Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The small subunit of archaeal RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 28 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA, comprising thermophilic organisms from terrestrial hot springs that are among the most primitive of all life forms. They have undergone comparatively little evolutionary change since the last common ancestor of all extant life.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Group II chaperonins found in species of ARCHAEA.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A genus of rod-shaped, almost rectangular ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. Organisms are facultatively aerobic or strictly anaerobic, grow on various organic substrates, and are found in continental solfataras.
An order of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. The single family Archaeoglobaceae contains one genus ARCHAEOGLOBUS.

Quantitative immunologic analysis of the methanogenic flora of digestors reveals a considerable diversity. (1/5)

To determine which methanogens occur in digestors, we performed a quantitative immunologic analysis of a variety of samples. A comprehensive panel of calibrated polyclonal antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra was used. This allowed precise identification of bacteria by antigenic fingerprinting. A considerable diversity of methanogens was uncovered, much larger than previously reported, encompassing at least 14 strains of 11 species. Strategies were developed to measure the load of any given methanogen in a sample and to compare samples quantitatively. Two methanogens were found to predominate which were antigenically closely related with either Methanobacterium formicicum MF or Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ. Fundamental data, probes, and methods are now available to monitor methanogenic subpopulations during digestor operation and thus learn about their respective roles and predictive significance.  (+info)

Direct characterization of methanogens in two high-rate anaerobic biological reactors. (2/5)

The methanogenic flora from two types of turbulent, high-rate reactors was studied by immunologic methods as well as by phase-contrast, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. The reactors were a fluidized sand-bed biofilm ANITRON reactor and an ultrafiltration membrane-associated suspended growth MARS reactor (both trademarks of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, Pa.). Conventional microscopic methods revealed complex mixtures of microbes of a range of sizes and shapes, among which morphotypes resembling Methanothrix spp. and Methanosarcina spp. were noticed. Precise identification of these and other methanogens was accomplished by antigenic fingerprinting with a comprehensive panel of calibrated antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra. The methanogens identified showed morphotypes and antigenic fingerprints indicating their close similarity with the following reference organisms: Methanobacterium formicicum MF and Methanosarcina barkeri W in the ANITRON reactor only; Methanosarcina barkeri R1M3, M. mazei S6, Methanogenium cariaci JR1, and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ in the MARS reactor only; and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI and Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon in both reactors. Species diversity and distribution appeared to be, at least in part, dependent on the degree of turbulence inside the reactor.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from landfills. (3/5)

Methanogenic bacteria were isolated from landfill sites in the United Kingdom. Strains of Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri, several different immunotypes of Methanobacterium bryantii, and a coccoid methanogen distinct from the reference immunotypes were identified.  (+info)

Shifts in methanogenic subpopulations measured with antibody probes in a fixed-bed loop anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate. (4/5)

A fixed-bed loop, high-rate anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate was sampled when it reached steady state and afterwards following perturbations during a 14-month period. By using immunotechnology, it was observed that shifts in methanogenic subpopulations occurred in association with perturbations, such as restarting and relocating the biomass into a different tank. Methanogens related to Methanobacterium bryantii MoHG and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI were numerous throughout the observation period, while Methanosarcina mazei S6 and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 were found in the early and late samples, respectively. Also, Methanobacterium formicicum was more numerous at the top portion of the bioreactor, while Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and DC were at the bottom. Sample formalinization required for prolonged storage proved suitable for antigen preservation.  (+info)

Diversity and population dynamics of methanogenic bacteria in a granular consortium. (5/5)

Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor granules were used as an experimental model microbial consortium to study the dynamics and distribution of methanogens. Immunologic methods revealed a considerable diversity of methanogens that was greater in mesophilic granules than in the same granules 4 months after a temperature shift from 38 to 55 degrees C. During this period, the sizes of the methanogenic subpopulations changed with distinctive profiles after the initial reduction caused by the shift. Methanogens antigenically related to Methanobrevibacter smithii PS and ALI, Methanobacterium hungatei JF1, and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 increased rapidly, reached a short plateau, and then fell to lower concentrations that persisted for the duration of the experiment. A methanogen related to Methanogenium cariaci JR1 followed a similar profile at the beginning, but it soon diminished below detection levels. Methanothrix rods weakly related to the strain Opfikon increased rapidly, reaching a high-level, long-lasting plateau. Two methanogens related to Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH emerged from very low levels before the temperature shift and multiplied to attain their highest numbers 4 months after the shift. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed thick layers, globular clusters, and lawns of variable density which were distinctive of the methanogens related to M. thermoautotrophicum DeltaH, M. thermophila TM1, and M. arboriphilus AZ and M. soehngenii Opfikon, respectively, in thin sections of granules grown at 55 degrees C for 4 months. Mesophilic granules showed a different pattern of methanogenic subpopulations.  (+info)

Treatment of sulfite evaporator condensates for recovery of volatile components. Assay of condensate samples from supporting mills. Project 3100, report one : a progress report to members of Group Project 3100. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Eloquent exploration of Global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Market 2019 including competitive, segmentation, forecast, and regional analysis.. The Global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Report enlists several considerable facets in the global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators industry that holds the potential to fuel growth or declines in the market. The report enfolds valuable analysis of significant factors such as market size, share, sales volume, product demand, market value, revenue, and growth rate. The report also deeply considers influential factors including Anesthesia Gas Evaporators market trends, dynamics, growth driving forces, and other elements.. The global Anesthesia Gas Evaporators market is exhibiting a substantial CAGR figure in 2018 and it is exacted to report more vigorous growth during the forecast period of 2019 to 2024. Market growth is being boosted by raw material affluence, product awareness, rapidly growing Anesthesia Gas Evaporators demand, financial stability, and favorable ...
Manufacturer of Industrial Evaporators - Falling Film Evaporators, Rotary Evaporator, Triple Effect Evaporator and Multi Effect Evaporators offered by Ankita Technologies (India) Private Ltd., Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra.
China Single Effect Evaporator for Concentration Crystallization, Separation and Reclamation, Find details about China Evaporator, Single Effect Evaporator from Single Effect Evaporator for Concentration Crystallization, Separation and Reclamation - Shandong Wintech Technology Co., Ltd.
The four Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) evaporators supplied by Hamworthy Serck Como are designated MSF 825/8 units as each has eight evaporator stages and is rated at 825 tonnes/day of distillate. Sistership Allure of the Seas will feature the same fresh water makers.. Four Hamworthy fresh water generators on the 5,400-passenger Oasis of the Seas can produce a total of 3,300 tonnes a day. Hamworthy Serck Comos cruise ship desalination plant comprises one or more MSF evaporators. Steam, engine jacket water or a combination of these can be used for heating. The thermal efficiency of this 8-stage MSF evaporator rated at less than 150 kWh per tonne of distillate is excellent in comparison to the more usual 190 kWh per tonne, says Udo Attermeyer, Hamworthy Serck Comos sales director. The flash principle is also the most reliable evaporation principle in terms of malfunction or mal-operation, and has the lowest risk of scaling.. Capacities of tailor-made MSF evaporators range from 100 tonnes/day to ...
Solvent Evaporation Market by Evaporator Type (Rotary Evaporator, Nitrogen Blow Down Evaporator, Centrifugal Evaporator), End-User (Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical, Diagnostic Laboratories, Research & Academic Institute), Region - Global Forecast to 2024 ...
Reasons for Buying Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Market Research Report:. Anesthesia Gas Evaporators Market Research Report provides a forward looking perspective on different factors driving or restraining market growth. It provides pin point analysis of changing competition dynamics and keeps you ahead of competitors. This report provides pin-point analysis for changing competitive dynamics. With all the accumulated data analyzed using SWOT analysis, there is a clear interpretation of the competitive landscape of the United States Anesthesia Gas Evaporators market. Potential for the markets growth was unveiled and outlying competitive threats also transpired. There is a prominent strategic direction in the market and this is sighted in the key trends and developments studied. By obtaining market background and using prevailing norms, policies, and trends of other leading markets for cross-references, market data was achieved.. Complete Report Available @: ...
To regulate the magnitude and the direction of the heat flux in an exchanger-based methanol evaporator of a fuel cell system, thermoelectric (TE) modules can be deployed as active heat pumps. The performance of the TE-integrated evaporator is strongly influenced by its heat exchange structure. The structure transfers the fuel cell exhaust heat to the evaporation chamber to gasify the methanol, where TE modules are installed in between to facilitate the heat regulation. In this work, firstly, a numerical study is conducted to determine the working currents and working modes of the TE heat regulators under the system working condition fluctuations and during the system cold start. A 3-dimensional evaporator model is generated in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS FLUENT® by combining a compact TE model with a number of various heat exchange structure geometries. The compact TE model adopts order-reduction technique in both gridding and computing to improve the computation ...
FIG. 1 is an exploded first perspective view of the substance evaporator of the instant invention showing the separation of the container and the upper portion of the substance evaporator thereof;. FIG. 2 is a second perspective view of the assembled substance evaporator thereof;. FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;. FIG. 4 is a back elevational view thereof;. FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof;. FIG. 6 is a right side elevational view thereof;. FIG. 7 is a top plan view thereof; and,. FIG. 8 is a bottom plan view thereof.. ...
