Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A hapten capable of eliciting both antibody formation and delayed hypersensitivity when bound to aromatic amino acids, polypeptides or proteins. It is used as an immunologic research tool.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (1/2060)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Human triclonal anti-IgG gammopathy. I. Iso-electric focusing characteristics of the IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG and their heavy and light chains. (2/2060)

Human IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG autoantibodies have been isolated from the serum of an individual with Felty's syndrome. These were initially noted as soluble circulating serum complexes by analytical ultracentrifugation. Isolation was accomplished by solid phase immunoadsorption and each of the three antibody populations obtained was shown to be of restricted heterogeneity by liquid and polyacrylamide gel electrofocussing methods. Type kappa light chains were obtained from each protein. Co-isoelectric focusing experiments of all possible pairs of these light chains showed them to have identical net charge characteristics. Heavy chains obtained from each protein were also monoclonal and of differing isoelectric point. The availability of this serum provides a human model with which to study the changes which may occur in autoantibodies during the autoimmune response.  (+info)

Plasma anti-serotonin and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies are elevated in panic disorder. (3/2060)

The psychoneuroimmunology of panic disorder is relatively unexplored. Alterations within brain stress systems that secondarily influence the immune system have been documented. A recent report indicated elevations of serotonin (5-HT) and ganglioside antibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia, a condition with documented associations with panic disorder. In line with our interest in dysregulated 5-HT systems in panic disorder (PD), we wished to assess if antibodies directed at the 5-HT system were elevated in patients with PD in comparison to healthy volunteers. Sixty-three patients with panic disorder and 26 healthy volunteers were diagnosed by the SCID. Employing ELISA, we measured anti-5-HT and 5-HT anti-idiotypic antibodies (which are directed at 5-HT receptors). To include all subjects in one experiment, three different batches were run during the ELISA. Plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies: there was a significant group effect [patients > controls (p = .007)] and batch effect but no interaction. The mean effect size for the three batches was .76. Following Z-score transformation of each separate batch and then combining all scores, patients demonstrated significantly elevated levels of plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies. Neither sex nor age as covariates affected the significance of the results. There was a strong correlation between anti-serotonin antibody and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibody measures. Plasma anti-serotonin antibodies: there was a significant diagnosis effect [patients > controls (p = .037)]. Mean effect size for the three batches was .52. Upon Z-score transformation, there was a diagnosis effect with antibody elevations in patients. Covaried for sex and age, the result falls below significance to trend levels. The data raise the possibility that psychoimmune dysfunction, specifically related to the 5-HT system, may be present in PD. Potential interruption of 5-HT neurotransmission through autoimmune mechanisms may be of pathophysiologic significance in certain patients with panic disorder. It remains to be demonstrated if the peripheral autoimmunity is representative of CNS 5-HT neuronal alterations. Replication appears warranted.  (+info)

Genetic linkage of IgA deficiency to the major histocompatibility complex: evidence for allele segregation distortion, parent-of-origin penetrance differences, and the role of anti-IgA antibodies in disease predisposition. (4/2060)

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (IgAD) is characterized by a defect of terminal lymphocyte differentiation, leading to a lack of IgA in serum and mucosal secretions. Familial clustering, variable population prevalence in different ethnic groups, and a predominant inheritance pattern suggest a strong genetic predisposition to IgAD. The genetic susceptibility to IgAD is shared with a less prevalent, but more profound, defect called "common variable immunodeficiency" (CVID). Here we show an increased allele sharing at 6p21 in affected members of 83 multiplex IgAD/CVID pedigrees and demonstrate, using transmission/diseqilibrium tests, family-based associations indicating the presence of a predisposing locus, designated "IGAD1," in the proximal part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The recurrence risk of IgAD was found to depend on the sex of parents transmitting the defect: affected mothers were more likely to produce offspring with IgAD than were affected fathers. Carrier mothers but not carrier fathers transmitted IGAD1 alleles more frequently to the affected offspring than would be expected under random segregation. The differential parent-of-origin penetrance is proposed to reflect a maternal effect mediated by the production of anti-IgA antibodies tentatively linked to IGAD1. This is supported by higher frequency of anti-IgA-positive females transmitting the disorder to children, in comparison with female IgAD nontransmitters, and by linkage data in the former group. Such pathogenic mechanisms may be shared by other MHC-linked complex traits associated with the production of specific autoantibodies, parental effects, and a particular MHC haplotype.  (+info)

Antiidiotypic antibody recognizes an amiloride binding domain within the alpha subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel. (5/2060)

We previously raised an antibody (RA6.3) by an antiidiotypic approach which was designed to be directed against an amiloride binding domain on the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). This antibody mimicked amiloride in that it inhibited transepithelial Na+ transport across A6 cell monolayers. RA6.3 recognized a 72-kDa polypeptide in A6 epithelia treated with tunicamycin, consistent with the size of nonglycosylated Xenopus laevis alphaENaC. RA6.3 specifically recognized an amiloride binding domain within the alpha-subunit of mouse and bovine ENaC. The deduced amino acid sequence of RA6.3 was used to generate a three-dimensional model structure of the antibody. The combining site of RA6.3 was epitope mapped using a novel computer-based strategy. Organic residues that potentially interact with the RA6.3 combining site were identified by data base screening using the program LUDI. Selected residues docked to the antibody in a manner corresponding to the ordered linear array of amino acid residues within an amiloride binding domain on the alpha-subunit of ENaC. A synthetic peptide spanning this domain inhibited the binding of RA6.3 to alphaENaC. This analysis provided a novel approach to develop models of antibody-antigen interaction as well as a molecular perspective of RA6.3 binding to an amiloride binding domain within alphaENaC.  (+info)

Elimination of the immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies. (6/2060)

The immunogenicity of therapeutic Abs limits their long-term use. The processes of complementarity-determining region grafting, resurfacing, and hyperchimerization diminish mAb immunogenicity by reducing the number of foreign residues. However, this does not prevent anti-idiotypic and anti-allotypic responses following repeated administration of cell-binding Abs. Classical studies have demonstrated that monomeric human IgG is profoundly tolerogenic in a number of species. If cell-binding Abs could be converted into monomeric non-cell-binding tolerogens, then it should be possible to pretolerize patients to the therapeutic cell-binding form. We demonstrate that non-cell-binding minimal mutants of the anti-CD52 Ab CAMPATH-1H lose immunogenicity and can tolerize to the "wild-type" Ab in CD52-expressing transgenic mice. This finding could have utility in the long-term administration of therapeutic proteins to humans.  (+info)

Cleavage of transcription factor SP1 by caspases during anti-IgM-induced B-cell apoptosis. (7/2060)

Apoptosis is instrumental in the processes generating the diversity of the B-cell repertoire. Autoreactive B-cells are eliminated by anti-IgM crosslinking after encountering self-antigens, but precise mechanisms leading to B-cell apoptosis are still not well understood. We report here the cleavage of the transcription factor SP1 in the human Burkitt lymphoma cell line BL60 during anti-IgM-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed two cleavage products of approximately 68 kDa and 45 kDa after induction of apoptosis. Cleavage could be completely inhibited by zDEVD-fmk, an inhibitor specific for caspase 3-like proteases. In-vitro cleavage of recombinant SP1 by recombinant caspase 3 (CPP32) or caspase 7 (Mch 3) results in similar cleavage products as those observed in vivo. Recombinant caspase 6 (Mch 2) primarily generates a 68-kDa cleavage product, as observed after calcium ionophore (CaI) induced B-cell apoptosis. In contrast, caspase 1 (ICE) did not cleave SP1 in vitro. The time course of SP1 cleavage during anti-IgM-induced apoptosis is paralleled by an increase of caspase activity measured by DEVD-p-nitroanilide (DEVD-pNA) cleavage. DNA band-shift assays revealed a decrease in the intensity of the full length SP1/DNA complex and an increase in the intensity of a smaller complex due to the binding of one SP1 cleavage product. By Edman sequencing we could identify a caspase 3 cleavage site after Asp584 (D584AQPQAGR), generating a 22-kDa C-terminal SP1 protein fragment which still contains the DNA binding site. Our results show the cleavage of the human transcription factor SP1 in vivo and in vitro, underlining the central role of caspase 3-like proteases during the process of anti-IgM-induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Extracellular signal-regulated kinases regulate leukotriene C4 generation, but not histamine release or IL-4 production from human basophils. (8/2060)

Human basophils secrete histamine and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in response to various stimuli, such as Ag and the bacterial product, FMLP. IgE-mediated stimulation also results in IL-4 secretion. However, the mechanisms of these three classes of secretion are unknown in human basophils. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs; ERK-1 and ERK-2) during IgE- and FMLP-mediated stimulation of human basophils was examined. Following FMLP stimulation, histamine release preceded phosphorylation of ERKs, whereas phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and arachidonic acid (AA) and LTC4 release followed phosphorylation of ERKs. The phosphorylation of ERKs was transient, decreasing to baseline levels after 15 min. PD98059 (MEK inhibitor) inhibited the phosphorylation of ERKs and cPLA2 without inhibition of several other tyrosine phosphorylation events, including phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. PD98059 also inhibited LTC4 generation (IC50 = approximately 2 microM), but not histamine release. Stimulation with anti-IgE Ab resulted in the phosphorylation of ERKs, which was kinetically similar to both histamine and LTC4 release and decreased toward resting levels by 30 min. Similar to FMLP, PD98059 inhibited anti-IgE-mediated LTC4 release (IC50, approximately 2 microM), with only a modest effect on histamine release and IL-4 production at higher concentrations. Taken together, these results suggest that ERKs might selectively regulate the pathway leading to LTC4 generation by phosphorylating cPLA2, but not histamine release or IL-4 production, in human basophils.  (+info)

A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; a method for the production of the aforementioned monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody specific to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the product of fusion a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent and as an adsorbent.
A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; a method for the production of the aforementioned monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody specific to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the product of fusion a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent and as an adsorbent.
Specific Interference with the Determination of the Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 by Human Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Formed after Treatment with the Anti-Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 Antibody ...
