesized at moderately low to high pH in temperature ranges of 80-150 degrees C and at less than 0.02 M sodium ion ion concentration in the reaction mixtures. However, in the presence of high sodium ion concentration the main product distribution for the same soluble silica-uranium reaction mixture shifts towards the formation of clarkeite, a hydrated sodium uranate and not towards the formation of uranyl
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of particle size and temperature on gasification performance of coconut and palm kernel shells in downdraft fixed-bed reactor. AU - Yahaya, Ahmad Zubair. AU - Somalu, Mahendra Rao. AU - Muchtar, Andanastuti. AU - Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar. AU - Wan Daud, Wan Ramli. PY - 2019/5/15. Y1 - 2019/5/15. N2 - Gasification of coconut shell (CS) and palm kernel shell (PKS) is conducted in a batch type downdraft fixed-bed reactor to evaluate the effect of particle size (1-3 mm, 4-7 mm, and 8-11 mm) and temperature (700, 800, and 900 °C) on gas composition and gasification performance. The response surface methodology integrated variance-optimal design is used to identify the optimum condition for gasification. Gas composition, which is measured using the biomass particle size of 1-11 mm at 700-900 °C, are 8.20-14.6 vol% (H 2 ), 13.0-17.4 vol% (CO), 14.7-16.7 vol% (CO 2 ), and 2.82-4.23 vol% (CH 4 ) for CS and 7.01-13.3 vol% (H 2 ), 13.3-17.8 vol% (CO), 14.9-17.1 vol% (CO 2 ), and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Removal of sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine by carbon nanotubes in fixed-bed columns. AU - Tian, Yuan. AU - Gao, Bin. AU - Morales, Veronica L.. AU - Chen, Hao. AU - Wang, Yu. AU - Li, Hui. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulfapyridine (SPY), two representative sulfonamide antibiotics, have gained increasing attention because of the ecological risks these substances pose to plants, animals, and humans. This work systematically investigated the removal of SMX and SPY by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in fixed-bed columns under a broad range of conditions including: CNT incorporation method, solution pH, bed depth, adsorbent dosage, adsorbate initial concentration, and flow rate. Fixed-bed experiments showed that pH is a key factor that affects the adsorption capacity of antibiotics to CNTs. The Bed Depth Service Time model describes well the relationship between service time and bed depth and can be used to design appropriate column parameters. During ...
A refrigeration system and method for controlling defrost includes a refrigeration case, an evaporator disposed in the refrigeration case, and a condenser and compressor coupled in fluid communication with the evaporator. The condenser is disposed on the refrigeration case and the compressor is a pulse width modulated variable capacity compressor. The system also includes a controller responsive to a load sensor disposed in the refrigeration case and is coupled to the compressor for providing a variable duty cycle control signal to the compressor, wherein the compressor is modulated between a first capacity and a second capacity while operating to adjust the operating capacity of the refrigeration system. The system further includes a module for periodically defrosting the refrigeration system as a function of duty cycle.

Archaeal histone elisa and antibodyArchaeal histone elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Archaeal histone Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Archaeal histone A. Archaeal histone A ELISA Kit. Archaeal histone A Recombinant. Archaeal histone A Antibody. Also known as ... Archaeal histone A1. Archaeal histone A1 ELISA Kit. Archaeal histone A1 Recombinant. Archaeal histone A1 Antibody. Binds and ... Archaeal histone A2. Archaeal histone A2 ELISA Kit. Archaeal histone A2 Recombinant. Archaeal histone A2 Antibody. Binds and ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=archaeal-histone

Archaeal-type glutamate synthase elisa and antibodyArchaeal-type glutamate synthase elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Archaeal-type glutamate synthase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... Custom Antibody. Antibody Matched Pairs. Antibody Peptide Pairs. Phospho Antibodies. Products by Disease. Products by Pathway. ... Archaeal-type glutamate synthase [NADPH] Recombinant. Archaeal-type glutamate synthase [NADPH] Antibody. Also known as Archaeal ... CD4 Antibody. • C Reactive Protein (CRP) Antibody. • HNF4A Antibody. • MEF2A Antibody. • Transthyretin (TTR) Recombinant ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=archaeal-type-glutamate-synthase

List of MeSH codes (D12.776) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776) - Wikipedia

... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.125 - ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.500 - htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.510 - htlv-ii ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776)

List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.124) - Wikipedia

... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 -- antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.107 -- ... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.107 -- antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.125 -- ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.179 -- antibodies, ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.179 -- antibodies, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.124)

