Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Inbred C57BLAutoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.HemocyaninEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Colorimetry (chemical method)
Complement component 1q
Antibodies of the adaptive immune system can bind antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex. When C1q binds antigen-antibody ... Activation of the C1 complex intitiates the classical complement pathway of the complement system. The antibodies IgM and all ... C1q is a subunit of the C1 enzyme complex that activates the serum complement system. C1q comprises 6 A, 6 B and 6 C chains. ... C1q associates with C1r and C1s in order to yield the C1 complex (C1qr2s2), the first component of the serum complement system ...
Type III hypersensitivity
... occurs when there is accumulation of immune complexes (antigen-antibody complexes) that have not been ... When these antigens bind antibodies, immune complexes of different sizes form. Large complexes can be cleared by macrophages ... Play media Type III hypersensitivity occurs when there is an excess of antigen, leading to small immune complexes being formed ... Typically, clinical features emerge a week following initial antigen challenge, when the deposited immune complexes can ...
Innate immune system
rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes.. There are three different complement systems: Classical, alternative, ... The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to ... Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or dead ... Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ...
June 1998). "A mutational analysis of binding interactions in an antigen-antibody protein-protein complex". Biochemistry. 37 ( ... also known as antibodies); they all possess a domain known as an immunoglobulin domain or fold. Members of the IgSF include ... cell surface antigen receptors, co-receptors and co-stimulatory molecules of the immune system, molecules involved in antigen ... the Ig domain has a section called the complementarity determining region that is important for the specificity of antibodies ...
The antigen-antibody complex can also activate complement through the classical complement pathway. Phagocytic cells do not ... Antibodies can also activate complement via the classical pathway, resulting in deposition of C3b and C4b onto the antigen ... The Fab region of the antibody binds to the antigen, whereas the Fc region of the antibody binds to an Fc receptor on the ... C1q, a member of the C1 complex, is able to interact with the Fc region of antibodies. Pentraxins, collectins, and ficolins are ...
Radioactivity emitted by bound antibody-antigen complexes can be easily detected using conventional methods. RIAs were some of ... In some cases, an immunoassay may use an antigen to detect for the presence of antibodies, which recognize that antigen, in a ... the analyte may be an antibody rather than an antigen. In addition to the binding of an antibody to its antigen, the other key ... In immunology the particular macromolecule bound by an antibody is referred to as an antigen and the area on an antigen to ...
Complement fixation test
... they will bind to the antigen in step 3 to form antigen-antibody complexes. The complement proteins will react with these ... While detection of antibodies is the more common test format, it is equally possible to test for the presence of antigen. In ... The complement system is a system of serum proteins that react with antigen-antibody complexes. If this reaction occurs on a ... However, if no antibodies against the antigen of interest are present, the complement will not be depleted and it will react ...
... as well as antigen/antibody, enzyme/inhibitor, and enzyme/substrate complexes. It is also diverse in terms of the partners' ... This is the case for antibodies and for competitive inhibitors. In other cases, a binding site may be strongly suggested by ... antigen-antibody and homomultimeric complexes. The latest version of protein-protein docking benchmark consists of 230 ... Protein-protein complexes are the most commonly attempted targets of such modelling, followed by protein-nucleic acid complexes ...
... is potent in opsonization: tagging pathogens, immune complexes (antigen-antibody), and apoptotic cells for phagocytosis. ... The C1 complement complex binds to these antibodies resulting in its activation via cross proteolysis. This activated C1 ... C4b2b3b complex) or when an additional C3b molecule binds to the C3bBb complex (C3bBb3b complex). C3b's ability to perform ... Additionally, C3b molecules can attach to the Fc regions of antigen-bound antibodies leading to phagocytosis or movement to the ...
These bound antibody/antigen complexes are then added to an antigen-coated well. The plate is washed, so unbound antibodies are ... After the antigen is immobilized, the detection antibody is added, forming a complex with the antigen. The detection antibody ... the antigen-antibody reaction occurs. No antigen is left for the enzyme-labelled specific HIV antibodies. These antibodies ... A specific antibody is added, and binds to antigen (hence the 'sandwich': the antigen is stuck between two antibodies). This ...
Complement component 4B
The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha ... "Frequencies of certain complement protein alleles and serum levels of anti-heat-shock protein antibodies in cerebrovascular ... Yang Z, Mendoza AR, Welch TR, Zipf WB, Yu CY (Apr 1999). "Modular variations of the human major histocompatibility complex ... This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this ...
Centrifugal micro-fluidic biochip
Then, detecting antibodies added to bind to the antigen. The enzyme-linked secondary antibody follows the detecting antibodies ... enzymes are used to produce a detectable signal from an antibody-antigen complex. At the first step, any antigen present will ... These tests rely on the specific detection of either the antibody or antigen, and are commonly performed by labeling the ... antibody/antigen of interest through various means such as fluorescent or enzymatic labels. However, washing, mixing, and ...
Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome
These antigen-antibody complexes are thought to be caused by excessive exposure to bacterial antigens (especially ... These antibodies possibly stimulate migration of neutrophils into the affected joints and skin. The effect of antibacterial ... Immune complexes are thought to cause blood vessel damage, attracting neutrophils into the skin and synovium in BADAS. ... Immune complex-mediated vessel damage and increased neutrophil migration". Arch. Intern. Med. 144 (4): 738-40. doi:10.1001/ ...
Presence of antibodies cause precipitation of antibody-antigen complexes that can be collected by centrifugation into pellets. ... which quantifies an antigen by use of corresponding antibodies. The corresponding antigen is radiolabeled and mixed with the ... A radiobinding assay is a method of detecting and quantifying antibodies targeted towards a specific antigen. As such, it can ... The amount of antibody is proportional to the radioactivity of the pellet, as determined by gamma counting. It is used to ...
Classical complement pathway
The classical complement pathway is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes with the antibody isotypes IgG and IgM. Following ... that target conserved regions in HIV specific proteins and induce an antibody specific immune response through IgG antibodies. ... The classical complement pathway can be initiated by the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to the C1q protein. The globular ... and C9 form the membrane attack complex or the C5b-9 complex which forms pores on the target cell membranes to lysing. Because ...
Antibody-antigen reaction. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ... These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. Each B cell has a unique ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... Antibody. Formation (1900), antigen-antibody binding. hypothesis (1938), produced by B cells (1948),. structure (1972), ...
