Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.p-Azobenzenearsonate: A hapten capable of eliciting both antibody formation and delayed hypersensitivity when bound to aromatic amino acids, polypeptides or proteins. It is used as an immunologic research tool.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Iodine Isotopes: Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Azo CompoundsT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Inbred AHemocyaninImmunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Macroglobulins: Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Cryoglobulins: Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Paraproteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.NitrophenolsReceptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diazonium CompoundsLymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred C57BLBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred C3HSuppressor Factors, Immunologic: Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Mice, Inbred CBAAntibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Graft vs Host Reaction: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (1/2060)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Human triclonal anti-IgG gammopathy. I. Iso-electric focusing characteristics of the IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG and their heavy and light chains. (2/2060)

Human IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG autoantibodies have been isolated from the serum of an individual with Felty's syndrome. These were initially noted as soluble circulating serum complexes by analytical ultracentrifugation. Isolation was accomplished by solid phase immunoadsorption and each of the three antibody populations obtained was shown to be of restricted heterogeneity by liquid and polyacrylamide gel electrofocussing methods. Type kappa light chains were obtained from each protein. Co-isoelectric focusing experiments of all possible pairs of these light chains showed them to have identical net charge characteristics. Heavy chains obtained from each protein were also monoclonal and of differing isoelectric point. The availability of this serum provides a human model with which to study the changes which may occur in autoantibodies during the autoimmune response.  (+info)

Plasma anti-serotonin and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies are elevated in panic disorder. (3/2060)

The psychoneuroimmunology of panic disorder is relatively unexplored. Alterations within brain stress systems that secondarily influence the immune system have been documented. A recent report indicated elevations of serotonin (5-HT) and ganglioside antibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia, a condition with documented associations with panic disorder. In line with our interest in dysregulated 5-HT systems in panic disorder (PD), we wished to assess if antibodies directed at the 5-HT system were elevated in patients with PD in comparison to healthy volunteers. Sixty-three patients with panic disorder and 26 healthy volunteers were diagnosed by the SCID. Employing ELISA, we measured anti-5-HT and 5-HT anti-idiotypic antibodies (which are directed at 5-HT receptors). To include all subjects in one experiment, three different batches were run during the ELISA. Plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies: there was a significant group effect [patients > controls (p = .007)] and batch effect but no interaction. The mean effect size for the three batches was .76. Following Z-score transformation of each separate batch and then combining all scores, patients demonstrated significantly elevated levels of plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies. Neither sex nor age as covariates affected the significance of the results. There was a strong correlation between anti-serotonin antibody and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibody measures. Plasma anti-serotonin antibodies: there was a significant diagnosis effect [patients > controls (p = .037)]. Mean effect size for the three batches was .52. Upon Z-score transformation, there was a diagnosis effect with antibody elevations in patients. Covaried for sex and age, the result falls below significance to trend levels. The data raise the possibility that psychoimmune dysfunction, specifically related to the 5-HT system, may be present in PD. Potential interruption of 5-HT neurotransmission through autoimmune mechanisms may be of pathophysiologic significance in certain patients with panic disorder. It remains to be demonstrated if the peripheral autoimmunity is representative of CNS 5-HT neuronal alterations. Replication appears warranted.  (+info)

Genetic linkage of IgA deficiency to the major histocompatibility complex: evidence for allele segregation distortion, parent-of-origin penetrance differences, and the role of anti-IgA antibodies in disease predisposition. (4/2060)

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (IgAD) is characterized by a defect of terminal lymphocyte differentiation, leading to a lack of IgA in serum and mucosal secretions. Familial clustering, variable population prevalence in different ethnic groups, and a predominant inheritance pattern suggest a strong genetic predisposition to IgAD. The genetic susceptibility to IgAD is shared with a less prevalent, but more profound, defect called "common variable immunodeficiency" (CVID). Here we show an increased allele sharing at 6p21 in affected members of 83 multiplex IgAD/CVID pedigrees and demonstrate, using transmission/diseqilibrium tests, family-based associations indicating the presence of a predisposing locus, designated "IGAD1," in the proximal part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The recurrence risk of IgAD was found to depend on the sex of parents transmitting the defect: affected mothers were more likely to produce offspring with IgAD than were affected fathers. Carrier mothers but not carrier fathers transmitted IGAD1 alleles more frequently to the affected offspring than would be expected under random segregation. The differential parent-of-origin penetrance is proposed to reflect a maternal effect mediated by the production of anti-IgA antibodies tentatively linked to IGAD1. This is supported by higher frequency of anti-IgA-positive females transmitting the disorder to children, in comparison with female IgAD nontransmitters, and by linkage data in the former group. Such pathogenic mechanisms may be shared by other MHC-linked complex traits associated with the production of specific autoantibodies, parental effects, and a particular MHC haplotype.  (+info)

Antiidiotypic antibody recognizes an amiloride binding domain within the alpha subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel. (5/2060)

We previously raised an antibody (RA6.3) by an antiidiotypic approach which was designed to be directed against an amiloride binding domain on the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). This antibody mimicked amiloride in that it inhibited transepithelial Na+ transport across A6 cell monolayers. RA6.3 recognized a 72-kDa polypeptide in A6 epithelia treated with tunicamycin, consistent with the size of nonglycosylated Xenopus laevis alphaENaC. RA6.3 specifically recognized an amiloride binding domain within the alpha-subunit of mouse and bovine ENaC. The deduced amino acid sequence of RA6.3 was used to generate a three-dimensional model structure of the antibody. The combining site of RA6.3 was epitope mapped using a novel computer-based strategy. Organic residues that potentially interact with the RA6.3 combining site were identified by data base screening using the program LUDI. Selected residues docked to the antibody in a manner corresponding to the ordered linear array of amino acid residues within an amiloride binding domain on the alpha-subunit of ENaC. A synthetic peptide spanning this domain inhibited the binding of RA6.3 to alphaENaC. This analysis provided a novel approach to develop models of antibody-antigen interaction as well as a molecular perspective of RA6.3 binding to an amiloride binding domain within alphaENaC.  (+info)

Elimination of the immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies. (6/2060)

The immunogenicity of therapeutic Abs limits their long-term use. The processes of complementarity-determining region grafting, resurfacing, and hyperchimerization diminish mAb immunogenicity by reducing the number of foreign residues. However, this does not prevent anti-idiotypic and anti-allotypic responses following repeated administration of cell-binding Abs. Classical studies have demonstrated that monomeric human IgG is profoundly tolerogenic in a number of species. If cell-binding Abs could be converted into monomeric non-cell-binding tolerogens, then it should be possible to pretolerize patients to the therapeutic cell-binding form. We demonstrate that non-cell-binding minimal mutants of the anti-CD52 Ab CAMPATH-1H lose immunogenicity and can tolerize to the "wild-type" Ab in CD52-expressing transgenic mice. This finding could have utility in the long-term administration of therapeutic proteins to humans.  (+info)

Cleavage of transcription factor SP1 by caspases during anti-IgM-induced B-cell apoptosis. (7/2060)

Apoptosis is instrumental in the processes generating the diversity of the B-cell repertoire. Autoreactive B-cells are eliminated by anti-IgM crosslinking after encountering self-antigens, but precise mechanisms leading to B-cell apoptosis are still not well understood. We report here the cleavage of the transcription factor SP1 in the human Burkitt lymphoma cell line BL60 during anti-IgM-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed two cleavage products of approximately 68 kDa and 45 kDa after induction of apoptosis. Cleavage could be completely inhibited by zDEVD-fmk, an inhibitor specific for caspase 3-like proteases. In-vitro cleavage of recombinant SP1 by recombinant caspase 3 (CPP32) or caspase 7 (Mch 3) results in similar cleavage products as those observed in vivo. Recombinant caspase 6 (Mch 2) primarily generates a 68-kDa cleavage product, as observed after calcium ionophore (CaI) induced B-cell apoptosis. In contrast, caspase 1 (ICE) did not cleave SP1 in vitro. The time course of SP1 cleavage during anti-IgM-induced apoptosis is paralleled by an increase of caspase activity measured by DEVD-p-nitroanilide (DEVD-pNA) cleavage. DNA band-shift assays revealed a decrease in the intensity of the full length SP1/DNA complex and an increase in the intensity of a smaller complex due to the binding of one SP1 cleavage product. By Edman sequencing we could identify a caspase 3 cleavage site after Asp584 (D584AQPQAGR), generating a 22-kDa C-terminal SP1 protein fragment which still contains the DNA binding site. Our results show the cleavage of the human transcription factor SP1 in vivo and in vitro, underlining the central role of caspase 3-like proteases during the process of anti-IgM-induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Extracellular signal-regulated kinases regulate leukotriene C4 generation, but not histamine release or IL-4 production from human basophils. (8/2060)

Human basophils secrete histamine and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in response to various stimuli, such as Ag and the bacterial product, FMLP. IgE-mediated stimulation also results in IL-4 secretion. However, the mechanisms of these three classes of secretion are unknown in human basophils. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs; ERK-1 and ERK-2) during IgE- and FMLP-mediated stimulation of human basophils was examined. Following FMLP stimulation, histamine release preceded phosphorylation of ERKs, whereas phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and arachidonic acid (AA) and LTC4 release followed phosphorylation of ERKs. The phosphorylation of ERKs was transient, decreasing to baseline levels after 15 min. PD98059 (MEK inhibitor) inhibited the phosphorylation of ERKs and cPLA2 without inhibition of several other tyrosine phosphorylation events, including phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. PD98059 also inhibited LTC4 generation (IC50 = approximately 2 microM), but not histamine release. Stimulation with anti-IgE Ab resulted in the phosphorylation of ERKs, which was kinetically similar to both histamine and LTC4 release and decreased toward resting levels by 30 min. Similar to FMLP, PD98059 inhibited anti-IgE-mediated LTC4 release (IC50, approximately 2 microM), with only a modest effect on histamine release and IL-4 production at higher concentrations. Taken together, these results suggest that ERKs might selectively regulate the pathway leading to LTC4 generation by phosphorylating cPLA2, but not histamine release or IL-4 production, in human basophils.  (+info)