10. When the can is empty, turn the ignition switch to the OFF position and let the vehicle sit for 20 minutes. This time will allow the cleaner to flow over and coat the evaporator fins and case assembly. 11. Re-install the blower motor resistor in the HVAC housing. The housing is indexed to allow mounting in only one position. Tighten the mounting screws to 2.2 N m (20 in. lbs.). 12. Open all of the vehicle windows about 13mm ( in.). Start the engine and let idle for a MINIMUM of 30 minutes with the temperature control to full hot, blower speed to HIGH, PANEL and RE-CIRCULATE modes selected. This will dry and cure the evaporator cleaner onto the evaporator coil. 13. Connect the wiring disconnected in step 2 to re-enable the A/C compressor clutch. 14. Verify proper A/C operation. 15. Owners of vehicles that operate in conditions where the air inlet to the hvac housing is subject to foreign material, debris or other airborne contaminates, may want to consider having a mopar accessory cabin air ...
Get effective cleaning of evaporators and condensate trays with Storm Chemicals evaporator cleaner and disinfectant, specially formulated to eliminate odours, available in a variety of solutions and powders - Buy online today at Hawco
Shop a large selection of BUCHI Evaporating Flasks for Rotary Evaporators products and learn more about BUCHI Evaporating Flasks for Rotary Evaporators SJ 24/40; Volume:
DIDAC INTERNATIONAL from New Delhi, India is a manufacturer, supplier and exporter of Rotary Evaporators Control at the best price.
Hard scales and organic deposits in evaporators and heat exchangers can require excessive acid and steam use and frequent, costly maintenance. Thats why Buckman developed a series of evaporator deposit control (EDC) products. Buckmans proprietary blend of inhibitors and dispersants effectively prevents mineral scaling and reduces organic fouling in the process, so you can scale back on acid use, cleaning frequency and all the related costs. W848. ...
China Four-Effect Falling Film Evaporator, Find details about China Alcohol, Effect from Four-Effect Falling Film Evaporator - Feicheng Jinta Machinery Co., Ltd.
Article DESMI ROTAN® Pump Geared for Thin Film Evaporator. DESMI ROTAN® Pump Geared for Thin Film Evaporator Suzhou Dalong & Ningbo Dahongying Bio-Engineering & Beijing Ginko Group & Wuxi Hexiang Chemical Machinery Separation techno...
China Triple Effect Falling Film Evaporator, Find details about China Evaporation, Ethanol Project from Triple Effect Falling Film Evaporator - Feicheng Jinta Machinery Co., Ltd.
Product guide for selecting an evaporator or cencentrator and includes nitrogen blowdown, vortex, rotary evaporators and vacuum systems for solvent
AUTOMATIC NITROGEN EVAPORATOR 20 POSITION AUTO NITROGEN EVAPORATOR 20 POSITION adalah Organomation instrumen tercanggih yang telah dikembangkan hingga saat ini.
Evaporator System099A EV2012S [G099A EV2012S] - Heated single block 20 well evaporator system for 15-16mm tubes, includes block, 15ga needles, 1.5 LPDF Download
Boiling and condensing of internal working fluids are essential heat transfer concepts which heat pipe technology relies on for transporting a large amount of heat between two distanced points effectively. Tilt angle and working fluid saturation temperature have a direct impact on how well the evaporator is flooded. This paper focuses on how the tilt angle and the working fluid saturation temperature affect the start-up heat input requirements for an S shaped axial grooved ammonia thermosyphon heat pipe. A series of experiments was performed by supplying and extracting heat to the evaporator and condenser of the thermosyphon heat pipe. Temperature of the evaporator and condenser was monitored to capture start-up behavior upon heat input. The evaporator temperature was found to be slightly elevated before the internal working fluid begins to boil. It decreased once boiling starts and initiates the thermosyphon process. The test results showed that the evaporator start-up temperature difference was
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A rotary evaporator is a device used in chemical laboratories for the efficient and gentle removal of solvents from samples by evaporation. Rotary evaporation is most often and conveniently applied to separate low boiling solvents such a n-hexane or ethyl acetate from compounds which are solid at room temperature and pressure. However, careful application also allows removal of a solvent from a sample containing a liquid compound if there is minimal co-evaporation (azeotropic behavior), and a sufficient difference in boiling points at the chosen temperature and reduced pressure.. ...
গুণ ফিতে আইস বায়োপ্যাটার্টার নির্মাতারা & রপ্তানিকারক - কেনা 20 Ton Per Day Flake Ice Machine Evaporator With Ammonia System চীন থেকে উত্পাদক.
Industrial process machinery China, Single Effect Evaporator, Material: Stainless304, 316L, 2205 Application field: Food Concentration(Dairy, Starch, Sugar, Beverage and Fruit Juice)...
Find wastewater treatment evaporator articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
In a rotary evaporator, the rotating speed of the rotating flask is automatically controlled or regulated dependent upon a detected process value, particularly the vibration behavior or the mass moment of inertia of the rotating flask.
PRINCIPLE OF WORKING :. The aim of evaporation is to concentrate a solution consisting of a volatile solvent and a non volatile solute. Climbing film evaporation is a continuous operation in which the solution is heated in a continuous jacketed stainless steel evaporator at high temperature. In the liquid - gas separator, the concentrate solution is collected and the vapour is evacuated, condensed and collected in the solvent receiver.. ...
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Solar steam generation by heat localization is considered to be a highly efficient, sustainable way to alleviate water shortage in resource-limited regions. However, most of the interfacial photothermal evaporators demonstrated so far involve non-biodegradable nanoscale materials, which can quickly pose a si
A heat transfer system includes an evaporator having a heated wall, a liquid barrier wall containing working fluid, a primary wick positioned between the heated wall and an inner side of the liquid barrier wall, a vapor removal channel located at an interface between the primary wick and the heated wall, and a liquid flow channel located between the liquid barrier wall and the primary wick. Methods of transferring heat include applying heat energy to a vapor barrier wall, flowing liquid through a liquid flow channel, pumping the liquid from the liquid flow channel through a primary wick, and evaporating at least some of the liquid at a vapor removal channel.
kscs25inss00 thermistor The evaporator fan motor is cycling on and of rapidly every few seconds. The rate is - KitchenAid Superba KSRG25FK Side by Side question
The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.
Eco-Clean™ is an innovative no rinse indoor evaporator coil cleaner developed and produced by Gur Technologies specifically to clean evaporator coils indoors.. Eco-Clean™ is safe to use on metal and will not harm the unit or the coils. The Eco-Clean is ideal for seasonal coil treatment to prevent future contamination of the coils.. Eco-Clean™ is a ready to use solution easy to apply and dose not require professional technician to apply - suitable for usage by non professionals, privet home owners.. Eco-Clean™ is a non-acid evaporator coil cleaning solution. It is manufactured to be strong enough to emulsify and remove contamination from heat transfer surfaces. The key to the use of Eco-Clean™ no rinse coil cleaner is to apply it to the upstream (intake) side of the coil.. This method of application causes the Eco-Clean™ to mix with the air on its normal turbulent passing through the coil when turning on the air-flow of the unit after application, thereby wetting with solution ...
I had a Bryant system (355CAV + 186B + CNPVP) installed recently and it passed the code inspection. However, I just realized there is no trap on the evaporator coil drain line and Im trying to figure out if my arrangement is as it should be. For now, the attached drawing will have to do. My furnace is configured for upflow. There appears to be that internal trap on the furnace drain line but there is no trap on the evaporator drain line. The two drain lines merge into one which runs
TOMY MV-100 Features MV-100 MicroVac Mini Vacuum-Centrifugal Evaporator The TOMY MV-100 MicroVac is a compact and complete vacuum centrifugal evaporator. This tiny... read more ...
Customer Oriented Total Service DAIHAN Scientific is working hard on product development and also supplying the best lab test tools and products that are needed at the labs, using excellent product distribution through a system of global cooperation which links about 270 scientific device makers in Korea and overseas ...
Originally Posted by sparksolaris Started pulling the a/c unit apart last night to replace the fan motor. Looks like the hardest part is going to be moving the evaporator coil a little to get the
At the 2013 Pittcon Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, USA, the SelectScience Editors filmed a series of interviews and product demonstrations to enable you to experience the meeting. Watch this report for a brief overview of some of the innovative technologies on display including new columns for trace level analysis, a new evaporator for sample preparation, new instruments for LC/MS, GCMS and ICP-MS, as well as an ATR accessory for infrared spectroscopy. Filmed by SelectScience at Pittcon 2013.
A Copeland EAV1 0200 TAC compressor and A Bohn (heatcraft) BME260CA evaporator Box would probably like to run about -10 F. or so. (just off the top of my head) 2 HP running a -20 suction might be 10,000 BTUs?
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Sample Preparation products, including dialysis membranes, automation and centrifugal evaporators, on SelectScience.
220vAC, 24 Well Evaporator for auto sampler vials up to 15mm in diameter. Heats both sample and gas stream for fast dry down time in minutes. Has fixed 2, 16 gauge SS needles.
Organomation, a leading US manufacturer of nitrogen blowdown evaporators for sample concentrations will unveil a redesigned version of its nitrogen generator, branded as the NITRO-GEN™ at analytica 2020. Click to read more...
Chemistry diaphragm pump MV 10C EX - ATEX chemistry diaphragm pumps offer all advantages of oil-free chemistry diaphragm pumps. Typical applications are rotary evaporators and...
How to use rotary evaporator for cannabis distillation . Compared with wiped film evaporator rotary evaporator is more economical for cbd oil solvent removal and for rota evaporator its very easily scalable 1L 3L 5L 10L 20L 50L 100L Lab - Pilot - Industry wide capacity range such as 50L rotary evaporator you could choose 5L 10L 20L 30L evaporation flask this flexibility makes it very .. ...