Two mouse monoclonal anti-anti-idiotopic antibodies (anti-anti-Id, Ab3), AF14 and AF52, were prepared by immunizing BALByc mice with rabbit polyclonal antiidiotypic antibodies (anti-Id, Ab2) raised against antibody D1.3 (Ab1) specific for the antigen hen egg lysozyme. AF14 and AF52 react with an internal image monoclonal mouse anti-Id antibody E5.2 (Ab2), previously raised against D1.3, with affinity constants (1.0 3 109 M21 and 2.4 3 107 M21, respectively) usually observed in secondary responses against protein antigens. They also react with the antigen but with lower affinity (1.8 3 106 M21 and 3.8 3 106 M21). This pattern of affinities for the anti-Id and for the antigen also was displayed by the sera of the immunized mice. The amino acid sequences of AF14 and AF52 are very close to that of D1.3. In particular, the amino acid side chains that contribute to contacts with both antigen and anti-Id are largely conserved in AF14 and AF52 compared with D1.3. Therapeutic immunizations against different
Neuroblastoma treatment with chimeric anti-disialoganglioside GD2 antibody ch14.18 showed objective anti-tumor responses. Production of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) against ch14.18 (Ab1) in some cases was positively correlated with a more favorable prognosis. According to Jernes network theory, a subset of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2beta) form an internal image of the antigen and induce antibodies (Ab3) against the original antigen. The molecular origin of the anti-idiotypic antibody response in tumor patients was not investigated previously. To clone anti-idiotypic antibodies, B-cells of a ch14.18-treated neuroblastoma patient with Ab2 serum reactivity were used to construct antibody phage display libraries (Methods described in Arthritis Rheum. 2000, 43:2722-2732). Upon repetitive selection of lambda and kappa Fab-phage display libraries on target antigens ch14.18 and the murine equivalent 14G2a, positive binders were enriched. Selected Ab2-clones GK2 and GK8 as well as another 38 ...
Many monoclonal antibodies that react with the lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNF III) antigenic determinant, Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc, have been described recently. The terminal trisaccharide of this determinant, fucosyllactosamine, is present on glycolipids and glycoproteins and on the surface of granulocytes, monocytes, and other cells. To study the structural and genetic diversity of these antibodies, syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies were produced in BALB/c mice against PMN 6, a monoclonal antibody directed against this sequence. Anti-idiotypic antibodies 6B1 and 6C4 reacted with 50% of a panel of 20 anti-LNF III monoclonal antibodies, whereas 6A3 reacted strongly only with PMN 6. This indicates that the determinants recognized by 6C4 and 6B1 represent major cross-reactive idiotopes of this family of antibodies. The binding of idiotypic antibodies to a glycolipid bearing this antigenic determinant was completely inhibited by the three anti-idiotypic ...
Cell surface receptors for the 86-kDa glycoprotein (gp86) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were identified by using two monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies that bear the internal image of gp86. These antibodies bound to cells permissive for HCMV infection by both ELISA and immunofluorescence assay and inhibited HCMV plaque formation in human embryonic lung (HEL) cells. Immunoblot analysis showed specific binding of both internal image anti-idiotype antibodies as well as gp86 to an HEL cell membrane protein with an approximate molecular mass of 92.5 kDa. In addition, immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled membrane and cell surface proteins from human foreskin tissue, human foreskin fibroblasts, or HEL cells showed specific binding of anti-idiotype antibody predominantly to the 92.5-kDa protein.. ...
Results Anti-infliximab antibodies were detected in 21 patients (median: 131 ng/ml, range 10-200 ng/ml). Infliximab levels were weak in 25 patients (median: 0.16 microg/ml, range: ,0.1-0.41 microg/ml). In 20/25 patients (80%), the weak level of infliximab was associated to the presence of anti-infliximab antibodies. Interestingly, in sera of two patients obtained more than one year after the last infliximab perfusion, anti-infliximab antibodies were still present. Elevated infliximab levels were associated to the presence of anti-infliximab antibodies in only one patient. In 6 patients, the loss of infliximab response was not explained by the presence of anti-TNF antibodies or weak infliximab levels, suggesting that a switch to another biological agent could be more efficient than to another TNF inhibitor.. ...
Rose, L M.; Goldman, M; and Lambert, P, The production of anti-idiotypic antibodies and of idiotype- -anti-idiotype immune complexes after polyclonal activation induced by bacterial lps. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2727 ...
B-cell lymphomas express surface immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin) containing unique idiotypic (idiotype) determinants which may be exploited as tumor specific markers. The inventor has produced murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with the idiotype marker derived from 67 patients with low grade, follicular, small cleaved cell lymphoma. Out of 199 monoclonal antibodies, 47 (24%) were found to react with pooled normal human serum immunoglobulin in concentrations ranging from 0.6 μg/ml to 160 μg/ml. Of these 40 monoclonal antibodies, 90% cross-reacted with idiotype present in normal serum in levels |50 μg/ml. Thirty-two of these anti-idiotypes were directed against a shared idiotope expressed on another patients lymphoma cells. The frequency of shared idiotope expression defined by each antibody ranged from 0.26% to 3.9% of the B-cell lymphomas tested. A panel of five anti-idiotype antibodies reacted with 80% of AIDS associated lymphomas. Based on the reactivity with these monoclonal antibodies,
Immunogenicity of Protein-315 and its Fab fragment (Fab-315) for isologous and heterologous strains of mice was investigated by comparing the characteristics of the anti-idiotypic response produced in BALB/c and A/J mice. The ability of these anti-idiotypic antisera to compete with DNP-lys for the ligand-binding site of Protein-315 were analyzed by comparing their hapten inhibition curves.. The anti-idiotypic responses of BALB/c mice to Protein-315 and to Fab-315 were similar to one another with regard to antibody specificity and sensitivity to inhibition by hapten, suggesting that both forms were equally immunogenic in inbred BALB/c mice. This observation indicates that the Fc portion of Protein-315 is not essential for the induction of anti-idiotypic response. Both BALB/c and A/J mice recognized the same antigenic determinants on Fab-315 since the anti-idiotypic antibodies produced by these animals were indistinguishable with regard to their interaction with Protein-315, Fv-315, and ...
Anti-idiotype vaccination represents an innovative approach to target tumor-associated antigen-expressing cells. This approach comes directly from Jernes idiotypic network theory, which postulates that due to the huge potentiality for diversity of the immunoglobulin variable regions, the idiotype repertoire can mimic the universe of self and foreign epitopes [1].. NeuGc-containing gangliosides are attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy because these glycolipids are non-self antigens in humans [2, 3]. In contrast, they have been detected in different human tumors by antibodies and chemical analysis [4-6]. Recent experimental data suggest that N-glycolyl-GM3 ganglioside (NeuGcGM3) is relevant for tumor biology [7].. mAb-1E10 [8] is an IgG1 anti-idiotype (Ab2) mAb obtained by immunizing Balb/c mice with mAb-P3 (Ab1) [9] coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in the presence of Freunds adjuvant. This Ab2 inhibited the binding of mAb-P3 to NeuGcGM3 ganglioside. mAb-1E10 induced an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of murine B cell proliferation by insolubilized anti-immunoglobulins. AU - Pure, E.. AU - Vitetta, E.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - This study demonstrates that intact antibodies specific for μ, δ, or light chains when coupled to Sepharose are effective in delivering proliferative signals to B cells. Furthermore, using Sepharose-coupled anti-δ antibodies, we have shown that hybridoma anti-δ (that is not active as soluble protein) is as effective as rabbit anti-δ in activating murine B cells. However, antibodies directed against two other surface molecules, I-A and H-2K, were not mitogenic. Thus, sIgM and sIgD are comparable in their ability to transmit a proliferative signal to the B cell and sIg seems to play a unique role in this regard.. AB - This study demonstrates that intact antibodies specific for μ, δ, or light chains when coupled to Sepharose are effective in delivering proliferative signals to B cells. Furthermore, using Sepharose-coupled anti-δ ...
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of immunological memory assumes importance in vaccine design. We had earlier hypothesized a mechanism for the maintenance of immunological memory through the operation of a network of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2). Peptides derived from an internal image carrying anti-idiotypic antibody are hypothesized to facilitate the perpetuation of antigen specific T cell memory through similarity in peptide-MHC binding as that of the antigenic peptide. In the present work, the existence of such peptidomimics of the antigen in the Ab2 variable region and their similarity of MHC-I binding was examined by bioinformatics approaches. The analysis employing three known viral antigens and one tumor-associated antigen shows that peptidomimics from Ab2 variable regions have structurally similar MHC-I binding patterns as compared to antigenic peptides, indicating a structural basis for memory perpetuation. (C)) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. ...
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) have released draft guidance withdrawing their recommendation of Novartis Xolair for severe persistent allergic asthma.. In 2007, NICE circulated guidelines supporting the use of Xolair (omalizumab) on the National Health Service (NHS) for adults whose asthma is poorly controlled. Then in 2011 they reject the treatments use in children aged six to eleven years.. However, a review of the recommendations, in which new evidence, in particular new mortality data, was taken into account, has prompted the Institute to reject the medications use in both children and adults, as it is not as clinically and cost-effective as previously thought.. Alterations to the dosing schedule and the associated effect on Xolairs cost effectiveness were also taken into account, and this, along with doubts surrounding the evidence and analysis presented, did not support a positive recommendation for omalizumab, the cost watchdog noted.. The ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The physiology of anti-idiotypic interactions. T2 - From clonal to paratopic selection. AU - Greally, John M.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - On theoretical and experimental grounds, it has been proposed that the idiotypes of immunoglobulins and of T cell receptors are composed of multiple paratopes, as opposed to a single paratope and several idiotopes. This necessitates a revision of some of the basic principles of anti-idiotypic reactions. It is also possible to infer the presence of the same or similar paratopes on different idiotypes. A paratope cannot therefore be regarded as restricted to or unique on an idiotype. For these reasons, the perception of immunological specificity in terms of clonal units is misleading. This review proposes instead that the physiological unit of immunological specificity and regulation is the paratope. This essential alteration in the perception of the immune system is referred to as paratopic selection. The approach is assessed in terms of ...
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic idiotypic (Id) vaccination is an experimental treatment for selected B cell malignancies. A broader use of Id-based vaccinatio
Antibodies directed against IgG and DNA are found in the sera of autoimmune MRL/Mp lpr/lpr mice. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying expression of such autoantibodies. We have investigated the binding diversity and pattern of VH gene expression in a panel of murine anti-IgG antibodies. We constructed eight hybridoma clones secreting IgM antibodies that bound to mouse IgG by using spleen cells from MRL/Mp lpr/lpr mice varying in age from 4 to 15 wk; one clone was derived from a 32-wk-old MRL +/+ mouse. The monoclonal IgM products exhibited varying binding specificities for intact mouse IgG, fragments of mouse IgG [Fc, Fab, (Fab)2], and heterologous IgG. Two of these antibodies crossreacted with B and/or Z DNA. Probes from seven of eight identified mouse VH gene families (7183, S107, Q52, J558, J606, 36-60, and 3609) were hybridized under high-stringency conditions with cytoplasmic RNA blots from each clone. Six clones hybridized only with the probe from the five-member 36-60 ...
Injections may be a helpful add-on treatment for certain people with severe allergic asthma. Learn more about how it works, how much it costs, and some of the potential side effects.
E. S. Aleksandrova, F. Koralewski, M. I. Titov, A. V. Demin, A. N. Ignatova, A. V. Kozyr, A. V. Kolesnikov, A. Tramontano, S. Paul, D. Thomas, A. G. Gabibov, A. Friboulet ...
Cosenza, H; Augustin, A; and Julius, M H., Induction and characterization of autologous anti-idiotypic antibodies. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3483 ...