... which contains a particular antigen. If the antibodies agglutinate with the antigen to form immune complexes, then the test is ... the antigen and the detection antibody. In this case, free antigen is in competition with captured antigen for detection ... However, if too many antibodies are present that can bind to the antigen, then the antigenic sites are coated by antibodies, ... The antibody that fails to react is known as the blocking antibody and prevents the precipitating antibody from binding to the ...
This occurs when C1q binds to antigen-antibody complexes. The antibodies IgM or certain subclasses of IgG complexed with ... The C1 complex (complement component 1, C1) is a protein complex involved in the complement system. It is the first component ... The C1 complex is composed of 1 molecule of C1q, 2 molecules of C1r and 2 molecules of C1s, or C1qr2s2. Activation of the C1 ... The classical pathway C3-convertase (C4bC2b complex) is created, which promotes cleavage of C3. Janeway, CA Jr; Travers P; ...
Ability of C3b to bind to antigen-associated Ig would work effectively against antigen-antibody complexes to make them soluble ... The mannose-binding lectin pathway can be activated by C3 hydrolysis or antigens without the presence of antibodies (non- ... The classical complement pathway typically requires antigen-antibody complexes for activation (specific immune response), ... which has formed a complex with antigens. C4b and C3b are also able to bind to antigen-associated IgG or IgM, to its Fc portion ...
Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test
"A phospholipid-beta 2-glycoprotein I complex is an antigen for anticardiolipin antibodies occurring in autoimmune disease but ... The basis of the test is that an antibody produced by a patient with syphilis reacts with an extract of ox heart ( ... The MHA-TP test detects antibodies to the bacteria that cause syphilis and can be used to detect syphilis in all stages, except ... There are a number of treponemal-specific tests such as the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) test, T. ...
McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA (1990). "Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen ... "Inhibitory activity of anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibody on factor Va degradation by activated-protein C and its cofactor ... "A phospholipid-beta 2-glycoprotein I complex is an antigen for anticardiolipin antibodies occurring in autoimmune disease but ... In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein antibodies (Anti β2 glycoprotein I antibodies) strongly associate with thrombotic ...
Continue the incubation to allow antibody-antigen complexes to form. Precipitate the complex of interest, removing it from bulk ... As time passes, the beads coated in protein A/G are added to the mixture of antibody and protein. At this point, the antibodies ... irrelevant antibody of the same antibody subclass as the IP antibody is used instead of the IP antibody itself. This approach ... By using an antibody that is specific to a putative DNA binding protein, one can immunoprecipitate the protein-DNA complex out ...
Immune tolerance in pregnancy
Magnetic immunodiagnostic method for the demonstration of antibody/antigen complexes especially of blood groups Archived 2012- ... Rh disease is caused by the mother producing antibodies (including IgG antibodies) against the Rhesus D antigen on her baby's ... the presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies, and antinuclear antibodies. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are targeted toward the ... These antibodies also jeopardize the health of the uterus by altering the blood flow to the uterus. Antinuclear antibodies ...
With these receptors, RBCs bring antigen-antibody complexes bound to complement fragments in the blood to the liver and spleen ... Complement receptors bind proteins of the complement system, and can thus detect pathogens without mediation by antibodies. ... Complement activity is not antigen sensitive, but can be triggered by specific antigens. Many white blood cells express ...
Polyclonal B cell response
Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. ... Steps in production of antibodies by B cells: 1. Antigen is recognized and engulfed by B cell 2. Antigen is processed 3. ... Main articles: antigen presentation and major histocompatibility complex. After the processed antigen (peptide) is complexed to ... Difficulty in producing monoclonal antibodies. Main article: Monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are ...
Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after ... In order to induce an immune response, it needs to be attached to a large carrier molecule such as a protein (a complex of ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ...
The other four tests detect group antigens. Maternal antibodies. Maternal antibodies have displayed protection ... a chicken class II major histocompatibility complex antigen), and T and B-lymphocytes were observed to determine its effects on ... "Avian Reovirus antibody assay by indirect immunofluorescence using plastic micro culture plates". Can J Comp Med. 46 (1): 39- ... Humoral antibodies. The sera of birds infected with avian reovirus display circulating antibodies through the validation ...
"Structural models for carcinoembryonic antigen and its complex with the single-chain Fv antibody molecule MFE23". FEBS Letters ... Because even monoclonal antibodies to CEA tend to have some degree of cross-reactivity, occasionally giving false positive ... Carcinoembryonic Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CEA at Lab Tests Online CEA: ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally ...
In other words, every B cell is specific to a single antigen, but each cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies ... Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate ... Surface antigens. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ...
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... "Investigational Monoclonal Antibody to Treat Ebola Is Safe in Adults" (Press release). National Institute of Allergy and ... The GP forms a trimeric complex, which tethers the virus to the endothelial cells. The sGP forms a dimeric protein that ...
... and anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in myasthenia gravis". Tissue Antigens. 12 (5): 381-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978. ... of these half had anti-transglutaminase antibodies, but few had endomysial antibody. This could indicate an association ... is a multigene haplotype that covers a majority of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 (not to be ... "Correlation between acetylcholine receptor antibody titer and HLA-B8 and HLA-DRw3 antigens in myasthenia gravis". Trans Am ...
Antibody - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Several complex genetic mechanisms have evolved. These allow vertebrate B cells to generate a huge pool of antibodies from a ... The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target called an antigen. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody ... Each antibody is different. They are all designed to attack only one kind of antigen (in practice, this means virus or bacteria ... Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily; the terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - antigen - antigen ... idiopathic - idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura - IHS - immune complex - immune deficiency/immunodeficiency - immune response ... antibodies - ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - ... neutralizing antibody - neutralizing domain - neutropenia - neutrophil - New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - ...
White blood cell
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Antibodies. *Antibody *Monoclonal antibodies. *Polyclonal antibodies. *Autoantibody. *Microantibody. *Polyclonal B cell ... bind antigenic peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ...
... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ... it is a group of circulating proteins that can bind pathogens and form a membrane attack complex. Complement deficiencies are ... This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ...
T independent antigen (TI)
Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigen. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ... TI-2 antigen. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of ...