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China Lab Industrial Hemp Cbd Thc Oil Distillation . Xingyang Kori Instrument Factory sell Vacuum Rotary Evaporator with different size from 1L 2L 3L 5L 10L 20L 30L 50L Rotary vacuum evaporators rotary evaporator (or rotavap /rotovap)are efficient laboratory distillation units for applications like standard solvent distillations concentration of reaction mass or solutions separation of INTRODUCCIÓN. En Colombia dentro de los cultivos permanentes la caña de azúcar ocupa el segundo lugar en extensión el 61 está dedicado a la producción de panela Según la organización de las naciones unidas para la agricultura y la alimentación la producción de panela es una de las agroindustrias con mayor tradición en América Latina y el Caribe dicha producción se realiza Contact Us ...
China Concentration Equipment for Food Industry, Find details about China Evaporator, Plate Evaporator from Concentration Equipment for Food Industry - Shanghai Ruipai Machinery Co., Ltd.
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5L rotary evaporator adopt the flask enlarge evaporation area under reduced pressure to make the solution in bottle diffuse and evaporate while the flask is rotating as it is heating in water bath. It is basic necessary and perfect equipment for the chemical industry pharmaceutical industry institutions of higher learning and scientific 5L rotary evaporator adopt the flask enlarge evaporation area under reduced pressure to make the solution in bottle diffuse and evaporate while the flask is rotating as it is heating in water bath. It is basic necessary and perfect equipment for the chemical industry pharmaceutical industry institutions of higher learning and scientific Contact Us ...
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Predictive Model for Design of Fixed-Bed Adsorbers: Parameter Estimation and Model Development. A predictive mathematical model for fixed-bed adsorber design which incorporates both liquid and solid phase resistances to mass transfer is formulated; numeric solutions are described and checked for accuracy. Laboratory bench scale studies used to estimate model parameters independently from adsorber break-through profiles are described, and experimental results presented. The bench scale tests involve both adsorption rate and isotherm measurements that are used to determine isotherm equation parameters and surface diffusion coefficients for model calibration. Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients for fixed-bed operation are obtained from literature correlations; parameter values used for model calibration are presented. This paper sets the stage for single- and multi-component model verifications to be presented in two subsequent papers.
The Morning After.. Lots of glasses part filled with beer, wine, cider, spirits ... all going to be thrown away. Its a crying shame.. But not with the new BorgCo After-party alcohol recovery vacuum system.. Collect all the drinks and tip everything together into the stainless steel pot. Push the start button and an oil-free pump starts, exhausting the air from the vessel. Vapour is drawn from evaporator into the actively-cooled condenser chamber. Heat from pump motor warms the evaporator vessel. The whole system is pressure/temperature controlled at -0.5 Bar, +40C in the evaporator (stirred), +10C in condenser.. When the controller bleeps, discard the sludge from the evaporator and wash it. Detach the condenser bottle and pour the alcohol into a container for storage, or maybe just drink it ...
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The market for dairy processing equipment is expected to be worth $10.9 billion by 2020, according to a study published by Markets and Markets, Dallas, Texas. The report, Dairy Processing Equipment Market by Type (Pasteurizers, Homogenizers, Separators, Evaporators & Dryers, Membrane Filtration Equipment), Application (Processed Milk, Cream, Milk Powder, Cheese, Protein Ingredients), & by Region - Global Forecast to 2020, shows the global dairy processing equipment market to grow at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2015 to 2020. The growth of this market is attributed to the . . .
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As discussed in chapter 3.4, compressor performance depends on the evaporating and condensing pressures. The saturation pressure of the evaporator determines the density of the refrigerant gas at the inlet of the compressor, thus affecting the refrigerant mass flow per compressor revolution. The total pressure difference between the evaporating and condensing sides also affects the required compressor power consumption.. The evaporator and condenser affect these pressure levels though their ability to transfer energy between the refrigerant and the secondary fluids. The evaporator operating point is the equilibrium point at which the performance of the evaporator matches the performance of the compressor. The refrigerant mass flow is determined by the compressor, and at the operating point the refrigerant is evaporated at a stable saturation temperature.. The compressor curve in Figure 6.24 has a positive slope, indicating that the available cooling capacity increases with higher evaporation ...
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Hamilton Sundstrand has developed a scalable evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It was designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. The MFE would be used from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. This system combines the functions of the Space Shuttle flash evaporator and ammonia boiler into a single compact package with improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing surface area to keep the back pressure low. The multiple layer construction of the core allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate. A full-scale unit uses multiple core sections that, combined with a novel control scheme, manage the risk of freezing the heat exchanger cores. A four-core MFE prototype was built in 2007 ...
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How about Carbeurator jets? You could either go large with a set from Holley or go small with mikuni 2-Stroke carbs? Use an electric fuel pump for injected engines (high Pressure) and run the BD through steel or braided stainless fuel line. Try or for all kinds of fuel pump jet/nozzle accessories. We are pumping fuel here so instead of modifying items that are not designed to do what you want, just get the items that have millions of dollars in engineering already done to produce your desired results. I am not trying to be a weiner here, but as I started reading this thread that is the first thing that came to mind. If you need smaller diameters than fuel jetting provides, take a look at some torch tips for Ox/acetylene torches. hell most even come with tip-cleaners, the are already threaded in NPT so there leak proof. Maybe even look into NOS Systems they are a Nitrous oxide kit company they have almost anything you could ever want for this ...
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This is a good Mechanical project report on design and fabrication of domestic refrigeration unit and submitted in partial fulfillment of award of bachelor of technology Degree in Mechanical Engineering. The objective of the project is to design, fabricate and assemble an economically priced domestic refrigeration unit having, aesthetic look efficient and small in size. This unit is unique in the sense that it body is in the form of a bucket which works as an evaporator and easy in transport from one place to another place. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECTS by Email for more such projects and seminar ...
Can you install an R-410a condensing unit matched with an R-22 evaporator coil?We get asked this question often, so we thought it would be helpful to write a post about...... Read More. ...
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Household refrigerator : if I install a defrost bimetal in the inlet of evaporator what will happen ? It means next to capilary tube inlet It should be in the outlet , not in the inlet , what will happen ? Many thanks :confused:
Our Central A/C has been blowing warm air for about the past week or so. I have tested with a new thermostat, completely cleaned the outside unit, cleaned the evaporator coils/fins, and tested continuity and voltage on the wiring harnesses. All components appear to be running properly, although I have very little knowledge of A/C systems. I finally decided to fork out the cash for a service call and the technician came to the conclusion that the Expansion Valve was stuck in the closed
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This PhD project at ECUs Thermofluids Research Group investigates the effects of operational parameters on the performance of fixed-bed biomass combustor.
Originally I was more sanguine about the film than about Expelled, because Ben Steins film is a clear piece of propaganda with the clear ideological aim of undermining the audiences confidence in evolution and making the case for allowing the teaching of ID in classrooms. It is at first blush much harder to find a clear ideological message, or aim, in House of Numbers. During the discussion I asked Brent several times what he was trying to achieve with the film - what his aim was. His platitudes about informed consent and trying to help the search for a system of testing that makes no mistakes at all sounded naive and unconvincing. But (and I still think this for now) whether it is because the film is not actually very well put together, or because it really wasnt made, at least initially, strictly as propaganda, I still think it poses questions that encourage the audience to think and seek out more information. If they do that, as I have done, they quite quickly find plenty of evidence to ...
... s are antibody mimetics and are being developed as an alternative to antibodies as tools in biotechnology. They have ... Pacheco, S; Béhar, G; Maillasson, M; Mouratou, B; Pecorari, F (2014). "Affinity transfer to the archaeal extremophilic Sac7d ... Affitins consist of 66 amino acids and have a molecular mass of about 7 kDa, small compared to antibodies with some 130-150 kDa ... In addition to this, antibodies and non-immunoglobin proteins can be purified by using affitins via affinity chromatography. ...
Hirai, Kimito; Maeda, Hiroshi; Omori, Kazuhiro; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Takashiba, Shogo (2013). "Serum antibody response to group ... "Evidence of Archaeal Methanogens in Brain Abscess". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 65 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1093/cid/cix286. ...
In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic ... Subsequently, S-layer fusion proteins with specific functional domains (e.g. enzymes, ligands, mimotopes, antibodies or ... High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales ... Albers SV, Meyer BH (2011). "The archaeal cell envelope". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (6): 414-426. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2576 ...
... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.125 - ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548. - htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548. - htlv-ii ...
... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 - antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.107 - ... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.107 - antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.125 - ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.224 - antibodies, ...
In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic ... Subsequently, S-layer fusion proteins with specific functional domains (e.g. enzymes, ligands, mimotopes, antibodies or ... High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales ... are in good agreement with data from electron microscopy studies of archaeal and bacterial S-layers. ...
Sequences from the latter shared about 50% identity with the archaeal ICDH. The gene was expressed in E. coli by ligating it to ... Its RNA polymerase does not react with antibodies against Desulfurococcus RNA polymerase. It has a GC-content of 41.0 ± 0. 2 ...
The three archaeal LSm proteins (Sm1, Sm2 and Sm3) also cluster as a group, distinct from the eukaryote LSm proteins. Both the ... Smith produced antibodies to a set of nuclear proteins, which they named the 'smith antigen' (Sm Ag). About 30% of SLE patients ... One of the two main branches of archaea, the crenarchaeotes have a third known type of archaeal LSm protein, Sm3. This is a two ... The Sm proteins were first discovered as antigens targeted by so-called Anti-Sm antibodies in a patient with a form of Systemic ...