We conceived this study to challenge, in the light of current knowledge, the tacit assumption that omalizumab therapy is of no clinical benefit in conventionally defined, non-atopic asthmatics. In lieu of a large, long-term, conventional clinical trial in the first instance, which would have been difficult to fund given the paucity of supportive evidence, we elected to provide proof of concept that omalizumab therapy of these patients reduces IgE expression and IgE sensitisation of target cells within the bronchial mucosa while exerting a favourable effect on lung function in the short term, as assessed by changes in FEV1. We obtained bronchial biopsies before and after 12-14 weeks of treatment with omalizumab or placebo while maintaining existing therapy, reasoning that any differences in mucosal cell populations between the active and placebo cohorts observed under these conditions would be attributable to omalizumab. We set changes in mucosal IgE+ cells as a co-primary outcome measure, ...
A 13-amino-acid motif in the cytoplasmic domain of FcyRIIB modulates B-cell receptor signalling. Nature (London) 368, 7 0 - 7 3 . , and Lamoyi, E. (1981). Implications of the presence of an internal image of the antigen in anti-idiotypic antibodies: Possible application to vaccine production. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 21, 397. Noelle, R. J . , and Snow, E. C. (1991). T helper cell-dependent B cell activation. FASEB J. 5, 2770-2776. Nossal, G. J. V. (1994). Negative selection of lymphocytes. Cell 76, 2 2 9 - 2 3 9 . Multifactorial nature of human immunodeficiency virus disease: Implications for therapy. Science 262, 1011-1018. Finkelman, F. , Holmes, J . , Katona, I. , Urban, J. F . , Beckmann, M. , Park, L. , Schooley, K. , Coffman, R. L . , Mosmann, T. , and Paul, W. E. (1990). Lymphokine control of in vivo immunoglobulin isotype selection. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 8, 3 0 3 - 3 3 3 . Fiorentino, D. F . , Bond, M. , and Mossman, T. R. (1989). Two types of mouse helper T cell. IV. Th2 clones ...
Results 33 children (22 male) aged 5-16 years were commenced on omalizumab. At 16 weeks there were significant improvements in mini-AQLQ; ACT; FENO; maintenance OCS dose; severe exacerbations and UHCVs.. 20/33 (60.6%) children continued omalizumab beyond the initial 16 weeks (up to 192 weeks). Compared to those who discontinued, at baseline these children had higher mini-AQLQ (4.28 vs. 3.05) and ACT (11 vs. 8), were younger (11 vs. 13 years) and were more likely to have been admitted to hospital (57.9% vs. 0%) and have had a severe exacerbation (95% vs. 50%) in the 16 weeks before starting omalizumab. Maximal reduction in number of exacerbations and hospital admissions was evident at 32 weeks; this was maintained for up to 144 weeks (Figure 1).. ...
Human Anti-Golimumab Antibody, clone AbD25455 is an anti-idiotypic antibody that specifically recognizes the monoclonal antibody drug goli
|strong|Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255|/strong| is a paratope specific, inhibitory anti-idiotypic antibody that specifically recognizes the monoclonal antibody drug nivolumab. The antib…
Our laboratory is developing cancer vaccines that are being evaluated in animal models for their protective activity against tumors before they are administered to cancer patients. The vaccines are composed of antibodies mimicking tumor antigens (anti-idiotypic antibodies) or the antigens expressed in viruses (recombinant adeno- or vaccinia-viruses) and are selected based on their high probability of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses in patients. The animal models we have developed for preclinical evaluation of the vaccines closely mimic the condition in cancer patients. In other studies which have reached clinical trials, we are evaluating the vaccinated patients immune responses to their tumors ...
Omalizumab Omalizumab? Therapeutic monoclonal antibody Source Humanized Target IgE Identifiers CAS number 242138-07-4 ATC code R03DX05 PubChem  ? DrugBank
Mean serum IFX trough level was 4.4+ 4.7mg/ml in 430 samples from 122 patients. The level was significantly lower in symptomatic phase (n=73, 2.5±5.3 μg/ml) than in the asymptomatic phase (n=357, 4.9 ± 4.6μg/ml). ROC analysis determined the cut-off level was 0.93μg/ml. Patient-based analysis revealed that the trough level was lower in Group C+D (1.3±3.3μg/ml) than Group A (4.2±4.4μg/ml) and B (5.4±5.7μg/ml), whereas administration interval was significantly shorter in Group B (7.2±1.1 wk) and C+D (6.8±1.5 wk) than Group A (8.2±0.9 wk). ATI(+) was found in 18 (11.3%) of all patients. The frequency was significantly higher in Group C+D (5/10, 50%) and E (4/8, 50%) than Group A (3/75, 4%) and B (6/38, 16%). Thus, unfavorable clinical responses were associated with low trough level and positive ATI. Muitivariate analysis using logistic regression model revealed association of therapeutic failure (Group C+D and E) with female, positive ATI, and infusion reaction (IR). Moreover, ATI was ...
T cell vaccination (TCV) activates Tregs of 2 kinds: anti-idiotypic (anti-id) and anti-ergotypic (anti-erg). These regulators furnish a useful view of the physiology of T cell regulation of the immune response. Anti-id Tregs recognize specific effector clones by their unique TCR CDR3 peptides; anti-id networks of CD4+ and CD8+ Tregs have been described in detail. Here we shall focus on anti-erg T regulators. Anti-erg T cells, unlike anti-id T cells, do not recognize the clonal identity of effector T cells; rather, anti-erg T cells recognize the state of activation of target effector T cells, irrespective of their TCR specificity. We consider several features of anti-erg T cells: their ontogeny, subset markers, and target ergotope molecules; mechanisms by which they regulate other T cells; mechanisms by which they get regulated; and therapeutic prospects for anti-erg upregulation and downregulation.. ...
The responsiveness to IL-4 with and without costimulation with anti-IgM antibodies or phorbolester was studied in 35 cases of low grade non-Hodgkin Iymphoma by analyzing enhancement of CD23 and HLA dass li expression. The predominant phenotype responds directly to IL-4. Separate differentiation states can be distinguished according to coordinate or differential upregulation of CD23 and HLA dass II molecules by IL-4 alone, and differences in responsiveness to anti-IgM antibodies. A particular subgroup of B-lymphoma cells defines a separate stage of B-eeil differentiation. They fail to express high affinity binding sites for IL-4 and accordingly do not respond to IL-4- mediated signals. Cross-linking membrane lgM receptors or direct activation of protein kinase C via phorbolester induces IL-4 receptor expression and subsequent IL-4 reactivity ...
The responsiveness to IL-4 with and without costimulation with anti-IgM antibodies or phorbolester was studied in 35 cases of low grade non-Hodgkin Iymphoma by analyzing enhancement of CD23 and HLA dass li expression. The predominant phenotype responds directly to IL-4. Separate differentiation states can be distinguished according to coordinate or differential upregulation of CD23 and HLA dass II molecules by IL-4 alone, and differences in responsiveness to anti-IgM antibodies. A particular subgroup of B-lymphoma cells defines a separate stage of B-eeil differentiation. They fail to express high affinity binding sites for IL-4 and accordingly do not respond to IL-4- mediated signals. Cross-linking membrane lgM receptors or direct activation of protein kinase C via phorbolester induces IL-4 receptor expression and subsequent IL-4 reactivity ...
我們的研究主軸是利用抗體工程技術來開發新藥。這些以抗體為結構基礎的藥物,主要標的牽涉於IgE引致的過敏反應過程。我們也積極從事開發可提升抗體工程 的數種創新技術平台。其中一項研究計畫就是要發展人源化、高親和力,及對人體膜IgE分子內CεmX具結合特異性的抗體,以用來控制表現IgE的B淋巴細 胞。CεmX是張教授的研究群發現的;它是一含有具特異序列的52個氨基酸長的胜肽區段。如發展成功,anti-CεmX可與張教授發明的anti-IgE,如已在美國等國核准上市用於嚴重哮喘的omalizumab(商名Xolair),共同使用。. ...
ForteBios Anti-Murine IgG Quantitation biosensors provide a rapid method for precise quantitation of murine immunoglobulins from crude lysates and cell culture supernatants. For Determination of Antibody Concentration
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Rabbit Polyclonal ID4 antibody N-Term for WB. Published in 2 Pubmed References. Order this anti-ID4 antibody. | Product number ABIN2780374
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-gamma H2A.X (phospho S139) antibody - ChIP Grade (ab2893) : ChIP protocols, Immunoprecipitation protocols…
Anti-gamma H2A.X (phospho S139) antibody [9F3] (ab26350) has been cited in 47 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat, Dog, Pig in ICC, ICC/IF, IF, IHC…
The progression of this project, as well as the outcomes, will be extremely relevant to the public and scientific researchers since Severe Allergic Asthma is a common disease worldwide. AA is well documented and the public already have a great deal of understanding and so are more likely to be interested in new advances in research related to this condition. The objectives of this work package are to ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Host Anti-antibody Responses Following Adeno-associated Virus-mediated Delivery of Antibodies Against HIV and SIV in Rhesus Monkeys. AU - Martinez-Navio, José M.. AU - Fuchs, Sebastian P.. AU - Pedreño-López, Sònia. AU - Rakasz, Eva G.. AU - Gao, Guangping. AU - Desrosiers, Ronald C.. PY - 2015/10/7. Y1 - 2015/10/7. N2 - Long-term delivery of antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is a promising approach for the prevention or treatment of HIV infection. However, host antibody responses to the delivered antibody are a serious concern that could significantly limit the applicability of this approach. Here, we describe the dynamics and characteristics of the anti-antibody responses in monkeys that received either rhesus anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antibodies (4L6 or 5L7) in prevention trials or a combination of rhesusized human anti-HIV antibodies (1NC9/8ANC195/3BNC117 or 10-1074/10E8/3BNC117) in therapy ...
Methods: Consecutive patients with severe asthma disease (n=15; Group IA, pretreatment and Group IB, post-treatment) underwent omalizumab treatment. Control group was age- and sex-matched including 25 healthy in Group II. Blood samples from both the groups were taken during their first visit (Group IA and II) and then after 12 months of treatment in asthmatic patients (Group IB). Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), eosinophil cationic peptide (ECP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), soluble OX2 (sCD200) and clinical follow-up tests including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), asthma control test (ACT), and pulmonary function tests were evaluated ...
Anti-IgE (omalizumab) has been shown to be an effective add-on therapy for patients with allergic severe asthma. In this observational study patients aged over 18 year with uncontrolled severe persistent asthma are selected for add-on therapy with omalizumab. Patients were on high dose of ICS and had a documented history of 2-6 exacerbations requiring treatment with systemic corticosteroids ( with ,15 mg/day prednisone or other medications at similar dose, for at least 3 days). The individual dose and frequency of omalizumab administration is assessed from the dosing table. Lung function tests and asthma questionnaires (ACQ, AQLQ and RQLQ) are used in the aim of assessing clinical improvement after omalizumab treatment. Induced sputum (IS) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are used as a simple non-invasive methods for monitoring cellular and biochemical changes in the airways. Total blood eosinophil count, IS cytology, IS and EBC periostin and IL-6 concentrations are measured. Analyses are ...