ஏபிஓ குருதி குழு முறைமை - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
Arendrup, M; Hansen JE, Clausen H, Nielsen C, Mathiesen LR, Nielsen JO (April 1991). "Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen ... லைன் மற்றும் ரஷ் எழுதிய சிக்கலான காபோவைதரேட்டு மூலக்கூறு நோய்த்தடுப்பு (Molecular Immunology of Complex Carbohydrates) (A. Wu, ... லெட்டர் டூ தி எடிட்டர்: "(இயற்கையும் வழக்கமான ஆன்டிபாடிகளும்)Letter to the Editor: "Natural" Versus Regular Antibodies ஜர்னல் ... Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... "Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21)". Proceedings of the National ... The assembled complex of hslV (blue) and hslU (red) from E. coli. This complex of heat shock proteins is thought to resemble ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
death-inducing signaling complex assembly. • regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • defense response to bacterium. • ... This inhibition can be achieved with a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab (Remicade) binding directly to TNFα, adalimumab ( ... and identified the therapeutic effects of monoclonal anti-TNF antibodies. More recently, research in the Laboratory of ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ...
... they are antigens to which antibodies can be raised. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on antibody ... These core proteins and vRNA form a complex that is transported into the cell nucleus, where the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ... The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses. The ... The resulting rapid change in viral genetics produces antigenic shifts, which are sudden changes from one antigen to another. ...
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies. It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ... Over the course of a few hours a complex forms between the antibody, target cell, and effector cell which leads to lysis of the ... Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies. References. *^ Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody- ...
The generation of TCR diversity is similar to that for antibodies and B cell antigen receptors. It arises mainly from genetic ... The TCR complex. The TCR receptor complex is an octomeric complex of variable TCR receptor α and β chains with three ... the family is named after antibodies (also called immunoglobulins). The TCR is similar to a half-antibody consisting of a ... T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ...
... the presence or absence of glycosyltransferases which dictates which blood group antigens are presented and hence what antibody ... Aglycosylation is a feature of engineered antibodies to bypass glycosylation. Five classes of glycans are produced: *N- ... Indeed, glycosylation is thought to be the most complex post-translational modification, because of the large number of ... "Transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum L. express aglycosylated monoclonal antibody with antitumor activity". Biotecnologia ...
1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ... This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... Cross-linking of the IgE and Fc receptors occurs when more than one IgE-receptor complex interacts with the same allergenic ... Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test and the food allergy profile are considered ...
Degranulation processes 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, ... "Facilitated antigen presentation and its inhibition by blocking IgG antibodies depends on IgE repertoire complexity". J. ... "Antibody structure". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.. *^ Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE ... Chang TW, Wu PC, Hsu CL, Hung AF (2007). Anti-IgE antibodies for the treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Adv. Immunol ...
... an antibody that is a response to the initial exposure to an antigen, appears in the blood, viremia begins to diminish. However ... Diagnosis is by either testing the blood for the virus's RNA or antibodies to the virus. The symptoms can be mistaken for ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... Viral antigen was detected in a muscle biopsy of a person suffering a recurrent episode of disease three months after initial ...
The p62 antigen is a 60kDa nuclear pore complex. Anti-centromere antibodies. ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... antibodies to human antigens are produced. There are many subtypes of ANAs such as anti-Ro antibodies, anti-La antibodies, ... If antibodies that bind to antigen are present then they will remain after washing. A secondary anti-human antibody conjugated ...
"O-glycosylation of serum IgA1 antibodies against mucosal and systemic antigens in IgA nephropathy". J Am Soc Nephrol. 17 (12): ... in the hinge region of IgA1 and synthesis and binding of antibodies against IgA1 are required for immunoglobulin complexes to ... Primary IgA nephropathy is characterized by deposition of the IgA antibody in the glomerulus. There are other diseases ... Exogenous antigens for IgA have not been identified in the kidney, but it is possible that this antigen has been cleared before ...
Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... antibodies have no such constraints. An antibody's binding affinity to its target is extraordinarily high. ...
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Although immunofluorescent antibody assays are considered some of the best serology tests available, most antibodies that fight ... Both rOmpA and rOmpB are members of a family of surface cell antigens (Sca) which are autotransporter proteins; they act as ... This triggers a cascade of signal transduction events resulting in the recruitment of Arp2/3 complex. CDC42, protein tyrosine ... Noriea, Nicholas; Clark, Tina; Hackstadt, Ted (2015). "Targeted Knockout of the Rickettsia rickettsii OmpA Surface Antigen Does ...
... antibodies to Borrelia antigens indicate disease, but lower titers can be misleading, because the IgM antibodies may remain ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics. As antibody levels are ... Richard Ostfeld (2012). Lyme Disease: The Ecology of a Complex System. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199928479. ... The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ...
... generates an effective immune memory via the display of antigen-antibody complexes on follicular dendritic ... Antibody responses generated by DNA are useful as a preparative tool. For example, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies can be ... Antibody responses elicited by DNA vaccinations are influenced by multiple variables, including antigen type; antigen location ... Secreted or plasma membrane-bound antigens are more effective at inducing antibody responses than cytosolic antigens, while ...
Plasma cell dyscrasia
B cells refashion parts of their genome in efforts to create a new gene that encodes a functional antibody. Antibodies are ... These mutations are made in an effort to make a gene encoding a protein that binds the instigating antigen. The next step in ... any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. These mutations lead to the ... is defined as the presence in the blood or urine of a monoclonal antibody, antibody heavy chain, or antibody light chain in a ...
A strong neutralizing antibody could effectively reduce the presence of the virus as well as promote recovery. However, no ... However, a number of labs have been working towards a vaccine that would deliver viral antigens by either DNA vectors or as ... Within virions, the genomic RNAs of hantaviruses are thought to complex with the N protein to form helical nucleocapsids, the ... for this virus has shown that administration of human neutralizing antibodies during acute phases of Hantavirus might prove ...
Reverse phase protein lysate microarray
Strips with single band indicate specific antibodies that are suitable for RPMA use. Antibody performance should be also ... A problem that is encountered with tissue microarrays is antigen retrieval and the inherent subjectivity of ... For signal amplification, slides are incubated with streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex followed by biotinyl-tyramide/ ... In addition, finding the appropriate antibody could require extensive screening of many antibodies by western blotting prior to ...
Antibody-antigen complex not dissociating in IP - Immunology - BioForum
Antibody-antigen complex not dissociating in IP - posted in Immunology: Hi, Im new here but have been using this site as a ... Are the antibodies validated for IP? If not can you test them using tagged plasmid ... i.e. IP with your antibodies see if you ... Antibody-antigen complex not dissociating in IP. Started by 2fast2evo, Jul 26 2014 07:16 PM ... Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: Immunoprecipitation, elution, antibody, antigen, western blot. Protocols and ...