Bacterial and Archaeal InclusionsBacterial and Archaeal Inclusions

b) Staining of acidocalcisomes with antibodies against a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase as detected by immunoelectron ... Bacterial and Archaeal Inclusions. Jessup M Shively, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA Gordon C Cannon, ... Bacterial and Archaeal Inclusions. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902. ...
more infohttp://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0000302.html

Anti-POLR2I antibody (ab180730) | AbcamAnti-POLR2I antibody (ab180730) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal POLR2I antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length ... Belongs to the archaeal rpoM/eukaryotic RPA12/RPB9/RPC11 RNA polymerase family.. Contains 1 TFIIS-type zinc finger. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-POLR2I antibody (ab180730) IHC-P, WB Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) IHC-P, WB, ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/polr2i-antibody-ab180730.html

POP4 Gene - GeneCards | RPP29 Protein | RPP29 AntibodyPOP4 Gene - GeneCards | RPP29 Protein | RPP29 Antibody

Belongs to the eukaryotic/archaeal RNase P protein component 1 family. Family:. * Belongs to the eukaryotic/archaeal RNase P ... antibodies-online: Search results for 20 available POP4 Antibodies ranked by validation data ... antibodies-online: Search results for 20 available POP4 Antibodies ranked by validation data ... antibodies-online: Search results for available POP4 related products ranked by validation data ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=POP4

POLR2K Gene - GeneCards | RPAB4 Protein | RPAB4 AntibodyPOLR2K Gene - GeneCards | RPAB4 Protein | RPAB4 Antibody

Belongs to the archaeal RpoP/eukaryotic RPC10 RNA polymerase subunit family. Family:. * Belongs to the archaeal RpoP/eukaryotic ... antibodies-online: Search results for 16 available POLR2K Antibodies ranked by validation data ... antibodies-online: Search results for 16 available POLR2K Antibodies ranked by validation data ... antibodies-online: Search results for available POLR2K related products ranked by validation data ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=5440

JCI -
The archaeal Dps nanocage targets kidney proximal tubules via glomerular filtrationJCI - The archaeal Dps nanocage targets kidney proximal tubules via glomerular filtration

Peptide and antibody ligands for renal targeting: nanomedicine strategies for kidney disease. Biomater Sci. 2017;5(8):1450-1459 ... An archaeal antioxidant: characterization of a Dps-like protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; ... The archaeal Dps nanocage targets kidney proximal tubules via glomerular filtration. Masaki Uchida,1 Bernhard Maier,2 Hitesh ... Here, we show that DNA-binding protein from starved cells (Dps) - the extremely small archaeal antioxidant nanocage - is able ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/127511

Anti-RNA polymerase II RPB11 antibody (ab180719) | AbcamAnti-RNA polymerase II RPB11 antibody (ab180719) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal RNA polymerase II RPB11 antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Immunogen ... Belongs to the archaeal rpoL/eukaryotic RPB11/RPC19 RNA polymerase subunit family. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and tissue imaging ... Anti-RNA polymerase II RPB11 antibody. See all RNA polymerase II RPB11 primary antibodies. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/rna-polymerase-ii-rpb11-antibody-ab180719.html

Identification and characterization of a heterotrimeric archaeal DNA polymerase holoenzyme.  - PubMed - NCBIIdentification and characterization of a heterotrimeric archaeal DNA polymerase holoenzyme. - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-sera used in each immunoprecipitation reaction are indicated on the top (Beads denotes no antibody added). Anti-sera ... Identification and characterization of a heterotrimeric archaeal DNA polymerase holoenzyme.. Yan J1, Beattie TR2, Rojas AL3, ... Since their initial characterization over 30 years ago, it has been believed that the archaeal B-family DNA polymerases are ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28462924

NWSHPQFEK Antibody, pAb, Rabbit Antibody - GenScriptNWSHPQFEK Antibody, pAb, Rabbit Antibody - GenScript

Well-characterized antibodies for epitope tags consisting of short sequences have been widely used in the study of protein ... Archaeal ubiquitin-like SAMP3 is isopeptide-linked to proteins by a UbaA-dependent mechanism.Mol Cell Proteomics.2013Otc;. ... Catalog Products » Antibodies » THE™ Elite Antibodies » THE™ HA-tag mAb » NWSHPQFEK Antibody, pAb, Rabbit ... This antibody recognizes NWSHPQFEK tagged fusion protein. Storage. The antibody is stable in lyophilized form if stored at -20° ...
more infohttps://www.genscript.com/antibody/A00626_40-NWSHPQFEK_Antibody_pAb_Rabbit.html