General It is not known whether Simulect use will have a long-term effect on the ability of the immune system to respond to antigens first encountered during Simulect -induced immunosuppression. Immunogenicity Of renal transplantation patients treated with Simulect and tested for anti-idiotype antibodies, 4/339 developed an anti-idiotype antibody response, with no deleterious clinical effect upon the patient. In none of these cases was there evidence that the presence of anti-idiotype antibody accelerated Simulect clearance or decreased the period of receptor saturation. In Study 2, the incidence of human anti-murine antibody (HAMA) in renal transplantation patients treated with Simulect was 2/138 in patients not exposed to muromonab-CD3 and 4/34 in patients who subsequently received muromonab-CD3. The available clinical data on the use of muromonab-CD3 in patients previously treated with Simulect suggest that subsequent use of muromonab-CD3 or other murine anti-lymphocytic antibody preparations ...
Omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody has the potential to alter allergen processing. Recently, it has been postulated the assessment of PHA-stimulated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activity as maker of CD4+ T cells activity in peripheral blood cells. We present the case report of a 35-year-old woman with a history of chronic idiopathic urticaria and angioedema of 8 years of development with poor response to treatment. The patient was partially controlled with cyclosporine at doses of 100 mg/12 h. However, she was still developing hives daily. Finally treatment with omalizumab was started at dose of 300 mg every 2 weeks. The patient experienced a decrease in urticarial lesions 2 days after starting therapy. We also evaluated the effects of omalizumab therapy on the activity of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells from the patient, in order to determine the potential modification of anti-IgE therapy on the process of antigen presentation-recognition. Activity of CD4+ cells by ATP release was
Rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies were prepared by injection of specifically purified anti-p-azobenzoate antibodies (D) from individual donor rabbits. Benzoate derivatives were found to be strong inhibitors of the reactions of D with anti-D antisera. There was a close correlation between the combining affinities of the benzoate derivatives used and their effectiveness as inhibitors. Compounds tested that are chemically unrelated to benzoate were ineffective. The results indicate either that the combining site of anti-benzoate antibody is part of an important idiotypic determinant, which is sterically blocked by hapten, or that the hapten induces a conformational change which alters idiotypic determinants not involving the active site. Such conformational changes, if they occur, must be restricted since hapten has little effect on the reactions of F(ab)2 fragments of anti-benzoate antibodies with antisera directed to rabbit fragment Fab and no detectable effect on reactions with antibodies ...
anti-Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M (IgG, IgM) (Heavy & Light Chain) antibody (Alkaline Phosphatase (AP)) ABIN637975 from antibodies-online
Deterioration of asthma upon withdrawal of Xolair as demonstrated by meeting at least one of the following: *Worsening of pulmonary function tests (FEV1 ,80% predicted for height, age, and sex) and activity levels while off Xolair treatment; *Worsening of asthma exacerbations defined as doubling of inhaled steroid dose, increase in dose of oral steroids, or initiation of oral, intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous (SC) steroids while off Xolair treatment; *Increased use of rescue medications while off Xolair treatment; *ER visits or unscheduled office visits for asthma that may or may not result in hospitalization while off Xolair ...
Omalizumab is a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody currently used in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) as a third-line option in cases refractory to treatment with the licensed dose of the first-line treatment or up to 4 times that dose. The introduction of omalizumab into the therapeutic arsenal for CSU brought about a real revolution in the management of this condition. However, the dose recommended in the Summary of Product Characteristics-based on the results of pivotal studies carried out as part of the approval process-is 300 mg/mo for a period of up to 6 months. In the present issue, the Catalan-Balearic working group presents a treatment algorithm to guide the use of omalizumab in the management of CSU. They discuss the various aspects of management related to the rational and evidence-based use of this drug, including candidate population, monitoring tools (Urticaria Activity Score 7 [UAS7] and Urticarial Control Test [UCT]), starting dose and dose adjustment as well as the ...
Case report: We present the case of a 48 year old woman, with severe persistent allergic asthma, despite level 4 (GINA) medical treatment, who initiated omalizumab in order to control her nocturnal symptoms and her frequent unscheduled medical visits. Before treatment and at 12 weeks: clinical evaluation with ACT was registered; lung function, FeNO, IgE and eosinophils were measured. Two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC ´GC-ToFMS) combined with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied to the untargeted study of the volatile metabolomic urine profile. ...
IL-12 R beta 1 Goat anti-Mouse, Polyclonal, R&D Systems™ 100μg; Unlabeled IL-12 R beta 1 Goat anti-Mouse, Polyclonal, R&D Systems™ Primary...
The study by Milgrom and colleagues is their second on the use of omalizumab (anti-IgE antibody) in the treatment of asthma and the third published in the past 3 months that addresses treatment with anti-IgE in large, multicenter asthma studies. Concurrent studies by Busse and colleagues (1) and Soler and colleagues (2) included , 500 adult patients aged 12 to 75 years and used medium to high-dose inhaled steroids (500 to 1200 µg/d of beclomethasone). They used a design similar to that of Milgrom and colleagues and achieved similar results in terms of steroid reduction and decreases in exacerbations. These studies, along with an earlier publication by Milgrom and colleagues (3), make a case for anti-IgE antibodies as adjunctive treatment for steroid-dependent patients with asthma. The advantages of anti-IgE over conventional therapies include once or twice-monthly subcutaneous injections and its tolerability with infrequent side effects. However, many questions remain. Although the association ...
Omalizumab - Get up-to-date information on Omalizumab side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Omalizumab
CHO-Anti-Human IgE scFv stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an anti-human IgE scFv gene to allow expression of the scFv. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
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Anti-Human IgG Fc and IgE are purified mouse monoclonal antibodies. The goat anti-human IgG and IgA are affinity purified polyclonal antibodies.
Author(s): Markus Brede ,Ulrich Behn Subject(s): CX.3 Category: Abstract:. The talk deals with modelling a subsystem of the immune system, the so-called idiotypic network. Idiotypic networks, a concept conceived by N.K. Jerne in 1974, are functional networks of interacting antibodies and B-cells. In principle, Jernes framework provides solutions to many issues in immunology, such as immunological memory, mechanisms for antigen recognition and the question of self/non-self discrimination. Explaining the interconnection between the elementary components local dynamics, network formation and architecture, and possible modes of global system function appears to be an ideal playground of statistical mechanics. We present a simple cellular automaton model based on a graph representation of the system. From a simplified description of idiotypic interactions rules for the random evolution of networks of occupied and empty sites on these graphs are derived. In certain biologically relevant parameter ...
THURSDAY, June 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with a significant response to allergen challenge, omalizumab induces protective effects against early (EAR) and late allergic reactions (LAR), according to a study published online June 5 in Allergy.. Jordis Trischler, M.D., from the University Hospital Frankfurt in Germany, and colleagues determined the time course of the early (EAR) and late allergic reaction (LAR). Ten patients with a significant response to allergen challenge were treated with omalizumab. At week one, two, four, and eight, bronchial allergen provocations were repeated.. The researchers observed a significant reduction in EAR after four weeks (change in forced expiratory volume in one second [ΔFEV1], 28 versus 11 percent; P , 0.001; exhaled nitric oxide, 86 versus 53 ppb; P , 0.05), and there was a reduction in basophil activation after two weeks (CD63 expression, 79 versus 32 percent; P , 0.05). After one week there was a reduction in LAR (ΔFEV1, 26 versus 13 ...
Container/Tube:. Preferred: Green-top (lithium heparin) tube. Acceptable: Gold-top serum gel tube or Plain Red-top tube. Specimen Volume: 170 uL of plasma or serum. Stability: Keep tubes stoppered and upright at all times. Do not use samples that have been stored at room temperature for longer than 8 hours. Tightly cap and refrigerate specimens at 2° to 8°C if the assay is not completed within 8 hours. Freeze samples at or below -20°C if the sample is not assayed within 48 hours. Freeze samples only once and mix thoroughly after thawing. Collection Instructions:. Note: 1. Human anti-mouse antibodies or other heterophile antibodies may be present in patient specimens. This assay has been specially formulated to minimize the effects of these antibodies, however results from patients known to have these antibodies should be carefully evaluated.. 2. Label specimen appropriately (plasma/serum).. ...
Goat anti-Mouse IgM Secondary Antibody, HRP conjugate from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunocytochemistry and Immunohistochemistry applications. Supplied as 2 mL purified secondary antibody (0.8 mg/ml) in PBS with 15mg/ml BSA and no preservative; pH 7.6.
Antibodies, Treatment, Human, Patients, Plasma, Serum, Igg, Immunoglobulin, Monoclonal Antibodies, Therapeutic, Anti-idiotype Antibodies, Breast, Breast Cancer, Calibration, Cancer, Elisa, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Horseradish, Horseradish Peroxidase, Immunoassay
Buy XOLAIR S.C. INJ 75MG/0.5ML (OMALIZUMAB) from ADV-Care Pharmacy, a Canadian mail order Online pharmacy since 2000. Offers best prices And expedite shipping XOLAIR S.C. INJ by TEVA CANADA LIMITED .
The basic components of the diagnostic test systems are antigens and specific antibodies. The main objective of developing express tests for the diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is to obtain a virus antigen drug, which is very time-consuming to prepare. This problem can be solved by producing anti-idiotype antibodies that have a chemical structure identical to that of the viral antigen and does not require large expenditures to manufacture [1, 2 ...
Methods: The Gyros platform was used to develop immunoassays for the active and total TAb. For active/free Tab immunoassays, biotinylated target protein or biotinylated anti-TAb mAb (paratope-specific anti-idiotypic (ID) Ab) was used as a capture reagent and AlexaFluor647-labeled anti-TAb mAB (non-blocking anti-ID Ab) was used for detection. For the total assay, biotinylated mouse anti-human IgG (Fc specific) mAb was used to capture the TAb and AlexaFluor647 labeled mouse anti-human IgG (kappa light chain specific) mAb was used as a detection reagent. The assays were used for the bioanalysis of monkey serum samples ...
Human IgG antibody, pre-adsorbed (TxRd) for ELISA, FACS, ICC/IF. Anti-Human IgG pAb (GTX27151) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Detailed Omalizumab dosage information for adults and children. Includes dosages for Asthma - Maintenance and Urticaria; plus renal, liver and dialysis adjustments.
Learn about the potential side effects of Xolair (omalizumab). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
This paper evaluates a representative sample of the best anti-ID and pro-ID publications and presents a conclusion as to the present state of the evidence and arguments regarding these positions. Published in Origins, n. 63.
Raffáč Š, Gombošová L, Gabzdilová J, Novotná L, Šajtyová K, Pekárová T, Kopolovets I, Tóth Š. Detection of anti-infliximab antibodies in Slovak IBD patients and its costs saving effect. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2017 Nov; 38(Suppl1): 5-9 ...
