beta 2-Glycoprotein I
Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
Binding Sites, Antibody
Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Skin Diseases, Vascular
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Partial Thromboplastin Time
Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System
Panniculitis, Lupus Erythematosus
Blood Coagulation Factors
Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments
Molecular Sequence Data
Activated Protein C Resistance
Amino Acid Sequence
Heart Valve Diseases
Blue Toe Syndrome
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
Complement System Proteins
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune
International Normalized Ratio
Antiphospholipid, anti-beta 2-glycoprotein-I and anti-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome. (1/452)Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta 2-GPI) and anti-oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antibodies are all implicated in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome. To investigate whether different autoantibodies or combinations thereof produced distinct effects related to their antigenic specificities, we examined the frequencies of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-related features in the presence of different antibodies [aPL, beta 2-GPI, anti-oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL)] in 125 patients with APS. Median follow-up was 72 months: 58 patients were diagnosed as primary APS and 67 as APS plus systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-beta 2-GPI and anti-oxidized LDL antibodies were determined by ELISA; lupus anticoagulant (LA) by standard coagulometric methods. Univariate analysis showed that patients positive for anti-beta 2-GPI had a higher risk of recurrent thrombotic events (OR = 3.64, 95% CI, p = 0.01) and pregnancy loss (OR = 2.99, 95% CI, p = 0.004). Patients positive for anti-oxidized LDL antibodies had a 2.24-fold increase in the risk of arterial thrombosis (2.24, 95% CI, p = 0.03) and lower risk of thrombocytopenia (OR = 0.41 95% CI, p = 0.04). Patients positive for aCL antibodies had a higher risk of pregnancy loss (OR = 4.62 95% CI, p = 0.001). When these data were tested by multivariate logistic regression, the association between anti-beta 2-GPI and pregnancy loss and the negative association between anti-oxidized LDL antibodies and thrombocytopenia disappeared. (+info)
Antibodies against phospholipids and oxidized LDL in alcoholic patients. (2/452)Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) are a generic term describing antibodies that recognize various phospholipids. Hepatocyte damage is a cardinal event in the course of alcoholic liver injury and autoantibodies against phospholipids could play an important role in this process. APA in alcoholic patients seem to reflect membrane lesions, impairment of immunological reactivity, liver disease progression and they correlate significantly with disease severity. LDL oxidation is supposed to be one of the most important pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerosis and antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are some kind of an epiphenomenon of this process. The scope of our study was to determine some autoantibodies (IgG-oxLDL and antiphospholipid antibodies) and their possible changes in alcoholic patients. We studied IgG-oxLDL and four APA - anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA), antiphosphatidylserine antibodies (APSA) antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibodies (APE) and antiphosphatidylcholine antibodies (APCA) in 35 alcoholic patients with mildly affected liver function at the beginning of the abuse treatment. The control group consisted of 60 healthy blood donors. In the studied group, we obtained positive results concerning total ACA in 17.1 % of alcoholic patients (8.3 % in the control group), 11.4 % IgG-ACA (6.7 %), 8.6 % IgM-ACA (3.3 %), 14.3 % total APE (6.7 %), 14.3 % total APCA (8.3 %) and 20 % total APSA (8.3 % in the control group). The IgG-oxLDL (406.4+/-52.5 vs 499.9+/-52.5 mU/ml) was not affected in alcoholic patients. We conclude that the autoantibodies against oxLDL are present in sera of alcoholics and healthy blood donors. Based on our results which revealed a wide range of IgG-oxLDL titres in the healthy population, this parameter does not appear to be very promising for the evaluation of the risk of atherosclerosis. Alcoholics with only mild affection of liver functions did not exhibit a significantly higher prevalence of all studied antiphospholipid antibodies (ACA, APSA, APE, APCA) which could lead to membrane lesions in these patients. (+info)
The intrarenal vascular lesions associated with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. (3/452)Even 10 yr after the identification of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), renal involvement in the course of APS is still relatively unrecognized, and is probably underestimated. The association of anticardiolipin antibodies and/or lupus anticoagulant with the development of a vaso-occlusive process involving numerous organs is now confirmed. In a multicenter study, 16 cases of "primary" APS (PAPS) were found and followed for 5 yr or more, all with renal biopsy. In all 16 cases of PAPS, there was a vascular nephropathy characterized by small vessel vaso-occlusive lesions associated with fibrous intimal hyperplasia of interlobular arteries (12 patients), recanalizing thrombi in arteries and arterioles (six patients), and focal cortical atrophy (10 patients). In combination, these led to progressive destruction of the kidney, accelerated by acute glomerular and arteriolar microangiopathy in five patients. Focal cortical atrophy is a distinctive lesion, present in 10 biopsies, and likely represents the histologic and functional renal analogue to the multiple cerebral infarcts detected on imaging studies. The clinical hallmark of this vascular nephropathy in PAPS is systemic hypertension, only variably associated with renal insufficiency, proteinuria, or hematuria. The ensemble of histologic renal lesions defined in this study should aid in the separation of the lesions found in cases of secondary APS, especially systemic lupus erythematosus, into those lesions related to APS and those related to the underlying disease. (+info)
Factor V Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion. (4/452)We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who suffered two iliofemoral venous thromboses, a cerebral ischemic infarct and recurrent fetal loss. Initial studies showed high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and a moderate thrombocytopenia. After her second miscarriage, laboratory diagnosis revealed that the woman was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation and had a functional protein S deficiency as well as anti-protein S and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibodies. The impairment of the protein C pathway at various points could well explain the recurrent thromboses in the patient and supports the role of a disturbed protein C system in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APAs. (+info)
Anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in HIV infection. (5/452)This cross-sectional study evaluates the correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in 110 patients infected with HIV-1. There were 89.1% of the patients who had IgG antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine. The prevalence of IgM and IgA antibodies was < 22%. AIDS was associated with lower frequencies of IgM antibodies against cardiolipin (P = 0.05) and IgG-antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine (P = 0.011). Drug users had higher IgM antibodies against phospholipids than patients from other risk groups (P = 0.02). A history of thromboembolic events was not accompanied by higher levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies (P > 0.2). No correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells was detected. Percentage part of CD5+ B lymphocytes was elevated in all patients and absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and HIV p24 antigen were inversely correlated. In advanced disease a significant reduction of anti-phospholipid antibodies was contrasted with persistent elevation of CD5+ B lymphocytes. These observations may reflect immunological dysfunction involving apoptosis and endothelial damage rather than polyclonal B cell hyperstimulation. A possible explanation would be that in HIV infection an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes is accompanied by functional and structural changes of mitochondria. Therefore, structurally altered mitochondrial phospholipids could serve as antigen to induce specific humoral immune responses. (+info)
Antibodies to adult human endothelial cells cross-react with oxidized low-density lipoprotein and beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2-GPI) in systemic lupus erythematosus. (6/452)Cardiovascular manifestations are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is implicated in cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis, and cross-reacts with antibodies to cardiolipin (aCL). beta 2-GPI is a plasma protein participating in the coagulating cascade, and is also cofactor for aCL, and some aCL have been shown to be directed against beta 2-GPI and/or complexes between beta 2-GPI and phospholipids. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a phospholipid present both in oxLDL and in damaged endothelium, and we recently showed that LPC is involved in the antigenicity of oxLDL. Antibodies to endothelial cells (aEC) correlate with diseases activity in SLE and vasculitis, and we recently showed that aEC are enhanced in cardiovascular disease such as borderline hypertension and early atherosclerosis. aEC were determined using EC from adult V. Saphena Magna. Antibody levels were determined by ELISA. aEC of IgG type were enhanced in 184 patients with SLE compared with 85 healthy controls. There was a close correlation between aoxLDL, aCL, aLPC, a beta 2-GPI and aEC. Binding of sera to EC was competitively inhibited by beta 2-GPI, LPC and oxLDL. Taken together, the data indicate that EC share antigenic epitopes with beta 2-GPI and with oxLDL, especially LPC. Phospholipids in EC membranes may thus be antigenic epitopes. beta 2-GPI may bind to these phospholipids, and become an autoantigen. LPC is formed by oxidation of phospholipids and/or proinflammatory factors leading to activation of phospholipase A2, and the findings indicate the potential role of both lipid oxidation and phospholipase A2 in SLE. (+info)