This would help train immune memory and antibody response to defend the body in case said virus ever attacks. While this is ... Eichler J (July 2001). "Biotechnological uses of archaeal extremozymes". Biotechnology Advances. 19 (4): 261-78. doi:10.1016/ ...
Antibodies can continue to be an effective defence mechanism even after viruses have managed to gain entry to the host cell. A ... Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21). Proceedings of the National Academy ... Two types of antibodies are important. The first, called IgM, is highly effective at neutralising viruses but is produced by ...
They appear in bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic proteins, but are far more common in eukaryotes. Ankyrin repeat proteins, ... an engineered antibody mimetic based on the structure of ankyrin repeats PDB: 1N11​; Michaely P, Tomchick DR, Machius M, ... a technique that has been presented as an alternative to antibody design for applications requiring high-affinity binding. A ...
There is limited knowledge about the archaeal genome sequences. Therefore, there is also limited knowledge about the ... Topoisomerase I is the antigen recognized by Anti Scl-70 antibodies in scleroderma. Topoisomerases can fix these topological ...
These cytokines and antibodies can have effects outside the gut, in the lungs and other tissues. The immune system can also be ... and is the most abundant methane-producing archaeal species in the human gastrointestinal microbiota. Gut microbiota also serve ... IgA is an important type of antibody that is used in mucosal environments like the gut. It has been shown that IgA can help ... Gut flora can also regulate the production of antibodies by the immune system. One function of this regulation is to cause B ...
Structure of an archaeal exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank. *Structure of an archaeal exosome bound to RNA at the RCSB ... In these diseases, antibodies are mainly directed against two of the proteins of the complex, called PM/Scl-100 (the RNase D ... three resemble the archaeal Rrp41 protein and the other three proteins are more similar to the archaeal Rrp42 protein.[10] ... Lorentzen, E; Walter, P; Fribourg, S; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, E; Klug, G; Conti, E (2005). "The archaeal exosome core is a ...
Two types of antibodies are important. The first, called IgM, is highly effective at neutralizing viruses but is produced by ... "Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc.R800078200. PMC ... Two rotaviruses: the one on the right is coated with antibodies which stop it attaching to cells and infecting them ... When it meets a virus, it produces specific antibodies that bind to the virus and render it non-infectious. ...
Apic G, Gough J, Teichmann SA (July 2001). "Domain combinations in archaeal, eubacterial and eukaryotic proteomes". Journal of ... Teale JM, Benjamin DC (July 1977). "Antibody as immunological probe for studying refolding of bovine serum albumin. Refolding ... Edelman GM (May 1973). "Antibody structure and molecular immunology". Science. 180 (4088): 830-40. Bibcode:1973Sci...180..830E ...
... or archaeal counterpart. This initial tRNA binding site is called the A/T site. In the A/T site, the A-site half resides in the ... "Production of antibodies to soluble RNA (sRNA)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... the existence of the P/I site in eukaryotic or archaeal ribosomes has not yet been confirmed. The P-site protein L27 has been ...
IgG antibody is measured when tests for immunity are carried out. Antibodies can continue to be an effective defence mechanism ... Other archaeal viruses resemble the tailed bacteriophages, and can have multiple tail structures. An enormous variety of ... Two types of antibodies are important. The first, called IgM, is highly effective at neutralising viruses but is produced by ... A protein that is in cells, called TRIM21, can attach to the antibodies on the surface of the virus particle. This primes the ...
... is an ortholog of archaeal TBP), TFIIE (an ortholog of archaeal TFE), TFIIF, and TFIIH. In archaea and eukaryotes, the RNA ... Transcription factories can also be localized using fluorescence in situ hybridization or marked by antibodies directed against ... an ortholog of archaeal TFB), TFIID (a multisubunit factor in which the key subunit, TBP, ...
Samson RY, Bell SD (2014). "Archaeal chromosome biology". Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology. 24 (5-6): 420-27 ... J recombination generates different genomic sequences such that each cell produces a unique antibody or T cell receptors. ... Genome Compiler Genome topology Genome-wide association study List of sequenced animal genomes List of sequenced archaeal ...
"Anti-FANCE antibody (ab126177) , Abcam". Retrieved 2018-11-09. Waisfisz Q, Saar K, Morgan NV, Altay C, Leegwater ... "A human ortholog of archaeal DNA repair protein Hef is defective in Fanconi anemia complementation group M". Nature Genetics. ...
... or archaeal counterpart. This initial tRNA binding site is called the A/T site. In the A/T site, the A-site half resides in the ... "Production of antibodies to soluble RNA (sRNA)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 54 (4): 1281-1285. Bibcode:1965PNAS...54.1281P. ... the existence of the P/I site in eukaryotic or archaeal ribosomes has not yet been confirmed. The P-site protein L27 has been ...
All ribosomal proteins have been isolated and many specific antibodies have been produced. These, together with electronic ... January 2013). "Promiscuous behaviour of archaeal ribosomal proteins: implications for eukaryotic ribosome evolution". Nucleic ...
... for detecting these antibodies. In these diseases, antibodies are mainly directed against two of the proteins of the complex, ... three resemble the archaeal Rrp41 protein and the other three proteins are more similar to the archaeal Rrp42 protein. Located ... At the current time, the most sensitive way to detect these antibodies is by using a peptide, derived from the PM/Scl-100 ... Structure of the human exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank Structure of an archaeal exosome at the RCSB Protein Data Bank ...
Many eubacterial and archaeal species have SMC-ScpAB, whereas a subgroup of eubacteria (known as γ-proteobacteria) including ... In mice, requirements for condensin subunits in meiosis have been addressed by antibody-mediated blocking experiments and ...
Sgouros J, Gaillard PH, Wood RD (March 1999). "A relationship betweena DNA-repair/recombination nuclease family and archaeal ... March 2014). "Measuring ERCC1 protein expression in cancer specimens: validation of a novel antibody". Scientific Reports. 4: ...
... an ortholog of archaeal TFB), TFIID (a multisubunit factor in which the key subunit, TBP, is an ortholog of archaeal TBP), ... Transcription factories can also be localized using fluorescence in situ hybridization or marked by antibodies directed against ... TFIIE (an ortholog of archaeal TFE), TFIIF, and TFIIH. The TFIID is the first component to bind to DNA due to binding of TBP, ...
Anti-RNP antibodies are autoantibodies associated with mixed connective tissue disease and are also detected in nearly 40% of ... Seitz EM, Brockman JP, Sandler SJ, Clark AJ, Kowalczykowski SC (1998). "RadA protein is an archaeal RecA protein homolog that ... Two types of anti-RNP antibodies are closely related to Sjögren's syndrome: SS-A (Ro) and SS-B (La). Autoantibodies against ... snRNP are called Anti-Smith antibodies and are specific for SLE. The presence of a significant level of anti-U1-RNP also serves ...
Yutin N, Koonin EV (March 2012). "Archaeal origin of tubulin". Biology Direct. 7: 10. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-7-10. PMC 3349469. ... skin prick testing using purified Bt protein resulted in no detectable production of toxin-specific IgE antibodies, even in ...
The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... In bacteria that express a 20S proteasome, the β subunits have high sequence identity to archaeal and eukaryotic β subunits, ... Mallery DL, McEwan WA, Bidgood SR, Towers GJ, Johnson CM, James LC (November 2010). "Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity ...
The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... In bacteria that express a 20S proteasome, the β subunits have high sequence identity to archaeal and eukaryotic β subunits, ... "Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21)". Proceedings of the National ...
"Monoclonal antibodies to individual tyrosine-phosphorylated protein substrates of oncogene-encoded tyrosine kinases". Proc. ...
The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by ...
Data for a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) Antibody. *DNA+Modification+Methyltransferases at the US National Library of Medicine ... Archaeal transcription factor B. Elongation. *bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB. *eukaryotic RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase II ...
Antibodies to certain types of chromatin organization, in particular, nucleosomes, have been associated with a number of ... The archaeal origin of the nucleus is supported by observations that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain ... Barned S, Goodman AD, Mattson DH (February 1995). "Frequency of anti-nuclear antibodies in multiple sclerosis". Neurology. 45 ( ... "The relation of immunoglobulin class, pattern of anti-nuclear antibody, and complement-fixing antibodies to DNA in sera from ...
Two types of antibodies are important. The first, called IgM, is highly effective at neutralizing viruses but is produced by ... "Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc.R800078200. PMC ... Two rotaviruses: the one on the right is coated with antibodies which stop it attaching to cells and infecting them ... When it meets a virus, it produces specific antibodies that bind to the virus and render it non-infectious. ...
... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high.[33] ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Antibodies can be secreted into the extracellular environment or anchored in the membranes of specialized B cells known as ... From left to right are: immunoglobulin G (IgG, an antibody), hemoglobin, insulin (a hormone), adenylate kinase (an enzyme), and ...
PF16906 Ribosomal proteins L26 eukaryotic, L24P archaeal. 27A. 60S ribosomal protein L27a. RL27A_HUMAN. PF00828 Ribosomal ... All ribosomal proteins have been isolated and many specific antibodies have been produced. These, together with electronic ...
ChIP-on-chip assays, which is based on the ability of commercially prepared antibodies to bind to DNA methylation-associated ... Archaeal transcription factor B. Elongation. *bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB. *eukaryotic RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase II ...
This membrane can then be probed with solutions of antibodies. Antibodies that specifically bind to the protein of interest can ... Often, the antibodies are labeled with enzymes. When a chemiluminescent substrate is exposed to the enzyme it allows detection ...