A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; a method for the production of the aforementioned monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody specific to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the product of fusion a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent and as an adsorbent.
A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; a method for the production of the aforementioned monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody specific to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the product of fusion a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent and as an adsorbent.
Specific Interference with the Determination of the Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 by Human Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Formed after Treatment with the Anti-Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 Antibody ...
Two mouse monoclonal anti-anti-idiotopic antibodies (anti-anti-Id, Ab3), AF14 and AF52, were prepared by immunizing BALByc mice with rabbit polyclonal antiidiotypic antibodies (anti-Id, Ab2) raised against antibody D1.3 (Ab1) specific for the antigen hen egg lysozyme. AF14 and AF52 react with an internal image monoclonal mouse anti-Id antibody E5.2 (Ab2), previously raised against D1.3, with affinity constants (1.0 3 109 M21 and 2.4 3 107 M21, respectively) usually observed in secondary responses against protein antigens. They also react with the antigen but with lower affinity (1.8 3 106 M21 and 3.8 3 106 M21). This pattern of affinities for the anti-Id and for the antigen also was displayed by the sera of the immunized mice. The amino acid sequences of AF14 and AF52 are very close to that of D1.3. In particular, the amino acid side chains that contribute to contacts with both antigen and anti-Id are largely conserved in AF14 and AF52 compared with D1.3. Therapeutic immunizations against different
Neuroblastoma treatment with chimeric anti-disialoganglioside GD2 antibody ch14.18 showed objective anti-tumor responses. Production of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) against ch14.18 (Ab1) in some cases was positively correlated with a more favorable prognosis. According to Jernes network theory, a subset of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2beta) form an internal image of the antigen and induce antibodies (Ab3) against the original antigen. The molecular origin of the anti-idiotypic antibody response in tumor patients was not investigated previously. To clone anti-idiotypic antibodies, B-cells of a ch14.18-treated neuroblastoma patient with Ab2 serum reactivity were used to construct antibody phage display libraries (Methods described in Arthritis Rheum. 2000, 43:2722-2732). Upon repetitive selection of lambda and kappa Fab-phage display libraries on target antigens ch14.18 and the murine equivalent 14G2a, positive binders were enriched. Selected Ab2-clones GK2 and GK8 as well as another 38 ...
Results Anti-infliximab antibodies were detected in 21 patients (median: 131 ng/ml, range 10-200 ng/ml). Infliximab levels were weak in 25 patients (median: 0.16 microg/ml, range: ,0.1-0.41 microg/ml). In 20/25 patients (80%), the weak level of infliximab was associated to the presence of anti-infliximab antibodies. Interestingly, in sera of two patients obtained more than one year after the last infliximab perfusion, anti-infliximab antibodies were still present. Elevated infliximab levels were associated to the presence of anti-infliximab antibodies in only one patient. In 6 patients, the loss of infliximab response was not explained by the presence of anti-TNF antibodies or weak infliximab levels, suggesting that a switch to another biological agent could be more efficient than to another TNF inhibitor.. ...
Rose, L M.; Goldman, M; and Lambert, P, "The production of anti-idiotypic antibodies and of idiotype- -anti-idiotype immune complexes after polyclonal activation induced by bacterial lps." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2727 ...
B-cell lymphomas express surface immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin) containing unique idiotypic (idiotype) determinants which may be exploited as tumor specific markers. The inventor has produced murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with the idiotype marker derived from 67 patients with low grade, follicular, small cleaved cell lymphoma. Out of 199 monoclonal antibodies, 47 (24%) were found to react with pooled normal human serum immunoglobulin in concentrations ranging from 0.6 μg/ml to 160 μg/ml. Of these 40 monoclonal antibodies, 90% cross-reacted with idiotype present in normal serum in levels |50 μg/ml. Thirty-two of these anti-idiotypes were directed against a shared idiotope expressed on another patients lymphoma cells. The frequency of shared idiotope expression defined by each antibody ranged from 0.26% to 3.9% of the B-cell lymphomas tested. A panel of five anti-idiotype antibodies reacted with 80% of AIDS associated lymphomas. Based on the reactivity with these monoclonal antibodies,
Immunogenicity of Protein-315 and its Fab fragment (Fab-315) for isologous and heterologous strains of mice was investigated by comparing the characteristics of the anti-idiotypic response produced in BALB/c and A/J mice. The ability of these anti-idiotypic antisera to compete with DNP-lys for the ligand-binding site of Protein-315 were analyzed by comparing their hapten inhibition curves.. The anti-idiotypic responses of BALB/c mice to Protein-315 and to Fab-315 were similar to one another with regard to antibody specificity and sensitivity to inhibition by hapten, suggesting that both forms were equally immunogenic in inbred BALB/c mice. This observation indicates that the Fc portion of Protein-315 is not essential for the induction of anti-idiotypic response. Both BALB/c and A/J mice recognized the same antigenic determinants on Fab-315 since the anti-idiotypic antibodies produced by these animals were indistinguishable with regard to their interaction with Protein-315, Fv-315, and ...
Anti-idiotype vaccination represents an innovative approach to target tumor-associated antigen-expressing cells. This approach comes directly from Jernes idiotypic network theory, which postulates that due to the huge potentiality for diversity of the immunoglobulin variable regions, the idiotype repertoire can mimic the universe of self and foreign epitopes [1].. NeuGc-containing gangliosides are attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy because these glycolipids are non-self antigens in humans [2, 3]. In contrast, they have been detected in different human tumors by antibodies and chemical analysis [4-6]. Recent experimental data suggest that N-glycolyl-GM3 ganglioside (NeuGcGM3) is relevant for tumor biology [7].. mAb-1E10 [8] is an IgG1 anti-idiotype (Ab2) mAb obtained by immunizing Balb/c mice with mAb-P3 (Ab1) [9] coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in the presence of Freunds adjuvant. This Ab2 inhibited the binding of mAb-P3 to NeuGcGM3 ganglioside. mAb-1E10 induced an ...
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of immunological memory assumes importance in vaccine design. We had earlier hypothesized a mechanism for the maintenance of immunological memory through the operation of a network of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2). Peptides derived from an internal image carrying anti-idiotypic antibody are hypothesized to facilitate the perpetuation of antigen specific T cell memory through similarity in peptide-MHC binding as that of the antigenic peptide. In the present work, the existence of such peptidomimics of the antigen in the Ab2 variable region and their similarity of MHC-I binding was examined by bioinformatics approaches. The analysis employing three known viral antigens and one tumor-associated antigen shows that peptidomimics from Ab2 variable regions have structurally similar MHC-I binding patterns as compared to antigenic peptides, indicating a structural basis for memory perpetuation. (C)) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The physiology of anti-idiotypic interactions. T2 - From clonal to paratopic selection. AU - Greally, John M.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - On theoretical and experimental grounds, it has been proposed that the idiotypes of immunoglobulins and of T cell receptors are composed of multiple paratopes, as opposed to a single paratope and several idiotopes. This necessitates a revision of some of the basic principles of anti-idiotypic reactions. It is also possible to infer the presence of the same or similar paratopes on different idiotypes. A paratope cannot therefore be regarded as restricted to or unique on an idiotype. For these reasons, the perception of immunological specificity in terms of clonal units is misleading. This review proposes instead that the physiological unit of immunological specificity and regulation is the paratope. This essential alteration in the perception of the immune system is referred to as paratopic selection. The approach is assessed in terms of ...
Antibodies directed against IgG and DNA are found in the sera of autoimmune MRL/Mp lpr/lpr mice. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying expression of such autoantibodies. We have investigated the binding diversity and pattern of VH gene expression in a panel of murine anti-IgG antibodies. We constructed eight hybridoma clones secreting IgM antibodies that bound to mouse IgG by using spleen cells from MRL/Mp lpr/lpr mice varying in age from 4 to 15 wk; one clone was derived from a 32-wk-old MRL +/+ mouse. The monoclonal IgM products exhibited varying binding specificities for intact mouse IgG, fragments of mouse IgG [Fc, Fab, (Fab)2], and heterologous IgG. Two of these antibodies crossreacted with B and/or Z DNA. Probes from seven of eight identified mouse VH gene families (7183, S107, Q52, J558, J606, 36-60, and 3609) were hybridized under high-stringency conditions with cytoplasmic RNA blots from each clone. Six clones hybridized only with the probe from the five-member 36-60 ...
Injections may be a helpful add-on treatment for certain people with severe allergic asthma. Learn more about how it works, how much it costs, and some of the potential side effects.
Cosenza, H; Augustin, A; and Julius, M H., "Induction and characterization of autologous anti-idiotypic antibodies." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3483 ...
A 13-amino-acid motif in the cytoplasmic domain of FcyRIIB modulates B-cell receptor signalling. Nature (London) 368, 7 0 - 7 3 . , and Lamoyi, E. (1981). Implications of the presence of an internal image of the antigen in anti-idiotypic antibodies: Possible application to vaccine production. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 21, 397. Noelle, R. J . , and Snow, E. C. (1991). T helper cell-dependent B cell activation. FASEB J. 5, 2770-2776. Nossal, G. J. V. (1994). Negative selection of lymphocytes. Cell 76, 2 2 9 - 2 3 9 . Multifactorial nature of human immunodeficiency virus disease: Implications for therapy. Science 262, 1011-1018. Finkelman, F. , Holmes, J . , Katona, I. , Urban, J. F . , Beckmann, M. , Park, L. , Schooley, K. , Coffman, R. L . , Mosmann, T. , and Paul, W. E. (1990). Lymphokine control of in vivo immunoglobulin isotype selection. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 8, 3 0 3 - 3 3 3 . Fiorentino, D. F . , Bond, M. , and Mossman, T. R. (1989). Two types of mouse helper T cell. IV. Th2 clones ...
Results 33 children (22 male) aged 5-16 years were commenced on omalizumab. At 16 weeks there were significant improvements in mini-AQLQ; ACT; FENO; maintenance OCS dose; severe exacerbations and UHCVs.. 20/33 (60.6%) children continued omalizumab beyond the initial 16 weeks (up to 192 weeks). Compared to those who discontinued, at baseline these children had higher mini-AQLQ (4.28 vs. 3.05) and ACT (11 vs. 8), were younger (11 vs. 13 years) and were more likely to have been admitted to hospital (57.9% vs. 0%) and have had a severe exacerbation (95% vs. 50%) in the 16 weeks before starting omalizumab. Maximal reduction in number of exacerbations and hospital admissions was evident at 32 weeks; this was maintained for up to 144 weeks (Figure 1).. ...
Human Anti-Golimumab Antibody, clone AbD25455 is an anti-idiotypic antibody that specifically recognizes the monoclonal antibody drug goli
|strong|Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255|/strong| is a paratope specific, inhibitory anti-idiotypic antibody that specifically recognizes the monoclonal antibody drug nivolumab. The antib…
