Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Symptom Assessment: Evaluation of manifestations of disease.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Tetanus ToxoidStress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Because these symptoms are so often seen in association with other diseases, these signs and symptoms are not part of the ... Subtypes of antinuclear antibodies include anti-Smith and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies (which are linked to SLE ... These antibodies clump into antibody-protein complexes which stick to surfaces and damage blood vessels in critical areas of ... Simplest classification tree: SLE is diagnosed if a person has an immunologic disorder (anti-DNA antibody, anti-Smith antibody ...
Paraneoplastic syndrome: neurological symptoms caused by antibodies associated with cancers[28]. *Rapid onset dystonia ... A wide range of causes may lead to this set of symptoms, including neurodegenerative conditions, drugs, toxins, metabolic ... About 7% of people with parkinsonism developed symptoms as a result of side effects of medications, mainly neuroleptic ...
Individuals with vasomotor rhinitis typically experience symptoms year-round, though symptoms may be exacerbated in the spring ... triggering antibody production. These antibodies mostly bind to mast cells, which contain histamine. When the mast cells are ... Symptoms of the common cold include rhinorrhea, sneezing, sore throat (pharyngitis), cough, congestion, and slight headache.[ ... Common symptoms are a stuffy nose, runny nose, sneezing, and post-nasal drip.[4] ...
The symptoms depend on the site of thrombosis. Tests of function[edit]. Bleeding time[edit]. Developed by Duke in 1910 and ... Activated platelets are able to participate in adaptive immunity, interacting with antibodies. They are able to specifically ... Signs and symptoms of disorders[edit]. Spontaneous and excessive bleeding can occur because of platelet disorders. This ...
In the 1990s and 2000s the roles of antibodies in the condition became more clear. SPS patients generally have GAD antibodies, ... It takes an average of six years after the onset of symptoms before the disease is diagnosed. There is no evidence-based ... It is also unknown whether these antibodies are pathogenic. The amount of GAD antibody titers found in SPS patients does not ... Most SPS patients with high-titer GAD antibodies also have antibodies that inhibit GABA-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP). ...
Thyroid antibodies can be present in some cases. The clinical presentation during the hyperthyroid phase can mimic those of ... This leads to symptoms and biochemistry of an overactive thyroid (feels hot, trembly, anxious, loses weight, fast heart rate, ... The symptoms are those of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. In addition, patients may suffer from painful dysphagia. There ... and thus in due course the patient comes to experience the symptoms of an underactive thyroid (feels cold, tired, depressed, ...
In the 1990s and 2000s the roles of antibodies in the condition became more clear. SPS patients generally have GAD antibodies, ... Signs and symptoms[edit]. Patients with stiff-person syndrome (SPS) suffer progressive stiffness in their truncal muscles,[2] ... It is also unknown whether these antibodies are pathogenic.[25] The amount of GAD antibody titers found in SPS patients does ... Most SPS patients with high-titer GAD antibodies also have antibodies that inhibit GABA-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP).[ ...
In the third trimester, the mother is more likely to have severe symptoms.[20] For pregnant women, antibodies produced as a ... An immunoassay measures the levels of antibodies against the virus that give immunity to a person. If the levels of antibodies ... The diagnosis of chickenpox is primarily based on the signs and symptoms, with typical early symptoms followed by a ... Other symptoms may include fever, tiredness, and headaches.[1] Symptoms usually last five to seven days.[1] Complications may ...
Serum IgM and IgG antibodies against HEV appear just before the onset of clinical symptoms. Recovery leads to virus clearance ... Recovery is also marked by disappearance of IgM antibodies and increase of levels of IgG antibodies.[7][20] ... Signs and symptoms[edit]. Acute infection[edit]. The average incubation period of hepatitis E is 40 days, ranging from 2 to 8 ... In terms of the diagnosis of hepatitis E, only a laboratory blood test that confirms the presence of HEV RNA or IgM antibodies ...
Symptoms Population affected Nerve conduction studies Antiganglioside antibodies Acute inflammatory demyelinating ... Signs and symptoms[edit]. The first symptoms of Guillain-Barré syndrome are numbness, tingling, and pain, alone or in ... the body produces antibodies of the IgA class; only a small proportion of people also produce IgG antibodies against bacterial ... An antibody targeted against the anti-GD3 antiganglioside antibody has shown benefit in laboratory research.[15] Given the role ...
Diagnosis may be difficult in patients in whom paraneoplastic antibodies cannot be detected. In the absence of these antibodies ... A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike ... Symptoms of PNDs may include difficulty with walking and balance, dizziness, rapid uncontrolled eye movements, difficulty ... In this scenario, the body may produce antibodies to fight off the tumor by directly binding and destroying the tumor cell. ...
Signs and symptoms[edit]. The symptoms of an infection depend on the type of disease. Some signs of infection affect the whole ... For example, the use of antibodies made artificially fluorescent (fluorescently labeled antibodies) can be directed to bind to ... Typical symptoms In general, viral infections are systemic. This means they involve many different parts of the body or more ... An acute infection is one in which symptoms develop rapidly; its course can either be rapid or protracted.[13] The next is a ...