Antigen-antibody complex legal definition of Antigen-antibody complex
What is Antigen-antibody complex? Meaning of Antigen-antibody complex as a legal term. What does Antigen-antibody complex mean ... Definition of Antigen-antibody complex in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Automated time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM and IgA antibodies: study of more than 130 ... Antigen-antibody complex legal definition of Antigen-antibody complex https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antigen- ...
The PD-1/PD-L1 complex resembles the antigen-binding Fv domains of antibodies and T cell receptors | PNAS
In antibody and TCR molecules, these loops bind antigens, and, in the case of CD8, they bind class I major histocompatibility ... The PD-1/PD-L1 complex resembles the antigen-binding Fv domains of antibodies and T cell receptors. David Yin-wei Lin, ... The PD-1/PD-L1 complex resembles the antigen-binding Fv domains of antibodies and T cell receptors ... The PD-1/PD-L1 complex resembles the antigen-binding Fv domains of antibodies and T cell receptors ...
Antigen-Antibody Complex - Immune Complex Summary Report | CureHunter
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading ... Antigen-Antibody Complexes; Immune Complexes; Antigen Antibody Complex; Antigen Antibody Complexes; Complex, Antigen-Antibody; ... Antibodies: 92632*Antigen-Antibody Complex: 9438. *Immunoproteins: 33*Immunoglobulins: 23980*Antibodies: 92632*Antigen-Antibody ... Antigen-Antibody Complex (Immune Complex). Subscribe to New Research on Antigen-Antibody Complex ...
Computer graphic image of antibody-antigen complex - Stock Image - P270/0014 - Science Photo Library
The antigen (blue) is at top, with the antibody (red & yellow) below. ... Molecular computer graphic showing protein chains in an antibody-antigen complex. ... Molecular computer graphic showing protein chains in an antibody-antigen complex. The antigen (blue) is at top, with the ... antibodies. *antibody. *antibody/antigen complex. *antigen. *antigen/antibody complex. *human body. *immune system ...
Frontiers | Investigating Substitutions in Antibody-Antigen Complexes Using Molecular Dynamics: A Case Study with Broad...
Novel aspects of this research include: the application of MM/GBSA to investigate binding between broadly-binding antibodies ... many antibody-antigen complexes are under-characterized. For vaccine development and disease surveillance, it is often vital to ... many antibody-antigen complexes are under-characterized. For vaccine development and disease surveillance, it is often vital to ... the structural and functional characterization of antibody-antigen complexes by X-ray crystallography and binding assay is ...
Computational docking of antibody-antigen complexes, opportunities and pitfalls illustrated by influenza hemagglutinin - RERO...
... we first describe the different computational strategies for the modeling of antibodies and docking of their complexes, and ... is emerging as a fast and affordable technique for the structural characterization of antibody-antigen complexes. In this ... Since their efficiency depends, in ultimate analysis, on their atomic interactions with an antigen, studying such interactions ... Computational docking, the process of predicting the conformation of a complex from its separated components, ...
Immunization with Immune Complexes Modulates the Fine Specificity of Antibody Responses to a Flavivirus Antigen | Journal of...
The antibody response to proteins may be modulated by the presence of preexisting antigen-specific antibodies and the formation ... Immunization with Immune Complexes Modulates the Fine Specificity of Antibody Responses to a Flavivirus Antigen. Georgios ... Immunization with immune complexes modulates the fine specificity of antibody responses to a flavivirus antigen. J Virol 89: ... Immunization with Immune Complexes Modulates the Fine Specificity of Antibody Responses to a Flavivirus Antigen ...
Genre: Speeches / Subject: Molecular Structure and Antigen-Antibody Complex - Linus Pauling - Profiles in Science Search Results
SCP 1, SYCP1, Synaptonemal Complex Protein 1, Cancer/testis antigen 8 or CT8 Antibody
Research proven purified polyclonal rabbit SCP1 antibody. Designed for studying of synapse formation and spermatocytes. ... Publications Using Our Antibodies/Markers. *Publications Using Our Human Cells & Tissue. *Publications Using Our Animal Cells ... The synaptonemal complex is a proteinaceous complex that apparently mediates synapses during the zygotene stage and then ... It is a complex structure that unites homologous chromosomes during the prophase stage of meiosis. It is the result of ...
KAKEN - Research Projects | X-ray Structural Studies of Antigen-Antibody Complex Toward Malaria Vaccine Development. (KAKENHI...
2) Purification of the monoclonal antibodies (Ab) against FP produced in BALb/c mice, and isoldrion of Fab segment (Ab-Fab) by ... 4) Crystallization trials of the antigen (FP), the antibody (Ab-Fab) and the complex of AbFab with FP. by using several ... Publications] Ken-ichi Tomita: X-ray structural studies of antigen-antibody complex toward malaria vaccine development. ... X-ray Structural Studies of Antigen-Antibody Complex Toward Malaria Vaccine Development.. Research Project ...
Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein elisa and antibody
Recombinant Protein and Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant ... Shop Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein ELISA Kit, ... Antibody Peptide Pairs. Phospho Antibodies. Products by Disease ... Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein G6f Recombinant. Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein G6f Antibody. G6f: a ... Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein G5b Recombinant. Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus protein G5b Antibody. LY6G5B: 2 ...
... Levels of specific antigen (gp43), specific antibodies, and antigen-antibody complexes in saliva and ... antigen-antibody complex can also refer to... antigen‐antibody complex ... Antisperm antibodies detection by flow cytometry is affected by aggregation of antigen-antibody complexes on the surface of ... Immune Complexes from Serum of Patients with Lyme Disease Contain Borrelia burgdorferi Antigen and Antigen-Specific Antibodies ...
Association of de novo human leukocyte antigen and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene-A antibodies and...
De novo HLA antibody was associated with increased proteinuria after transplantation (relative risk, 3.12). HLA antibody and ... and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene-A (MICA) antibodies and proteinuria with graft survival 5 years ... HLA and MICA antibodies were detected by the Luminex method. Patients with proteinuria (,150 mg/d) underwent intermittent 24- ... De novo HLA antibody is independent risk factor for posttransplant proteinuria, and proteinuria affects the association of de ...