Our laboratory is developing cancer vaccines that are being evaluated in animal models for their protective activity against tumors before they are administered to cancer patients. The vaccines are composed of antibodies mimicking tumor antigens (anti-idiotypic antibodies) or the antigens expressed in viruses (recombinant adeno- or vaccinia-viruses) and are selected based on their high probability of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses in patients. The animal models we have developed for preclinical evaluation of the vaccines closely mimic the condition in cancer patients. In other studies which have reached clinical trials, we are evaluating the vaccinated patients immune responses to their tumors ...
Mean serum IFX trough level was 4.4+ 4.7mg/ml in 430 samples from 122 patients. The level was significantly lower in symptomatic phase (n=73, 2.5±5.3 μg/ml) than in the asymptomatic phase (n=357, 4.9 ± 4.6μg/ml). ROC analysis determined the cut-off level was 0.93μg/ml. Patient-based analysis revealed that the trough level was lower in Group C+D (1.3±3.3μg/ml) than Group A (4.2±4.4μg/ml) and B (5.4±5.7μg/ml), whereas administration interval was significantly shorter in Group B (7.2±1.1 wk) and C+D (6.8±1.5 wk) than Group A (8.2±0.9 wk). ATI(+) was found in 18 (11.3%) of all patients. The frequency was significantly higher in Group C+D (5/10, 50%) and E (4/8, 50%) than Group A (3/75, 4%) and B (6/38, 16%). Thus, unfavorable clinical responses were associated with low trough level and positive ATI. Muitivariate analysis using logistic regression model revealed association of therapeutic failure (Group C+D and E) with female, positive ATI, and infusion reaction (IR). Moreover, ATI was ...
我們的研究主軸是利用抗體工程技術來開發新藥。這些以抗體為結構基礎的藥物,主要標的牽涉於IgE引致的過敏反應過程。我們也積極從事開發可提升抗體工程 的數種創新技術平台。其中一項研究計畫就是要發展人源化、高親和力,及對人體膜IgE分子內CεmX具結合特異性的抗體,以用來控制表現IgE的B淋巴細 胞。CεmX是張教授的研究群發現的;它是一含有具特異序列的52個氨基酸長的胜肽區段。如發展成功,anti-CεmX可與張教授發明的anti-IgE,如已在美國等國核准上市用於嚴重哮喘的omalizumab(商名Xolair),共同使用。. ...
ForteBios Anti-Murine IgG Quantitation biosensors provide a rapid method for precise quantitation of murine immunoglobulins from crude lysates and cell culture supernatants. For Determination of Antibody Concentration
Rabbit Polyclonal ID4 antibody N-Term for WB. Published in 2 Pubmed References. Order this anti-ID4 antibody. | Product number ABIN2780374
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-gamma H2A.X (phospho S139) antibody - ChIP Grade (ab2893) : ChIP protocols, Immunoprecipitation protocols…
Anti-gamma H2A.X (phospho S139) antibody [9F3] (ab26350) has been cited in 47 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat, Dog, Pig in ICC, ICC/IF, IF, IHC…
The progression of this project, as well as the outcomes, will be extremely relevant to the public and scientific researchers since Severe Allergic Asthma is a common disease worldwide. AA is well documented and the public already have a great deal of understanding and so are more likely to be interested in new advances in research related to this condition. The objectives of this work package are to ...
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Methods: Consecutive patients with severe asthma disease (n=15; Group IA, pretreatment and Group IB, post-treatment) underwent omalizumab treatment. Control group was age- and sex-matched including 25 healthy in Group II. Blood samples from both the groups were taken during their first visit (Group IA and II) and then after 12 months of treatment in asthmatic patients (Group IB). Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), eosinophil cationic peptide (ECP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), soluble OX2 (sCD200) and clinical follow-up tests including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), asthma control test (ACT), and pulmonary function tests were evaluated ...
Anti-IgE (omalizumab) has been shown to be an effective add-on therapy for patients with allergic severe asthma. In this observational study patients aged over 18 year with uncontrolled severe persistent asthma are selected for add-on therapy with omalizumab. Patients were on high dose of ICS and had a documented history of 2-6 exacerbations requiring treatment with systemic corticosteroids ( with ,15 mg/day prednisone or other medications at similar dose, for at least 3 days). The individual dose and frequency of omalizumab administration is assessed from the dosing table. Lung function tests and asthma questionnaires (ACQ, AQLQ and RQLQ) are used in the aim of assessing clinical improvement after omalizumab treatment. Induced sputum (IS) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are used as a simple non-invasive methods for monitoring cellular and biochemical changes in the airways. Total blood eosinophil count, IS cytology, IS and EBC periostin and IL-6 concentrations are measured. Analyses are ...
Omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody has the potential to alter allergen processing. Recently, it has been postulated the assessment of PHA-stimulated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activity as maker of CD4+ T cells activity in peripheral blood cells. We present the case report of a 35-year-old woman with a history of chronic idiopathic urticaria and angioedema of 8 years of development with poor response to treatment. The patient was partially controlled with cyclosporine at doses of 100 mg/12 h. However, she was still developing hives daily. Finally treatment with omalizumab was started at dose of 300 mg every 2 weeks. The patient experienced a decrease in urticarial lesions 2 days after starting therapy. We also evaluated the effects of omalizumab therapy on the activity of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells from the patient, in order to determine the potential modification of anti-IgE therapy on the process of antigen presentation-recognition. Activity of CD4+ cells by ATP release was
Rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies were prepared by injection of specifically purified anti-p-azobenzoate antibodies (D) from individual donor rabbits. Benzoate derivatives were found to be strong inhibitors of the reactions of D with anti-D antisera. There was a close correlation between the combining affinities of the benzoate derivatives used and their effectiveness as inhibitors. Compounds tested that are chemically unrelated to benzoate were ineffective. The results indicate either that the combining site of anti-benzoate antibody is part of an important idiotypic determinant, which is sterically blocked by hapten, or that the hapten induces a conformational change which alters idiotypic determinants not involving the active site. Such conformational changes, if they occur, must be restricted since hapten has little effect on the reactions of F(ab)2 fragments of anti-benzoate antibodies with antisera directed to rabbit fragment Fab and no detectable effect on reactions with antibodies ...
Deterioration of asthma upon withdrawal of Xolair as demonstrated by meeting at least one of the following: *Worsening of pulmonary function tests (FEV1 ,80% predicted for height, age, and sex) and activity levels while off Xolair treatment; *Worsening of asthma exacerbations defined as doubling of inhaled steroid dose, increase in dose of oral steroids, or initiation of oral, intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous (SC) steroids while off Xolair treatment; *Increased use of rescue medications while off Xolair treatment; *ER visits or unscheduled office visits for asthma that may or may not result in hospitalization while off Xolair ...
Case report: We present the case of a 48 year old woman, with severe persistent allergic asthma, despite level 4 (GINA) medical treatment, who initiated omalizumab in order to control her nocturnal symptoms and her frequent unscheduled medical visits. Before treatment and at 12 weeks: clinical evaluation with ACT was registered; lung function, FeNO, IgE and eosinophils were measured. Two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC ´GC-ToFMS) combined with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied to the untargeted study of the volatile metabolomic urine profile. ...
The study by Milgrom and colleagues is their second on the use of omalizumab (anti-IgE antibody) in the treatment of asthma and the third published in the past 3 months that addresses treatment with anti-IgE in large, multicenter asthma studies. Concurrent studies by Busse and colleagues (1) and Soler and colleagues (2) included , 500 adult patients aged 12 to 75 years and used medium to high-dose inhaled steroids (500 to 1200 µg/d of beclomethasone). They used a design similar to that of Milgrom and colleagues and achieved similar results in terms of steroid reduction and decreases in exacerbations. These studies, along with an earlier publication by Milgrom and colleagues (3), make a case for anti-IgE antibodies as adjunctive treatment for steroid-dependent patients with asthma. The advantages of anti-IgE over conventional therapies include once or twice-monthly subcutaneous injections and its tolerability with infrequent side effects. However, many questions remain. Although the association ...
Omalizumab - Get up-to-date information on Omalizumab side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Omalizumab
CHO-Anti-Human IgE scFv stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an anti-human IgE scFv gene to allow expression of the scFv. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
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Author(s): Markus Brede ,Ulrich Behn Subject(s): CX.3 Category: Abstract:. The talk deals with modelling a subsystem of the immune system, the so-called idiotypic network. Idiotypic networks, a concept conceived by N.K. Jerne in 1974, are functional networks of interacting antibodies and B-cells. In principle, Jernes framework provides solutions to many issues in immunology, such as immunological memory, mechanisms for antigen recognition and the question of self/non-self discrimination. Explaining the interconnection between the elementary components local dynamics, network formation and architecture, and possible modes of global system function appears to be an ideal playground of statistical mechanics. We present a simple cellular automaton model based on a graph representation of the system. From a simplified description of idiotypic interactions rules for the random evolution of networks of occupied and empty sites on these graphs are derived. In certain biologically relevant parameter ...
THURSDAY, June 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with a significant response to allergen challenge, omalizumab induces protective effects against early (EAR) and late allergic reactions (LAR), according to a study published online June 5 in Allergy.. Jordis Trischler, M.D., from the University Hospital Frankfurt in Germany, and colleagues determined the time course of the early (EAR) and late allergic reaction (LAR). Ten patients with a significant response to allergen challenge were treated with omalizumab. At week one, two, four, and eight, bronchial allergen provocations were repeated.. The researchers observed a significant reduction in EAR after four weeks (change in forced expiratory volume in one second [ΔFEV1], 28 versus 11 percent; P , 0.001; exhaled nitric oxide, 86 versus 53 ppb; P , 0.05), and there was a reduction in basophil activation after two weeks (CD63 expression, 79 versus 32 percent; P , 0.05). After one week there was a reduction in LAR (ΔFEV1, 26 versus 13 ...
Container/Tube:. Preferred: Green-top (lithium heparin) tube. Acceptable: Gold-top serum gel tube or Plain Red-top tube. Specimen Volume: 170 uL of plasma or serum. Stability: Keep tubes stoppered and upright at all times. Do not use samples that have been stored at room temperature for longer than 8 hours. Tightly cap and refrigerate specimens at 2° to 8°C if the assay is not completed within 8 hours. Freeze samples at or below -20°C if the sample is not assayed within 48 hours. Freeze samples only once and mix thoroughly after thawing. Collection Instructions:. Note: 1. Human anti-mouse antibodies or other heterophile antibodies may be present in patient specimens. This assay has been specially formulated to minimize the effects of these antibodies, however results from patients known to have these antibodies should be carefully evaluated.. 2. Label specimen appropriately (plasma/serum).. ...
Goat anti-Mouse IgM Secondary Antibody, HRP conjugate from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunocytochemistry and Immunohistochemistry applications. Supplied as 2 mL purified secondary antibody (0.8 mg/ml) in PBS with 15mg/ml BSA and no preservative; pH 7.6.
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The basic components of the diagnostic test systems are antigens and specific antibodies. The main objective of developing express tests for the diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is to obtain a virus antigen drug, which is very time-consuming to prepare. This problem can be solved by producing anti-idiotype antibodies that have a chemical structure identical to that of the viral antigen and does not require large expenditures to manufacture [1, 2 ...