The presence of infection-related antiphospholipid antibodies in infective endocarditis determines a major risk factor for embolic events. (7/452)OBJECTIVES: The impact of infection-associated antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) on endothelial cell activation, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis was evaluated in patients with infective endocarditis with and without major embolic events. BACKGROUND: An embolic event is a common and severe complication of infective endocarditis. Despite the fact that APAs are known to be associated with infectious diseases, their pathogenic role in infective endocarditis has not been clearly defined. METHODS: The relationship among the occurrence of major embolic events, echocardiographic vegetation size, endothelial cell activation, thrombin generation, fibrinolysis and APA was examined in 91 patients with definite infective endocarditis, including 26 patients with embolic events and 65 control subjects without embolic events. RESULTS: Overall, 14.3% of patients exhibited elevated APA levels. Embolic events occurred more frequently in patients with elevated levels of APA than in patients without (61.5% vs. 23.1%; p = 0.008). Patients with elevated levels of APA showed higher levels of prothrombin-fragment F1 +2 (p = 0.005), plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 (p = 0.0002), von Willebrand factor (p = 0.002) and lower levels of activated protein C (p = 0.001) than patients with normal levels of APA. Thrombin generation and endothelial cell activation were both positively correlated with levels of APA. The occurrence of elevated APA levels was frequently associated with structural valve abnormalities (p = 0.01) and vegetations >1.3 cm (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Infection-associated elevated APA levels in patients with infective endocarditis are related to endothelial cell activation, thrombin generation and impairment of fibrinolysis. This may contribute to the increased risk for major embolic events in these patients. (+info)
Antiphospholipid antibodies from antiphospholipid syndrome patients activate endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. (8/452)BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies are associated with thrombosis in patients diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and enhance thrombus formation in vivo in mice, but the mechanism of thrombosis by aPL is not completely understood. Although aPL antibodies have been shown to inhibit protein C activation and activate endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro, no study has examined whether these antibodies activate ECs in vivo. Therefore, human affinity-purified aPL (ap aPL) antibodies from APS patients were tested in a mouse model of microcirculation using the cremaster muscle that allows direct microscopic examination of thrombus formation and adhesion of white blood cells (WBCs) to ECs as an indication of EC activation in vivo. Adhesion molecule expression on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after aPL exposure was performed to confirm EC activation in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: All 6 ap aPL antibodies significantly increased the expression of VCAM-1 (2.3- to 4.4-fold), with one of the antibodies also increasing the expression of E-selectin (1.6-fold) on HUVECs in vitro. In the in vivo experiments, each ap aPL antibody except for 1 preparation increased WBC sticking (mean number of WBCs ranged from 22.7 to 50.6) compared with control (14.4), which correlated with enhanced thrombus formation (mean thrombus size ranged from 1098 to 6476 versus 594 microm2 for control). CONCLUSIONS: Activation of ECs by aPL antibodies in vivo may create a prothrombotic state on ECs, which may be the first pathophysiological event of thrombosis in APS. (+info)
The syndrome is typically diagnosed based on the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) or lupus anticoagulant in the blood. Treatment for antiphospholipid syndrome may involve medications to prevent blood clots, such as heparin or warfarin, and aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation. In some cases, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be given to reduce the levels of antibodies in the blood. Plasmapheresis, a process that removes antibodies from the blood, may also be used in some cases.
Antiphospholipid syndrome is associated with other autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and may be triggered by certain medications or infections. It is important for individuals with antiphospholipid syndrome to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and reduce the risk of complications.
There are several types of thrombosis, including:
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.
The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:
1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic
Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.
There are several subtypes of LES, including:
1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.
There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.
It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.
Examples: Some examples of catastrophic illnesses include:
1. Cancer: Especially aggressive forms such as pancreatic, lung, and brain cancer.
2. Neurodegenerative diseases: Conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease that can lead to cognitive decline, memory loss, and difficulty with movement and communication.
3. Organ transplant: The need for an organ transplant, particularly if the patient has end-stage renal disease or liver failure, can be catastrophic due to the high cost of medical care and the risk of complications.
4. Severe burns: Burns that cover a large portion of the body can require prolonged hospitalization, multiple surgeries, and rehabilitation, resulting in significant financial and emotional burden on the patient and their family.
5. Traumatic brain injury: A severe head injury can lead to long-term cognitive impairment, memory loss, and difficulty with communication and mobility, which can be catastrophic for the affected individual and their family.
6. Rare genetic disorders: Conditions such as Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia are rare and can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life, requiring extensive medical care and financial resources.
Impact on patients and families: Catastrophic illnesses can have a profound impact on both the patient and their family members. The physical and emotional toll of these conditions can lead to significant stress, anxiety, and depression. Additionally, the financial burden of medical care can result in bankruptcy, loss of employment, and other social and economic challenges.
Insurance coverage: To address the financial burden of catastrophic illnesses, many insurance plans offer catastrophic coverage, which provides a high level of coverage for expensive medical services and procedures. However, these policies often have high deductibles and co-payments, making them unaffordable for some families.
Government assistance: Governments around the world provide various forms of assistance to individuals with catastrophic illnesses. For example, in the United States, Medicare and Medicaid offer coverage for certain medical services and prescription drugs, while Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) provides financial support for individuals who are unable to work due to a disabling condition.
Charitable organizations: Many charitable organizations provide financial assistance and other resources to individuals with catastrophic illnesses and their families. For example, the Ronald McDonald House Charities provides housing and other support services to families of children receiving medical treatment for serious illnesses.
Research and development: Research into new treatments and therapies is ongoing for many catastrophic illnesses. Stem cell research, gene therapy, and other innovative approaches hold promise for improving outcomes and quality of life for individuals with these conditions.
Conclusion: Catastrophic illnesses are a significant challenge to the healthcare systems around the world. These illnesses can have a profound impact on the lives of patients and their families, both in terms of medical costs and quality of life. However, there are many resources available to help manage the financial burden of these conditions, including government assistance programs, charitable organizations, and research into new treatments and therapies. By leveraging these resources and working together to address the challenges posed by catastrophic illnesses, we can improve outcomes and quality of life for those affected by these conditions.
A condition in which spontaneous abortions occur repeatedly, often due to an underlying cause such as a uterine anomaly or infection. Also called recurrent spontaneous abortion.
Synonym(s): habitual abortion, recurrent abortion, spontaneous abortion.
Antonym(s): multiple pregnancy, retained placenta.
Example Sentence: "The patient had experienced four habitual abortions in the past year and was concerned about her ability to carry a pregnancy to term."
There are several types of thrombophilia, including:
1. Factor V Leiden: This is the most common inherited thrombophilia and is caused by a mutation in the Factor V gene.
2. Prothrombin G20210A: This is another inherited thrombophilia that is caused by a mutation in the Prothrombin gene.
3. Protein C and S deficiency: These are acquired deficiencies of protein C and S, which are important proteins that help to prevent blood clots.
4. Antiphospholipid syndrome: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body to produce antibodies against phospholipids, which can lead to blood clots.
5. Cancer-associated thrombophilia: This is a condition where cancer patients are at a higher risk of developing blood clots due to their cancer and its treatment.
6. Hormone-related thrombophilia: This is a condition where hormonal changes, such as those that occur during pregnancy or with the use of hormone replacement therapy, increase the risk of blood clots.
7. Inherited platelet disorders: These are rare conditions that affect the way platelets function and can increase the risk of blood clots.
8. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies: These are autoantibodies that can cause blood clots.
9. Lupus anticoagulant: This is an autoantibody that can cause blood clots.
10. Combined genetic and acquired risk factors: Some people may have a combination of inherited and acquired risk factors for thrombophilia.