Characterisation of IgG(T) serum antibody responses to two larval antigen complexes in horses naturally- or experimentally...
Animals, Antibodies, Helminth, Antigens, Helminth, Biomarkers, Horse Diseases, Horses, Immunoglobulin E, Larva, Nematode ... Characterisation of IgG(T) serum antibody responses to two larval antigen complexes in horses naturally- or experimentally- ... serum antibody responses to two larval antigen complexes in horses naturally- or experimentally-infected with cyathostomins. ... Here, serum IgG(T) responses to two larval antigen complexes of 25 and 20 kDa were quantified in horses with experimental ...
AFM study of complement system assembly initiated by antigen-antibody complex - Open Chemistry - Tom 4, Numer 1 (2006) -...
"The discrimination of IgM and IgG type antibodies and Fab' and F(ab)2 antibody fragments on an industrial substrate using ... 35] P.C. Zhang, C. Bai, P.K. Ho, Y. Dai and Y.S. Wu: "Observing interactions between the IgG antigen and anti-IgG antibody with ... and size of complement system C1 components assembled on a SiO2 surface after classical activation by antigen-antibody complex ... 37] U. Dammer, M. Hegner, D. Anselmetti, P. Wagner, D. Dreier, W. Huber and H.J. Güntherodt: "Specific antigen/antibody ...
US5268265A - Immunological complex comprising an antigen of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) and an antibody against human...
These various antigens are useful in medical diagnosis and kits, in particular by being placed in contact with serum of the ... It also concerns purified forms of the antigens which can be obtained from this virus, in particular from the gp 36 and gp 130- ... contacting antigens of SIV with human antibodies for a time and under conditions sufficient for the antigens and antibodies to ... contacting antigens of SIV with human antibodies for a time and under conditions sufficient for the antigens and antibodies to ...
Antigen-Antibody Complex | Profiles RNS
Antibodies [D12.776.124.486.485.114]. *Antigen-Antibody Complex [D12.776.124.486.485.114.257]. *Serum Globulins [D12.776. ... The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading ... "Antigen-Antibody Complex" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigen-Antibody Complex" was a major or minor topic ... "Antigen-Antibody Complex" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
Subject: 'antigen-antibody complex' / Subject: antibodies - PubAg Search Results
You searched for: Subject antigen-antibody complex Remove constraint Subject: antigen-antibody complex Subject antibodies ... antigen-antibody complex, etc ; Strongyloides venezuelensis; antibodies; antibody formation; antigens; blood serum; ... antigen-antibody complex, etc ; antibodies; antigens; complement; innate immunity; pathogens; Show all 6 Subjects. Abstract:. ... antigen-antibody complex, etc ; Potato virus X; Solanum tuberosum; antibodies; antigens; catalytic activity; detection limit; ...
Abstract P-45: Structural Studies of Multispecific Antibody/Antigen Complexes by Cryo-EM | International Journal of Biomedicine
... antigens. Potential advantages of generating viable multispecific antibodies include the identification of malignant cells ... Abstract P-45: Structural Studies of Multispecific Antibody/Antigen Complexes by Cryo-EM. Submitted by admin on Sun, 06/30/2019 ... Close-to-optimal vitrification conditions for CODV-Ig and antibody-antigen complexes have been identified. Efforts are in ... Home » Abstract P-45: Structural Studies of Multispecific Antibody/Antigen Complexes by Cryo-EM. ...
US Patent for CD40 antigen antibody complex Patent (Patent # 6,056,959 issued May 2, 2000) - Justia Patents Search
Monoclonal antibodies useful in these methods, and epitopes immunoreactive with such monoclonal antibodies are also presented. ... the methods comprising administration of a monoclonal antibody capable of binding to a human CD40 antigen located on the ... wherein the binding of the antibody to the CD40 antigen prevents the growth or differentiation of the B cell. ... Methods for preventing or treating an antibody-mediated diease in a patient are presented, ...
Subject: 'antigen-antibody complex' / Subject: antibodies and blood serum - PubAg Search Results
You searched for: Subject antigen-antibody complex Remove constraint Subject: antigen-antibody complex Subject antibodies ... antigen-antibody complex, etc ; Strongyloides venezuelensis; antibodies; antibody detection; antigen detection; antigens; blood ... antigen-antibody complex, etc ; antibodies; antibody affinity; antigens; blood serum; calorimetry; enzyme-linked immunosorbent ... antigen-antibody complex, etc ; RNA; antibodies; antibody detection; blood serum; cats; diagnostic techniques; enzyme-linked ...
Method for determination of preparation influence on interaction of complement with antigen-antibody complex
By CAC value one should detect the titer of antibodies to Lamblia intestinalis antigens to interpret results of the trial. The ... Method for determination of preparation influence on interaction of complement with antigen-antibody complex. ... medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies A61K; haptens in general, see the relevant places in class C07; ... The number of the coating free antibodies is specified so that the low content thereof in the analysed sample being of no ...
immunology | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Antibody-dependent enhancement - Wikipedia
These viruses are phagocytosed as antigen-antibody complexes, and degraded by macrophages. Upon ingestion the antibodies no ... or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating antibodies (ADCC) in the serum contains infection enhancing antibodies( ... The viruses bind to the antigen binding site at the other end of the antibody. ADE is common in cells cultured in the ... The antiviral proteins (i.e., the antibodies) bind to antibody Fc receptors that some of these cells have in the plasma ...
C1 complex - Wikipedia
This occurs when C1q binds to antigen-antibody complexes. The antibodies IgM or certain subclasses of IgG complexed with ... The C1 complex (complement component 1, C1) is a protein complex involved in the complement system. It is the first component ... The C1 complex is composed of 1 molecule of C1q, 2 molecules of C1r and 2 molecules of C1s, or C1qr2s2. Activation of the C1 ... The classical pathway C3-convertase (C4bC2b complex) is created, which promotes cleavage of C3. Janeway, CA Jr; Travers P; ...