Human IgG antibody, pre-adsorbed (TxRd) for ELISA, FACS, ICC/IF. Anti-Human IgG pAb (GTX27151) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Learn about the potential side effects of Xolair (omalizumab). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
This paper evaluates a representative sample of the best anti-ID and pro-ID publications and presents a conclusion as to the present state of the evidence and arguments regarding these positions. Published in Origins, n. 63.
Specificityinternal regionStorage/StabilityAliquot and store at -20°C Minimize freezing and thawing More InformationImmunogenThe immunogen was a 12-residue peptide matching a sequence from the internal region of Mouse SETD2 See Accession Number s NP_054878 3 Formulation 0 5 mg/ml in TBS 0
GenScriptRabbitAnti-PLCγ1(Ab-771)PolyclonalAntibodydetectsendogenouslevelsoftotalPLCγ1protein.FullNamePLCγ1Antibody(Ab-771),pAb,Rabbitabbreviated_name1PLC-γ1(Ab-771)AntibodyIgS
Pt presents to office with Asthma and is treated with Zolair. Since Zolair is considered a monoclonal antibody, what is the appropriate administration
CAR阳性表达率检测是CAR-T疗法质量控制的重要一环,常用的检测方案有利用Protein L、Anti-Fab抗体或靶点蛋白结合流式细胞术进行检测。其中,靶点蛋白结合流式细胞术的检测方案因其靶点特异性强的优势而备受青睐,许多业内人士预期靶点特异性的检测将会被监管机构纳入CAR-T质量控制监管考量的范畴。本文将对CAR阳性表达率检测相关案例做一汇总以供大家参考..
CU patients treated with Omalizumab, showed lower percentage of CD4+HLA-DR+CD38+[0,75(0,6-1,1)vs1,23(1,01-1,54)%,p,0,0001], CD4+DR+CD38-[1,7(0,7-3,15)vs3,07(2,5-4,7)%,p=0,0006] and higher percentage of CD8+DR-CD38+ [14±2 vs 8±0,5%,p=0,0001] and Th1 CM [12±0,8 vs 9±0,4%, p,0,0001] than HD.. ...
Euhesmaalbamala sp. n.: A-D Allotype male genital structures: A genital ventral B genital dorsal C S7+S8 ventral D S7+S8 dorsal. Scale bars: 200 µm.
Human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) is an antibody found in humans which reacts to immunoglobins found in mice. Antibody treatment is a type of therapy that is used to treat certain types of cancer and immune disorders. Antibodies are proteins which are naturally formed by the body in response to a foreign substance, known as an antigen. Antibodies can also be grown outside of the patients body and injected into them to help aid the immune system to fight disease. These types of antibodies are typically called monoclonal antibodies because they are created to target one specific antigen. Herceptin and Avastin, two widely used cancer fighting drugs, are examples of monoclonal antibodies. For several decades, and until recently, mice were used extensively in the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). But the treatments were not as effective as doctors had hoped. One problem was that patients reacted to the mouse antibodies as if they were a foreign substance, and created a new set of antibodies ...
Find contact information from Novartis Pharmaceuticals and Genentech, in order to receive additional information about XOLAIR (Omalizumab). INDICATIONS & IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION INDICATIONS XOLAIR® (omalizumab) IS INDICATED FOR: Moderate to severe persistent asthma in patients 6 years of age and older who have a positive skin test or in vitro reactivity to a perennial aeroallergen and whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids. XOLAIR has been shown to decrease the incidence of asthma exacerbations in these patients. Chronic idiopathic urticaria in patients 12 years of age and older who remain symptomatic despite H1 antihistamine treatment. Limitations of Use: XOLAIR is not indicated for treatment of other allergic conditions or other forms of urticaria. XOLAIR is not indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm or status asthmaticus. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION WARNING: Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis presenting as bronchospasm, hypotension, syncope, urticaria, and/or
Find XOLAIR support for your practice, including financial assistance, billing and distribution information, office support materials, & patient education resources. INDICATIONS & IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION INDICATIONS XOLAIR® (omalizumab) IS INDICATED FOR: Moderate to severe persistent asthma in patients 6 years of age and older who have a positive skin test or in vitro reactivity to a perennial aeroallergen and whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids. XOLAIR has been shown to decrease the incidence of asthma exacerbations in these patients. Chronic idiopathic urticaria in patients 12 years of age and older who remain symptomatic despite H1 antihistamine treatment. Limitations of Use: XOLAIR is not indicated for treatment of other allergic conditions or other forms of urticaria. XOLAIR is not indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm or status asthmaticus. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION WARNING: Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis presenting as bronchospasm, hypotension,
Background. Treatment with omalizumab, a humanized recombinant monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, results in clinical efficacy in patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria (CSU). The mechanism of action of omalizumab in CSU has not been elucidated in detail. Objectives. To determine the effects of omalizumab on levels of high affinity IgE receptor-positive (FcεRI(+)) and IgE-positive (IgE(+)) dermal cells and blood basophils. Treatment efficacy and safety were also assessed. Study design. In a double-blind study, CSU patients aged 18‑75 years were randomized to receive 300 mg omalizumab (n=20) or placebo (n=10) subcutaneously every 4 weeks for 12 weeks ...
Omalizumab is marketed for chronic severe asthma patients who are allergic to perennial allergens. Our purpose was to investigate whether omalizumab is also effective in persistent severe asthma due to seasonal allergens. Thirty patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were treated with Omalizumab according to the dosing table. For each patient with asthma due to seasonal allergens, we recruited the next two consecutive patients with asthma due to perennial allergens. The dose of oral methyl prednisolone (MP) was tapered at a rate of 2 mg every two weeks after the start of treatment with omalizumab depending on tolerance. At each monthly visit, a forced spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement were performed and the accumulated monthly MP dose was calculated. At entry, there were no differences between groups in terms of gender, body mass index or obesity, year exacerbation rate, monthly dose of MP, FeNO and blood immunoglobuline E (IgE) values, or spirometry
A panel of idiotypically cross-reactive murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) isolated in response to fluorescein (Fl) was generated and segregated based on Fl affinity. Intermediate affinity prototype Mab 9-40 (IgG1, $\kappa$; K$\sb{\rm a}$ = 3.3 $\times$ 10$\sp7$M$\sp{-1}$) possessed $>$90% active site quaternary structural homology to the intermediate affinity 9-40 idiotype family (comprised of 12-40, 3-24, 10-25, 5-14 and 5-27). The 9-40 family was 40-100% and 10-40% idiotypically related to high affinity prototype Mab 4-4-20 (IgG2a, $\kappa$; K$\sb{\rm a}$ = 1.8 $\times$ 10$\sp{10}$M$\sp{-1}$) and low affinity prototype Mabs 3-13 and 3-17 (K$\sb{\rm a}$ $\sim$ 5.0 $\times$ 10$\sp4$M$\sp{-1}$), respectively. Mabs 4-4-20 and 3-13/3-17 were idiotypically distinct. This anti-Fl panel spanned a greater affinity range than any previously reported idiotype family and was exploited to define specific active site residues (and their interactions with antigen) responsible for the observed Fl binding ...
Dr. Christiane Hampe, PhD, is the recipient of the 2011 Neufeld Memorial Prize for her project entitled "Depletion of autoreactive-B lymphocytes through anti-idiotypic antibodies coupled to cytotoxins: a new approach for the prevention of Type 1 Diabetes." This award from the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF) is given to the most outstanding and original new project in the health sciences. The grant is awarded annually and given to the investigators whose project is considered as the most outstanding and original. Dr. Hampe is Associate Professor of Medicine in the Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition.. ...
Anti-IgA antibodies are thought to be responsible for non-hemolytic transfusion reactions in one in 17,000 to one in 770,000 number of cases. This incidence is mainly supported by case reports. Despite their relative frequency of one in 18 to one in 1,250, since their discovery approximately forty years ago, the true significance of these antibodies has not yet been determined. Several specificities of these antibodies resulting in different reaction patterns make diagnosis and categorization difficult. Until recently, the lack of a fast and reliable laboratory test was a drawback. This test needed to be easily performed, fast, accurate, reproducible and accessible to many practitioners in many laboratories. The Passive Hemagglutination Assay (PHA), developed in the late 1960s, is neither precise nor reliable but easy to perform and therefore has been the mainstay in diagnosis of anti-IgA. While newer methods, such as Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), are ...
TRITC Conjugated Goat Anti-mouse IgG secondary antibody This TRITC conjugated antibody is specific for mouse IgG and shows no cross-reactivity with human/bovine/rabbit IgG.
Cy3 Conjugated Goat Anti-Mouse IgG secondary antibody This Cy3 conjugated antibody is specific for mouse IgG and shows no cross-reactivity with human/bovine/rabbit IgG.
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This product contains sepharose beads coated with mouse anti-human IgG. Mouse anti-human IgG is affinity purified and conjugated to the beads at 1-1.5 mg/ml ratio. The beads may be used for purification of human IgG class of antibodies or proteins. The be
Active Motifs ATTO 655 (STED) Goat anti-Mouse IgG fluorescent secondary antibody is purified and cross-adsorbed to reduce background, making it ideal for immunofluorescence and Super Resolution Microscopy using STED.
Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Cross-Adsorbed Secondary Antibody, DyLight® 650 conjugate from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry, Immunohistochemistry, Flow Cytometry and Immunoprecipitation applications.This antibody is cross-adsorbed against bovine, chicken, horse, human, pig, rabbit and rat. Supplied as 500 ug purified secondary antibody (0.5 mg/ml) in PBS with 0.2% BSA and 0.09% sodium azide.
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Use DiagNano™ Goat Anti-Mouse IgG, QD 625 nm conjugate for fast, easy, and consistent DNA/RNA Purification, Antibody/Protein Purification, Cell Isolation.
This antibody recognizes the human epsilon heavy chain in IgE for applications in ELISA and Western blot as secondary antibody. This HRP-conjugated antibody reacts with human IgE purified from blood but does not react with mouse-human chimeric anti-NP IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM and IgA. Product Cat. No. 252517 is the HRP conjugate of Cat. No. 252516.. ...
This proof-of-concept phase IIa trial investigated the efficacy and tolerability of ARRY 502 in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent allergic asthma. The
AlphaPlex-645 (Samarium) beads conjugated to anti-human IgG antibody, for binding human IgG antibodies in AlphaPlex multiplexing no-wash assays
The call was informational only. Nothing will be done at this time, and the kidney will be observed for additional signs of stress (protein in the urine, increasing creatinine). In time (when, he couldnt say) she will need another biopsy. Based on results, they will institute more aggressive therapy. The plan is to remove the antibodies from her bloodstream using plasmapheresis, the same basic technique that the Red Cross uses to harvest platelets from donors. Then they will inject her with anti-antibody antibodies (follow that?) to remove more of them. Then there is another medication they can use, but theyd rather not ...
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On World Spirometry Day, and throughout the build up to the Olympics, … has won two gold and one silver medal, despite suffering from severe allergic asthma: … ...
18. US Patent 5,750,143, May 12, 1998. Вв Matrix effects may be due to hemolysis, lipemia, ionic strength differences, pH, serum proteins such as complement or rheumatoid factor, anticoagulants, binding proteins, autoantibodies or heterophilic anti-IgG antibodies. Pharm.