Thrombophilia can be diagnosed through various tests, including:
1. Blood tests: These tests measure the levels of certain proteins in the blood that are associated with an increased risk of blood clots.
2. Genetic testing: This can help identify inherited risk factors for thrombophilia.
3. Imaging tests: These tests, such as ultrasound and venography, can help doctors visualize the blood vessels and look for signs of blood clots.
4. Thrombin generation assay: This test measures the body's ability to produce thrombin, a protein that helps form blood clots.
5. Platelet function tests: These tests assess how well platelets work and whether they are contributing to the development of blood clots.
Treatment for thrombophilia usually involves medications to prevent or dissolve blood clots, as well as measures to reduce the risk of developing new clots. These may include:
1. Anticoagulant drugs: These medications, such as warfarin and heparin, are used to prevent blood clots from forming.
2. Thrombolytic drugs: These medications are used to dissolve blood clots that have already formed.
3. Compression stockings: These stockings can help reduce swelling and improve blood flow in the affected limb.
4. Elevating the affected limb: This can help reduce swelling and improve blood flow.
5. Avoiding long periods of immobility: This can help reduce the risk of developing blood clots.
In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a blood clot or repair a damaged blood vessel. In addition, people with thrombophilia may need to make lifestyle changes, such as avoiding long periods of immobility and taking regular breaks to move around, to reduce their risk of developing blood clots.
Overall, the prognosis for thrombophilia is generally good if the condition is properly diagnosed and treated. However, if left untreated, thrombophilia can lead to serious complications, such as pulmonary embolism or stroke, which can be life-threatening. It is important for people with thrombophilia to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage the condition and reduce the risk of complications.
The primary symptom of Sneddon syndrome is excessive intracranial pressure (ICP), which can lead to enlargement of the skull and deformation of the brain. Other symptoms may include headaches, seizures, and developmental delays. The condition usually becomes apparent in infancy or early childhood, and its course can be highly variable.
Ophthalmological manifestations are a key feature of Sneddon syndrome, with most affected individuals developing characteristic eye abnormalities such as papilledema (swelling of the optic disc), retinal detachment, and cataracts. These changes can lead to vision loss if left untreated.
Sneddon syndrome is a rare disorder, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the medical literature. It is important to note that there is no cure for Sneddon syndrome, but various treatments such as medications to reduce ICP and surgical interventions can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial to improve outcomes for affected individuals.
1. Iron deficiency anemia: This is the most common hematologic complication of pregnancy, caused by the increased demand for iron and the potential for poor dietary intake or gastrointestinal blood loss.
2. Thrombocytopenia: A decrease in platelet count, which can be mild and resolve spontaneously or severe and require treatment.
3. Leukemia: Rare but potentially serious, leukemia can occur during pregnancy and may require prompt intervention to ensure the health of both the mother and the fetus.
4. Thrombosis: The formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel, which can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
5. Hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding during pregnancy, which can be caused by various factors such as placenta previa or abruption.
6. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the kidneys and liver, which can increase the risk of hemorrhage and other complications.
7. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus, often in the fallopian tube, which can cause severe bleeding and be life-threatening if left untreated.
1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.
It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.
1. Erythema nodosum: This is a condition that causes red, painful lumps to form on the skin, often on the legs. It is usually caused by an allergic reaction or a bacterial infection.
2. Pyoderma gangrenosum: This is a condition that causes large, painful sores to form on the skin, often after surgery or injury. The sores can become infected and leave scars.
3. Vasculitis: This is a general term for inflammation of the blood vessels. It can cause a range of symptoms, including skin rashes, joint pain, and fatigue.
4. Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis (CLA): This is a rare condition that causes small blood vessels in the skin to become inflamed and damaged. It can lead to skin rashes, ulcers, and scarring.
5. Polyarteritis nodosa: This is a rare condition that affects the small and medium-sized arteries in the body, including those in the skin. It can cause skin rashes, joint pain, and other symptoms.
6. Takayasu arteritis: This is a rare condition that affects the aorta and its branches, causing inflammation and damage to the blood vessels. It can lead to skin rashes, joint pain, and other symptoms.
7. Buerger's disease: This is a rare condition that affects the small and medium-sized blood vessels in the hands and feet, causing inflammation and damage. It can lead to skin rashes, ulcers, and gangrene.
8. Scleroderma: This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the skin and other organs. It can cause thickening and hardening of the skin, as well as joint pain, fatigue, and other symptoms.
9. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect many parts of the body, including the skin. It can cause skin rashes, joint pain, fatigue, and other symptoms.
10. Rheumatoid arthritis: This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the joints and can also cause inflammation in other parts of the body, including the skin. It can lead to skin rashes, joint pain, and other symptoms.
These are just a few examples of conditions that can cause skin rashes and joint pain. There are many other possible causes, and it's important to see a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected limb. In some cases, the clot can break loose and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening condition called Pulmonary Embolism (PE).
Treatment for venous thrombosis typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
Prevention of venous thrombosis includes encouraging movement and exercise, avoiding long periods of immobility, and wearing compression stockings or sleeves to compress the veins and improve blood flow.
Symptoms of CNS lupus vasculitis can include headaches, seizures, confusion, weakness or paralysis, vision problems, and changes in personality or behavior. The condition can be difficult to diagnose, as it may mimic other conditions such as stroke, infection, or tumors.
Treatment of CNS lupus vasculitis typically involves high doses of corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage. In severe cases, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasmapheresis may be used to remove harmful antibodies from the blood. Anticoagulation therapy may also be prescribed to prevent blood clots.
While CNS lupus vasculitis can be a life-threatening condition, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve outcomes. However, long-term follow-up is essential to monitor for recurrences of the disease and manage any ongoing neurological symptoms.
The symptoms of pulmonary embolism can vary, but may include shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing up blood, rapid heart rate, and fever. In some cases, the clot may be large enough to cause a pulmonary infarction (a " lung injury" caused by lack of oxygen), which can lead to respiratory failure and death.
Pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed with imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasound. Treatment typically involves medications to dissolve the clot or prevent new ones from forming, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot.
Preventive measures include:
* Avoiding prolonged periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Exercising regularly to improve circulation
* Managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and cancer
* Taking blood-thinning medications to prevent clot formation
Early recognition and treatment of pulmonary embolism are critical to reduce the risk of complications and death.
There are different types of fetal death, including:
1. Stillbirth: This refers to the death of a fetus after the 20th week of gestation. It can be caused by various factors, such as infections, placental problems, or umbilical cord compression.
2. Miscarriage: This occurs before the 20th week of gestation and is usually due to chromosomal abnormalities or hormonal imbalances.
3. Ectopic pregnancy: This is a rare condition where the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. It can cause fetal death and is often diagnosed in the early stages of pregnancy.
4. Intrafamilial stillbirth: This refers to the death of two or more fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, usually due to genetic abnormalities or placental problems.
The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound examination or other imaging tests, such as MRI or CT scans. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may be unknown, and further testing and investigation may be required to determine the underlying cause.
There are various ways to manage fetal death, depending on the stage of pregnancy and the cause of the death. In some cases, a vaginal delivery may be necessary, while in others, a cesarean section may be performed. In cases where the fetus has died due to a genetic abnormality, couples may choose to undergo genetic counseling and testing to assess their risk of having another affected pregnancy.
Overall, fetal death is a tragic event that can have significant emotional and psychological impact on parents and families. It is essential to provide compassionate support and care to those affected by this loss, while also ensuring appropriate medical management and follow-up.
Examples of autoimmune diseases include:
1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.
The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.
There are several possible causes of thrombocytopenia, including:
1. Immune-mediated disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
2. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia or leukemia.
3. Viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C.
4. Medications such as chemotherapy or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
5. Vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin B12 and folate.
6. Genetic disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
7. Sepsis or other severe infections.
8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition where blood clots form throughout the body.