Specificityinternal regionStorage/StabilityAliquot and store at -20°C Minimize freezing and thawing More InformationImmunogenThe immunogen was a 12-residue peptide matching a sequence from the internal region of Mouse SETD2 See Accession Number s NP_054878 3 Formulation 0 5 mg/ml in TBS 0
Specificityinternal regionStorage/StabilityAliquot and store at -20°C Minimize freezing and thawing More InformationImmunogenThe immunogen was a 12-residue peptide matching a sequence from the internal region of Mouse Robo1 See Accession Number s NP_062286 2 Formulation 0 5 mg/ml in TBS 0
Pt presents to office with Asthma and is treated with Zolair. Since Zolair is considered a monoclonal antibody, what is the appropriate administration
CAR阳性表达率检测是CAR-T疗法质量控制的重要一环,常用的检测方案有利用Protein L、Anti-Fab抗体或靶点蛋白结合流式细胞术进行检测。其中,靶点蛋白结合流式细胞术的检测方案因其靶点特异性强的优势而备受青睐,许多业内人士预期靶点特异性的检测将会被监管机构纳入CAR-T质量控制监管考量的范畴。本文将对CAR阳性表达率检测相关案例做一汇总以供大家参考..
CU patients treated with Omalizumab, showed lower percentage of CD4+HLA-DR+CD38+[0,75(0,6-1,1)vs1,23(1,01-1,54)%,p,0,0001], CD4+DR+CD38-[1,7(0,7-3,15)vs3,07(2,5-4,7)%,p=0,0006] and higher percentage of CD8+DR-CD38+ [14±2 vs 8±0,5%,p=0,0001] and Th1 CM [12±0,8 vs 9±0,4%, p,0,0001] than HD.. ...
Euhesmaalbamala sp. n.: A-D Allotype male genital structures: A genital ventral B genital dorsal C S7+S8 ventral D S7+S8 dorsal. Scale bars: 200 µm.
... "anti-idiotypic antibody". If such is the case, the anti-idiotypic antibodies will be able to bind to the B lymphocyte receptor ... An anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody was generated to possess an "internal image of cocaine". The anti-idiotypic antibody ... "How Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies are Essential to Drug Discovery". News & Blogs. GenScript Biotech. January 19, 2018. Retrieved ... Ladjemi MZ (2012). "Anti-idiotypic antibodies as cancer vaccines: achievements and future improvements". Front Oncol. 2: 158. ...
Another researched possibility is the development of anti-idiotypic antibodies. Anti-idiotypic antibodies bind to a paratope of ... As a member of the anti-idiotypic antibodies, Fab fragment recombinant antibodies bind directly to the paratope of the target ... Based on their binding specificity 3 types of anti-idiotypic antibodies can be distinguished, which partially overlap with the ... Bio-Rad Laboratories (2013-12-03), Developing Recombinant Anti Idiotypic Antibodies for PK/PD and Immunogenicity Assays, ...
Kennedy, R.; Eichberg, J.; Lanford, R.; Dreesman, G. (1986). "Anti-idiotypic antibody vaccine for type B viral hepatitis in ...
An example of an anti-idiotype antibody is Racotumomab. To produce an anti-idiotypic vaccine, antibodies that bind tumor- ... "anti-idiotypic". The resulting murine antibodies are harvested and used to vaccinate other mice. The resulting antibodies in ... Because the antibody produced using the "anti-idiotypic" process closely resembles the original epitope of the antigen, these ... Anti-idiotypic vaccines consist of antibodies that have three-dimensional immunogenic regions, termed idiotopes, that consist ...
October 2006). "The anti-idiotypic antibody abagovomab in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. A phase I trial of the AGO- ... Abagovomab is a mouse anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody whose variable epitope mirrors a tumour antigen (CA-125) highly ... May 2001). "Immunological consolidation of ovarian carcinoma recurrences with monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody ACA125: immune ... "Medical News: ESGO: Anti-CA125 Fails to Slow Ovarian Cancer - in Meeting Coverage, ESGO from". MedPage Today. Retrieved 2011-09 ...
This includes anti-VAP antibodies, receptor anti-idiotypic antibodies, extraneous receptor and synthetic receptor mimics. This ... This may include VAP anti-idiotypic antibodies, natural ligands of the receptor and anti-receptor antibodies.[clarification ... and since the process of generating anti-idiotypic antibodies is partly trial and error, it can be a relatively slow process ... Monoclonal antibody Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug List of antiviral drugs Virucide Antiprion drugs and Astemizole ...
... yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic antibodies". Journal of Immunology. 152 (6): 3175-82. PMID 8144911. Archived from the ... Several experiments suggest that antibodies that mimic the biological activity of killer toxins have application as antifungal ... March 1994). "Idiotypic intravaginal vaccination to protect against candidal vaginitis by secretory, ... "Therapeutic potential of yeast killer toxin-like antibodies and mimotopes". FEMS Yeast Research. 5 (1): 11-8. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Jorgensen, T.; Gaudernack, G.; Hannestad, K. (1977). "Production of BALB/c Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Against the BALB/c Myeloma ... He further generated monoclonal antibodies specific for the hematopoietic stem cell marker, CD34. A joint collaboration with ... and generated monocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies (ID5) in hybridomas. Inspired by his research and without being ... Hospital and Baxter resulted in development of an instrument to isolate hematopoietic stem cells in large scale using anti-CD34 ...
This property is exploited by the immune system in regulation by anti-idiotypic antibodies (originally proposed by Nobel ... If this second antibody is of IgM class, its binding can upregulate the immune response; if the second antibody is of IgG class ... The epitope is the specific piece of the antigen to which an antibody binds. The part of an antibody that binds to the epitope ... and/or ELISA to determine antibody binding. Competition methods look to determine if two monoclonal antibodies (mABs) can bind ...
... is an anti-idiotypic mouse monoclonal antibody that mimics NGc gangliosides, thus triggering an immune response ... March 2011). "Anti-NeuGcGM3 antibodies, actively elicited by idiotypic vaccination in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients, ... March 2002). "An anti-idiotype vaccine elicits a specific response to N-glycolyl sialic acid residues of glycoconjugates in ... Drugs that are a monoclonal antibody, Monoclonal antibodies). ... 2012). "Racotumomab: an anti-idiotype vaccine related to N- ...
... analysis of the specificity of anticocaine antibodies (Ab1) capable of inducing Ab2beta anti-idiotypic antibodies". Immunology ... "Inhibition of cocaine binding to the human dopamine transporter by a single chain anti-idiotypic antibody: its cloning, ... "Anti-Cocaine Catalytic Antibodies: A Synthetic Approach to Improved Antibody Diversity". Journal of the American Chemical ... Schabacker, DS; Kirschbaum, KS; Segre, M (2000). "Exploring the feasibility of an anti-idiotypic cocaine vaccine: ...
"Selection of human anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies occurs within the context of a frozen 1F7-idiotypic repertoire". ... and B anti-anti-B (antiidiotypic) antibodies. The former stimulate anti-anti-B T cells and the latter stimulate anti-B T cells ... of lymphocytes defined by co-selection of both anti-C and anti-anti-C lymphocytes and co-selection of anti-B and anti-anti-B ... and was designed to induce the production of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies. A suitable anti-anti-HIV antibody ...
"Anti-idiotypic binders for Trastuzumab validated in regulatory bioanalysis assay in collaboration with Covance". Avacta. ... "Antibody Alternatives". The Scientist Magazine®. Retrieved 2018-10-18. Sharma R, Deacon SE, Nowak D, George SE, Szymonik MP, ... "Development and validation of anti-idiotypic Affmers to trastuzumab in a pharmacokinetic assay , Avacta". www.avacta.com. ... These synthetic antibodies were engineered to be stable, non-toxic, biologically neutral and contain no post-translational ...
... of antibody response by mouse dendritic cells pulsed with tobacco mosaic virus or with rabbit antiidiotypic antibodies raised ... Urbain's idiotypic research showed a "dramatic enhancement of an antiviral immune response by dendritic cells," thus ... demonstrating the principle of a dendritic cell-enhanced immunity by means of anti-idiotype antibodies. He followed up with an ... The Immune Response Corporation filed a patent on this invention entitled: "Idiotypic Vaccination Against B-Cell Lymphoma" in ...
Other products include: Matched antibody pairs Anti-idiotypic Antibodies HBV Core Antigen Antibody Isotyping Kits Protein ... Originally, the business was focused on monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Later, various kinds of antibodies, viral ... Creative Diagnostics is an American biotechnology company that specializes in the research and manufacturing of antibodies, ... "The Way We Take Care of Antibody Purification". APSence. Retrieved December 16, 2014. "Creative Diagnostics unveils custom ...
... anti-idiotypic antibodies, and vaccines to elicit immune responses to highly conserved viral proteins. mRNA vaccines to provide ... In humans, a sizeable antibody response occurs ~1 week after viral exposure. This antibody response is typically robust and ... B cells, a type of white blood cell, produce antibodies that bind to influenza antigens HA and NA (or HEF) and other proteins ... In other words, people exposed to a certain strain in childhood still possess antibodies to that strain at a reasonable level ...
... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548. - htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548. - htlv-ii ...
... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 - antibodies, ... anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.107 - antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.125 - antibodies, bacterial ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.224 - antibodies, ...
... network theory proposed by Niels Kaj Jerne that describes the regulation of the immune system by anti-idiotypic antibodies ( ... antibodies that select for other antibodies). This class of algorithms focus on the network graph structures involved where ... antibodies (or antibody producing cells) represent the nodes and the training algorithm involves growing or pruning edges ... Immune network algorithms: Algorithms inspired by the idiotypic ... where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody ...
... hormone recognition by an anti-idiotypic antibody, Science (1992) An αβ T Cell Receptor Structure at 2.5 Å and Its Orientation ... earliest research as a graduate student at Johns Hopkins University focused on understanding how anti-idiotyopic antibodies ... Engineered SIRPα variants as immunotherapeutic adjuvants to anticancer antibodies, Science (2013) Durable antitumor responses ... affinity antagonists of the receptor CD47 that potently enhance the antitumor effects of established therapeutic antibodies. ...
"Therapy of B-cell lymphoma with anti-CD20 antibodies can result in the loss of CD20 antigen expression". Clinical Cancer ... Clonal B-cells spontaneously mutate the idiotypic region of their immunoglobulin. This high mutation rate makes them prone to ... Anti-apoptotic proteins include Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-w, Mcl-1. When anti-apoptotic family members are overexpressed, apoptotic ... Monoclonal antibodies are made by injecting human cancer cells into mice so that their immune systems create antibodies against ...