Production of Antibodies against Multipass Membrane Proteins Expressed in Human Tumor Cells Using Dendritic Cell ImmunizationProduction of Antibodies against Multipass Membrane Proteins Expressed in Human Tumor Cells Using Dendritic Cell Immunization

STEAP1 is largely lacking a cytoplasmic N-terminal tail homologous to bacterial and archaeal FNO oxidoreductase, different from ... m. (f) Anti-hSTEAP4 monoclonal antibody bound to hSTEAP4 proteins on cell surface. The antibody (4F2) was added to 293T cells ... To further characterize the antibody response, we determined IgG1/2a ratio of anti-HA antibody. The ratio of IgG1/2a represents ... T cells by DCs can exert helper functions to enhance efficient antibody production, production of high-affinity antibodies ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2009/673098/

Particle Assembly and Ultrastructural Features Associated with Replication of the Lytic Archaeal Virus Sulfolobus Turreted...Particle Assembly and Ultrastructural Features Associated with Replication of the Lytic Archaeal Virus Sulfolobus Turreted...

Subsamples of the culture were analyzed by immune dot blot detection with polyclonal antibodies against the MCP of STIV. ... Among archaeal viruses, there are some that lyse their host cells (5, 11, 16, 32, 35, 36, 38-40, 43, 50), but most of these ... Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res. 117:52-67. ... His1, an archaeal virus of the Fuselloviridae family that infects Haloarcula hispanica. J. Virol. 72:9392-9395. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/83/12/5964?ijkey=a7aae5c9490178d101ba65cf564a688fbacede1b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR SEQUENCING IN CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBODY BINDING BEHAVIOR - uBiome, Inc.METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR SEQUENCING IN CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBODY BINDING BEHAVIOR - uBiome, Inc.

A method and system for characterization of antibody-bound targets by sequencing of synthetic oligonucleotides bound to the ... antibodies, the method including: receiving a sample having a set of antibod ... the method 100 can enable simultaneous amplification of all bacterial and archaeal DNA present in a sample, in addition to the ... The set of antibodies can include one or more of: monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, naturally produced antibodies, ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2016/0362738.html

Frontiers | Prokaryotic Community Structure and Metabolisms in Shallow Subsurface of Atacama Desert Playas and Alluvial Fans...Frontiers | Prokaryotic Community Structure and Metabolisms in Shallow Subsurface of Atacama Desert Playas and Alluvial Fans...

Halophilic archaeal cells showed a high signal in D8 samples, while archaeal methanogens were only detected in the D6-SF sample ... The targets for the antibodies of this study are described in Sánchez-García et al. (2018). IgG fraction of each antibody was ... LDChip200 is an antibody microarray-based biosensor which contains about 200 polyclonal antibodies (purified IgG fraction) ... DNA sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA showed only OTUs belonging to Euryarchaeota (Haloarchaea, Methanobacteria, and ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01641/full

Ammonia oxidation coupled to CO2 fixation by archaea and bacteria in an agricultural soil | PNASAmmonia oxidation coupled to CO2 fixation by archaea and bacteria in an agricultural soil | PNAS

Analysis of Archaeal 16S rRNA and accA Transcripts and Archaeal amoA Genes and Transcripts from Light and Heavy Fractions of ... followed by detection with an anti-DIG antibody labeled with HRP and signal amplification by catalyzed reporter deposition with ... CARD-FISH of amoA mRNA and Archaeal 16S rRNA.. To generate controls for mRNA CARD-FISH, partial archaeal (positive control) and ... These results and the observed numerical importance of the archaeal ammonia oxidizers in the overall archaeal community in this ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/108/10/4170

Antibody | definition of Antibody by Medical dictionaryAntibody | definition of Antibody by Medical dictionary

Antibody explanation free. What is Antibody? Meaning of Antibody medical term. What does Antibody mean? ... Looking for online definition of Antibody in the Medical Dictionary? ... Antibodies, archaeal. *Antibodies, archaeal. *Antibodies, archaeal. *Antibodies, bacterial. *Antibodies, bacterial. *Antibodies ... Intrinsic factor antibody, Islet antibody, Isotypic control antibody, Ku antibody, LW antibody, Miniantibody, MOC-31 antibody, ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antibody

Antibodies, Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic | definition of Antibodies, Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic by Medical dictionaryAntibodies, Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic | definition of Antibodies, Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic by Medical dictionary

What is Antibodies, Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic? Meaning of Antibodies, Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic medical term. What does ... Looking for online definition of Antibodies, Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic in the Medical Dictionary? Antibodies, ... Antibodies, Antithyroglobulin, and Antithyroid Peroxidase. *Antibodies, archaeal. *Antibodies, archaeal. *Antibodies, archaeal ... Related tests include ALT, ALKP, antibodies anti-glomerular basement membrane, antibodies AMA/ASMA, antibodies ANA, AST, ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antibodies%2C+Antineutrophilic+Cytoplasmic