9. Postpartum thrombocytopenia, which can occur in some women after childbirth.
Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include platelet transfusions, steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and in severe cases, surgery.
In summary, thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low platelet counts that can increase the risk of bleeding and bruising. It can be caused by various factors, and treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause.
LE can affect anyone, but it is most common in women between the ages of 15 and 45. The symptoms of LE can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:
* Skin rashes and lesions, especially on the face, arms, and legs
* Joint pain and swelling
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Hair loss
* Chest pain
* Abdominal pain
LE can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are similar to other conditions, such as psoriasis or drug reactions. A biopsy of the skin or affected organ is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for LE typically involves medications to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, such as corticosteroids, antimalarial drugs, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.
LE can be a challenging disease to live with, but with proper treatment and self-care, many people are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. It is important for people with LE to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their condition and adjust their treatment as needed.
APC resistance can be caused by genetic or acquired factors and can lead to a range of clinical presentations, including:
1. Hereditary bleeding disorders: Familial APC resistance is caused by mutations in the APC gene and can result in severe bleeding, especially during childhood.
2. Acquired APC resistance: This can occur due to certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, sepsis, or cancer, which can impair APC function.
3. Drug-induced APC resistance: Certain medications, like anticoagulants, can reduce APC activity and lead to APC resistance.
Diagnosis of APC resistance typically involves testing for APC activity in the blood, as well as genetic analysis to identify mutations in the APC gene. Treatment options for APC resistance depend on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP): FFP can be used to replace missing or deficient APC in the blood.
2. Recombinant APC: This is a synthetic version of APC that can be used to replace missing or deficient APC.
3. Anticoagulants: These medications can help prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of thrombotic events.
4. Platelet inhibitors: These medications can help prevent platelet aggregation, which can contribute to bleeding.
Overall, APC resistance is a rare but important condition that can affect blood coagulation and increase the risk of bleeding or thrombotic events. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to manage the condition effectively and prevent complications.
Anetoderma typically affects adult women, particularly those in their 30s and 40s, although it can also occur in men and children. The exact cause of anetoderma is not known, but it is believed to be related to hormonal changes, genetic predisposition, or other underlying skin conditions such as rosacea or acne.
The diagnosis of anetoderma is based on the appearance of the nodules and may involve a biopsy to rule out other potential causes. Treatment for anetoderma is not always necessary, but it may be recommended if the condition is causing cosmetic concerns or discomfort. Treatment options include topical medications such as corticosteroids, retinoids, and antibiotics, as well as laser therapy and cryotherapy (freezing) to remove the nodules.
Anetoderma is a relatively rare condition, and there is limited research on its causes and treatment options. As a result, it can be challenging for dermatologists and other healthcare providers to diagnose and manage anetoderma effectively. However, with proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment, most people with anetoderma can experience improved cosmetic appearance and reduced discomfort.
Symptoms of meningism may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, the condition can lead to seizures, coma, and even death.
Diagnosis of meningism typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as lumbar puncture or imaging studies. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may involve antibiotics, antiviral medication, corticosteroids, or surgery.
In some cases, meningism can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as meningitis or encephalitis, which can be life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are two main types of thrombophlebitis:
1. Superficial thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the superficial veins, which are located just under the skin. It is often caused by injury or trauma to the vein, and it can cause redness, swelling, and pain in the affected area.
2. Deep vein thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the deep veins, which are located deeper in the body. It is often caused by blood clots that form in the legs or arms, and it can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and warmth in the affected limb.
Thrombophlebitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Injury or trauma to the vein
2. Blood clotting disorders
3. Prolonged bed rest or immobility
4. Surgery or medical procedures
5. Certain medications, such as hormone replacement therapy or chemotherapy
6. Age, as the risk of developing thrombophlebitis increases with age
7. Family history of blood clotting disorders
8. Increased pressure on the veins, such as during pregnancy or obesity
Thrombophlebitis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
1. Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images of the veins and can help identify blood clots or inflammation.
2. Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to make it visible under X-ray imaging.
3. Blood tests: These can be used to check for signs of blood clotting disorders or other underlying conditions that may be contributing to the development of thrombophlebitis.
Treatment for thrombophlebitis typically involves anticoagulation therapy, which is designed to prevent the blood clot from growing larger and to prevent new clots from forming. This can involve medications such as heparin or warfarin, or other drugs that work by blocking the production of clots. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
In addition to anticoagulation therapy, treatment for thrombophlebitis may also include:
1. Elevation of the affected limb to reduce swelling
2. Compression stockings to help reduce swelling and improve blood flow
3. Pain management with medication or heat or cold applications
4. Antibiotics if there is an infection
5. Rest and avoiding strenuous activities until the symptoms resolve.
In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the affected vein.
It's important to note that early diagnosis and treatment of thrombophlebitis can help prevent complications such as infection, inflammation, or damage to the valves in the affected vein. If you suspect you or someone else may have thrombophlebitis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.
The symptoms of MT can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation, but may include:
1. Weakness or paralysis in the arms and legs
2. Numbness or tingling sensations in the limbs
3. Bladder and bowel dysfunction
4. Pain and stiffness in the neck, back, and limbs
5. Fatigue and fever
6. Difficulty with coordination and balance
7. Vision problems
The exact cause of MT is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the spinal cord. It can be triggered by a variety of factors, such as infections, genetic predisposition, and exposure to toxins.
Diagnosis of MT is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as MRI. Treatment options include corticosteroids, immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, which can help reduce inflammation and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve compressive symptoms or remove abscesses.
Prognosis for MT varies depending on the severity of the disease and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. While some individuals may experience a full recovery, others may have persistent neurological deficits or recurrent episodes of inflammation.
Eclampsia can occur at any time after the 20th week of pregnancy, but it is more common in the third trimester. It can also occur after delivery, especially in women who have a history of preeclampsia during pregnancy.
Symptoms of eclampsia can include:
1. Seizures or convulsions
2. Loss of consciousness or coma
3. Confusion or disorientation
4. Muscle weakness or paralysis
5. Vision problems or blurred vision
6. Numbness or tingling sensations in the hands and feet
7. Headaches or severe head pain
8. Abdominal pain or discomfort
9. Bladder or bowel incontinence
10. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat.
Eclampsia is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Treatment typically involves delivery of the baby, either by cesarean section or vaginal birth, and management of the high blood pressure and any other complications that may have arisen. In some cases, medication may be given to help lower the blood pressure and prevent further seizures.
Preventive measures for eclampsia include regular prenatal care, careful monitoring of blood pressure during pregnancy, and early detection and treatment of preeclampsia. Women who have had preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy or who are at high risk for the condition may be advised to take aspirin or other medications to reduce their risk of developing eclampsia.
In summary, eclampsia is a serious medical condition that can occur during pregnancy and is characterized by seizures or coma caused by high blood pressure. It is a life-threatening complication of preeclampsia and requires immediate medical attention.
Thromboembolism can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, surgery, cancer, and certain medical conditions like atrial fibrillation. It can also be inherited or acquired through genetic mutations.
The symptoms of thromboembolism depend on the location of the clot and the severity of the blockage. They may include:
* Swelling or redness in the affected limb
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
* Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs (pulmonary embolism)
* Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting
Thromboembolism can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood tests. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, thrombolysis or clot-busting drugs may be used to dissolve the clot. Filters can also be placed in the vena cava to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
Prevention of thromboembolism includes:
* Moving around regularly to improve blood flow
* Avoiding long periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Elevating the affected limb to reduce swelling
* Compression stockings to improve blood flow
* Avoiding smoking and managing weight
* Taking anticoagulant medications if recommended by a healthcare provider.
There are different types of gangrene, including:
1. Wet gangrene: This type of gangrene is caused by bacterial infection and is characterized by a foul odor. It is often associated with diabetes, peripheral artery disease, and other conditions that affect blood flow.
2. Dry gangrene: This type of gangrene is not caused by infection and is often associated with circulatory problems or nerve damage. It does not have a foul odor like wet gangrene.