... and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage.[23] The most recent common ... or antibodies.[199][200] ...
... that trigger the adaptive immune system's lymphocytes such as T cells and antibody-producing B cells. These have receptors that ... "Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/ ...
Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to ubiquitin can identify abnormal accumulations of this protein inside cells, indicating ... Maupin-Furlow, JA (2013). "Archaeal proteasomes and sampylation". Sub-cellular Biochemistry. 66: 297-327. doi:10.1007/978-94- ... Intestinal barrier tightening by a cell-penetrating antibody to Bin1, a candidate target for immunotherapy of ulcerative ... small archaeal modifier proteins) is performed. The sampylation system only uses E1 to guide proteins to the proteosome. ...
The archaeal origin of the nucleus is supported by observations that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain ... Antibodies to certain types of chromatin organization, in particular, nucleosomes, have been associated with a number of ... These are known as anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and have also been observed in concert with multiple sclerosis as part of ... Rothfield NF, Stollar BD (November 1967). "The relation of immunoglobulin class, pattern of anti-nuclear antibody, and ...
Recombinant Protein and Archaeal histone Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Archaeal histone A. Archaeal histone A ELISA Kit. Archaeal histone A Recombinant. Archaeal histone A Antibody. Also known as ... Archaeal histone A1. Archaeal histone A1 ELISA Kit. Archaeal histone A1 Recombinant. Archaeal histone A1 Antibody. Binds and ... Archaeal histone A2. Archaeal histone A2 ELISA Kit. Archaeal histone A2 Recombinant. Archaeal histone A2 Antibody. Binds and ...
Recombinant Protein and Archaeal-type glutamate synthase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... Custom Antibody. Antibody Matched Pairs. Antibody Peptide Pairs. Phospho Antibodies. Products by Disease. Products by Pathway. ... Archaeal-type glutamate synthase [NADPH] Recombinant. Archaeal-type glutamate synthase [NADPH] Antibody. Also known as Archaeal ... CD4 Antibody. • C Reactive Protein (CRP) Antibody. • HNF4A Antibody. • MEF2A Antibody. • Transthyretin (TTR) Recombinant ...
Archaeal" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antibodies, Archaeal" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Antibodies, Archaeal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antibodies, Archaeal" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antibodies, Archaeal". ...
Antibodies‎ (13 К, 146 В). *. ► Antifreeze protein‎ (2 К, 7 В). *. ► Archaeal proteins‎ (5 В) ...
Peptide and antibody ligands for renal targeting: nanomedicine strategies for kidney disease. Biomater Sci. 2017;5(8):1450-1459 ... An archaeal antioxidant: characterization of a Dps-like protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; ... The archaeal Dps nanocage targets kidney proximal tubules via glomerular filtration. Masaki Uchida,1 Bernhard Maier,2 Hitesh ... Here, we show that DNA-binding protein from starved cells (Dps) - the extremely small archaeal antioxidant nanocage - is able ...
Anti-sera used in each immunoprecipitation reaction are indicated on the top (Beads denotes no antibody added). Anti-sera ... Identification and characterization of a heterotrimeric archaeal DNA polymerase holoenzyme.. Yan J1, Beattie TR2, Rojas AL3, ... Since their initial characterization over 30 years ago, it has been believed that the archaeal B-family DNA polymerases are ...
Antibodies for research. * GeneTex Anti-DNA polymerase epsilon 3 antibody [N1C3] and Anti-DNA polymerase epsilon 3 antibody ... antibodies-online: Search results for available POLE3 related products ranked by validation data ... antibodies-online: Search results for available POLE3 related products ranked by validation data ... Learn more about R&D Systems custom POLE3 antibody, protein, and immunoassay development services ...
b) Staining of acidocalcisomes with antibodies against a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase as detected by immunoelectron ... Bacterial and Archaeal Inclusions. Jessup M Shively, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA Gordon C Cannon, ... Bacterial and Archaeal Inclusions. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. [doi: 10.1002/9780470015902. ...
Subsamples of the culture were analyzed by immune dot blot detection with polyclonal antibodies against the MCP of STIV. ... Among archaeal viruses, there are some that lyse their host cells (5, 11, 16, 32, 35, 36, 38-40, 43, 50), but most of these ... Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res. 117:52-67. ... His1, an archaeal virus of the Fuselloviridae family that infects Haloarcula hispanica. J. Virol. 72:9392-9395. ...
Belongs to the eukaryotic/archaeal RNase P protein component 1 family. Family:. * Belongs to the eukaryotic/archaeal RNase P ... antibodies-online: Search results for 20 available POP4 Antibodies ranked by validation data ... antibodies-online: Search results for 20 available POP4 Antibodies ranked by validation data ... antibodies-online: Search results for available POP4 related products ranked by validation data ...
A) Labeling with antibodies against the purified ATPase complex, (B) Labeling with antibodies against the membrane-bound ... For both images the secondary antibody with ultrasmall gold particles is visualized. C = cytoplasm. IM = inner membrane. V = ... Mainly on immunoelectron microscopy of sections using gold-labeled antibodies and immunofluorescence, which revealed that ATP ...
Rabbit polyclonal RNA polymerase II RPB11 antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Immunogen ... Belongs to the archaeal rpoL/eukaryotic RPB11/RPC19 RNA polymerase subunit family. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and tissue imaging ... Anti-RNA polymerase II RPB11 antibody. See all RNA polymerase II RPB11 primary antibodies. ...
Rabbit polyclonal POLR2I antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length ... Belongs to the archaeal rpoM/eukaryotic RPA12/RPB9/RPC11 RNA polymerase family.. Contains 1 TFIIS-type zinc finger. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-POLR2I antibody (ab180730) IHC-P, WB Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) IHC-P, WB, ...
Overexpression of an archaeal protein in yeast: secretion bottleneck at the ER. Biotechnol. Bioeng.79:713-723. ... myc antibody 9E10 (Covance, Berkeley, CA) at a 1:100 dilution was used as the primary antibody. Anti-mouse Alexa Fluor 555 ( ... single-chain antibodies (scFvs) consisting of the variable heavy- and light-chain regions of intact antibodies retain binding ... This particular yeast surface display antibody library has been validated for having antibodies that bind to a variety of ...
In order to develop methods to generate antibodies reactive to the extracellular domains of multipass plasma membrane proteins ... Our results suggest that DC immunization is an effective method to produce antibodies reactive to extracellular regions of ... The immunized mice produced significant amounts of antibodies against these proteins. ... Antibody mediated therapeutic strategies against human malignant tumors have been widely authorized and clinically applied to ...
This makes archaeal virus-host systems of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic ... In addition, many archaeal viruses have been isolated from extreme environments and present a unique opportunity for ... In addition, many archaeal viruses have been isolated from extreme environments and present a unique opportunity for ... Despite the advantageous position for use in evolutionary studies, little is known about archaeal viruses or how they interact ...
Antibodies, Archaeal. MESH. Archaeal Proteins/genetics. MESH. Cell Adhesion. MESH. Cell Surface Extensions/physiology. MESH. ... Recombinant expression of mth60 in Escherichia coli was used to generate sufficient amounts of Mth60 to induce antibodies in ... The first detailed characterization of archaeal fimbriae, namely those of Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus, allowed us ...
Affitins are antibody mimetics and are being developed as an alternative to antibodies as tools in biotechnology. They have ... Pacheco, S; Béhar, G; Maillasson, M; Mouratou, B; Pecorari, F (2014). "Affinity transfer to the archaeal extremophilic Sac7d ... Affitins consist of 66 amino acids and have a molecular mass of about 7 kDa, small compared to antibodies with some 130-150 kDa ... In addition to this, antibodies and non-immunoglobin proteins can be purified by using affitins via affinity chromatography. ...
Well-characterized antibodies for epitope tags consisting of short sequences have been widely used in the study of protein ... Archaeal ubiquitin-like SAMP3 is isopeptide-linked to proteins by a UbaA-dependent mechanism.Mol Cell Proteomics.2013Otc;. ... Catalog Products » Antibodies » THE™ Elite Antibodies » THE™ HA-tag mAb » NWSHPQFEK Antibody, pAb, Rabbit ... This antibody recognizes NWSHPQFEK tagged fusion protein. Storage. The antibody is stable in lyophilized form if stored at -20° ...
Samples from both boreholes were analyzed with the microsensor, LDChip200, an antibody microarray containing 200 antibodies ... Most of them rendered positive PCR amplifications of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene, which are currently under analysis ... 450 antibodies. Positive signals were detected with specific antibodies against methanogenic Archaea and SRB, which agree with ... Samples along the BH10 borehole were analyzed with the immunosensor, LDCChip450, an antibody microarray containing, in this ...
Halophilic archaeal cells showed a high signal in D8 samples, while archaeal methanogens were only detected in the D6-SF sample ... The targets for the antibodies of this study are described in Sánchez-García et al. (2018). IgG fraction of each antibody was ... LDChip200 is an antibody microarray-based biosensor which contains about 200 polyclonal antibodies (purified IgG fraction) ... DNA sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA showed only OTUs belonging to Euryarchaeota (Haloarchaea, Methanobacteria, and ...
Structure and function of the archaeal response regulator CheY Quax T.E.F., Altegoer F., Rossi F., Li Z., Rodriguez-Franco M., ... Structural basis for blocking PD-1-mediated immune suppression by therapeutic antibody pembrolizumab Na Z., Yeo S.P., Bharath S ... Small molecule inhibitors of RAS-effector protein interactions derived using an intracellular antibody fragment Quevedo C.E., ... Structural basis for potent antibody-mediated neutralization of human cytomegalovirus Chandramouli N., Malito E., Nguyen T.V., ...