Category:Proteins - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Proteins - Wikimedia Commons

Antibodies‎ (13 К, 146 В). *. ► Antifreeze protein‎ (2 К, 7 В). *. ► Archaeal proteins‎ (5 В) ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Proteins?uselang=be

Antibodies | Article about antibodies by The Free DictionaryAntibodies | Article about antibodies by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about antibodies. protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence in the body of ... antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial... Explanation of antibodies ... Antibodies, Antithyroglobulin, and Antithyroid Peroxidase. *Antibodies, archaeal. *Antibodies, archaeal. *Antibodies, archaeal ... Related to antibodies: Monoclonal antibodies, thyroid antibodies. antibody,. protein produced by the immune system (see ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Antibodies

Shop Day One Trader: A Liffe StoryShop Day One Trader: A Liffe Story

infected antibodies are composed on a university-level and analytical technology of the 1st stocks of the Return or integrity ... Her Magister cargo sought the archaeal chains of the reproducible probable review of Sindelsdorf, experimentation of Weilheim- ... The protein was at the antibodies of the Roman Molecular machinery in Sanisera, Menorca for different graphics. cultural ... and its development and antibody on natural Potsherds and the cover in record. This is the run of a RSC of efficient transgenic ...
more infohttp://www.private-art.com/archive/pix/pdf.php?q=shop-Day-One-Trader%3A-A-Liffe-Story.html

IgG antibodies activate blood platelets and contribute to the severity of anaphylaxis - News from the Institut PasteurIgG antibodies activate blood platelets and contribute to the severity of anaphylaxis - News from the Institut Pasteur

IgG antibodies activate blood platelets and contribute to the severity of anaphylaxis - Find all the Institut Pasteur news and ... Shedding light on almost indestructible archaeal pili. *Shedding light on the burden of dengue in Bangladesh ... The production of antibodies against this antigen (or allergen) allows the formation of antibody-antigen complexes that trigger ... Anaphylactic shock: IgG antibodies and neutrophils play an unexpected role. *Anne Dejean-Assémat receives the Sjöberg Prize ...
more infohttps://www.pasteur.fr/en/research-journal/news/igg-antibodies-activate-blood-platelets-and-contribute-severity-anaphylaxis

Antibodies - MeSH - NCBIAntibodies - MeSH - NCBI

ArchaealAntibodies, BacterialAntistreptolysinAntibodies, BispecificAntibodies, BlockingAntibodies, CatalyticAntibodies, Fungal ... ArchaealAntibodies, BacterialAntistreptolysinAntibodies, BispecificAntibodies, BlockingAntibodies, CatalyticAntibodies, Fungal ... ArchaealAntibodies, BacterialAntistreptolysinAntibodies, BispecificAntibodies, BlockingAntibodies, CatalyticAntibodies, Fungal ... NeoplasmAntibodies, NeutralizingAntibodies, Phospho-SpecificAntibodies, ProtozoanAntibodies, ViralDeltaretrovirus Antibodies + ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=%22Antibodies%22%5BMeSH+Terms%5D

GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Characterization of a dUTPase from the hyperthermophilic...GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Characterization of a dUTPase from the hyperthermophilic...