3. Gas gangrene: This type of gangrene is caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens and is characterized by the presence of gas in the tissue.
4. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria infect the tissue under the skin, causing widespread damage to the skin and underlying tissues.
The signs and symptoms of gangrene can vary depending on the type and location of the affected tissue, but they may include:
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Swelling or redness in the affected area
* A foul odor in the case of wet gangrene
* Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
Gangrene is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for gangrene depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue), and amputation in severe cases.
Prevention measures for gangrene include:
* Proper wound care to prevent infection
* Keeping blood sugar levels under control in people with diabetes
* Avoiding smoking and other unhealthy lifestyle habits that can increase the risk of infection and circulatory problems
* Getting prompt medical attention for any injuries or infections to prevent them from spreading and causing gangrene.
Prognosis for gangrene depends on the severity of the condition and the underlying cause. In general, early diagnosis and treatment improve the outlook, while delayed treatment or the presence of underlying health conditions can increase the risk of complications and death.
There are several types of heart valve diseases, including:
1. Mitral regurgitation: This occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium.
2. Aortic stenosis: This occurs when the aortic valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the left ventricle into the aorta.
3. Pulmonary stenosis: This occurs when the pulmonary valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
4. Tricuspid regurgitation: This occurs when the tricuspid valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the right atrium.
5. Heart valve thickening or calcification: This can occur due to aging, rheumatic fever, or other conditions that cause inflammation in the heart.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can damage the heart valves.
7. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a condition caused by rheumatic fever, which can damage the heart valves and cause scarring.
8. Congenital heart defects: These are heart defects that are present at birth, and can affect the heart valves as well as other structures of the heart.
Symptoms of heart valve disease can include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs or feet, and chest pain. Treatment options for heart valve disease depend on the specific condition and can range from medication to surgery or other procedures.
Hellp Syndrome is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Treatment typically involves providing supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and fluid and electrolyte replacement, as well as addressing the underlying cause of the syndrome, such as preeclampsia or eclampsia. In severe cases, delivery of the baby may be necessary to prevent further complications.
Symptoms of endocarditis may include fever, fatigue, joint pain, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the condition can lead to serious complications, such as heart valve damage, stroke, or death.
Treatment for endocarditis typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. Preventive measures include good dental hygiene, avoiding risky behaviors such as injecting drugs, and keeping wounds clean and covered.
Endocarditis is a serious condition that can have long-term consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients.
Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, is a rare condition where the adrenal glands are damaged or destroyed, leading to a decrease in cortisol and aldosterone production. This can be caused by autoimmune disorders, genetic defects, or viral infections.
Secondary adrenal insufficiency is more common and occurs when the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, does not produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and aldosterone. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and pituitary tumors.
Adrenal insufficiency can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weight loss, muscle weakness, and low blood pressure. Treatment typically involves hormone replacement therapy with cortisol and aldosterone supplements, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition.
In summary, adrenal insufficiency is a condition where the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and aldosterone hormones, leading to a range of symptoms and potential complications. It can be classified into primary and secondary types, and treatment involves hormone replacement therapy and addressing any underlying causes.
There are several types of vasculitis, each with its own set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of vasculitis include:
1. Giant cell arteritis: This is the most common form of vasculitis, and it affects the large arteries in the head, neck, and arms. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and loss of appetite.
2. Takayasu arteritis: This type of vasculitis affects the aorta and its major branches, leading to inflammation in the blood vessels that supply the heart, brain, and other vital organs. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
3. Polymyalgia rheumatica: This is an inflammatory condition that affects the muscles and joints, as well as the blood vessels. It often occurs in people over the age of 50 and is frequently associated with giant cell arteritis. Symptoms include pain and stiffness in the shoulders, hips, and other joints, as well as fatigue and fever.
4. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare condition that affects children under the age of 5, causing inflammation in the blood vessels that supply the heart and other organs. Symptoms include high fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes, and irritability.
The exact cause of vasculitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own blood vessels. Genetic factors may also play a role in some cases.
Diagnosis of vasculitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as blood tests, imaging studies (e.g., MRI or CT scans), and biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific type of vasculitis and its severity, but may include medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as lifestyle modifications such as exercise and stress management techniques. In severe cases, surgery or organ transplantation may be necessary.
In addition to these specific types of vasculitis, there are other conditions that can cause similar symptoms and may be included in the differential diagnosis, such as:
1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): This is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the joints and can cause inflammation in blood vessels.
2. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is another autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple systems, including the skin, joints, and blood vessels.
3. Polyarteritis nodosa: This is a condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, often in association with hepatitis B or C infection.
4. Takayasu arteritis: This is a rare condition that affects the aorta and its branches, causing inflammation and narrowing of the blood vessels.
5. Giant cell arteritis: This is a condition that causes inflammation of the large and medium-sized blood vessels, often in association with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).
6. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare condition that affects children, causing inflammation of the blood vessels and potential heart complications.
7. Henoch-Schönlein purpura: This is a rare condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels in the skin, joints, and gastrointestinal tract.
8. IgG4-related disease: This is a condition that can affect various organs, including the pancreas, bile ducts, and blood vessels, causing inflammation and potentially leading to fibrosis or tumor formation.
It is important to note that these conditions may have similar symptoms and signs as vasculitis, but they are distinct entities with different causes and treatment approaches. A thorough diagnostic evaluation, including laboratory tests and imaging studies, is essential to determine the specific diagnosis and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
The primary symptoms of Blue Toe Syndrome are:
* Discoloration: The affected areas turn white or blue due to lack of blood flow.
* Numbness and tingling: There is a loss of sensation in the fingers or toes.
* Pain: The affected areas may feel painful or tender to the touch.
* Coldness: The extremities may feel cold to the touch.
The exact cause of Blue Toe Syndrome is not known, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune disorder or a response to certain triggers such as cold temperatures, stress, or certain medications. The condition can also be associated with other medical conditions, such as scleroderma, lupus, or rheumatoid arthritis.
There is no cure for Blue Toe Syndrome, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:
* Medications: Drugs such as calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, and vasodilators can be used to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow.
* Lifestyle changes: Avoiding triggers such as cold temperatures, quitting smoking, and exercising regularly can help manage the condition.
* Physical therapy: Gentle exercises can help improve blood flow and reduce pain.
* Surgery: In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to improve blood flow or repair damaged tissues.
In conclusion, Blue Toe Syndrome is a condition that affects blood flow to the fingers and toes, causing discoloration, numbness, pain, and coldness. While there is no cure for the condition, various treatments can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.
There are several types of lupus nephritis, each with its own unique characteristics and symptoms. The most common forms include:
* Class I (mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis): This type is characterized by the growth of abnormal cells in the glomeruli (blood-filtering units of the kidneys).
* Class II (active lupus nephritis): This type is characterized by widespread inflammation and damage to the kidneys, with or without the presence of antibodies.
* Class III (focal lupus nephritis): This type is characterized by localized inflammation in certain areas of the kidneys.
* Class IV (lupus nephritis with crescentic glomerulonephritis): This type is characterized by widespread inflammation and damage to the kidneys, with crescent-shaped tissue growth in the glomeruli.
* Class V (lupus nephritis with sclerotic changes): This type is characterized by hardening and shrinkage of the glomeruli due to scarring.
Lupus Nephritis can cause a range of symptoms, including:
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Reduced kidney function
* Swelling (edema)
* Joint pain
Lupus Nephritis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and kidney biopsy. Treatment options for lupus nephritis include medications to suppress the immune system, control inflammation, and prevent further damage to the kidneys. In severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.
The term "infarction" is derived from the Latin words "in" meaning "into" and "farcire" meaning "to stuff", which refers to the idea that the tissue becomes "stuffed" with blood, leading to cell death and necrosis.
Infarction can be caused by a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the blood vessels), embolism (a blood clot or other foreign material that blocks the flow of blood), and vasospasm (constriction of the blood vessels).