Hi Jakub, I didnt get the original post, but I wanted to let you know about another method of Bcell stimulation that Ive used before- polyclonal goat anti-IgD. It was originally developed by Fred Finkelman (i think) and Ive used it in murine models in vivo systems with lots of luck- it should work in vitro if you can find the antibody. Interestingly, this type of stimulation is T cell independent, although it prefferentially activates naive B cells. IdGrad mbdxm at my-deja.com wrote: , Hi Jakub, , , Purify your B cells first then use PMA (phorbol , ester) 10 ug/ml and ionomycin 1 ug/ml. , , LPS should have worked but its not specific to B , cells. , , As for monkey anti-IgM ( anti-mu should be better), , try the antibody resource pages on the web there , are many usually as part of a company site. , , You might need to crosslink the anti-mu to get a , mitogenic signal. Even better if you stimulate your , cells with IL-4 and anti-IgM. , , cheers , , david , , In article ,382A22EC.D1A9E24F at ...
Here is a good example of how strong my commitment to be willing to share with others the path I am traveling while battling COPD and Asthma. It is that responsibility which I want to take seriously even when I expose myself to my feelings of silly with sometimes little insight, little knowledge and a…
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Phosphorylates and activates not only PKB/AKT, but also PKA, PKC-zeta, RPS6KA1 and RPS6KB1. May play a general role in signaling processes and in development. Scheid MP,et al. (2005)Mol Cell Biol; 25(6): 2347- ...
Etech New fathers always think their newborn baby daughters are beautiful, and Hugh Reinhoff was no exception. Sure, she had giant feet, a cleft uvula, and contractures in some of her fingers. But those thoughts, along with a suspicion that her eyes were oddly widely spaced and her chin was a bit recessive, were easily forgotten in the excitement.. To a geneticist those apparently minor physical characteristics are extremely significant. Over the next year and a half, Reinhoffs bright, happy daughter, now four, stayed very small, and her muscles were weak.. What can a doting father who happens to be a doctor trained as a clinical geneticist do? Even a few years ago not much, after specialists confessed ignorance and lumped her in with a small group of others with some of the same unexplained conditions. These days... Reinhoff spent a year forming a theory he wanted to test by getting a piece of her DNA sequenced.. "I couldnt get anybody to do it," he said at etech on Tuesday, a problem he ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Emergence of immunoglobulin variants following treatment of a B cell leukemia with an immunotoxin composed of antiidiotypic antibody and saporin. AU - Glennie, M. J.. AU - McBride, H. M.. AU - Stirpe, F.. AU - Thorpe, P. E.. AU - Worth, A. T.. AU - Stevenson, G. T.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - The potency and specificity of immunotoxins consisting of monoclonal antiidiotype conjugated to the ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin, have been evaluated in the treatment of guinea pig L2C B lymphocytic leukemia. The immunotoxins were therapeutically much more effective than their parent antibodies. Their specificity reflected that of their antiidiotype component. Although the leukemia emerged eventually in most animals treated with these conjugates, most of the cells showed altered Ig expression, which rendered them resistant to the therapy. Commonly, the emerging cells had lost μ heavy chain production, leaving them negative for intracellular, surface, and secreted IgM, but still ...
Anti-IgE antibodies react with the IgE isotype of human immunoglobulins. IgE is the shortest-lived immunoglobulin with a half-life of two days in serum. IgE plays an important role in allergy. It is especially associated with type 1 hypersensitivity, where IgE shows high-affinity binding to Fc receptors expressed on the surface of mast cells. Antigen binding to Fc receptor-bound IgE upon re-exposure to specific allergens results in degranulation and the release of a variety of mediators, such as histamine and cytokines. IgE has two main receptors: the high-affinity receptor FcεRI, which is expressed only on mast cells and basophils, and the low-affinity receptor FcεRII (CD23), which is expressed on B cells. - Belgique
Antigen-binding receptors on T lymphocytes and IgG antibodies with the same antigen-binding specificity as the T-cell receptors display shared or identical idiotypes. This was shown using a system where adult F1 hybrid rats between two inbred strains were inoculated with T lymphocytes from one parental strain. Such F1 hybrid rats produce antibodies directed against idiotypic determinants present on IgG alloantibodies, produced in the T donor genotype strain and with specificity for the alloantigens of the other parental strain. The idiotypic nature of the F1 antialloantibody serum against the parental alloantibodies was demonstrated both by indirect hemagglutination tests or by gel diffusion using alloantisera with different specificity as targets. Furthermore, the F1 anti-T-lymphocyte sera could be shown to contain antibodies against idiotypic parental T lymphocytes as well. This was shown by the capacity of the antisera, in the presence of complement, to wipe out the relevant parental T-cell ...
... , Rabbit Anti-Human IgG(H+L), Mouse ads-UNLB; N/A; N/A Rabbit Anti-Human IgG (H+L) Absorbed against mouse immunoglobulins
Blog on Mouse Anti-Human IgG2 (gamma 2 chain specific) secondary antibody product: The Mouse Anti-Human IgG2 (gamma 2 chain specific) n/a (Catalog #MBS674046) is a Secondary Antibody produ...
Crystallographic and solution studies have shown that IgE molecules are acutely bent in their Fc region. cross-linking by allergen leads to cell degranulation, release of inflammatory mediators and an immediate allergic response. Disruption of the IgE-FcRI conversation is usually a validated strategy for therapeutic intervention in allergic diseases including asthma: an anti-IgE monoclonal IgG antibody, omalizumab (Xolair?, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Ltd), inhibits IgE binding to FcRI and is effective in the Tarafenacin treatment of severe persistent asthma and other allergic diseases2. IgE consists of a dimer of two identical heavy and two identical light chains, but unlike IgG in which the antigen-binding Fab region is separated from the receptor-binding Fc region by a flexible hinge, IgE contains an additional disulphide-linked pair of domains, (C2)2, forming a (C2-C3-C4)2 dimer1. Fluorescence depolarisation studies to assess segmental flexibility have shown IgE to be less flexible than IgG3-6, ...
The main normal function of IgE (Immunoglobulin E) is believed to be in the protection against parasitic infestation. However, IgE is also associated with allergy and allergen-specific IgE antibodies may trigger allergic reactions in the presence of the proper allergen. IgE is normally found in low amounts in serum/plasma but is significantly increased in allergic individuals and the detection of allergen-specific IgE serves as the basis for many in vitro assays for specific diagnosis of allergy.. ...
F(ab)2 Anti-Human IgG F(c) (Alkaline Phosphatase Conjugated) Pre-Adsorbed Secondary Antibody, Goat Polyclonal, Alkaline Phosphatase (Calf Intestine) validated in WB, E, IC (ASR2863), Abgent
Goat anti-Human IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody [Alkaline Phosphatase]. Available in 11 dyes & fluorophores. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
SAN DIEGO -- Giving omalizumab (Xolair) around the start of oral immunotherapy for milk allergy improved safety, a randomized trial confirmed.
... (Anti-Human Gold Conjugates). Affinity isolated anti-human antibody produced in goat and coupled to 10nm gold nanoparticles (1ml, OD3).
Abstract: In Kazakhstan, animal trypanosomiasis harm livestock. The region has recorded two species of trypanosomes: Tr. evansi and Tr.equiperdum. Trypanosomiasis necessarily belong to the group of certified disease when selling animals. However, their diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of a stable and sensitive antigen. The aim of our research was to study the antigenic spectrum of pathogens trypanosomiasis and receiving anti-idiotype antibodies against the antigen of trypanosome parasitic mass. The paper presents the prospects of anti-idiotype antibodies as an alternative diagnosticum trypanosomiasis in experimental animals ...
Treatment of allergic disease by decreasing circulating IgE with anti-IgE Abs is currently under clinical study. Based on previous unrelated studies, it appeared likely that Fc(epsilon)RI expression on basophils and mast cells might also be regulated by levels of circulating IgE Ab. Therefore, the expression of IgE and Fc(epsilon)RI on human basophils was examined in 15 subjects receiving humanized anti-IgE mAb intravenously. Treatment with the anti-IgE mAb decreased free IgE levels to 1% of pretreatment levels and also resulted in a marked down-regulation of Fc(epsilon)RI on basophils. Median pretreatment densities of Fc(epsilon)RI were approximately 220,000 receptors per basophil and after 3 mo of treatment, the densities had decreased to a median of 8,300 receptors per basophil. Flow cytometric studies, conducted in parallel, showed similar results and also showed in a subset of 3 donors that receptors decreased with a t1/2 of approximately 3 days. The responsiveness of the cells to ...
Basophils possess membrane bound IgE molecules, and immunological activation leads to a secretory process with cell degranulation and histamine release. Heterologous anti IgE, concanavaline A, and phytohaemagglutinin are potent non-cytotoxic releasing agents. They operate by a mechanism similar to that of immunological activation. Heavy water is not a histamine releasing inducer but it increases histamine release of the cells. We studied the histamine release reaction of leukaemic basophils in 10 patients and found a physiological response such as that previously reported with normal human basophils.. ...
Correct targeting of nuclear proteins is mediated by nuclear localization sequences (NLS) which permit specific binding to the nucleus and subsequent translocation across the nuclear envelope via the nuclear pore complex. It is proposed that nuclear import is facilitated by NLS-receptors which reside in the cytoplasm and at the nuclear pore. These NLS-receptors could facilitate an early step of nuclear protein import, i.e. targeting and binding of nuclear proteins at the nuclear pore. We have generated anti-idiotype antibodies against the SV40 T-antigen nuclear localization sequence that allowed us to study NLS-binding proteins in a variety of different organisms. Proteins of similar size are recognized by these antibodies in yeast, Drosophila, rat and human cells. Cytological analysis indicates that the NLS-binding proteins reside in part at nuclear pores. One of the proteins recognized by anti-idiotype antibodies is identical to a previously identified NLS-binding protein. Using isolated yeast ...
Main / Syringes with Needles / Danazol lupus thrombocytopenia These include down-regulation of autoantibody production, neutralization of pathogenic autoantibodies by anti-idiotypic antibodies, inhibition of complement-mediated damage, modulation of cytokine production, induction of apoptosis in lymphocytes and monocytes, and modulation of both B- and T-lymphocyte function [ 69 ].. Scand J Haematol ; A number of novel therapeutic approaches to the management of cytopenias, including thrombopoeitin receptor agonists and anti-B-cell therapies, in particular, are showing great promise. Human parvovirus B19 infection during the inactive stage of systemic lupus erythematosus. Eltrombopag for thrombocytopenia in patients with cirrhosis associated with hepatitis C.. Given the important role for the spleen in the clearance of immune complexes, a risk of a flare in disease activity has been suggested following splenectomy in SLE [ 35 ], but this is not generally born out in practice. Of the remaining ...
The mechanism of chronic mast cell activation in asthma is unclear. Monomeric immunoglobulin (Ig)E in the absence of allergen induces mediator release from rodent mast cells, indicating a possible role for IgE in the continued activation of mast cells within the asthmatic bronchial mucosa. In this study it was investigated whether monomeric IgE induces Ca2+ influx and mediator release from human lung mast cells (HLMC). Purified HLMC were cultured for 4 weeks and then exposed to monomeric human myeloma IgE. Ratiometric Ca2+ imaging was performed on single fura-2-loaded cells. Histamine release was measured by radioenzymatic assay; leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and interleukin (IL)-8 were measured by ELISA. At concentrations experienced in vivo, monomeric IgE induced dose-dependent histamine release, LTC4 production and IL-8 synthesis. This was associated with a rise in cytosolic free Ca2+. Enhanced histamine release was still evident 1 week after initial exposure to IgE suggesting that continued exposure ...