In most cases, an antibody can only react to and bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may cross- ... autologous and idiotypic or allogenic (homologous) antigens. Sometimes antigens are part of the host itself in an autoimmune ... "anti(body)-gen". Epitope - the distinct surface features of an antigen, its antigenic determinant. Antigenic molecules, ... At the molecular level, an antigen can be characterized by its ability to bind to an antibody's paratopes. Different antibodies ...
I. Binding of alloantigens and anti-idiotypic antibodies to the same receptors. P H Krammer P H Krammer ... I. Binding of alloantigens and anti-idiotypic antibodies to the same receptors.. J Exp Med 1 January 1978; 147 (1): 25-36. doi ... the receptors on MLR-activated T-cell blasts that bind alloantigens were the same as those binding anti-idiotypic antibodies. ... In a different assay system, T-cell receptors were studied with anti-idiotypic sera. These antisera were raised by repeated ...
Anti-idiotypic antibodies and suppressor cells in patients receiving pretransplant donor-specific blood transfusions. Academic ...
The idiotype is the variable portion of an antibody that includes... ... Anti-idiotypic antibodies are formed when one antibody binds to an idiotope of another antibody. ... Anti Idiotypic Antibodies. Purchase ant-idiotypic antibodies from Green Mountain Antibodies for affordability and quality. We ... Anti Factor Ix Antibody. You will find detailed information about anti-factor IX antibodies online at Green Mountain Antibodies ...
This CDC blocking factor could be the anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) directed against the cytotoxic anti-HLA antibody (Ab1). In ... Development of anti-idiotypic antibodies to HLA antigens during pregnancy.. Autor : Agrawal, S. Sharma, R K. Kishore, R. ... Development of anti-idiotypic antibodies to HLA antigens during pregnancy. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1994 Jan; 99(): ... These sera were tested for presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies by complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). In all ten sera ...
Creative BioMart is confident to provide our customers with unparalleled anti-idiotypic antibodies for their kinase/phosphatase ... Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-ID Abs) can bind to the idiotope of another antibody and are therefore antibody specific. These ... Dual anti-idiotypic purification of a novel, native-format biparatopic anti-MET antibody with improved in vitro and in vivo ... Custom Anti-Idiotypic Antibody Production for Phosphorylation Research. *Custom Single Domain Antibody Production for ...
Anti-TSH anti-idiotypic antibodies : characteristics and applications. Anti-TSH anti-idiotypic antibodies : characteristics and ... be an anti-TSH anti-idiotypic antibody. -- This work was designed to investigate the possibility of producing anti-TSH anti- ... In summary this work has demonstrated that it is possible to raise anti-TSH anti-idiotypic antibodies. The antibodies produced ... This first antibody was later purified and used in the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies this time in rabbits. The ...
Neutralizes circulating antibodies through anti-idiotypic antibodies. Down-regulates proinflammatory cytokines, including INF- ... Dalakas MC, Fujii M, Li M, McElroy B. The clinical spectrum of anti-GAD antibody-positive patients with stiff-person syndrome. ... Stiff person syndrome associated anti-amphiphysin antibodies reduce GABA associated [Ca(2+)](i) rise in embryonic motoneurons. ... Intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with anti-GAD antibody-associated neurological diseases and patients with inflammatory ...
Moreover, our ELISA using recombinant MDA-5 protein makes detection of the anti- … ... Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic / blood * Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic / immunology * Autoantigens / blood * Autoantigens / immunology ... of their in vitro-transcribed and in vitro-translated products using anti-CADM-140 antibody-positive and anti-CADM-140 antibody ... Methods: An anti-CADM-140 antibody-positive prototype serum sample was used to screen a HeLa cell-derived complementary DNA ( ...
Neutralizes circulating antibodies through anti-idiotypic antibodies. Down-regulates proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN- ... Clinical relevance of non-neuronal auto-antibodies in patients with anti-Hu or anti-Yo paraneoplastic diseases. J Neurooncol. ... Treatment of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with antineuronal antibodies (Anti-Hu, anti-Yo) with a combination of ... Cell-mediated autoimmunity in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with anti-Hu antibodies. Ann Neurol. 1999 Feb. 45(2):162-7 ...
Pan, Y., Yuhasz, S.C. and Amzel, L.M. (1995). Antiidiotypic antibodies: biological function and structural studies. The FASEB ... Murphy, W.J. and Longo, D.L. (2021). A Possible Role for Anti-idiotype Antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccination. New ... An antibodys outer surface is adorned with immunogenic regions, used to bind with antigens to neutralize them. Many complex ... This mimicking effect is so minute that the post-antigen antibodies are able to bind to the same targeted cell receptors that ...
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Medicin og biovidenskab 24% * Acids Medicin og biovidenskab 24% ... Drug Levels Associated with Optimal Discrimination Between Remission and Non-Remission and Comparison of Antibody Assays During ...
Idiotypic Analysis in MG. V. Summary. References. 19. Antiidiotypic Antibodies as Immunological Internal Images of Hormones. I ... Human Antiidiotypic Antibodies. I. Introduction. II. Auto-Antiidiotypic Antibodies. III. Antiidiotypic Antibodies against ... V. Interaction of Anti-Id Antibodies and T Cells. VI. Induction of Specific T Cells by Anti-Id Antibodies. VII. Detection of ... Interaction of Antiidiotypic Antibodies with Receptors. IV. Antiidiotypic Antireceptor Antibodies and Autoimmune Diseases. V. ...
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies 33% * EP1046: Using MEG to probe effects of pediatric ADS and MOG-Ab disease on functional networks ... Encephalitis patient-derived monoclonal GABAA receptor antibodies cause epileptic seizures. Kreye, J., Wright, S. K., van ... analyses reveal that reduced synaptic excitatory neurotransmission underlies seizures in a model of NMDAR antibody-mediated ...
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Medicine & Life Sciences 69% * Galactose Medicine & Life Sciences 63% ... Dive into the research topics of Different responses of human anti-HLA and anti-αgal antibody to long- term intravenous ... Different responses of human anti-HLA and anti-αgal antibody to long- term intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. / Bühler, L.; ... Different responses of human anti-HLA and anti-αgal antibody to long- term intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. In: ...
Therapeutic effect of anti-idiotype-specific CD4+ T cells against B-cell lymphoma in the absence of anti-idiotypic antibodies. ... Targeted DNA vaccines eliciting crossreactive anti-idiotypic antibody responses against human B cell malignancies in mice. ... The cellular mechanism by which complementary Id(+) and anti-Id antibodies communicate: T cells integrated into idiotypic ... The persistence of anti-Spike antibodies following two SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses in patients on immunosuppressive therapy ...
IVIg has many immunomodulatory activities including decreasing antibody production, anti-idiotypic antibodies, and neutralizing ... IgM antibodies are usually auto-antibodies and are not detrimental to the transplanted organ. Anti-human globulin (AHG) is now ... Anti-CD25 antibodies: Basiliximab is a humanized murine antibody with low immunogenicity which causes reversible blockade of ... Detection of HLA antibodies, panel reactive antibody (PRA) and donor specific antibodies (DSA): PRA is the quantification of ...
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Medicine & Life Sciences 45% * B-Lymphocytes Medicine & Life Sciences 41% ... N2 - The monoclonal antibody 4B4 is a human IgM,κ which expresses a cross-reactive lupus-associated idiotype and has anti-Sm ... AB - The monoclonal antibody 4B4 is a human IgM,κ which expresses a cross-reactive lupus-associated idiotype and has anti-Sm ... The monoclonal antibody 4B4 is a human IgM,κ which expresses a cross-reactive lupus-associated idiotype and has anti-Sm binding ...
... rs4760648 and antibody anti-dsDNA (p = 0.036). No association was reported between VDR polymorphisms and SLE susceptibility. ... rs4760648 and antibody anti-dsDNA (p = 0.036). No association was reported between VDR polymorphisms and SLE susceptibility.", ... rs4760648 and antibody anti-dsDNA (p = 0.036). No association was reported between VDR polymorphisms and SLE susceptibility. ... rs4760648 and antibody anti-dsDNA (p = 0.036). No association was reported between VDR polymorphisms and SLE susceptibility. ...
Antigen-Antibody Complex 97% * pexelizumab 91% * Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies 79% * Membrane Cofactor Protein 76% ... The Complement System and ANCA Associated Vasculitis in the Era of Anti-Complement Drugs. Kimoto, Y. & Horiuchi, T., Jun 23 ... Transmembrane TNF-α: Structure, function and interaction with anti-TNF agents. Horiuchi, T., Mitoma, H., Harashima, S. I., ...
Uses anti-idiotypic antibodies sourced from our vendor partner in the US, which ensures higher specificity, and low cross ...
Also disclosed are the use of these polypeptides for the production of polypeptide-specific antibodies and the diagnosis and ... and the polypeptide is capable of binding antibody in a specimen from an individual with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated ... Thus, the anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody could be used for immunization since the anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody binding ... An anti-idiotypic antibody is an antibody which recognizes unique determinants present on the monoclonal antibody produced by ...
Idiotypic analysis of lymphocytes in vitro. II. Genetic control of T-helper cell responsiveness to anti-idiotypic antibody ... Idiotypic analysis of anti-GAT antibodies. I. Presence of common idiotypic specificities in both responder and nonresponder ... I. Specificity and heterogeneity of B and T lymphocytes reactive with anti-idiotypic antibody ... Idiotypic analysis of antibodies to poly(Glu60Ala30Tyr10): interstrain and interspecies idiotypic crossreactions ...
... activation and differential signalling of the growth hormone receptor induced by pGH or anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies in ... Antibody (Capra aegagrus). Anti-human leptin receptor polyclonal antibody. R and D systems. AF497. Concentration (12.5 ng/uL). ... Antibody (Rattus norvegicus). anti-mouse CD16/CD32 monoclonal antibody (BD Fc Block). BD Bioscience. 553141. Dilution (1:200). ... antibody. eBioscience/ ThermoFisher. 17-9033-41. Dilution (1:40). Antibody (Mus musculus). Anti-human phospho-Stat5 monoclonal ...
... sequences of seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to GXM were determined. Rabbit anti-idiotypic serum was made to the previously ... conjugate vaccines and passive antibody therapy. To better understand the molecular basis of the antibody response, the heavy- ... Antibodies to the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) form the basis of two potential therapeutic ... The results confirm that the antibody response is highly restricted, suggest a close relationship between molecular structure ...