The symptoms of infarction vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage, but can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, numbness or weakness in the affected limbs, and confusion or difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
Diagnosis of infarction typically involves imaging tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, or computerized tomography (CT) scans to confirm the presence of a blockage and assess the extent of the damage. Treatment options for infarction include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to restore blood flow, and other interventions to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Prevention of infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and obesity, as well as maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine. Early detection and treatment of blockages can help reduce the risk of infarction and minimize the damage to affected tissues.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a specific type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells. This can happen due to various underlying causes such as infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer.
In autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system produces antibodies that coat the surface of red blood cells and mark them for destruction by other immune cells called complement proteins. This leads to the premature destruction of red blood cells in the spleen, liver, and other organs.
Symptoms of autoimmune hemolytic anemia can include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and a pale or yellowish complexion. Treatment options for AIHA depend on the underlying cause of the disorder, but may include medications to suppress the immune system, plasmapheresis to remove antibodies from the blood, and in severe cases, splenectomy (removal of the spleen) or bone marrow transplantation.
In summary, autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells, leading to premature destruction of red blood cells and various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and jaundice. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the disorder and may include medications, plasmapheresis, and in severe cases, splenectomy or bone marrow transplantation.
There are several types of prenatal injuries that can occur, including:
1. Maternal infections: Infections such as rubella, toxoplasmosis, and listeriosis can be harmful to the developing fetus.
2. Premature birth: When a baby is born too early, they may not have fully developed organs and may be at risk for developmental delays or other complications.
3. Fetal distress: This occurs when the fetus does not receive enough oxygen or blood flow, which can cause brain damage or even death.
4. Birth defects: These are physical abnormalities that occur during fetal development and can be caused by genetic or environmental factors. Examples include heart defects, cleft palate, and spina bifida.
5. Chromosomal abnormalities: These are changes in the number or structure of the chromosomes that can affect fetal development and survival. Examples include Down syndrome and Turner syndrome.
6. Maternal stress: High levels of stress during pregnancy have been linked to a range of negative outcomes for both the mother and the developing fetus.
7. Substance abuse: The use of drugs or alcohol during pregnancy can be harmful to the developing fetus and increase the risk of prenatal injuries.
8. Physical trauma: Injuries that occur during pregnancy, such as car accidents or falls, can cause harm to both the mother and the developing fetus.
Prenatal injuries can have a range of short-term and long-term consequences for the affected child, including developmental delays, physical disabilities, and cognitive impairments. In some cases, these injuries can be life-threatening or fatal.
Preventing prenatal injuries is essential to ensuring a healthy pregnancy and optimal fetal development. This can involve maintaining good prenatal care, avoiding harmful substances like drugs and alcohol, managing chronic medical conditions, and taking steps to minimize physical trauma during pregnancy.
Early detection of prenatal injuries is critical to ensuring the best possible outcomes for affected children. This may involve monitoring fetal development through regular ultrasound examinations and screening tests, as well as monitoring the mother's health and any potential risks or complications during pregnancy.
Treatment of prenatal injuries will depend on the specific nature and severity of the injury, as well as the timing and stage of fetal development. This may involve a range of medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or other therapeutic approaches, as well as supportive care for the mother and child. In some cases, early detection and treatment may help to prevent or minimize long-term consequences of prenatal injuries.
Overall, preventing and detecting prenatal injuries is essential to ensuring a healthy pregnancy and optimal fetal development. By understanding the causes and risk factors for these injuries, and by seeking timely medical care if any potential issues are identified, expectant mothers can help to protect their unborn children from harm and promote a healthy, successful pregnancy.
Some common puerperal disorders include:
1. Puerperal fever: This is a bacterial infection that can occur during the postpartum period, usually caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus bacteria. Symptoms include fever, chills, and abdominal pain.
2. Postpartum endometritis: This is an inflammation of the lining of the uterus that can occur after childbirth, often caused by bacterial infection. Symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, and vaginal discharge.
3. Postpartum bleeding: This is excessive bleeding that can occur during the postpartum period, often caused by tears or lacerations to the uterus or cervix during childbirth.
4. Breast engorgement: This is a common condition that occurs when the breasts become full and painful due to milk production.
5. Mastitis: This is an inflammation of the breast tissue that can occur during breastfeeding, often caused by bacterial infection. Symptoms include redness, swelling, and warmth in the breast.
6. Postpartum depression: This is a mood disorder that can occur after childbirth, characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and hopelessness.
7. Postpartum anxiety: This is an anxiety disorder that can occur after childbirth, characterized by excessive worry, fear, and anxiety.
8. Urinary incontinence: This is the loss of bladder control during the postpartum period, often caused by weakened pelvic muscles.
9. Constipation: This is a common condition that can occur after childbirth, often caused by hormonal changes and decreased bowel motility.
10. Breastfeeding difficulties: These can include difficulty latching, painful feeding, and low milk supply.
It's important to note that not all women will experience these complications, and some may have different symptoms or none at all. Additionally, some complications may require medical attention, while others may be managed with self-care measures or support from a healthcare provider. It's important for new mothers to seek medical advice if they have any concerns about their physical or emotional well-being during the postpartum period.
Stuart W. Jamieson
Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome
Massive perivillous fibrin deposition
David L. Reich
STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy
Michael D. Lockshin
Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy
Single colour reflectometry
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8
Matthew H. Liang
Sammy Lee (scientist)
List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
Renal vein thrombosis
List of complications of pregnancy
Activated protein C resistance
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NIH Guide: ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODY AND LUPUS ANTICOAGULANT
Antiphospholipid antibodies in stillbirth - PubMed
An investigation of the role of antiphospholipid antibodies and [beta]2 glycoprotein-I in the modulation of haemostatic...
Anti Phospholipid Antibodies IgA - Preparation, Procedure, Cost, Normal Range | Practo
Antiphospholipid syndrome - APS: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
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Deep vein thrombosis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Optic Atrophy Workup: Imaging Studies, Other Tests
Pregnancy-Related Death Associated with Heparin and Aspirin Treatment for Infertility, 1996
The use of laboratory tests in the diagnosis of SLE | Journal of Clinical Pathology
HSS presents research related to rheumatology and orthopedic surgery at 2020 ACR annual meeting
Antiphospholipid antibodies and single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients with venous ulcer in the population of Latvia -...