Analysis of Archaeal 16S rRNA and accA Transcripts and Archaeal amoA Genes and Transcripts from Light and Heavy Fractions of ... followed by detection with an anti-DIG antibody labeled with HRP and signal amplification by catalyzed reporter deposition with ... CARD-FISH of amoA mRNA and Archaeal 16S rRNA.. To generate controls for mRNA CARD-FISH, partial archaeal (positive control) and ... These results and the observed numerical importance of the archaeal ammonia oxidizers in the overall archaeal community in this ...
108Labs has announced the discovery of novel secretory antibody biosynthesis in the development of Colostrupedics™ whole-human ... Membrane Lipid-Producing Archaeal Enzyme Is Promiscuous News May 07, 2021. Read More ... 108Labs Launches Whole-Human Infant Formula with Secretory Antibodies Product News Mar 10, 2021 ... Launching Colostrupedics™ whole-human infant formula with the worlds first human secretory antibody ingredient is a major step ...
Thus products such as monoclonal antibodies are very expensive and often beyond the reach of the worlds poor. The problem is ... I will introduce affinity tags into selected archaeal and bacterial SLs and reassemble them on the surfaces of MSs. This will ... We will focus on the production of antibodies and lectins against HIV and rabies, with the aim of generating GMP-compliant ... Thus products such as monoclonal antibodies are very expensive and often beyond the reach of the worlds poor. The problem is ...
Antibodies play an important role ensuring successful protection after vaccination. Upon injection, antigen-binding antibodies ... I will introduce affinity tags into selected archaeal and bacterial SLs and reassemble them on the surfaces of MSs. This will ... antibodies are analysed on the individual cell level in high-throughput using specific bioassays that target various antibody ... antibodies are analysed on the individual cell level in high-throughput using specific bioassays that target various antibody ...
Based on these results, it appears that not all regulators belonging to the archaeal Lrp family perform a function related to ... was proven for the ventricular zone shown to be a highly proliferative zone using the anti-phosphohistone H3 antibody that ... Formation of the conserved pseudouridine at position 55 in archaeal tRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:4293-301 pubmed ... further demonstrate the suitability of the gVI-cDNA phage display technology for cDNA expression cloning using an antibody as a ...
Archaeo-somes are liposomes made of polar lipids obtained from archaeal (archaebacterial) cells. The mammalian-like archaeal ... The secondary antibody was biotinylated. HRP-labeled streptavidin and the substrate of HRP were finally added. The Spot Forming ... The antibody secretion pattern was verified by the ELISpot results since the frequency of IFNI secreting splenocytes was ... Archaeal lipids were extracted and antigen free and antigen containing archaeosomes were prepared as previously described (6). ...
TBP antibodies. *TBP antibody (ABIN390631) *TBP antibody (ABIN184358) *TBP antibody (ABIN453408) Go back to table Tubulin. ... The TATA box is a DNA sequence found in the promoter region of archaeal and eukaryotic genes. TBP is a component of the TFIID, ... PCNA antibodies. *PCNA antibody (ABIN334654) *PCNA antibody (ABIN389344) *PCNA antibody (ABIN187609) Go back to table TATA ... GADPH antibodies. *GADPH antibody (ABIN398423) *GADPH antibody (ABIN393533) *GADPH antibody (ABIN501931) Go back to table ...
A method and system for characterization of antibody-bound targets by sequencing of synthetic oligonucleotides bound to the ... antibodies, the method including: receiving a sample having a set of antibod ... the method 100 can enable simultaneous amplification of all bacterial and archaeal DNA present in a sample, in addition to the ... The set of antibodies can include one or more of: monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, naturally produced antibodies, ...
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (
  • In order to develop methods to generate antibodies reactive to the extracellular domains of multipass plasma membrane proteins specifically expressed in malignant tumors, we examined the use of dendritic cells (DCs) for immunization. (
  • The immunized mice produced significant amounts of antibodies against these proteins. (
  • Our results suggest that DC immunization is an effective method to produce antibodies reactive to extracellular regions of plasma membrane proteins with multiple-transmembrane domains, and may be useful to develop antibody mediated antitumor therapies. (
  • In the development of antibody-mediated therapies targeted to human cancer cells, including cancer stem/progenitor cells, the extracellular domains of plasma membrane proteins specifically expressed on cancer cells are promising candidates for antigens against which to be immunized [ 1 ], but the high homology of amino acid sequences between human antigens and their homologues in animals to be immunized often hamper efficient antibody production because of immunological tolerance. (
  • In the case of cellular membrane proteins having only a single transmembrane domain, recombinant protein with the extracellular domain fused to the Ig-Fc domain has been used as immunogen in many cases to generate antibodies reactive with the extracellular region [ 2 ]. (
  • To obtain antibodies reactive to the native extracellular structure of such membrane proteins, immunization by injection of cultured cells expressing the antigen has been used [ 3 ]. (
  • Therefore, development of a simple and successful protocol for immunization against human multi-pass membrane proteins is needed in antibody-mediated cancer research. (
  • In addition to this, antibodies and non-immunoglobin proteins can be purified by using affitins via affinity chromatography. (
  • Archaeal ubiquitin-like SAMP3 is isopeptide-linked to proteins by a UbaA-dependent mechanism. (
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (
  • My lab employs state-of-the-art single particle electron cryo-microscopy and cryo-tomography to investigate the structure and function of archaeal surface proteins. (
  • Escherichia coli is surprisingly tolerant to chromatinization by archaeal histones, suggesting that histones can become established as ubiquitous chromatin proteins without interfering critically with some key DNA-templated processes. (
  • infected antibodies are composed on a university-level and analytical technology of the 1st stocks of the Return or integrity and its spectra, on the respect of its proteasome architecture, on its experimental particles and proteins over biology, and its development and antibody on natural Potsherds and the cover in record. (
  • There are no clear archaeal homologues of either bacterial LexA or of eukaryal proteins involved in the transcriptional response to DNA damage, such as p53. (
  • These proteins are capable of rearranging themselves, making archaeal cells wondrous shape-shifters, able to change into triangles, rods, circles and teardrops. (
  • Specifically, Bisson is looking for ways to engineer and produce new proteins inspired by archaeal ones that could be injected into humans to heal tissues. (
  • Using fluorescent tags made with antibodies that can bind to specific proteins, the Oxford investigators looked for a bacterial cytoskeleton in the rod-shaped B. subtilis. (
  • Autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins (anti-perinuclear factor, anti-keratin antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), and anti-Sa (vimentin)) have been described in other studies. (
  • The Sm proteins were first discovered as antigens targeted by so-called Anti-Sm antibodies in a patient with a form of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a debilitating autoimmune disease. (
  • However, Dr. Kunkel and Dr. Tan found in 1966 that Ms. Smith produced antibodies to a set of nuclear proteins, which they named the 'smith antigen' (Sm Ag). (
  • About 30% of SLE patients produce antibodies to these proteins, as opposed to double stranded DNA. (
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein conjugating each of the set of antibodies with the synthetic oligonucleotide includes conjugating each of the set of antibodies with a synthetic oligonucleotide having at least a 16S V4-like region, and wherein the method further includes simultaneously amplifying all bacterial and archaeal DNA present in a sample, in addition to the synthetic oligonucleotides, with 16S-compatible primers, prior to sequencing. (
  • By sequencing bacterial and archaeal genomes from single cells, scientists have filled in many uncharted branches of the tree of life. (
  • Conventional primer pairs are more likely to amplify bacterial sequences than archaeal sequences. (
  • Investigating the archaeal population separately from the bacterial population revealed a large number of archaeal sequences in different parts of the human microbiome (see figure, right). (
  • An epitope of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), which is found in organisms in both the bacterial and archaeal domains, was recently defined by mAb 900. (
  • These data provide evidence that the highly conserved epitope recognized by mAb 900 in the bacterial and archaeal domains is located at the very end of the N terminus of the EF-Tu molecule. (
  • This fold is surprisingly reminiscent of the CLec-folds of viral and bacterial DGR variable protein, but differs sufficiently to define a new CLec-fold subclass, which is consistent with early divergence between bacterial and archaeal DGRs. (
  • The archaeal DGRs have in common the genetic elements identified in bacterial DGRs (Fig. 1 ). (
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (
  • Direct fusion of an antibody to green fluorescent protein (GFP) could overcome these disadvantages. (
  • In terms of the antibody subunit of a GFP fusion protein, single-chain antibodies (scFvs) consisting of the variable heavy- and light-chain regions of intact antibodies retain binding activity and can be efficiently processed by microbial production hosts. (
  • They are structurally derived from the DNA binding protein Sac7d, found in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a microorganism belonging to the archaeal domain. (
  • Well-characterized antibodies for epitope tags consisting of short sequences have been widely used in the study of protein expression in various systems. (
  • This antibody recognizes NWSHPQFEK tagged fusion protein. (
  • Archaeal RNA polymerases are most similar to eukaryotic RNA polymerase II but require the support of only two archaeal general transcription factors, TBP (TATA-box binding protein) and TFB (archaeal homologue of the eukaryotic general transcription factor TFIIB) to initiate basal transcription. (
  • The Ffh protein precipitated from cytosolic cell supernatants with anti-Ffh antibodies, together with an 7 S-alike SRP-RNA, suggesting a stable core ribonucleoprotein composed of both components under native conditions. (
  • The archaeal sheath amyloids do not share homology with any of the currently known functional amyloids and clearly represent a new function of the amyloid protein fold. (
  • The protein was at the antibodies of the Roman Molecular machinery in Sanisera, Menorca for different graphics. (
  • Using a different fluorescent antibody to light up the intact protein in each altered cell, the researchers revealed complex internal structures made of either MreB or Mbl. (