*Ronald C. Kennedy

Kennedy, R.; Eichberg, J.; Lanford, R.; Dreesman, G. (1986). "Anti-idiotypic antibody vaccine for type B viral hepatitis in ...

*Chang Yi Wang

T cell anti-idiotypic antibodies reveal differences between two human leukemias. J Exp Med 1984; 160:499. 47. Posnett DN, Wang ... by human T cell lines and peripheral blood T lymphocytes stimulated by PMA and anti-CD3 antibody Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. ... Anti-HCV, anti-GOR, and autoimmunity. Lancet 1992, 339:871. 26. Hosein B, Fang CT, Popvsky MA, Ye J, Zhang M and Wang, CY. ... monoclonal antibody S-HCL1 and S-HCL3 allow the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia. Blood 1985; 65:974. 42. Bushkin Y, Chorney MJ ...

*Antiviral drug

This includes anti-VAP antibodies, receptor anti-idiotypic antibodies, extraneous receptor and synthetic receptor mimics. This ... This may include VAP anti-idiotypic antibodies, natural ligands of the receptor and anti-receptor antibodies.[clarification ... and since the process of generating anti-idiotypic antibodies is partly trial and error, it can be a relatively slow process ... One anti-viral strategy is to interfere with the ability of a virus to infiltrate a target cell. The virus must go through a ...

*Killer yeast

... yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic antibodies". The Journal of Immunology. 152 (6): 3175-82. PMID 8144911. Lowes, K. F.; ... Several experiments suggest that antibodies that mimic the biological activity of killer toxins have application as antifungal ... "Therapeutic potential of yeast killer toxin-like antibodies and mimotopes". FEMS Yeast Research. 5 (1): 11-8. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Idiotypic intravaginal vaccination to protect against candidal vaginitis by secretory, ...

*Idiotopes

... "anti-idiotypic antibody". If such is the case, the anti-idiotypic antibodies will be able to bind to the B lymphocyte receptor ... Ladjemi MZ (2012). "Anti-idiotypic antibodies as cancer vaccines: achievements and future improvements". Front Oncol. 2: 158. ... Because of the resemblance of anti-idiotypic antibodies to the original antigen, vaccine studies have been performed. These ... If a separate antibody is produced that has specific binding capabilities to an idiotope of the previously described antibody, ...

*Gustav Gaudernack

Jorgensen, T.; Gaudernack, G.; Hannestad, K. (1977). "Production of BALB/c Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Against the BALB/c Myeloma ... He further generated monoclonal antibodies specific for the hematopoietic stem cell marker, CD34. A joint collaboration with ... and generated monocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies (ID5) in hybridomas. Inspired by his research and without being ... Hospital and Baxter resulted in development of an instrument to isolate hematopoietic stem cells in large scale using anti-CD34 ...

*Epitope

This property is exploited by the immune system in regulation by anti-idiotypic antibodies (originally proposed by Nobel ... If this second antibody is of IgM class, its binding can upregulate the immune response; if the second antibody is of IgG class ... For example, the epitope is the specific piece of the antigen to which an antibody binds. The part of an antibody that binds to ... Following synthesis, the resulting epitope tag allows the antibody to find the protein or other gene product enabling lab ...

*List of cocaine analogues

... analysis of the specificity of anticocaine antibodies (Ab1) capable of inducing Ab2beta anti-idiotypic antibodies". Immunology ... "Inhibition of cocaine binding to the human dopamine transporter by a single chain anti-idiotypic antibody: its cloning, ... Schabacker, DS; Kirschbaum, KS; Segre, M (2000). "Exploring the feasibility of an anti-idiotypic cocaine vaccine: ... Catalytic antibodies against cocaine and methods of using and producing same Google patents US 6566084 B1 Deng, Shixian; Bharat ...

*Betty Diamond

Regulating the isotypic and idiotypic profile of an anti-PC antibody response: lessons from peptide mimics. Mol. Immunol. 39: ... She identified the first idiotype marker on anti-DNA antibodies in patients with lupus, and discovered that anti-DNA antibodies ... single base change in a protective anti-pneumococcal antibody could convert it into a potentially pathogenic anti-DNA antibody ... She also found that a peptide that binds to 50% of anti-DNA antibodies in lupus patients and mice represents an epitope on ...

*Racotumomab

2011). Anti-NeuGcGM3 antibodies actively elicited by idiotypic vaccination in non-small cell lung cáncer patients induce tumor ... Racotumomab is an anti-idiotypic mouse monoclonal antibody that mimics NGc gangliosides, thus triggering an immune response ... 2002). An anti idiotype vaccine elicits a specific response to N-glycolylsialic acid residues of glycoconjugates in melanoma ... 2012). Racotumomab: an anti-idiotype vaccine related to N-glycolyl-containing gangliosides - preclinical and clinical data. ...

*Immune network theory

"Selection of human anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies occurs within the context of a frozen 1F7-idiotypic repertoire". ... and B anti-anti-B (antiidiotypic) antibodies. The former stimulate anti-anti-B T cells and the latter stimulate anti-B T cells ... In the model IgG molecules are selected to have both anti-anti-(self MHC class II) and anti-anti-anti-(self MHC class II) ... of lymphocytes defined by co-selection of both anti-C and anti-anti-C lymphocytes and co-selection of anti-B and anti-anti-B ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.500 - htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.510 - htlv-ii ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 -- antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 -- antibodies, ... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.107 -- antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.125 -- ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.179 -- antibodies, ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.179 -- antibodies, ...

*Creative Diagnostics

Matched antibody pairs Anti-idiotypic Antibodies HBV Core Antigen Antibody Isotyping Kits Protein Antigen Expression Service ... The initial business is antibody-monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Later, various kinds of antibody, viral antigens, ... "The Way We Take Care of Antibody Purification". APSence. Retrieved December 16, 2014. "Molecular detection of hepatitis B virus ... Creative Diagnostics is an American biotechnology company that specializes in research and manufacture of antibodies, viral ...

*Artificial immune system

... network theory proposed by Niels Kaj Jerne that describes the regulation of the immune system by anti-idiotypic antibodies ( ... antibodies that select for other antibodies). This class of algorithms focus on the network graph structures involved where ... antibodies (or antibody producing cells) represent the nodes and the training algorithm involves growing or pruning edges ... Immune Network Algorithms: Algorithms inspired by the idiotypic ... where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody ...

*K. Christopher Garcia

... hormone recognition by an anti-idiotypic antibody, Science (1992) An αβ T Cell Receptor Structure at 2.5 Å and Its Orientation ... At Stanford University, Garcia has continued to study antigen recognition by both antibodies and TCRs. The Garcia Laboratory ... Engineered SIRPα variants as immunotherapeutic adjuvants to anticancer antibodies, Science (2013) Durable antitumor responses ... earliest research as a graduate student at Johns Hopkins University used X-ray crystallography to determine how antibodies ...

*Abagovomab

The anti-idiotypic antibody abagovomab in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. A phase I trial of the AGO-OVAR. Ann Oncol. ... Abagovomab is a mouse anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody whose variable epitope mirrors a tumour antigen (CA-125) highly ... Immunological consolidation of ovarian carcinoma recurrences with monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody ACA125: immune responses ... "Medical News: ESGO: Anti-CA125 Fails to Slow Ovarian Cancer - in Meeting Coverage, ESGO from". MedPage Today. Retrieved 2011-09 ...

*Anti-idiotypic vaccine

An example of anti-idiotype antibody is Racotumomab. In one example of producing an anti-idiotypic vaccine, antibodies that ... "anti-idiotypic". The resulting murine antibodies are harvested and used to vaccinate other mice. The resulting antibodies in ... Because the antibody produced using the "anti-idiotypic" process closely resembles the original epitope of the antigen, these ... Anti-idiotypic vaccines comprise antibodies that have three-dimensional immunogenic regions, designated idiotopes, that consist ...

*John H. Sampson

Generation of anti-idiotypic reagents in the EGFRvIII tumor-associated antigen system. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. 2002; ... The first is novel mechanisms of delivery of large molecular weight molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies, throughout brain ... Approaches used to target this tumor-specific epitope include unarmed and radiolabeled antibody therapy and cell mediated ... Phase II trial of murine (131)I-labeled antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 administered into surgically created resection ...

*Germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

"Therapy of B-cell lymphoma with anti-CD20 antibodies can result in the loss of CD20 antigen expression". Clinical Cancer ... Clonal B-cells spontaneously mutate the idiotypic region of their immunoglobulin. This high mutation rate makes them prone to ... Anti-apoptotic proteins include Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-w, Mcl-1. When anti-apoptotic family members are overexpressed, apoptotic ... Monoclonal antibodies are made by injecting human cancer cells into mice so that their immune systems create antibodies against ...

*Antigen

In most cases, an adapted antibody can only react to and bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may ... autologous and idiotypic or allogenic (homologous) antigens. An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and ... "anti(body)-gen". Epitope - The distinct surface features of an antigen, its antigenic determinant. Antigenic molecules, ... Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody (immune response) is specifically produced by the immune system to match ...

*Artificial immune system

... network theory proposed by Niels Kaj Jerne that describes the regulation of the immune system by anti-idiotypic antibodies ( ... antibodies that select for other antibodies). This class of algorithms focus on the network graph structures involved where ... antibodies (or antibody producing cells) represent the nodes and the training algorithm involves growing or pruning edges ... Immune Network Algorithms: Algorithms inspired by the idiotypic ... where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody ...

Patente US4925787 - Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, method for production thereof, and ... - Google PatentesPatente US4925787 - Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, method for production thereof, and ... - Google Patentes

... and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent ... monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody specific to ... a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody ... propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US4925787

anti-idiotypic antibodies - Everything2.comanti-idiotypic antibodies - Everything2.com

... anti-idiotypic antibodies. To keep things running along smoothly, the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies is automatic, ... I dont know what exactly the anti-idiotypic antibodies do with/to the antibodies to get rid of the extra antibodies. I dont ... anti-idiotypic antibodies actually means (I know I do). Well, it turns out that an idiotypic antibody is "immunologically ... You can also get cool things like anti-anti-idiotype antibodies. (Just read anti- as meta- and youll get the idea). ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/title/anti-idiotypic+antibodies

Anti-Idiotypic AntibodiesAnti-Idiotypic Antibodies

Order the anti-idiotypic antibodies you need and more today! ... ProSci is a leading provider of anti-idiotypic antibody ... Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies. The Antibody Variable Region. The idiotypic region of an antibody is defined as the unique set of ... These antibodies are known as anti-idiotypic antibodies and are particularly useful in their ability to specifically bind one ... Applications of Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies. The human or humanized nature of the majority of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies ...
more infohttps://www.prosci-inc.com/anti-idiotypic-antibodies/

B-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-AntibodyB-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-Antibody

This antibody is able to induce an anti-idiotypic IgG response and B-T idiotypic cascade, even in the absence of any adjuvant ... B-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-Antibody. Darel Martínez,1 Amaury Pupo,2 Lianet ... Both humoral and CTL anti-idiotypic responses could be mechanisms to protect against the self-reactive antibody, contributing ... Interestingly, transfer of both B-1a and B-2 to BALB/Xid mice was required to recover anti-P3 IgG response in this model. In ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/2860867/abs/

B-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-AntibodyB-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-Antibody

"Syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to an anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside monoclonal antibody," Hybridoma, vol. 17 ... "Establishment and characterization of an anti-idiotypic CD4+ CD8- T cell line to murine anti-alpha(1 --, 3) dextran antibody," ... B-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-Antibody. Darel Martínez,1 Amaury Pupo,2 Lianet ... S. Oak, L. K. Gilliam, M. Landin-Olsson et al., "The lack of anti-idiotypic antibodies, not the presence of the corresponding ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/2860867/ref/

Chain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies | The Journal of ImmunologyChain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies | The Journal of Immunology

Chain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies. Asoke C. Ghose and Fred Karush ... Chain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Functionally homogeneous fractions of rabbit anti-lactose IgG antibody have been characterized with respect to their idiotypic ... This proposal would account for the inhibition by ligands as the result of the inability of ligand and anti-idiotype antibody ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/113/1/162

Peptidomimics of antigen are present in variable region of heavy and light chains of anti-idiotypic antibody and function as...Peptidomimics of antigen are present in variable region of heavy and light chains of anti-idiotypic antibody and function as...