  • Use of monoclonal antibodies is an important domain of the mAb-- Fab part -- and for development in the search for new therapeutic some types mediate cytotoxicity with their Fc agents. (who.int)
  • Evolution of monoclonal antibodies structure and mechanism of action. (who.int)
  • To better understand the molecular basis of the antibody response, the heavy- and light-chain immunoglobulin variable region (VH and VL, respectively) sequences of seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to GXM were determined. (pasteur.fr)
  • The anti-idiotypic antibodies were studied using ELISA method and monoclonal antibodies against E2 and Pg as adsorbed antigens. (rusimmun.ru)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Development of anti-idiotypic antibodies to HLA antigens during pregnancy. (who.int)
  • They then attack the original, post-antigen antibodies, either confused as to their true identities or destroying them specifically to attack the neutralized antigens that they bear. (healthcanal.com)
  • This mimicking effect is so minute that the post-antigen antibodies are able to bind to the same targeted cell receptors that the antigens were aiming for in the first place. (healthcanal.com)
  • On top of this, the antigens' ability to hijack antibodies prevents them from being fully neutralized, as they're still able to continue binding to new, healthy cells from the surface of the antibody. (healthcanal.com)
  • Antibodies against the early antigens are present during acute EBV infection and then disappear as the virus enters a phase of latency. (justia.com)
  • Since antibodies to EA antigens are detected by immunofluoreseence assays, such antibodies cannot be detected in patients who possess antinuclear and anticytoplasmic antibodies as part of an autoimmune disease. (justia.com)
  • Idiotypic antibodies were studied in 402 HW and 475 BCP using ELISA technique, with BP, E2 and Pg conjugated with bovine serum albumin as adsorbed antigens. (rusimmun.ru)
  • These anti-idiotypic antibodies, capable of binding to therapeutic antibodies within biological fluids, are powerful tools for immunogenicity assays and PK/PD analysis during the development of therapeutic antibodies, allowing measurement of free or total drug levels in preclinical and clinical samples. (kinasebiotech.com)
  • In addition, they can also be used as positive controls in anti-drug antibodies (ADA) assays. (kinasebiotech.com)
  • For their drug and anti-drug antibody assays, they use anti-idiotypic antibodies, and the innovator drug as the standard calibrators for better specificity. (sanbio.nl)
  • Bio-Rad's four new antibodies will develop highly selective and sensitive assays for bioanalysis and drug monitoring of pertuzumab and its biosimilars. (pharmtech.com)
  • These ready-made antibodies are designed to inhibit the binding of the drug to its goal, human epidermal development tissue 2 (HER2), which enables researchers to develop selective assays for bioanalysis and monitoring of pertuzumab and its biosimilars. (pharmtech.com)
  • The new assays include monovalent form antibodies, which are appropriate for pharmacokinetic bridging enzyme-linked immunoassays. (pharmtech.com)
  • In addition, it was found that at least a fraction of alloantibodies share common idiotypic determinants with receptors on MLR-activated T-cell blasts. (rupress.org)
  • Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Myeloma proteins and populations of antibody molecules from individual donors possess unique antigenic (idiotypic) determinants (1-3). (aai.org)
  • It has been suggested, however, that certain idiotypic specificities might actually reflect the presence of unique antigenic determinants in certain subgroups of polypeptide chains, selected by the antigen (5). (aai.org)
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the anti-CADM-140 antibody was established using a recombinant CADM-140 antigen, and its specificity and sensitivity for C-ADM and rapidly progressive ILD were assessed in 294 patients with various connective tissue diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, our ELISA using recombinant MDA-5 protein makes detection of the anti-CADM-140 antibody routinely available. (nih.gov)
  • ELISA showed that the V H /V L heterodimer retained anti-Sm antibody activity. (elsevier.com)
  • ELISA showed that the VH/VL heterodimer retained anti-Sm antibody activity. (elsevier.com)
  • This method provides a procedure for generating an ADA ELISA standard curve with anti-ustekinumab antibody, product code HCA210 , using ustekinumab antibody for capture and detection. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The isolated anti-CRP nanobodies had affinity in the low nanomolar range and were suitable for ELISA and immunoprecipitation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Rat IgG F(ab')2 Fragment Peroxidase Conjugated reagents are ideal for ELISA, western blotting, Immunohistochemistry, as well as other antibody detection methods. (rockland.com)
  • Research specialists the world over rely on Green Mountain Antibodies for antibody sequencing, custom antibody production, antibody development, purification, characterization, and more. (greenmoab.com)
  • With the support of the team of specialized scientists, custom antibody discovery and engineering, phage display library construction, antibody humanization, and other solutions serve the clients in need of technical support. (getnews.info)
  • I. Binding of alloantigens and anti-idiotypic antibodies to the same receptors. (rupress.org)
  • In a different assay system, T-cell receptors were studied with anti-idiotypic sera. (rupress.org)
  • Finally, it was shown by competition experiments that the receptors on MLR-activated T-cell blasts that bind alloantigens were the same as those binding anti-idiotypic antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • Some of these were without any specific biological activity but others such as anti-insulin, anti-acetylcholine and anti-beta adrenergic receptor agonists have been found to have agonistic activity at the level of their specific receptors. (mun.ca)
  • Monoclonal antibody (mAb) technol- part, which binds and activates, complements ogy allows production of large amounts of and/or interacts with receptors on antigen- pure antibodies which are potentially more presenting cells. (who.int)
  • B cells: B-cell receptors, generally a form of IgM antibody, bind to foreign proteins. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Agonistic antibodies can work as agonists of the receptors. (getnews.info)
  • If this were the case nonspecific immunoglobulin populations would be expected to exhibit various idiotypic specificities in low concentrations. (aai.org)
  • The present experiments define upper limits for the concentrations of idiotypic specificities of mouse antihapten antibodies in normal IgG and in mouse antibodies of unrelated specificity. (aai.org)
  • These sera were tested for presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies by complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). (who.int)
  • Levels of PRA, anti-αGal IgG and IgM, and serum cytotoxicity to pig cells were measured before, during, and after therapy. (elsevier.com)
  • Anti-αGal antibody levels and serum cytotoxicity to pig aortic endothelial cells did not change significantly. (elsevier.com)
  • Antibody combining sites represent mirror images of their antigen epitopes. (mun.ca)
  • In MAbs 302 and 386, respectively, the VH uses VHGAM-like gene elements and JH2 and JH3 and has six and four codon D segments, and VL uses VK4/5-like gene elements and JK1.VH usage, MAb 2H1 idiotype expression, and fine specificity mapping define a minimum of three GXM epitopes which elicit protective antibodies. (pasteur.fr)
  • The results suggest that complex conformational epitopes might be difficult to be recreated by anti-idiotypic structures. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-ID antibody) specifically binds to the antigen-binding site of an antibody, which can be classified into Type I anti-ID (the target idiotope is within CDR), Type II anti-ID (the target idiotope is within FR), Type III anti-ID (partially blocks antigen-antibody interaction), and Type IV anti-ID (recognizes the idiotopes of both antibody and antigen). (getnews.info)
  • This agent inhibits chemotaxis of eosinophils and locomotion of neutrophils and impairs complement-dependent antigen-antibody reactions. (medscape.com)
  • The 4B4 idiotype was found predominantly on the V H . This report describes: (i) a method for producing recombinant immunoglobulin molecules from an IgM-secreting B cell line and (ii) the ability of recombinant antibody fragments expressed in Escherichia coli to retain the structural and antigenic properties of the native molecule. (elsevier.com)
  • This report describes: (i) a method for producing recombinant immunoglobulin molecules from an IgM-secreting B cell line and (ii) the ability of recombinant antibody fragments expressed in Escherichia coli to retain the structural and antigenic properties of the native molecule. (elsevier.com)
  • Creative Biolabs is a conscientious manufacturer and supplier of recombinant antibody products, which has been supplying multiple categories of antibody products to global clients to support their study on diseases and novel therapeutics. (getnews.info)
  • New York, USA - July 13, 2021 - The advanced hybridoma development and phage display platforms enable the production of the most comprehensive recombinant antibody products and the provision of an extensive portfolio of services at the most competitive price in the industry at Creative Biolabs. (getnews.info)
  • Research immunization of rabbits for antibody production online at Green Mountain Antibodies (greenmoab.com). (greenmoab.com)
  • The antibodies used to elicit antiidiotypic (anti-D) 2 antibodies were prepared in strain A/J mice by immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)- p -azophenylarsonate or KLH- p -azobenzoate (6). (aai.org)
  • Therefore, the immunization with anti-idiotypic antibodies of neutralizing antibodies might represent a safe vaccination strategy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-ID Abs) can bind to the idiotope of another antibody and are therefore antibody specific. (kinasebiotech.com)
  • Structural Determination of the Broadly Reactive Anti-IGHV1-69 Anti-idiotypic Antibody G6 and Its Idiotope. (umassmed.edu)
  • Gell and Kelus (4) first proposed that a given idiotypic specificity is characteristic of a clone of cells, i.e., of cells descended from a common precursor. (aai.org)
  • Neuronal surface antigen antibodies in limbic encephalitis: clinical-immunologic associations. (medscape.com)
  • CD4 T cells bind to class II MHC molecules, secrete cytokines to amplify inflammation, and provide help to induce cytotoxic T cells and antibody-producing B cells. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • CD4 T cells bind B cells, and via transmission of costimulatory signals (CD40 is an important example) induce B-cell differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells or into long-living memory B cells. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that chemically synthesized polypeptides corresponding to short linear segments of a protein's primary amino acid residue sequence can be used to induce antibodies that immunoreact with the native protein (Lerner, et al. (justia.com)
  • Vaccination against dengue virus is challenged by the fact that a generic immune response can induce antibody-dependent-enhancement (ADE) in secondary infections. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the second testing 10 women were found to have lost the cytotoxic antibodies. (who.int)
  • This CDC blocking factor could be the anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) directed against the cytotoxic anti-HLA antibody (Ab1). (who.int)
  • These agents are immunosuppressive and cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory agents. (medscape.com)
  • We're happy to speak with you over the phone or through email communication if you have questions about any of our products or services, such as antibody production, purification, characterization, and/or development. (greenmoab.com)
  • Schematic representation of the dual anti-idiotypic purification process to isolate a desired and properly paired BsAb (framed). (kinasebiotech.com)
  • Dual anti-idiotypic purification of a novel, native-format biparatopic anti-MET antibody with improved in vitro and in vivo efficacy. (kinasebiotech.com)
  • Anti-idiotypic antibodies and suppressor cells in patients receiving pretransplant donor-specific blood transfusions. (mcmaster.ca)
  • F1a(AKRaB6) sera could be made specific for (B6)AKR-T and (B6)(AKR X SJL)F1-T-cell blasts by absorption of contaminating antibodies with (SJL)AKR-T-cell blasts. (rupress.org)
  • Thirty one pregnant women whose sera were initially positive for anti HLA antibodies were retested for lymphocytotoxicity 7-9 months after delivery. (who.int)
  • In all ten sera tested, CDC blocking antibody was detected by inhibition technique at different dilutions. (who.int)
  • Selected cDNA clones were further evaluated by immunoprecipitation of their in vitro-transcribed and in vitro-translated products using anti-CADM-140 antibody-positive and anti-CADM-140 antibody-negative sera. (nih.gov)
  • The anti-CADM-140 antibodies in patients' sera specifically reacted with MDA-5 protein expressed in cells transfected with full-length MDA-5 cDNA, confirming the identity of MDA-5 as the CADM-140 autoantigen. (nih.gov)
  • Rabbit anti-idiotypic serum was made to the previously characterized murine MAb 2H1 and used to study MAb 2H1 idiotype expression in other GXM-binding MAbs and immune sera. (pasteur.fr)