Conjugated proteinProteinsCharacterization of antibody-antigen complexesSerumEnzyme-linkeMoleculesDestroy invadingMacrophagesTherapeuticPreventing or treating antibodySpecificity of an antibodyEpitopes of the humanInteractionMembraneDetectionViralHuman antibodiesBoundCellsMolecularMeSHStructural StudiesComplement activationGenerate antibodiesSpecificImmune responseReactivityImmunoprecipitationFragmentInitialCirculatingActivateReceptorPrecipitateGlomerulonephritisDiseasesConformational
- The antibody consists of two chains of proteins, shown as ribbons. (sciencephoto.com)
- The antibody response to proteins may be modulated by the presence of preexisting antigen-specific antibodies and the formation of immune complexes (ICs). (asm.org)
- Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
- Then after treatment of Ag-Ab complex modified substrate by guinea-pig blood serum containing highly active complement system proteins for 3 minutes and 30 minutes features 2-3 times and 5-8 times higher in diameter and in height if compared with those observed after formation of Ag-Ab complex, were observed respectively on the surface of SiO2. (edu.pl)
- Only a single layer separates the individual from enormous amounts of antigens (foreign proteins) both of dietary and microbial origin. (bookpubco.com)
- Antibodies or immunoglobulins are proteins of paramount importance in the immune system. (plu.mx)
- Whenever there is an infection in the body, proteins called antibodies, which are capable of attacking the infectious agent, are formed in the blood. (encyclopedia.com)
- Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies , complement proteins , and certain antimicrobial peptides . (wikipedia.org)
- Antibodies are special proteins designed to attack and destroy foreign material, in this case, the cytomegalovirus. (encyclopedia.com)
- Antibodies target proteins as either conformational or linear epitopes. (mcponline.org)
- Thus, antibodies are the main priority of several recent initiatives such as the Human Protein Atlas ( 3 ) and the ProteomeBinders consortium ( 4 , 5 ) and of efforts to generate antibodies against cancer-related targets ( 6 , 7 ), all of which aim to systematically generate affinity reagents, thereby facilitating the study of proteins and their role in biology and disease. (mcponline.org)
- Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when non-neutralising antiviral proteins facilitate virus entry into host cells, leading to increased infectivity in the cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The antiviral proteins (i.e., the antibodies) bind to antibody Fc receptors that some of these cells have in the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
Characterization of antibody-antigen complexes2
- In studying the binding of host antibodies to the surface antigens of pathogens, the structural and functional characterization of antibody-antigen complexes by X-ray crystallography and binding assay is important. (frontiersin.org)
- Computational docking, the process of predicting the conformation of a complex from its separated components, is emerging as a fast and affordable technique for the structural characterization of antibody-antigen complexes. (rero.ch)
- Characterisation of IgG(T) serum antibody responses to two larval antigen complexes in horses naturally- or experimentally-infected with cyathostomins. (surrey.ac.uk)
- Here, serum IgG(T) responses to two larval antigen complexes of 25 and 20 kDa were quantified in horses with experimental infections, natural infections and in horses that presented with clinical larval cyathostominosis. (surrey.ac.uk)
- Serum immunoglobulin A antibodies to MAC-specific GPL core antigen were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. (biomedcentral.com)
- 15 Type III Immediate Hypersensitivity: Antigen-Antibody Complex Mediated Attack on Host Tissues Localized: Arthritis, Nephritis Systemic: Serum Sickness Complement-Mediated: Complement Activation - General Response to AgAb Deposition Complement Deficiency - Failure to Clear Autoimmune AgAb Complexes e.g. (slideplayer.com)
- However, these highly purified aPL antibodies do not bind to the CL antigen when assayed by a modified CL ELISA in which the blocking agent does not contain bovine serum, nor do they bind to phospholipid affinity columns. (edu.au)
- Binding to the phospholipid antigen will only occur if normal human plasma, human serum, or bovine serum is present, suggesting that the binding of aPL antibodies to CL requires the presence of a plasma/serum cofactor. (edu.au)
- The target profiling of serum ACA from 269 patients with SS, systemic sclerosis (SSc), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and healthy controls revealed that ACA-positive patients have antibodies against various sites of centromere complex regardless of disease. (elsevier.com)
- Two classes fo antigen were differentiated, one a globulin associated "serum antigen" which was found to show identity with a serum antigen from blood of rats with acute Babesia rodhaini infection, and another that was associated with the Plasmodium gallinaceum parasite. (ajtmh.org)
- Study of blood cells from normal chickens made anemic by injections of autohemagglutinin-free malarious plasma indicated that both serum antigen and its antibody were present in eluates of the washed blood cells. (ajtmh.org)
- Direct immunofluorescent tests of these cells with conjugated antibody to serum antigen, and with conjugated antibody to P. gallinaceum parasite antigen showed that they reacted with the antibody to serum antigen but gave no reaction with antibody to parasite antigen. (ajtmh.org)
- From this information it is suggested that soluble complexes of serum antigen and its antibody combined with the erythrocytes, and that these complexes acted as opsonin to cause the cells to be sequestered and destroyed in the spleen, or may have fixed complement to cause intravascular hemolysis. (ajtmh.org)
- The serologic identity of serum antigen from malarious chickens and from rats with babesiosis, and its distinction from parasite antigen, led to the speculation that it might be an autoantigenic macroglobulin. (ajtmh.org)
- Vanillic Acid Ameliorates Cationic Bovine Serum Albumin Induced Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis in BALB/c Mice. (bireme.br)
- The object of the present study was to investigate the effects of VA, alone and in combination with methylprednisolone (MP), on cationic bovine serum albumin (cBSA induced immune-complex glomerulonephritis in female BALB/c mice. (bireme.br)
- The test combines a person's serum with a substance to which CMV antibodies attach. (encyclopedia.com)
- If positive for antibodies, the serum is diluted, or titered, and the test repeated until the serum is so dilute it no longer gives a positive result. (encyclopedia.com)
- The immune receptor-like loops offer a new surface for further study and potentially the design of molecules that would affect PD-1/PD-L1 complex formation and thereby modulate the immune response. (pnas.org)
- The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. (curehunter.com)
- Since their efficiency depends, in ultimate analysis, on their atomic interactions with an antigen, studying such interactions is important to understand how they function and, in the long run, to design new molecules with desired properties. (rero.ch)
- Multispecific antibodies are artificially engineered molecules designed to bind simultaneously to several (different) antigens. (ijbm.org)
- A foreign antigen will bind to surface immunoglobulins on specific B cells, triggering a chain of events including endocytosis, processing, presentation of processed peptides on MHC-class II molecules, and up-regulation of the B7 antigen on the B-cell surface. (justia.com)