  • Immunostaining with antibodies to Saci1373 (ESCRT-III) revealed a distinct subcellular localization of the protein. (
  • In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first report of an archaeal CLec-fold protein. (
  • Belongs to the archaeal rpoL/eukaryotic RPB11/RPC19 RNA polymerase subunit family. (
  • Belongs to the archaeal rpoM/eukaryotic RPA12/RPB9/RPC11 RNA polymerase family. (
  • This makes archaeal virus-host systems of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic trees, while some of the viruses have clear structural similarities to those that infect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (
  • The TATA box is a DNA sequence found in the promoter region of archaeal and eukaryotic genes. (
  • Transcription initiation of archaeal RNA polymerase (RNAP) and eukaryotic RNAPII is assisted by conserved basal transcription factors. (
  • This discovery provides new insights in the evolutionary history of both the archaeal and the eukaryotic transcription machineries. (
  • The conserved core of the archaeal and eukaryotic transcription machineries encompasses a highly complex multisubunit RNAP as well as evolutionary conserved transcription factors that govern its activities through the transcription cycle. (
  • Prior to eukaryotic cell permeabilization, an antibody or fluorescent reagent is added to identify extracellular bacteria. (
  • A protocol is also provided for using the viability dyes in combination with fluorescent antibodies to eukaryotic cell markers, in order to determine the subcellular localization of individual bacteria. (
  • Identification and characterization of a heterotrimeric archaeal DNA polymerase holoenzyme. (
  • GENTAUR The Marketplace for Antibodies : Characterization of a dUTPase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 and its application in polymerase chain reaction amplification. (
  • Taq DNA polymerase) and a small amount of an archaeal DNA polymerase with proofreading activity. (
  • The enzyme solution of Blend Taq™ -Plus- contains anti-Taq DNA polymerase antibodies that inhibit polymerase activity, allowing for Hot Start PCR. (
  • The use of Hot Start technology with anti-Taq DNA polymerase antibodies results in highly efficient amplification. (
  • This enzyme solution contains anti-Taq DNA polymerase antibodies. (
  • Since their initial characterization over 30 years ago, it has been believed that the archaeal B-family DNA polymerases are single-subunit enzymes. (
  • The first detailed characterization of archaeal fimbriae, namely those of Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus, allowed us to identify mth60 as the main structural fimbrin gene. (
  • Production and Characterization of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Pan-IgG Specific Conformational or Linear Epitopes. (
  • Our results demonstrate a diverse and dynamic contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in soil to nitrification and CO 2 assimilation and that their importance to the overall archaeal community might be larger than previously thought. (
  • Evidence also suggests the assignment of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea should be assigned to the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota instead of to the Crenarchaeota ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • DNA-SIP of grassland soil revealed autotrophic ammonia oxidation of archaea ( 19 ), but exactly which groups of archaeal ammonia oxidizers contributed to this process remains unclear. (
  • Archaea are important to the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but it remains uncertain how rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO(2)]) will influence the structure and function of soil archaeal communities. (
  • Here we employ amyloid-specific conformation antibodies and biophysical techniques to show that the extracellular cell wall sheaths encasing the methanogenic archaea Methanosaeta thermophila PT are functional amyloids. (
  • Increased knowledge about the constituents of the archaeal cell envelopes is essential for understanding how specific archaea interact with their environment and how they are able to thrive in what we consider extreme environments. (
  • Whilst archaea have eukaryal-type informational pathways such as DNA replication and transcription, archaeal DNA repair pathways are still poorly understood. (
  • This study was performed to investigate the distribution of Archaea in Japanese patients with periodontitis and to examine the serum IgG responses to archaeal components. (
  • Samples were quantified with transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometer immunolabeled with anti-archaemetzincin-1 antibody (AMZ 1, archaea collagenase) and probe anti-archaeal DNA and zymography to determine AMZ1 (Archaeal metalloproteinase) activity. (
  • While nearly 50% of archaeal spacers matched mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids or viruses, several others matched chromosomal genes of other organisms, primarily other archaea. (
  • Archaeal CRISPR/Cas has been shown to confer almost 100% immunity in cases where spacers were identical to the target sequence, but partial matches also provide substantial immunity in archaea [ 12 ]. (
  • Here we surveyed all archaeal spacers in order to gain insights into the mobile elements that infect archaea and how DNA is transferred among different species and strains. (
  • Although we have genome sequences for most of the crenarchaeal viruses isolated, we have only a rudimentary understanding of archaeal virus assembly and release from cells. (
  • Archaeal host-virus interactions are just beginning to be explored and the current understanding of archaeal virus mechanisms is rudimentary at best. (
  • Immunoglobulins produced in a response to ARCHAEAL ANTIGENS. (
  • cytotoxic antibody any specific antibody directed against cellular antigens, which when bound to the antigen, activates the complement pathway or activates killer cells, resulting in cell lysis. (
  • Antibodies are important in resistance against disease, in allergy, and in blood transfusions, and can be utilized in laboratory tests for the detection of antigens or the estimation of immune status. (
  • In time, certain antibodies appear in response to environmental antigens. (
  • As those with an autoimmune disease, SLE patients produce antibodies to antigens in their cells' nuclei, most frequently to their own DNA. (
  • See also monoclonal antibody monoclonal antibody, an antibody that is mass produced in the laboratory from a single clone and that recognizes only one antigen. (
  • In particular, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block the engagement of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 by its main ligand PD-L1 have to date been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the treatment of patients with 10 distinct tumor types ( 1 ). (
  • A) Labeling with antibodies against the purified ATPase complex, (B) Labeling with antibodies against the membrane-bound subunit a . (
  • Archaeal genes encoding subunit A of ammonia monooxygenase ( amoA ) have been found to occur in a wide variety of environments including marine systems, hot springs, and soils ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • GenScript Rabbit Anti-NWSHPQFEK Polyclonal Antibody is developed in rabbit using a synthetic NWSHPQFEK peptide conjugated to KLH. (
  • Together, this data provides a more detailed global view of archaeal cellular responses to viral infection, demonstrates the power of quantitative two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and ABPP using 2D gel compatible fluorescent dyes. (
  • DCs can also release exosomes containing intact antigen, which induces activation of antigen specific B cells antibody responses [ 11 ]. (
  • An ideal HBV vaccine would be both preventive and therapeutic which means that this vaccine should promote the production of specific neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated responses (particularly T helper 1 and cytotoxic T-cells) against the virus. (
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the set of antibodies includes a diverse group of different types of antibodies associated with a diverse set of targets in an identified health condition. (
  • Antinuclear antibodies also occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and scleroderma. (
  • Vogt MS, Völpel SL, Albers SV, Essen LO, Banerjee A (2018) - Crystal structure of an Lrs14-like archaeal biofilm regulator from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. (
  • In this review, we summarize recent developments in all these useful genetic tools and discuss their possible application to research into archaeal biology by means of Sulfolobus models. (
  • Archaeo-somes are liposomes made of polar lipids obtained from archaeal (archaebacterial) cells. (
  • The antibody reacted at 37 degrees C and at 4 degrees C, but failed to agglutinate red cells when 0.1 M solution of monosaccharides was added to the reaction mixture. (
  • The antibody agglutinated all red cells except 6 examples of the 'Bombay' phenotype included in the panel. (
  • The signal-recognition particle (SRP) of one of the most acidophilic and hyperthermophilic archaeal cells, Acidianus ambivalens , and its putative receptor component, FtsY (prokaryotic SRP receptor), were investigated in detail. (
  • Antibodies are synthesized by the plasma cells formed when antigen-specific groups ( clones ) of B lymphocytes respond to the presence of antigen. (
  • complete antibody antibody capable of agglutinating cells in physiologic saline solution. (
  • Allergies are generally associated with the presence of IgE antibodies, which are responsible for activating specific cells in the immune system that secrete histamine, giving rise to clinical signs. (
  • The body contains hundreds of thousands of different white blood cells called B lymphocytes, each capable of producing one type of antibody and each bearing sites on its membrane that will bind with a specific antigen. (
  • Despite the advantageous position for use in evolutionary studies, little is known about archaeal viruses or how they interact with their hosts, compared to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. (
  • Our results suggest that archaeal TFEα/β is likely to represent the evolutionary ancestor of TFIIE-like factors in extant eukaryotes. (
  • But several recent discoveries suggest that the origin of the eukaryotes lies within the archaeal domain. (
  • Archaeal information processing pathways resemble those in eukaryotes, but archaeal damage response pathways remain poorly understood. (
  • This enzyme also improved the PCR efficiency of other archaeal family B type DNA polymerases, including Pfu and KOD. (
  • In many archaeal species the S-layer is the only cell wall component and, therefore, is important for mechanical and osmotic stabilization. (
  • However, the primer pairs conventionally used in microbiome studies underestimate the number of archaeal species found, and completely disregard nonprokaryote microbiome members. (
  • No archaeal species has yet been found that causes human disease, and the study here made no associations between archaeal species and disease in people. (
  • However, "methanogens are considered as keystone species in complex microbiomes," says Moissl-Eichinger, so some archaeal species "could be involved in bacteria-driven pathogenic processes. (
  • doing so would require more work to correlate disease patterns with the presence and/or abundance of archaeal species, similar to those bacteria-based microbiome studies have found. (