Peptidomimics of antigen are present in variable region of heavy and light chains of anti-idiotypic antibody and function as ... We have sequenced the variable regions of heavy and light chains of the anti-idiotypic antibody specific to rinderpest virus ... The functional capacity of anti-idiotypic antibody derived peptides to stimulate antigen specific T cells in vitro was tested. ... Here, we show that short peptides derived from internal image sequences of anti-idiotypic antibody (peptidomimics) can function ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408744

Humanization Strategies for an Anti-idiotypic Antibody Mimicking HIV-1 gp41 | Molecular DevicesHumanization Strategies for an Anti-idiotypic Antibody Mimicking HIV-1 gp41 | Molecular Devices

Ab2/3H6 is an anti-idiotypic antibody able to mimic the antigen recognition site of the broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody 2F5 ... Ab2/3H6 is an anti-idiotypic antibody able to mimic the antigen recognition site of the broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody 2F5 ...
more infohttps://www.moleculardevices.com/resources/publications/humanization-strategies-for-an-anti-idiotypic-antibody-mimicking-hiv-1-gp41

Idiotypic intravaginal vaccination to protect against candidal vaginitis by secretory, yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic...Idiotypic intravaginal vaccination to protect against candidal vaginitis by secretory, yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic...

... yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic antibodies.. L Polonelli, F De Bernardis, S Conti, M Boccanera, M Gerloni, G Morace, W ... yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic antibodies.. L Polonelli, F De Bernardis, S Conti, M Boccanera, M Gerloni, G Morace, W ... Idiotypic intravaginal vaccination to protect against candidal vaginitis by secretory, yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic ... Idiotypic intravaginal vaccination to protect against candidal vaginitis by secretory, yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/152/6/3175?ijkey=a0ff47d8f13b9d96c20a14ec46ae12817d42fb1a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Neonatal treatment with low doses of anti-idiotypic antibody leads to the expression of a silent clone. | JEMNeonatal treatment with low doses of anti-idiotypic antibody leads to the expression of a silent clone. | JEM

The activation of A48 Id+ anti-BL clones anti-A48 Id antibody is specific because the pretreatment of newborn mice with anti- ... Neonatal treatment with low doses of anti-idiotypic antibody leads to the expression of a silent clone.. J Hiernaux, C Bona, P ... Neonatal treatment with low doses of anti-idiotypic antibody leads to the expression of a silent clone. ... Moreover, pretreatment of mice with anti-A48 Id antibody does not alter the MOPC 460 Id+ component of the anti-TNP response. It ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/153/4/1004

Specific Interference with the Determination of the Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 by Human Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Formed...Specific Interference with the Determination of the Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 by Human Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Formed...

72 by Human Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Formed after Treatment with the Anti-Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 Antibody B72.3 ...
more infohttps://edoc.hu-berlin.de/handle/18452/12717

Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus, Archives of...Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus, Archives of...

"Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus, Archives of ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus. Kiyohara, ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on... Kiyohara, Tomoko; Totsuka, ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus. ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/characterization-of-anti-idiotypic-antibodies-mimicking-antibody-and-CEsH8AJDl9

DK2379601T3 - Anti-idiotypic antibody to an antibody to amyloid BETA PEPTIDE 
        - Google PatentsDK2379601T3 - Anti-idiotypic antibody to an antibody to amyloid BETA PEPTIDE - Google Patents

Anti-idiotypic antibody to an antibody to amyloid BETA PEPTIDE - Google Patents. Anti-idiotypic antibody to an antibody to ... monoclonal anti-idiotypic anti-Αβ antibody antibody spiked in 5% human serum) have been incubated in the wells. Anti anti-Αβ ... It has been found that by using an antibody against an antibody against the amyloid β peptide (anti-anti-Αβ antibody antibody) ... or anti-idiotypic antibodies against monoclonal anti-Αβ antibody as standard are pre-incubated with monoclonal anti-Αβ antibody ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/DK2379601T3/en

Anti-idiotypic antibodies: Biological function and structural studies<...Anti-idiotypic antibodies: Biological function and structural studies<...

... anti-idotypic antibodies, anti- ids). Some of the antibodies are directed against the binding sites of the eliciting antibodies ... anti-idotypic antibodies, anti- ids). Some of the antibodies are directed against the binding sites of the eliciting antibodies ... anti-idotypic antibodies, anti- ids). Some of the antibodies are directed against the binding sites of the eliciting antibodies ... anti-idotypic antibodies, anti- ids). Some of the antibodies are directed against the binding sites of the eliciting antibodies ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/anti-idiotypic-antibodies-biological-function-and-structural-stud-4

Clinical evidence that the human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody 105AD7, delays tumor growth by stimulating anti-tumor T...Clinical evidence that the human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody 105AD7, delays tumor growth by stimulating anti-tumor T...

A human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, 105AD7, which mimics a colorectal tumor associated antigen, 791Tgp72, has been ... Clinical evidence that the human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody 105AD7, delays tumor growth by stimulating anti-tumor T- ... Keywords: Human monoclonal antibody, vaccine, colorectal cancer, anti-idiotypic antibody, cellular immune responses ... Abstract: A human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, 105AD7, which mimics a colorectal tumor associated antigen, 791Tgp72, has ...
more infohttps://content.iospress.com/articles/human-antibodies/hab6-2-05

Syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to an anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside monoclonal antibody. - Semantic ScholarSyngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to an anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside monoclonal antibody. - Semantic Scholar

The five Ab2 MAbs were injected into syngeneic mice and four of them produced strong anti-anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab3) ... When this MAb was administered alone in syngeneic mice, an specific IgG anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) response was induced, ... While these Ab2 MAbs were unable to generate Ab3 antibodies with the same antigenic specificity than P3 MAb, three of them ... induced antibodies bearing P3 MAb idiotopes (Ag-Id+ Ab3). These results demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are not internal ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Syngeneic-anti-idiotypic-monoclonal-antibodies-to-V%C3%A1zquez-P%C3%A9rez/4546988a578dc9bac667bf703eb51da2a3fcd0ae

GEN Magazine | January 2019 VOL. 39 NO. 1GEN Magazine | January 2019 VOL. 39 NO. 1

Anti-Idiotypic Reagents. January 2019 Vol. 39 No. 1 GPCR Products. January 2019 Vol. 39 No. 1 ... Antibody-Antigen Products. January 2019 Vol. 39 No. 1 Electronic Pipette Filler. ...
more infohttps://www.genengnews.com/magazine/january-2019-vol-39-no-1/112562/

Why rely on a mouse for generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies? | Bio-RadWhy rely on a mouse for generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies? | Bio-Rad

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are critical reagents for bioanalytical assays supporting clinical evaluation of mAb drugs; choose ... Anti-idiotypic Antibodies Anti-Adalimumab Antibodies Anti-Alemtuzumab Antibodies Anti-Bevacizumab Antibodies Anti-Cetuximab ... Anti-Panitumumab Antibodies Anti-Rituximab Antibodies Anti-Tocilizumab Antibodies Anti-Trastuzumab Antibodies Anti-Ustekinumab ... Antibodies Anti-Denosumab Antibodies Anti-Etanercept Antibodies Anti-Golimumab Antibodies Anti-Infliximab Antibodies Anti- ...
more infohttps://www.bio-rad-antibodies.com/choose-hucal-not-mouse-for-anti-idiotypic-antibody.html

Creative Biolabs Announced Anti-idiotypic Antibody to Meet Scientists Research Needs  | Massachu Settschronicle		Creative Biolabs Announced Anti-idiotypic Antibody to Meet Scientists' Research Needs | Massachu Settschronicle

Anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-ID antibody) is a class of antibody that specifically binds to the antigen-binding site of an ... Beyond an increasing number of our anti-ID antibody products, comprehensive anti-ID antibody custom service is also available ... Creative Biolabs Announced Anti-idiotypic Antibody to Meet Scientists Research Needs. Print This Article Share it With Friends ... Creative Biolabs Announced Anti-idiotypic Antibody to Meet Scientists Research Needs. Back To Homepage Subscribe To RSS Feed ...
more infohttp://www.massachusettschronicle.com/story/163450/creative-biolabs-announced-antiidiotypic-antibody-to-meet-scientists-research-needs.html

Evaluation of a Novel Antigen-Enhanced, Anti-Idiotypic Antibody Vaccine Strategy - Michael ChoEvaluation of a Novel Antigen-Enhanced, Anti-Idiotypic Antibody Vaccine Strategy - Michael Cho

Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 is the utmost critical goal towards the development of a ... Although the process is conceptually similar to generating PGT128-like anti-anti- idiotypic antibodies, our strategy is ... Evaluation of a Novel Antigen-Enhanced, Anti-Idiotypic Antibody Vaccine Strategy Cho, Michael W. Neovaxsyn, Inc., Ames, IA, ... Evaluation of a Novel Antigen-Enhanced, Anti-Idiotypic Antibody Vaccine Strategy. Cho, Michael W. / Neovaxsyn, Inc.. ...
more infohttps://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R21-AI143505-02

Idiotypic regulation by isologous monoclonal anti-idiotope antibodies. by M Reth, G Kelsoe et al."Idiotypic regulation by isologous monoclonal anti-idiotope antibodies." by M Reth, G Kelsoe et al.

Reth, M; Kelsoe, G; and Rajewsky, K, "Idiotypic regulation by isologous monoclonal anti-idiotope antibodies." (1981). Subject ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/ssbb1981/2334/

Regulatory effects of isologous anti-idiotypic antibodies on the forma by K Blaser and C H. Heusser"Regulatory effects of isologous anti-idiotypic antibodies on the forma" by K Blaser and C H. Heusser

Blaser, K and Heusser, C H., "Regulatory effects of isologous anti-idiotypic antibodies on the formation of different ... Regulatory effects of isologous anti-idiotypic antibodies on the formation of different immunoglobulin classes in the immune ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/ssbb1984/32/

Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody | Cleveland Clinic Journal of MedicineTreatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody | Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine

Escalating doses of the antibody were administered to the patient in two courses of therapy. The first course did not result in ... The failure to induce an anti-tumor response in the patient was probably related to the large concentration (approximately 400 ... and the protocol was modified to consist of five doses of antibody given over a 10-day period, with the highest dose being 500 ... AbstractA monoclonal antibody (H-99) was prepared that reacts specifically with the leukemia cells from a patient with stage IV ...
more infohttps://www.mdedge.com/ccjm/article/92035/treatment-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-anti-idiotypic-monoclonal-antibody

Analysis of Idiotypic Heterogeneity in the Anti‐α1-3 Dextran and Anti‐Phosphorylcholine Responses Using Monoclonal Anti...Analysis of Idiotypic Heterogeneity in the Anti‐α1-3 Dextran and Anti‐Phosphorylcholine Responses Using Monoclonal Anti...