- Antibodies against mouse LFA-1, human LFA-1 or human LFA-3 and antibodies against mouse or human MHC class II molecules do not inhibit EL4B5-induced proliferation of human or murine B cells. (justia.com)
- Crosslinking of the CD40 molecules with anti-CD40 antibodies mediates a variety of effects on B cells. (justia.com)
- The intestinal mucosa absorbs and digests nutrients, turning large complex molecules into small simple ones. (bookpubco.com)
- Normally, only the small molecules are allowed to pass through the intestinal wall, while the large ones that can act as antigens, causing immune reactions, have a limited ability to pass through. (bookpubco.com)
- More particularly, the present invention relates to nucleic acid molecules, including fusion constructs, having catalytic activity and the use of same in glycosylation engineering of host cells to generate polypeptides with improved therapeutic properties, including antibodies with increased Fc receptor binding and increased effector function. (freepatentsonline.com)
- inclusion complex one in which molecules of one type are enclosed within cavities in the crystalline lattice of another substance. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The immune system is a complex system whose cells and molecules are found throughout your body to protect it from potentially harmful foreign molecules. (whfoods.com)
- these molecules are called antigens. (whfoods.com)
- A staphylococcal antigen (eg, enterotoxins C and A and toxic shock syndrome toxin [TSST]-1) act as a superantigen and it can bind directly to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. (medscape.com)
- The C1 complex is composed of 1 molecule of C1q, 2 molecules of C1r and 2 molecules of C1s, or C1qr2s2. (wikipedia.org)
- The antibodies IgM or certain subclasses of IgG complexed with antigens are able to initiate the complement system: a single pentameric IgM can initiate the pathway, while several monomeric IgG molecules are needed. (wikipedia.org)
- These antibodies can be used to promote the in vitro killing of ovarian cancer cells by activated macrophages and cytokines, implying a role for this antigen in the immunotherapy of ovarian malignancies. (nih.gov)
- Kidney-resident macrophages detect and scavenge circulating immune complexes "pumped" into the interstitium via trans-endothelial transport and trigger a FcγRIV-dependent inflammatory response and the recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils. (bireme.br)
- In addition, FcγRIV and TLR pathways synergistically "super-activate" kidney macrophages when immune complexes contain a nucleic acid. (bireme.br)
- These data identify a physiological function of tissue-resident kidney macrophages and a basic mechanism by which they initiate the inflammatory response to small immune complexes in the kidney. (bireme.br)
- Get access to the best antibodies, discovery platforms, and know-how to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic programs. (abcam.com)
- The highly specific antibody-mediated delivery of therapeutic agents to the tumor microenvironment might overcome this problem. (aacrjournals.org)
- We therefore investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the targeted immunocytokine L19-Interleukin-2 (L19-IL2), consisting of the human single-chain Fv antibody L19, which is highly specific for the extradomain B (ED-B) of fibronectin, and the human cytokine IL-2, in pancreatic cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- One promising avenue to overcome these obstacles is the highly specific antibody-mediated delivery of therapeutic agents to the tumor microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
- Recently, a human single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment L19 has been generated, which displays picomolar binding affinity for ED-B, and has been verified to selectively target tumor neovasculature in both experimental tumor models ( 9 ) and patients with cancer ( 10 ), thus paving the way for a novel therapeutic approach targeting tumor neovasculature. (aacrjournals.org)
- Despite the emergence of techniques allowing the development of fully human antibodies such as transgenic Xeno-mice, antibody humanization remains a standard procedure for therapeutic antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
- As therapeutic agents, monoclonal antibodies have emerged as essential drugs with a wide range of clinical applications, making monoclonal antibodies one of the highest priorities of the pharmaceutical industry ( 8 ⇓ ⇓ - 11 ). (mcponline.org)
Preventing or treating antibody1
- In particular, this invention relates to methods of preventing or treating antibody-mediated diseases such as IgE-mediated disease (allergies) and autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). (justia.com)
Specificity of an antibody1
- Although different bioinformatic tools, based on structural data, have been developed to predict antigenic epitopes or the interaction surface between a known antibody and its antigen (docking), in silico approaches are currently not able to tailor de novo the specificity of an antibody for a target antigen. (frontiersin.org)
Epitopes of the human1
- The PD-1/PD-L1 interaction described here may be blocked by antibodies or by designed small-molecule drugs to lower inhibitory signaling that results in a stronger immune response. (pnas.org)
- These assays can be expensive and time consuming to conduct, particularly if the required antibody is not to hand, and can only provide a limited understanding of the contribution that individual residues make to the interaction. (frontiersin.org)
- Interaction between the CD28 antigen on T cells and the B7 antigen on B cells can provide a second signal further activating the T cell, resulting in high level cytokine secretion. (justia.com)
- These findings indicate that the presence of beta 2GPI is an absolute requirement for antibody-phospholipid interaction, suggesting that bound beta 2GPI forms the antigen to which aPL antibodies are directed. (edu.au)
- An important prerequisite for antibody humanization requires standardized numbering methods to define precisely complementary determining regions (CDR), frameworks and residues from the light and heavy chains that affect the binding affinity and/or specificity of the antibody-antigen interaction. (frontiersin.org)
- We have defined a novel ovarian cancer-associated membrane antigen, 14C1, using human monoclonal antibodies derived by EBV-transformation of in situ sensitised patients' B-cells. (nih.gov)
- These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. (wikipedia.org)
- membrane attack complex (MAC) C5b,6,7,8,9, the five-molecule complex that is the cytolytic agent of the complement system. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Detection of anti-MICA antibodies in patients awaiting kidney transplantation, during the post-transplant course, and in eluates from rejected kidney allografts by Luminex flow cytometry. (semanticscholar.org)
- A novel label-free photocathodic immunosensor was constructed by introducing a direct Z-scheme I-BiOCl/CdS cathodic material as highly effective photocatalyst for the selective detection of carcino embryonic antigen (CEA). (usda.gov)
- The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase. (google.ca)
- Here, we show that, given an initial structure of an antibody bound to an antigen, molecular dynamics simulations using the energy method molecular mechanics with Generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) can model the impact of single amino acid substitutions on antibody-antigen binding energy. (frontiersin.org)