  • Thus, networks of gene exchange between archaeal species were revealed by the spacer analysis, including many cases of inter-genus and inter-species gene transfer events. (
  • STIV has arguably become one of the most studied crenarchaeal archaeal virus systems. (
  • Members of the archaeal domain, particularly the crenarchaeal subdivision, dominate acidic hot springs and both aerobic and anaerobic forms can be readily cultured from these environments. (
  • an immunoglobulin molecule having a specific amino acid sequence that gives each antibody the ability to adhere to and interact only with the antigen that induced its synthesis. (
  • In these Studies the specific antibody to human GIF was prepared and used to search the epitope of human GIF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and sequence comparison. (
  • Background: Archaeal genes present in Trypanosoma cruzi may represent symbionts that would explain development of heart failure in 30% of Chagas disease patients. (
  • Recombinant expression of mth60 in Escherichia coli was used to generate sufficient amounts of Mth60 to induce antibodies in rabbits. (
  • Here we analyzed all currently known spacers present in archaeal genomes and identified their source by DNA similarity. (
  • CRISPR/Cas systems are found across all archaeal phyla, yet CRISPR spacers are distributed unevenly among CRISPR-positive genomes (Figure 1 ). (
  • These findings suggest that this anomalous antibody has anti-H specificity. (
  • Little is known about the replication cycle of archaeal viruses. (
  • Here we also identified three epitopes as potential antibody binding sites from the molecular dynamics average structure. (
  • This antigen-specific property of the antibody is the basis of the antigen-antibody reaction that is essential to an immune response . (
  • The light chains have a variable portion that is different in each type of antibody and is the active portion of the molecule that binds with the specific antigen. (
  • The resulting antibody level declines over a period of months, but rapidly increases following renewed contact with specific antigen, even after a lapse of years. (
  • Studies showed that the Bm R1 antigen is highly specific and sensitive for detection of IgG4 antibody in brugian filariasis [ 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Catalytic antibodies have emerged as powerful tools for the chemical biologist, enabling the design and realization of specific catalysis for a wide range of chemical reactions. (
  • The idea that antibodies could be designed to catalyze a specific chemical transformation was first proposed by Jencks (1) and was built on the foundations of enzyme catalysis originally conceptualized by Pauling (2). (
  • The result of ELISA showed the epitope of human GIF may locate on a octapeptide (EAAEAEAE) in the $\alpha$ -domain of human GIF, and the result of nerve cell culture indicated that the biological activity of GIF may be affected by the specific antibody. (
  • Efficacy of cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint antibodies can be diminished with administration of antibiotics, and superior efficacy is observed with the presence of specific gut microbes. (
  • A pitcher plant made of DNA will work the same way: A virus enters in the open top, gets trapped on the bottom by viral antibodies and is then digested by enzymes purposely planted there. (
  • The antibodies bind conserved viral parts, allowing them to neutralize all five Ebola types. (
  • anaphylactic antibody a substance formed as a result of the first injection of a foreign anaphylactogen and responsible for the anaphylactic symptoms following the second injection of the same anaphylactogen. (
  • While it was already known that IgE antibodies can trigger these allergic reactions, scientists from the Institut Pasteur, Inserm, the CNRS and EFS Grand Est recently demonstrated that IgG antibodies play an active role in the severity of anaphylactic shock by unexpectedly activating blood platelets. (
  • In this study, scientists from the Antibodies in Therapy and Pathology Unit (Institut Pasteur/Inserm U1222) revealed that platelets, whose best-known function is to stop bleeding when a blood vessel becomes damaged, play a key role in IgG-dependent anaphylactic reactions. (
  • Injecting these mice with human IgG antibodies triggered an anaphylactic reaction, characterized by a drop in body temperature and leading to a significant reduction in the circulating platelet count that lasted for several hours after the shock, suggesting that platelets might play a role in the allergic reaction. (
  • Infants, and their parents, stand to benefit from 108Labs' animal-free formula that offers balanced nutrition naturally evolved for newborns alongside antimicrobial antibodies naturally evolved against mucosal pathogens. (
  • There is controversy regarding the existence of archaeal pathogens. (
  • Affitins consist of 66 amino acids and have a molecular mass of about 7 kDa, small compared to antibodies with some 130-150 kDa. (
  • For both images the secondary antibody with ultrasmall gold particles is visualized. (
  • Although many applications make use of a fluorescently labeled secondary antibody for detection purposes, direct conjugation of antibodies with organic fluorophores can also be used for visualization and quantification. (
  • The appropriate concentrations may be affected by secondary antibody affinity, antigen concentration, the sensitivity of the method of detection, temperature, the length of the incubations, and other factors. (
  • Antibodies are also induced by artificial immunization with vaccines or following natural infections. (
  • Errors in blood grouping are occasionally due to anomalous antibodies or extraneous materials in the reagents. (
  • The production of antibodies against this antigen (or allergen) allows the formation of antibody-antigen complexes that trigger a massive secretion of potent mediators, resulting in organ failure, which may lead to a state of shock and possibly death. (
  • Fortunately, the immune response of antibody and complement can be transferred passively from one individual to another, as for example the transfer of maternal antibody across the placental barrier to the fetus, who has not yet developed a mature immune system. (
  • Affinity maturation of the immune response for a small-molecule hapten elicits binding site complementarity within an antibody that facilitates chemical catalysis. (
  • Therefore, a catalyst could be generated by probing the immune response for an antibody that can bind a small molecule, or hapten, that is a transition state analog of a desired chemical reaction. (
  • The antibody molecule is composed of four polypeptide chains (see peptide peptide, organic compound composed of amino acids linked together chemically by peptide bonds. (
  • Anti-sera used in each immunoprecipitation reaction are indicated on the top ('Beads' denotes no antibody added). (
  • The antigen-antibody reaction begins as soon as substances interpreted as foreign invaders gain entrance into the body. (
  • blocking antibody any antibody that by combining with an antigen blocks another immunologic reaction with the antigen. (
  • The range and scope of antibody catalysis is examined by reaction class, highlighting structural and mechanistic investigations to explore the roots of chemical catalysis by these designer biocatalysts. (
  • As a result, vaccines containing alum initiate a Th2-type antibody response (3). (
  • It's as if the antibodies cling to the virus but are unable to neutralize it. (
  • Often, the conjugation of the antibody and fluorophore is performed using primary amine-coupling chemistry that results in the attachment of the fluorophore to lysine residues. (
  • Below are the list of possible Archaeal-type glutamate synthase products. (
  • Also known as Archaeal-type glutamate synthase [NADPH] (Archaeal-type NADPH-GOGAT). (
  • 108Labs has announced the discovery of novel secretory antibody biosynthesis in the development of Colostrupedics™ whole-human infant formula, the first animal-free infant formula exclusively comprising cell-cultured human milk molecules derived from human mammary cell agriculture and formulated with broadly-neutralizing human secretory antibodies. (
  • Since 2013, 108Labs has pioneered mammary cell agriculture to free mothers as the exclusive producers of human milk molecules by developing the first infant formula biosimilar to mother's milk with secretory antibodies. (
  • Launching Colostrupedics™ whole-human infant formula with the world's first human secretory antibody ingredient is a major step in our mission to replace bovine with healthier whole-human milk worldwide by 2040," said Shayne Giuliano, co-founder and CEO of 108Labs. (
  • Two previously overlooked archaeal strains fill an evolutionary gap for microbes. (
  • Archaeal microvesicles and their exosomes, possibly associated with release of archaeal AMZ1 in heart failure, are future candidates of heart failure biomarkers if confirmed in larger series, and the therapeutic focus in the treatment of Chagas disease. (
  • These findings strongly suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaeal groups in soil autotrophically fix CO 2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate-4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, one of the two pathways recently identified for CO 2 fixation in Crenarchaeota . (
  • and generating an analysis of the sample from the sequences determined from at least one of the first and the second subsets of oligonucleotide-conjugated antibodies. (
  • In addition to obtaining unidentified archaeal reads from lung samples, the sequences also identified archaeal types previously not known to grow on the human body. (
  • Although the single-cell sequenced organisms were not directly visualized, their genomic sequences support the hypothesis that these archaeal DGRs belong to nanosized, symbiotic organisms. (
  • Along with these core DGR components, the archaeal DGRs contain initiation of mutagenic homing sequences in the VR (i.e. (
  • ab171870 - Rabbit polyclonal IgG, is suitable for use as an isotype control with this antibody. (
  • Most of the information about cell lysis is based on observations of a decrease in optical density (OD) in an infected culture, plaque assays, or plate growth inhibition assays, but little is known about the actual mechanism of archaeal lysis. (
  • In this study, eight single-chain antibodies (scFv) and one single-chain T-cell receptor (scTCR) were secreted as fusions to GFP using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system. (
  • Antibodies are widely used for cell immunostaining, flow cytometry, and cellular localization studies. (
  • However, our understanding regarding the properties and functions of the archaeal cell envelopes remains superficial. (
  • This activity is assisted by complement , which interacts with the antigen-antibody complex in such a way that the cell ruptures and there is dissolution ( lysis ) of the cell body. (
  • Thus, the archaeal ESCRT system plays a key role in cell division. (
  • Western immunoblotting detected IgG antibodies against M. oralis in eight of the 11 sera from patients. (
  • Get access to the best antibodies, discovery platforms, and know-how to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic programs. (
  • Custom antibody development and commercial partnerships to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. (