Blood Clotting Disorders - What Are Blood Clotting Disorders? | NHLBI, NIH
Meningococcemia Differential Diagnoses
Migratory Thrombophlebitis and Acute Q Fever - Volume 10, Number 3-March 2004 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
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Ecem Sevim, M.D. | About NIAMS | NIAMS
Thromboembolism in Pregnancy Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations
Anticardiolipin antibodies in women with recurrent abortion
Pregnancy and Hematology - Brigham and Women's Hospital
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Author Page for R Pérez-Montes :: SSRN
- RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Background Autoimmune antiphospholipid antibody and lupus anticoagulant, two closely related antibodies, are associated with a clinical syndrome consisting of recurrent thromboocclusive disease, livedo reticularis, and repeated in utero fetal deaths. (nih.gov)
- Animal models for the antibody and for the syndrome do not currently exist. (nih.gov)
- Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder that involves frequent blood clots (thromboses). (medlineplus.gov)
- Antiphospholipid syndrome APS is an autoimmune disorder and associated with the risk of abnormal blood clot formation. (practo.com)
- In this syndrome, antibodies attack the lipid-proteins found in the outermost layer od the cell membranes and platelets. (practo.com)
- If test results are more than the normal range it may indicate that there may be a chance for the presence of Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies-IgA in the blood which may occur due to Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome APS . (practo.com)
- Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are described in individuals with leprosy without the clinical features of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), a condition involving thromboembolic phenomena. (bvsalud.org)
- In a survey of 102 vaccinated patients (67 who received Pfizer and 35 who received Moderna), 52 had an antiphospholipid syndrome diagnosis and 50 had antiphospholipid antibodies without clinical features of the syndrome. (autoimmuneinstitute.org)
- More specific vaccine responses included "one patient with thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome and a known history of mild thrombocytopenia (110,000/mm³), who was on long-term vitamin K antagonist therapy, reported the occurrence of self-limiting purpuric lesions on her calves 10 days after the second dose. (autoimmuneinstitute.org)
- The function of the antiphospholipid antibody - IgM test is to evaluate the cause of prolonged PTT, recurrent miscarriages, helps to diagnose embodied antiphospholipid syndrome and autoimmune disorders, by measuring the antiphospholipid IgM antibodies. (diagnosticcentres.in)
- If your test results show a high level of any APL, it may indicate you have a higher risk of blood clots, or may have antiphospholipid syndrome. (diagnosticcentres.in)
- However, a high APL - igM level does not always mean antiphospholipid syndrome, your doctor may give further tests to confirm. (diagnosticcentres.in)
- Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder that causes abnormal blood clots to form. (nih.gov)
- The study was done in parallel with an international effort to develop new classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome. (news-medical.net)
- She previously worked as a research fellow for the international consortium AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking (APS ACTION). (nih.gov)
- The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), defined by thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss in the presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies, is generally treated with anticoagulation. (biomedcentral.com)
- This retrospective review of hospital records analysed pregnancy outcome with 2 different treatments for women with recurrent miscarriage diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome in the index pregnancy. (who.int)
- Aspirin alone or in combination with heparin was equally efficacious in women with antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent miscarriage. (who.int)
- Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a disorder characterized by the presence of medium to high levels of lupus anticoagulant antibodies (LAC) and anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL)-the so-called antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). (who.int)
- 20. Identification of thrombin antibodies in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. (nih.gov)
- At this point, we don't know if this is a "typical" miscarriage or one caused by Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome. (thespohrsaremultiplying.com)
- What is antiphospholipid syndrome? (nih.gov)
- Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare autoimmune disorder caused when antibodies-immune system cells that fight off bacteria and viruses-mistakenly attack normal proteins in the blood. (nih.gov)
- How can I or my loved one help improve care for people with antiphospholipid syndrome? (nih.gov)
- Consider participating in a clinical trial so clinicians and scientists can learn more about antiphospholipid syndrome and related disorders. (nih.gov)
- Where can I find more information about antiphospholipid syndrome? (nih.gov)
- XARELTO is not for use in people with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), especially with positive triple antibody testing. (nih.gov)
- SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS and ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME ), some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals. (nih.gov)
- Maternal sera were assayed for immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies. (nih.gov)
- Elevated levels of IgG anticardiolipin and IgG anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies were associated with an approximate threefold increased odds of stillbirth (crude odds ratio [OR] 3.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.79-6.60, 3.8% compared with 1.1% and OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.30-7.72, (1.9% compared with 0.6%, respectively) when all deliveries with stillbirth were compared with all deliveries with live birth. (nih.gov)
- IgG anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies (1.9% compared with 0.6%) had an OR of 3.00 (95% CI 1.01-8.90) and IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (6.0% compared with 3.0%) had an OR of 2.03 (95% CI 1.09-3.76). (nih.gov)
- Elevated levels of anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies were associated with a threefold to fivefold increased odds of stillbirth. (nih.gov)
- Whole IgG and affinity purified anticardiolipin antibodies (APaCL) were isolated from the plasmas of patients with aPAs in order to examine the specific effects of these antibodies on haemostatic reactions. (ucl.ac.uk)
- The study sample consisted of 38 patients with a diagnosis of leprosy being followed up at the Dermatology and Venereology Outpatient Department at the Alfredo da Matta Foundation (FUAM) in Manaus, AM. ELISA was used to detect anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-ß2 glycoprotein I (anti-ß2GPI) antibodies . (bvsalud.org)
- The blood tests look for the three APS antibodies in your blood: anticardiolipin, beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI), and lupus anticoagulant. (nih.gov)
- The present study sought to determine whether the level of anticardiolipin antibodies in women with recurrent abortion differed from that in the general population. (who.int)
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for detection of anticardiolipin antibodies in a group of 26 patients defined as habitual aborters [at least three consecutive spontaneous abortions], and in a control group of 26 patients each of whom had had at least one live birth without pregnancy wastage. (who.int)
- However, there were significant differences in mean anticardiolipin IgG antibody levels. (who.int)
- Antiphospholipid antibodies are now well recognised to be associated with thrombosis and recurrent fetal loss and some aPAs have recently been shown to require a cofactor, [beta]2GPI, for binding to phospholipids. (ucl.ac.uk)
- The specific antibodies in APS are called "antiphospholipids" because they attack and damage parts of cells called phospholipids. (nih.gov)
- This class of antibodies binds to phospholipids, a major component of the cell membrane. (the-scientist.com)
- The NIAMS and the NHLBI, through this program announcement, encourage the submission of grant applications for basic and clinical research related to antiphospholipid antibody and the lupus anticoagulant. (nih.gov)
- This program announcement, Biology of Autoimmune Antiphospholipid Antibody and Lupus Anticoagulant, is related to the priority areas of health promotion: maternal and infant health and heart disease and stroke. (nih.gov)
- Many persons with this antibody do not have systemic lupus erythematosus and some are apparently well. (nih.gov)
- On September 25, 1991, the NIAMS and the NHLBI co-sponsored an Antiphospholipid Antibody/Lupus Anticoagulant Workshop. (nih.gov)
- In fact, 20% to 30% of people with lupus have antiphospholipid antibodies. (nih.gov)
- 2. High-grade atrioventricular heart block in an adult with systemic lupus erythematosus: the association of nuclear RNP (U1 RNP) antibodies, a case report, and review of the literature. (nih.gov)
- 5. Possible association between anti-Ro antibodies and myocarditis or cardiac conduction defects in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus. (nih.gov)
- The researchers found circulating antiphospholipid antibodies , which can be more common among people with autoimmune disorders, such as lupus. (nih.gov)
- Inhibition of the [beta]2GPI activity was demonstrated by some antibodies, indicating that this may contribute to the pathogenic mechanism for thrombosis in some patients with aPAs. (ucl.ac.uk)
- However, the results suggest that a spectra of antibody reactivities exists in PaPS and SLE patients and as such are consistent with the results of previous studies examining their effect on haemostatic reactions. (ucl.ac.uk)
- We have described the persistence of these antibodies for over 5 years in patients with leprosy after specific treatment . (bvsalud.org)
- To determine whether epidemiological, clinical and immunological factors played a role in the long-term persistence of aPL antibodies in leprosy patients after multidrug therapy (MDT) had finished. (bvsalud.org)
- Persistence of aPL antibodies among the 38 leprosy patients was 84% (32/38), and all had the IgM isotype. (bvsalud.org)
- While more investigation is needed, the researchers concluded that the mRNA vaccines seem to have an "acceptable safety and tolerability profile in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. (autoimmuneinstitute.org)