- Comparison of the Fab structure in the free and antigen-bound form indicates an induced-fit mechanism of IL-13 recognition by antibody C836 through rigid-body rotation of the V L and V H domains. (iucr.org)
- Proliferation of other T cells and B cells that have already been bound to an antigen is regulated by which immune cell? (sporcle.com)
- h) determining the labeled antiglobulin bound to the antigen-chlamydial antibody complex as a measure of the Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in the specimen. (google.ca)
- In these mice, antibodies against either PD-1 or PD-L1 restore the ability of impaired T cells to proliferate, secrete cytokines, and kill infected cells ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- B-cell activation in this culture system is efficient--limiting dilution experiments have shown that the majority of human B cells can be activated to proliferate and differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. (justia.com)
- Both types of antibodies recognized the cytoplasmic domain of VSV-G synthesized by tissue culture cells infected with the temperature-sensitive 045-VSV mutant (ts045-VSV). (nih.gov)
- Methods Antibodies of antibody-secreting cells in human salivary glands were produced as recombinant antibodies. (elsevier.com)
- In a study of antigens and antibodies found in malarious chicken blood, antigen activity was found in plasma, and in hypertonic saline eluates of blood cells. (ajtmh.org)
- True or false: Cytotoxic cells circulate the body in search of body cells that display antigens to which they have been sensitized. (sporcle.com)
- Do Helper T cells attack and eliminate antigens? (sporcle.com)
- Which cells proliferate during the secondary antibody response, resulting in exponential growth of the antibody titer? (sporcle.com)
- True or false: B cells produces antibodies. (sporcle.com)
- Helper T cells must be primed by a presented antigen in order for it to start doing its job. (sporcle.com)
- In WG, the antibodies that are formed are directed against the white blood cells of the immune system. (encyclopedia.com)
- They are therefore called "auto-antibodies" (antibodies against one's own body cells). (encyclopedia.com)
- The ANCA are a group of antibodies directed against the individual's own white blood cells (namely, the neutrophils). (encyclopedia.com)
- The immune complexes may activate endogenous glomerular cells. (medscape.com)
- NK cells were depleted by i.v. injection of an anti-asialo-GM-1 antibody. (aacrjournals.org)
- This could be due to the preferential survival of long-lived memory B cells producing homotypic antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
- It is thought that by binding to but not neutralizing the virus, these antibodies cause it to behave as a "trojan horse", where it is delivered into the wrong compartment of dendritic cells that have ingested the virus for destruction. (wikipedia.org)
- Molecular computer graphic showing protein chains in an antibody-antigen complex. (sciencephoto.com)
- what is the name for the molecular mechansim for antigen recongiton? (flashcardmachine.com)
- The immune system is endowed with a highly diverse repertoire of antibodies capable of targeting virtually any molecular structure. (mcponline.org)
- X-ray Structural Studies of Antigen-Antibody Complex Toward Malaria Vaccine Development. (nii.ac.jp)
- These comparative structural studies of caliciviruses provide a functional rationale for the unique modular domain organization of the capsid protein with an embedded flexibility reminiscent of an antibody structure. (asm.org)
- B. Walivaara, A. Askendal, I. Lundstrom and P. Tengvall: "Imaging of the early events of classical complement activation using antibodies and atomic force microscopy", J. Coll. (edu.pl)
- J.W Goers, V.N. Schumaker, M.M. Glovsky, J. Rebek and H.J. Muller-Eberhard: "Complement activation by a univalent hapten-antibody complex", J. Biol. (edu.pl)
- It also refers to the effector functions of antibodies, which include pathogen and toxin neutralization, classical complement activation, and opsonin promotion of phagocytosis and pathogen elimination. (wikipedia.org)
- Mice were immunized with a dimeric soluble form of E (sE) alone or in complex with monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the three domains of E, and the antibody response induced by these ICs was compared to that seen after immunization with sE alone. (asm.org)
- The phenomena described may also be relevant for polyclonal responses upon secondary infections and/or booster immunizations and may affect antibody responses in an individual-specific way. (asm.org)
- We conducted a mouse immunization study with TBE E protein alone or complexed to monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the three protein domains. (asm.org)
- The study thus provided important new information on the potential immunomodulatory role of preexisting antibodies in a flavivirus system that can be relevant for understanding individual-specific factors influencing antibody responses in sequential flavivirus infections and/or immunizations. (asm.org)
- In naturally exposed horses whose parasite burdens were quantified upon post-mortem examination, antigen-specific IgG(T) responses were significantly higher in infected than in uninfected horses (P=0.0001 and 0.002, for anti-25 and anti-20 kDa responses, respectively). (surrey.ac.uk)
- In cases of larval cyathostominosis, antigen-specific IgG(T) levels were significantly higher than in uninfected ponies (P=0.002 and 0.0035, for anti-25 and anti-20 kDa responses, respectively). (surrey.ac.uk)
- The structure of the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein from the Bundibugyo strain of the Ebola virus in complex with a pan-specific synthetic Fab. (uchicago.edu)
- The complement system plays a critical role in innate immune defense against pathogens, both via non-specific direct pathogen recognition and killing or via antigen-specific indirect recruitment by complement fixing antibodies. (usda.gov)
- Short of undergoing a trial and error process, these experiments, as well as others, need to rely on an understanding of the specific determinants of the antibody binding mode. (plu.mx)
- Additional EBV-specific antibody tests were performed in sera with anti-EA-IgG titres of greater than or equal to 1:20 (n = 84), including IgM class antibodies to virus capsid antigen (anti-VCA-IgM). (nih.gov)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of measuring antibodies to the glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core antigen specific to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (biomedcentral.com)
- A specific type of antibody called anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) is seen in the blood of about 90% of the patients with WG. (encyclopedia.com)
- 4. The kit of claim 1 wherein the specific binding member for the analyte of interest is an antibody. (google.co.uk)
- 15. The kit of claim 14 , wherein the second member of the specific binding pair is an antibody. (google.co.uk)
- Given that the target protein is 43 kDa or so, is it feasible that the 68 kDa band is actually the target protein + the Fv antibody fragment (25 kDa) that was cleaved off under the reducing conditions? (protocol-online.org)
- Its unique antigen-binding fragment (Fab) architecture provides pM affinities for ligands, no positional effect in target binding and a stable self-supporting structure. (ijbm.org)
- Abrogation of immune complex glomerulonephritis by native carboxypeptidase and pharmacological antagonism of the C5a receptor. (uchicago.edu)
- The CD40 antigen is known to be related to the human nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-.alpha. (justia.com)
- True or false: antibody structure is identical to the antibody receptor of their progenitor cell. (sporcle.com)