  • Here, we aimed to elucidate the impact of diabetes on malignancies by analyzing anti-p53 antibody in sera of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. (ui.ac.id)
  • Conclusion: Our results showed that anti-p53 antibody almost not detected in healthy subjects, but 8.3-fold increase in the sera of T2DM patients and 24-fold increase in T2DM patients with cancer. (ui.ac.id)
  • Antibodies to the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) form the basis of two potential therapeutic intervention strategies, i.e., conjugate vaccines and passive antibody therapy. (pasteur.fr)
  • Anti-idiotype antibodies are expected to be used to better understand the efficacy of existing monoclonal therapeutics, to develop new therapeutic antibody candidates, and to evaluate biosimilars. (kinasebiotech.com)
  • The engineered antibodies greatly advance the research projects of global customers who are studying diseases and new therapeutic methods. (getnews.info)
  • Creative Biolabs provides agonistic antibody products against the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, such as CD27, CD40, and OX40 to support the research on therapeutic antibodies of agonism mechanism of action. (getnews.info)
  • We hypothesized that the existence of anti-angiogenic forms of VEGF VEGFxxxb which are still present in many tumors limit the therapeutic effects of the anti-VEGF antibodies bevacizumab/Avastin (BVZ). (oncotarget.com)
  • Because the autoimmune response to the antigen-laden antibodies strikes them down in the midst of their struggle against the virus, the oncoming second wave of antibodies might be disrupting the neutralization process. (healthcanal.com)
  • Concentrated human immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been administered intravenously in the treatment of autoimmune disorders and to reduce anti-HLA antibodies in highly sensitized patients awaiting organ transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore it would be desirable to have purified EA molecules to allow measurement of anti-EA antibodies in patients with autoimmune diseases and to more accurately quantitate anti-EA antibodies in other patients with acute or reactivated EBV. (justia.com)
  • Ameri M & Zhou E M. Idiotypes and anti-idiotypic antibodies: a review. (kinasebiotech.com)
  • Its etiological agent is thought to be an antibody with agonistic properties at the level of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor. (mun.ca)
  • The antibodies produced had agonistic effects at the level of the TSH receptor. (mun.ca)
  • Read real case studies about octet protein quantitation online at Green Mountain Antibodies, www.greenmoab.com, then get in touch with us to speak one-on-one with someone from our staff who can answer your questions. (greenmoab.com)
  • Using a monoclonal antibody directed against the EA-D protein, sufficient protein was purified to allow partial amino acid sequence determination and thus localization of the coding sequences. (justia.com)
  • The results confirm that the antibody response is highly restricted, suggest a close relationship between molecular structure and serological properties, and provide insight into protein structural motifs important for GXM binding. (pasteur.fr)
  • Only some antibodies targeting a quaternary epitope formed by the dimerization of the virus protein E possess sufficient neutralizing capacity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Additionally, there are human immunoglobulin G1 antibodies with various ranges of affinity, which can be used as a surrogate for constructive management. (pharmtech.com)
  • use only for anti-immunoglobulin antibodies such as anti- IGA antibodies, anti- IGG antibodies, etc.: coordinate IM with IMMUNOGLOBULIN A (IM), IMMUNOGLOBULIN G (IM), etc. (bvsalud.org)
  • The immune system does its best to eradicate whatever it finds using defensive cells called antibodies, and, oftentimes, that'll be the end of it. (healthcanal.com)
  • Isolation of alpaca anti-idiotypic heavy-chain single-domain antibody for the aflatoxin immunoassay. (cdc.gov)
  • The selection process of the anti-idiotypic candidates might be optimized by applying epitope mapping and modeling approaches aimed at identifying the key residues that is necessary to bind to trigger selective immune response. (bvsalud.org)
  • These experiments were possible thanks to a detection system that benefits from the capacity of anti-TSH in the regulation of receptor synthesis and turnover. (mun.ca)
  • It was also shown that these antibodies can be useful tools in the detection of receptor proteins and in the investigation of the hormone-receptor interaction. (mun.ca)
  • After washing and blocking with PBST+5% BSA, detection was performed using Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) at a concentration of 2 μg/ml and an HRP labeled anti-DYKDDDDK tag antibody in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) followed by QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • After washing and blocking with PBST+5% BSA, detection was performed using Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) titrated to the given concentrations in PBST followed by an HRP labeled anti-DYKDDDDK tag antibody in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) and QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Detection was performed using HRP conjugated Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody ( HCA301 ) at a concentration of 2 µg/ml in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) and QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Additional to the above-mentioned engineered antibody products, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) products and antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) products are also available at attractive prices. (getnews.info)
  • In addition, some studies have shown that synthetic polypeptides can immunoreact with antibodies induced by native proteins (Rhodes, et al. (justia.com)
  • However, the mice immunized with such constructs did not produce effective antibodies, despite at least some of them eliciting an immune response selective for the nanobody variable regions. (bvsalud.org)
  • It was demonstrated that the antibodies produced were true agonists at the TSH receptor level. (mun.ca)
  • It is likely that IVIG does not contain the relevant anti-HLA antibody, resulting in an accelerated catabolism of native alloantibodies. (elsevier.com)
  • Creative Biolabs is a leading biotech CRO that has been focusing on distributing research-use antibody products and other substances to support the projects from clients on a global basis. (getnews.info)
  • Dalakas MC, Fujii M, Li M, McElroy B. The clinical spectrum of anti-GAD antibody-positive patients with stiff-person syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of IVIG therapy on both acquired anti-HLA antibodies and natural antigalactose α1-3 galactose (αGal) antibodies in five patients awaiting heart transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • Five patients placed on mechanical circulatory support who had developed high HLA panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) or in whom the percentage of PRA was increasing rapidly were treated weekly with 500 mg/kg IVIG, which contained 1% of anti-αGal IgG. (elsevier.com)
  • The persistence of anti-Spike antibodies following two SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses in patients on immunosuppressive therapy compared to healthy controls-a prospective cohort study. (uio.no)
  • The anti-p53 antibody level was higher in T2DM with cancer risk patients. (ui.ac.id)
  • Bio-Rad Laboratories, a life science technology company, announced four new anti-pertuzumab antibodies on Jan. 31, 2022. (pharmtech.com)
  • Neutralizes circulating antibodies through anti-idiotypic antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • The reappearance of anti-EA antibodies signals viral reactivation and provides a clue to the possible role of this virus in diseases such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt's lymphoma. (justia.com)
  • At Green Mountain Antibodies, we specialize in the production of antibodies in immunoassays and offer a wide range of additional services and products. (greenmoab.com)
  • Green Mountain Antibodies can take on your polyclonal antibody production and deliver quality results in a short timeframe. (greenmoab.com)
  • As experts in monoclonal antibody development and production, our team from Green Mountain Antibodies is the ideal choice to work with when you need the best quality at an affordable price. (greenmoab.com)
  • You will find easy-to-understand information on Green Mountain Antibodies regarding antibody production steps we take to ensure we deliver exceptional results to our customers. (greenmoab.com)
  • No team is more experienced or knowledgeable in antibody development and production than Green Mountain Antibodies. (greenmoab.com)
  • Call our scientists from Green Mountain Antibodies to ask about antibody characterization techniques used in our development and production process. (greenmoab.com)
  • We encourage you to explore our online resources to better understand what we have to offer, then reach out to our team if you have any questions about products, antibody development, or customized antibody production services. (greenmoab.com)
  • Creative BioMart offers our extensive experience in the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies to maximize the chance to produce highly specific, sensitive and reproducible antibodies within a short period of time. (kinasebiotech.com)
  • Creative BioMart provides comprehensive and flexible custom anti-idiotypic antibody production services to meet the individual needs of our customers. (kinasebiotech.com)
  • The receptor itself has been thought to be the antigen responsible for the production of this antibody. (mun.ca)
  • This first antibody was later purified and used in the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies this time in rabbits. (mun.ca)
  • Also disclosed are the use of these polypeptides for the production of polypeptide-specific antibodies and the diagnosis and treatment of EBV-associated disease. (justia.com)
  • It inhibits antibody production. (medscape.com)
  • Nanobodies are good candidates to replace conventional antibodies in immunodiagnostics due to their inexpensive production, simple engineering, and the possibility to obtain higher binder density on capture surfaces. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bevacizumab (BVZ) a humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibody targeting VEGF has obtained FDA approval in combination with chemotherapy for colon, breast, lung and kidney cancers [ 1 - 4 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • In one woman who conceived a second time, repeat sample obtained at the 7th month of the second pregnancy showed reappearance of the specific anti-HLA antibody. (who.int)
  • However, the use clinical tests and also following use of a of antibodies to target structures and use them marketed product. (who.int)
  • The first monoclonal antibody products to be clinical investigation requires special consid- licensed were fully murine. (who.int)
  • We found an association between VDR SNPs and SLE for the following clinical manifestations: rs11168268 and cutaneous alterations (p = 0.036), rs3890733 (p = 0.003) rs3890733 and arthritis (p = 0.001), rs2248098 and immunological alterations (p = 0.040), rs4760648 and antibody anti-dsDNA (p = 0.036). (elsevier.com)
  • With various clinical and experimental applications, blocking antibody is receiving increasing attention in studies, which does not react with antigen when combining but prevents other combinations, playing a role in clinical uses that it can prevent the harmful substance from binding to the cell. (getnews.info)
  • The anti-p53 antibody was measured by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay, while HbA1c was measured using the NGSP standardized method. (ui.ac.id)
  • Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Peroxidase, anti- Rat IgG, anti-Rat IgG F(ab')2 and anti-Rat Serum. (rockland.com)
  • With this background, internal image anti-idiotypic antibodies have been tested by numerous groups of investigators in several biological systems. (mun.ca)
  • This work was designed to investigate the possibility of producing anti-TSH anti-idiotypic antibodies and to test their biological activities. (mun.ca)
  • A neutralizing antibody can block the infections through neutralizing or inhibiting the biological effect of the infectious agent, which is produced by the immune system as natural immune prevention. (getnews.info)
  • abstract = "The monoclonal antibody 4B4 is a human IgM,κ which expresses a cross-reactive lupus-associated idiotype and has anti-Sm binding activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The activity of the anti-TSH anti-idiotypic antibodies was tested in experiments in vitro. (mun.ca)
  • Anti-idiotypic antibodies specific for the combining site for the first antibody could exhibit similar tridimentional structure to that of the original epitope. (mun.ca)
  • It blocks purine synthesis and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), thus increasing anti-inflammatory adenosine concentration at sites of inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • A microtiter plate was coated overnight with Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Antibodies with activity specific for each of the subunits of TSH were individually capable of binding to thyroid plasma membranes. (mun.ca)
  • tion of specific antibodies. (who.int)