- Dr. Sevim currently works in the Laboratory of Vascular Thrombosis and Inflammation, led by Dr. Yogen Kanthi, focusing on identifying the molecular and cellular processes in antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients that lead to disease manifestations in the view of thrombo-inflammation. (nih.gov)
- Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway Assessment in Antiphospholipid Antibody-Positive Patients with Livedo. (nih.gov)
- Characteristics of Patients With Antiphospholipid Antibody Positivity in the APS ACTION International Clinical Database and Repository. (nih.gov)
- Although most patients who will receive monoclonal antibodies will be ambulatory and not hospitalized, the administration requires intravenous infusion. (the-hospitalist.org)
- That means that the places best suited to treat COVID-19 patients with antibodies are those that regularly deal with people who are immunocompromised , and such patients should not be interacting with people who have an infectious disease. (the-hospitalist.org)
- With more than 200,000 new cases a day in the United States, there won't be enough antibodies to treat all of the high-risk patients," says Dr. Gandhi. (the-hospitalist.org)
- 15. High titer of anti-phosphatidylserine-prothrombin complex antibodies in patients with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. (nih.gov)
- After studying blood samples from 244 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, a group of researchers, including those who work at the National Institutes of Health, identified "rogue antibodies" that correlate with severe illness and may help explain mechanisms associated with severe blood clotting. (nih.gov)
- These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with certain autoimmune diseases (e.g. (nih.gov)
- Different assays detect particular antibody properties, which are often quite different, and the clinical importance of this for pathogenesis or diagnosis is rarely fully understood. (bmj.com)
- Immunodiffusion (ID) detects high affinity antibodies, immunofluorescence (IIF) moderate and high affinity antibodies, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) low and high affinity antibodies. (bmj.com)
- Persistence of positivity for aPL antibodies was influenced by age, clinical presentation and bacterial index. (bvsalud.org)
- It is the reason that women diagnosed with increased aPL antibodies are treated with anticoagulants or blood thinners such as heparin and/or aspirin throughout their pregnancy. (the-scientist.com)
- 1 patient had posi- non-central nervous system thrombotic events (e.g., tive antiphospholipid antibodies. (cdc.gov)
- A survey led by HSS rheumatologist Medha Barbhaiya, MD, MPH, sought to determine whether pathologists worldwide use uniform criteria to distinguish antiphospholipid antibody-associated nephropathy (aPL-N) from other forms of thrombotic microangiopathy. (news-medical.net)
- Because complement activation is essential and causative in aPL antibody-induced fetal injury, we hypothesized that heparin protects mice from fetal loss in APS by preventing complement activation on trophoblasts and that anticoagulation, per se , is not sufficient to prevent miscarriage. (biomedcentral.com)
- For years, researchers had assumed that aPL antibodies caused fetal death by inducing thrombosis (blood clots) in placental blood vessels and cutting off blood flow and oxygen to the fetus. (the-scientist.com)
- aPL antibodies had also been associated with stroke, thus it was assumed that since blood clots cause stroke, they must also be the cause of fetal death and miscarriage in pregnant women. (the-scientist.com)
- Endothelial cell-activating antibodies in COVID-19. (nih.gov)
- Doctors often use a test to check for antinuclear antibodies, the immune substances that attack your tissues. (mountsinai.org)
- The presence of these antibodies can cause problems with blood flow and lead to dangerous clots in blood vessels throughout the body. (medlineplus.gov)
- This test is performed to check the presence of Anti-phospholipid Antibodies IgA in blood. (practo.com)
- Women today are regularly tested for the presence of aPL antibodies. (the-scientist.com)
- Antibodies are the protective proteins produced by the immune system and also known as immunoglobulins. (practo.com)
- 12. A prospective study of antibodies to beta2-glycoprotein I and prothrombin, and risk of thrombosis. (nih.gov)
- Autoimmune disorders occur when your body's immune system makes antibodies that attack and damage your own tissues or cells. (nih.gov)
- Most other monoclonal antibody drugs - such as those for cancer and autoimmune disorders - are given in specialized suites in doctor's offices or in stand-alone infusion clinics. (the-hospitalist.org)
- Anti-phospholipid antibodies are believed to occur from both genetic and environmental factors and have been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as cognitive impairments, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors. (nih.gov)
- Low to moderate levels of Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies-IgA may occur due to HIV, Lyme disease (illness caused by bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi), and some kind of cancers. (practo.com)
- But in 2000, there was no clear understanding of how these antibodies came into play in miscarriage. (the-scientist.com)
- These findings explain how subanticoagulant doses of heparin can limit antibody-mediated tissue injury. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although anticoagulation with drugs, such as aspirin or warfarin, are frequently used for treatment, there is as yet no uniform regimen for all clinical conditions associated with the antibodies and no definitive clinical trials have yet been conducted. (nih.gov)
- Antibodies recognize and attach to the antigens in order to remove them from the body. (practo.com)
- But in some cases, the immune system produces antibodies against own body cells or tissues and attacks the healthy cells. (practo.com)
- In the current study, we investigated whether there were elevated levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies in a cross-sectional analysis of plasma of young children with ASD compared to age-matched typically developing (TD) controls and children with developmental delays (DD) other than ASD. (nih.gov)
- We found that levels of anti-cardiolipin, β 2-glycoprotein 1, and anti-phosphoserine antibodies were elevated in children with ASD compared with age-matched TD and DD controls. (nih.gov)
- Further, the increase in antibody levels was associated with more impaired behaviors reported by parents. (nih.gov)
- If an individual is on the treatment of medications for APS, then the doctor may ask to perform this test to evaluate and to check the effectiveness of the treatment and Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies IgA levels in the blood. (practo.com)
- High levels of APS antibodies raise the risk of blood clots. (nih.gov)
- High levels of APS antibodies in the blood raise the risk of health problems, but some people will never develop blood clots. (nih.gov)
- About 30% of women who miscarry have elevated levels of aPL antibodies. (the-scientist.com)
- Scientists compared the blood samples to those from healthy controls and found the COVID-19 samples contained higher levels of the antibody IgG, which works with other immune cells, such as IgM, to respond to immune threats. (nih.gov)
- Antiphospholipid Antibody Profile Stability Over Time: Prospective Results From the APS ACTION Clinical Database and Repository. (nih.gov)
- Mostly, this test is done along with other antibody tests to confirm the diagnosis. (practo.com)
- By the 1950s, researchers had identified a class of antibodies that react against the placenta of a growing fetus called antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). (the-scientist.com)
- IgD helps in the induction of antibody production and presents on the surface of B-cells. (practo.com)
- This test is used to find out the Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies-IgA in the blood. (practo.com)
- If the test results are negative it may indicate that there are no Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies IgA in the blood at the time of the test. (practo.com)
- These factors may raise your risk of APS antibodies, trigger blood clotting in APS, or both. (nih.gov)
- When they added these same IgG antibodies to the control samples, they saw a blood vessel inflammatory response that can lead to clotting. (nih.gov)
- Specific antibodies activate the inner lining of blood vessels, which leads to the formation of blood clots in arteries or veins in the brain, legs, kidneys, and lungs. (nih.gov)
- Antibodies are produced when any foreign substance or virus or bacteria enters into the body. (practo.com)
- Normally, antibodies protect your body from viruses or bacteria, but in APS, antibodies attack the body's healthy cells. (nih.gov)
- HIV, hepatitis C, and the bacteria that causes Lyme disease can increase your risk of making APS antibodies or trigger APS. (nih.gov)
- The antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) cause the test to be abnormal in the laboratory. (medlineplus.gov)
- What is the antiphospholipid antibody - IgM test? (diagnosticcentres.in)
- An antiphospholipid antibody - IgM test price is not very high. (diagnosticcentres.in)
- An antiphospholipid antibody test cost is reasonable. (diagnosticcentres.in)
- You can find an antiphospholipid antibody test online to get yourself tested. (diagnosticcentres.in)
- Importantly, the methods for detecting these antibodies are not specified by the ARA, and this article aims to highlight the fact that the particular assay used will crucially influence the interpretation of the test (table 2). (bmj.com)
- No test or test panel can currently perform all these tasks because increases in specificity usually lead to reciprocal decreases in sensitivity, and because some of the clinical features of SLE are not antibody mediated. (bmj.com)
- Therefore, the information obtained from any test will reflect the types of antibody detected, the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, and the question being asked of the test. (bmj.com)
- To compare antiphospholipid antibodies in deliveries with and without stillbirth using a multicenter, population-based case-control study of stillbirths and live births. (nih.gov)
- However, the woman described in this report had no antiphospholipid antibodies and no history of recurrent spontaneous abortion at the initiation of her infertility therapy. (cdc.gov)
- To be diagnosed with APS, you must have APS antibodies and a history of health problems related to the disorder. (nih.gov)
- The median price for antibody treatment not related to COVID-19 runs from $15,000 to $200,000 per year in the United States. (the-hospitalist.org)
- 10. Real world experience with antiphospholipid antibody tests: how stable are results over time? (nih.gov)
- Antiphospholipid thrombocyte count of 293 cells/L. (cdc.gov)