... α1-3 Dextran and Anti‐Phosphorylcholine Responses Using Monoclonal Anti‐Idiotype Antibodies Academic Article ... Analysis of Idiotypic Heterogeneity in the Anti‐ ...
more infohttp://scholars.uab.edu/display/pub906487
  • Anti-idiotypic antibodies are critical reagents for the development of bioanalytical assays for such evaluations. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The first glycoengineered mAbs are about to enter clinical trials and it is expected that, once glycoengineering reagents are available at affordable costs, and in-line with regulatory requirements, that targeted remodelling of antibody Fc glycosylation will become an integral part in manufacturing the next-generation of immunotherapeutics. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Commonly, in currently marketed therapeutic mAbs, the glycosylation profile is suboptimal in terms of biological properties such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or may give rise to safety concerns due to the presence of non-human glycans.This article will review recent innovative developments in chemo-enzymatic glycoengineering, which allow generating mAbs carrying single, well-defined, uniform Fc glycoforms, which confers the desired biological properties for the target application. (bioportfolio.com)
  • TAK-079 is a human monoclonal antibody (IgG 1 λ ) that binds to CD38 and lyses bound cells by complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • BALB/c mice immunized with bacterial levan (BL) produce an immune response that fails to generate antibody expressing the idiotype (Id) of the beta (2 leads to 6) fructosan-binding myeloma protein ABPC 48 (A48). (rupress.org)
  • Although the process is conceptually similar to generating PGT128-like anti-anti- idiotypic antibodies, our strategy is technically distinct and superior in that we are using an antigen-antibody immune complex as an immunogen. (grantome.com)
  • Antibodies that can neutralize (block) HIV-1 infection are important components of the body's immune system. (grantome.com)
  • The major goal of this proposal is to generate a novel vaccine candidate that can train the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can block fusion of viral and cellular membranes. (grantome.com)
  • The failure to induce an anti-tumor response in the patient was probably related to the large concentration (approximately 400 μg/mL) of free serum idiotype in addition to the severely compromised immune system of the patient at the time of treatment. (mdedge.com)
  • Regulatory effects of isologous anti-idiotypic antibodies on the formation of different immunoglobulin classes in the immune response to phosphorylcholine in balb/c mice. (jax.org)
  • Molecular characterization of the anti-idiotypic immune response of a relapse-free neuroblastoma patient following antibody therapy. (egms.de)
  • Immune cellular dysfunction in patients was associated with high geometric mean HHV-6 antibody titres. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-idiotypic antibodies have been described as a regulatory element in the humoral immune response. (washington.edu)
  • The prevalence of FVIII-binding antibodies was 34% (5% for titers ≥ 1:80) in patients without FVIII inhibitors (n = 77), 39% (4% for titers ≥ 1:80) in patients after successful immune tolerance induction therapy (n = 23), and 100% (n = 20, all titers ≥ 1:80) in patients with FVIII inhibitors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Although well established, this technology is laborious, and it is biased by the experimental animal immune system, which limits the ability to reach a high-affinity antibody against conserved mammal proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • 1. We identified specific clonotypes expressing anti-DNA idiotypes (0-81 Id and NE-1 Id) in circulating immune complexes (CIC) of patients with active lupus nephritis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • An antibody against the Fc-IL2 end of the IC (anti-Fc-IL2) might interfere with immune activation facilitated through IL-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • P3 mAb: an immunogenic anti-NeuGcGM3 antibody with unusual immunoregulatory properties," Frontiers in Immunology , vol. 3, p. 94, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • F. Stäb, F. Austrup, and E. Kölsch, "Regulation of the anti-alpha(1----3) dextran IgG antibody response of BALB/c mice by idiotype-specific T suppressor lymphocytes," Journal of Immunology , vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 53-59, 1990. (hindawi.com)
  • M. Zakarija, S.Jin, J.M. McKenzie(1986) Support for the identity of thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and thyroid growth stimulating IgG (TGI) in Graves' disease. (springer.com)
  • The human or humanized nature of the majority of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is particularly conducive to research with anti-idiotypic antibodies. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Antibodies of this kind have been produced and used in a variety of situations including attempts at using them as therapeutic agents. (elsevier.com)
  • To meet the need in pre-clinical study of therapeutic antibody and vaccine development, Creative Biolabs expanded its antibody category and launched anti-idiotypic antibody products for various applications, such as pharmacokinetic study, neutralizing antibody study and immunogenicity study. (massachusettschronicle.com)
  • Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies to Complex Membrane Protein Targets: Antigen Generation and Antibody Discovery Strategies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Engineering therapeutic bispecific antibodies using CrossMab technology. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bispecific antibodies have recently gained major interest as they allow novel mechanisms-of-action and/or therapeutic applications that cannot be achieved using conventional IgG-based antibodies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The antibodies find use in diagnostic methods such as the detection of malignant cells associated with NSCLC and in therapeutic methods. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The study gives a unique perspective into this therapeutic strategy because the three other anti-CD38 cytolytic antibodies in clinical development (daratumumab, isatuximab, and MOR202) cannot be tested in similar models because they do not crossreact with CD38 expressed by new world primates. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therapeutic use of antibodies is limited by methodological constraints in raising them. (mdpi.com)
  • Additionally, the heterologous character of those proteins turn them often immunogenic to humans eliciting HAMA response (Human Anti-Mouse Antibodies), which restrict their therapeutic use [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The immunogenicity of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an important cause of loss of response to therapy that may lead to escalati. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Human antibodies are of particular interest due to a lower immunogenicity response [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Ab2/3H6 is an anti-idiotypic antibody able to mimic the antigen recognition site of the broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody 2F5, making it a putative candidate as an HIV-1 vaccine. (moleculardevices.com)
  • To this aim, a murine mAb (KT4, IgG1) neutralizing in vitro the anti-Candida activity of a yeast killer toxin (YKT) was used as an Id vaccine to elicit Abs with toxin-like activity in a rat vaginitis model. (jimmunol.org)
  • Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 is the utmost critical goal towards the development of a protective AIDS vaccine. (grantome.com)
  • The critical roadblock to AIDS vaccine development is the difficulty in eliciting neutralizing antibodies that are broadly reactive against many different variants of the virus. (grantome.com)
  • Thus we cloned human anti-idiotypic Fab which may be suitable as a tumor vaccine against GD2-positive tumors. (egms.de)
  • You receive the highly specific antibodies you need in a matter of weeks, rather than months, and have a long-term secure supply to support clinical evaluation of your drug. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Neuronal surface antigen antibodies in limbic encephalitis: clinical-immunologic associations. (medscape.com)
  • Dalakas MC, Fujii M, Li M, McElroy B. The clinical spectrum of anti-GAD antibody-positive patients with stiff-person syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Reliable monitoring of clinical relevant anti-drug antibodies is fundamental in the follow-up of patients under adalimumab treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Diffuse pruritic erythema as a clinical manifestation in anti-SAE antibody-associated dermatomyositis: a case report and literature review. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We evaluated the clinical performance of anti-CEP-1 in a Chinese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to evaluate the influence of serum drug levels and development of anti-drug antibodies on clinical response to anti-TNF agents in ankylosing. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The monoclonal antibodies of this invention possess distinctive characteristics and capabilities which make them suitable for in vitro clinical diagnostic and prognostic purposes. (google.com)
  • Examples of such antibodies will be discussed here with emphasis on those used as probes for molecular imaging and other clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
  • No association was seen between development of anti-IC antibodies and clinical toxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The discovery that some of these patients develop antibodies to the hu14.18-IL2 molecule will help us in the design of future clinical trials with this molecule. (aacrjournals.org)
  • sera or by immunoaffinity-purified antibody preparations, substantiated that anti-SEA immunoaffinity-purified antibodies only reacted with components of SEA, and anti-epimastigote immunoaffinity-purified antibodies only reacted with components of epimastigote antigenic preparation. (ajtmh.org)
  • The level of isolation mirrored the high prevalence of antibodies to HHV-6 found in sera obtained from residents of diverse areas of the world. (nih.gov)
  • Control sera are negative for anti-DEX antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • K.B. Raines, J.R. Baker, Y.G.Lukes, L. Wartofsky, K.D. Burman (1985) Antithyrotropin antibodies in the sera of Graves′ di sease patients. (springer.com)
  • Paschke R., Teuber J., Schwedes U., Usadel K.H. (1987) Antiidiotypic Blocking of Graves′ Disease Biologic Activity with Autologous Sera But Not Consistently with Homologous Sera: Evidence for Polyclonality of Thyroid Receptor Antibodies (Trab). (springer.com)
  • Robust techniques combining an antibody library displayed on the phage surface and protein microarray allowed the identification of auto antibodies recognized by patient sera. (mdpi.com)
  • Patient sera were examined in ELISA to determine if an anti-IC antibody response occurred during treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ProSci's expertise in antibody production, immunochemistry services, and biological research is realized through customizable services, innovative products, competitive pricing, high-quality research tools, and unparalleled technical support. (prosci-inc.com)
  • 25,27,41 Because antibodies may protect or neutralize pathogens and immunogens, 42-44 humoral immunity to oxLDL can reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The isolated chains were also evaluated with respect to binding affinity and inhibition of anti-idiotype antibody. (jimmunol.org)
  • This shows that A48 Id+ anti-BL clones belong to a normally silent fraction of the anti-BL repertoire. (rupress.org)
  • Both anti-idiotypic clones inhibited binding of ch14.18 to tumor associated antigen GD2. (egms.de)
  • DNA sequences coding the variable regions of anti-DNA clones, NE-l and NE-13 were identical with the germline gene, VH4.21, and Vk gene segments with Vk21b. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These data indicates that antigen-driven somatic mutations may have no important role to play in the expansion of some IgM clones associated with pathogenetic anti-DNA Ab in SLE. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Interestingly, transfer of both B-1a and B-2 to BALB/Xid mice was required to recover anti-P3 IgG response in this model. (hindawi.com)
  • named 94-2 and 94-7), were generated from a BALB/c mouse immunized with human monoclonal anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) neutralizing antibody KF94. (deepdyve.com)
  • More particularly, this invention relates to monoclonal antibodies against non-soluble, membrane associated, organ specific determinants expressed maximally on human normal and neoplastic prostatic epithelium. (google.com)
  • Such conformational changes, if they occur, must be restricted since hapten has little effect on the reactions of F(ab') 2 fragments of anti-benzoate antibodies with antisera directed to rabbit fragment Fab and no detectable effect on reactions with antibodies directed to allotypic determinants. (rupress.org)
  • The expression of OSA-1 CRI was not restricted to osteosarcoma reactive antibodies in humans . (musc.edu)
  • Approximately thirty percent of the animals immunized with OSA-1 Ab2 developed antibodies reactive against the 85,000 dalton osteosarcoma associated antigen . (musc.edu)