Find the right antibody for your research needs. Characterization of a dUTPase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus ... antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. ... This enzyme also improved the PCR efficiency of other archaeal family B type DNA polymerases, including Pfu and KOD.. Authors ... Antibodies Cells Cloning Elisa Kits microRNA Analysis Multiplex Cytokine Assays PCR Peptides Proteins Transfection Viral ...
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  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein conjugating each of the set of antibodies with the synthetic oligonucleotide includes conjugating each of the set of antibodies with a synthetic oligonucleotide having at least a 16S V4-like region, and wherein the method further includes simultaneously amplifying all bacterial and archaeal DNA present in a sample, in addition to the synthetic oligonucleotides, with 16S-compatible primers, prior to sequencing. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • An epitope of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), which is found in organisms in both the bacterial and archaeal domains, was recently defined by mAb 900. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These data provide evidence that the highly conserved epitope recognized by mAb 900 in the bacterial and archaeal domains is located at the very end of the N terminus of the EF-Tu molecule. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • anaphylactic antibody a substance formed as a result of the first injection of a foreign anaphylactogen and responsible for the anaphylactic symptoms following the second injection of the same anaphylactogen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While it was already known that IgE antibodies can trigger these allergic reactions, scientists from the Institut Pasteur, Inserm, the CNRS and EFS Grand Est recently demonstrated that IgG antibodies play an active role in the severity of anaphylactic shock by unexpectedly activating blood platelets. (pasteur.fr)
  • In this study, scientists from the Antibodies in Therapy and Pathology Unit (Institut Pasteur/Inserm U1222) revealed that platelets, whose best-known function is to stop bleeding when a blood vessel becomes damaged, play a key role in IgG-dependent anaphylactic reactions. (pasteur.fr)
  • Injecting these mice with human IgG antibodies triggered an anaphylactic reaction, characterized by a drop in body temperature and leading to a significant reduction in the circulating platelet count that lasted for several hours after the shock, suggesting that platelets might play a role in the allergic reaction. (pasteur.fr)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • In this review, we summarize recent developments in all these useful genetic tools and discuss their possible application to research into archaeal biology by means of Sulfolobus models. (dragview.info)
  • However, the primer pairs conventionally used in microbiome studies underestimate the number of archaeal species found, and completely disregard nonprokaryote microbiome members. (asm.org)
  • No archaeal species has yet been found that causes human disease, and the study here made no associations between archaeal species and disease in people. (asm.org)
  • However, "methanogens are considered as keystone species in complex microbiomes," says Moissl-Eichinger, so some archaeal species "could be involved in bacteria-driven pathogenic processes. (asm.org)
  • doing so would require more work to correlate disease patterns with the presence and/or abundance of archaeal species, similar to those bacteria-based microbiome studies have found. (asm.org)
  • Well-characterized antibodies for epitope tags consisting of short sequences have been widely used in the study of protein expression in various systems. (genscript.com)
  • Although we have genome sequences for most of the crenarchaeal viruses isolated, we have only a rudimentary understanding of archaeal virus assembly and release from cells. (asm.org)
  • and generating an analysis of the sample from the sequences determined from at least one of the first and the second subsets of oligonucleotide-conjugated antibodies. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Conventional primer pairs are more likely to amplify bacterial sequences than archaeal sequences. (asm.org)
  • Investigating the archaeal population separately from the bacterial population revealed a large number of archaeal sequences in different parts of the human microbiome (see figure, right). (asm.org)
  • In addition to obtaining unidentified archaeal reads from lung samples, the sequences also identified archaeal types previously not known to grow on the human body. (asm.org)
  • DNA-SIP of grassland soil revealed autotrophic ammonia oxidation of archaea ( 19 ), but exactly which groups of archaeal ammonia oxidizers contributed to this process remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, antibodies, regardless of disposition or origin, have been shown to catalyze the oxidation of water, equipping the antibody with a mechanism for antigen decomposition. (schoolbag.info)
  • Most of the information about cell lysis is based on observations of a decrease in optical density (OD) in an infected culture, plaque assays, or plate growth inhibition assays, but little is known about the actual mechanism of archaeal lysis. (asm.org)
  • The appropriate concentrations may be affected by secondary antibody affinity, antigen concentration, the sensitivity of the method of detection, temperature, the length of the incubations, and other factors. (genscript.com)
  • Catalytic antibodies offer unique capabilities in a range of scenarios, including stereoselective organic synthesis, therapeutic potential in the treatment of disease, the elimination of toxins, the attenuation of agents used in chemical and biological warfare, and cessation of abused and/or addictive drugs. (schoolbag.info)
  • To study the role of platelets in anaphylaxis, the scientists used transgenic mice expressing human receptors for IgG antibodies, since mice do not have these receptors on their platelets. (pasteur.fr)
  • Antibody mediated therapeutic strategies against human malignant tumors have been widely authorized and clinically applied to cancer patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Combining computer and hands-on experiments allowed the scientific team to identify the best tools to characterize the archaeal diversity found in different niches throughout the human body. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the analysis of labeled RNA found transcripts of the archaeal acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase ( accA / pccB ) to be expressed and labeled. (pnas.org)
  • Archaeal genes encoding subunit A of ammonia monooxygenase ( amoA ) have been found to occur in a wide variety of environments including marine systems, hot springs, and soils ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this article, a broad overview of antibody catalysis is presented, including modern methods for eliciting catalytic antibodies, the evolution of hapten design, and advances in antibody catalysis. (schoolbag.info)
  • Reconstitute the lyophilized powder with deionized water (or equivalent) to antibody concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. (genscript.com)
  • however, in the case of catalytic antibodies, the reverse is the case-eliciting catalytic antibodies through biological means provides catalysts for a chemical end. (schoolbag.info)