Occasionally such antibodies block but do not activate the receptor, leading to symptoms associated with hypothyroidism.[77] In ... These antibodies activate the receptor, leading to development of a goitre and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as heat ... Symptoms[edit]. Hyperthyroidism[edit]. Main article: Hyperthyroidism. Excessive production of the thyroid hormones is called ... Thyroid nodules are often found on the gland, with a prevalence of 4-7%.[56] The majority of nodules do not cause any symptoms ...
First signs or symptoms can occur about three to six days after the initial tick bite, although it can have incubation periods ... Detection of viral antibodies on red blood cells is possible. No specific treatment for CTF is yet available. The first action ... During the second phase of the virus, a high fever can return with an increase in symptoms. CTF can be very severe in cases ... Initial symptoms include fever, chills, headaches, pain behind the eyes, light sensitivity, muscle pain, generalized malaise, ...
Signs and symptoms[edit]. The symptoms of an infection depends on the type of disease. Some signs of infection affect the whole ... For example, the use of antibodies made artificially fluorescent (fluorescently labeled antibodies) can be directed to bind to ... Typical symptoms In general, viral infections are systemic. This means they involve many different parts of the body or more ... The classic symptoms of a bacterial infection are localized redness, heat, swelling and pain. One of the hallmarks of a ...
Signs and symptoms[edit]. Filariasis such as loiasis most often consists of asymptomatic microfilaremia. Some patients can ... Seropositivity for antifilarial IgG antibody was also much higher in the placebo group. The recommended prophylactic dose is ... The only associated symptom in the Peace Corps study was nausea.[10][11] ... and many of recently developed methods of Antibody detection are of limited value-because substantial antigenic cross ...
Individuals with vasomotor rhinitis typically experience symptoms year-round, though symptoms may be exacerbated in the spring ... triggering antibody production. These antibodies mostly bind to mast cells, which contain histamine. When the mast cells are ... Common symptoms are a stuffy nose, runny nose, sneezing, and post-nasal drip. The inflammation is caused by viruses, bacteria, ... Symptoms of the common cold include rhinorrhea, sneezing, sore throat (pharyngitis), cough, congestion, and slight headache.[ ...
Herpesvirus-type-2 antibodies and carcinoma of the cervix. Rawls WE, Iwamoto K, Adam E, Melnick JL, Green GH. Lancet. 1970 Nov ... 28;2(7683):1142-3. Duration of symptoms and survival rates for invasive cervical cancer. Green GH. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. ...
Signs and symptoms[edit]. Main article: Symptoms and signs of Graves' disease ... Measuring TSH-receptor antibodies with the h-TBII assay has been proven efficient and was the most practical approach found in ... The German Karl Adolph von Basedow independently reported the same constellation of symptoms in 1840.[37][38] As a result, on ... These antibodies cause hyperthyroidism because they bind to the TSHr and chronically stimulate it. The TSHr is expressed on the ...
It is present in the sera of patients with viral hepatitis B (with or without clinical symptoms). Patients who developed ... These antigens are recognized by antibody proteins that bind specifically to one of these surface proteins. Today, these ... antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBsAg seroconversion) are usually considered non-infectious. HBsAg detection by immunoassay is ...
Signs and symptoms[edit]. Main article: Symptoms and signs of Graves' disease ... Measuring TSH-receptor antibodies with the h-TBII assay has been proven efficient and was the most practical approach found in ... The German Karl Adolph von Basedow independently reported the same constellation of symptoms in 1840.[35][36] As a result, on ... Symptoms. Enlarged thyroid, irritability, muscle weakness, sleeping problems, fast heartbeat, poor tolerance of heat[1]. ...
The most common symptom is difficulty breathing caused by enlargement of the thymus. Other symptoms include loss of appetite, ... Flow cytometry detects antibodies linked to tumour cell surface antigens in fluid samples or cell suspensions. Polymerase chain ... In older ferrets, lymphoma is usually chronic and can exhibit no symptoms for years. Symptoms seen are the same as in young ... Each stage is divided into either substage a, those without systemic symptoms; or substage b, those with systemic symptoms such ...
Anti-gliadin antibodies may precede or lag the appearance of coeliac disease. Studies in Scandinavia found an increase of ... These included gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia or other autoimmune disease. In addition IgG and IgA responses sometimes ... A subset of people with idiopathic neuropathies have only anti-gliadin antibodies but none of the other enteropathic criteria. ... there is conflicting evidence whether there is or is not an association between coeliac disease or auto-antibodies and epilepsy ...
Lack of symptoms can therefore make this disease easier to spread to other birds and to humans. In the saffron, it had ... antibodies made to fight against this disease. There is a lack of study concerning the toucanet in veterinary literature, so ... It has been reported in many species of wild birds; however, physical symptoms are not prevalent with this disease. ...
Eventually a clear connection was demonstrated between IgE antibodies and allergic symptoms. Johansson, Bennich and Wide then ... These IgE tests have been followed by tests for IgG and IgA antibodies, as well as other analytes with applications in asthma, ...
Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] ... If the diagnosis is in doubt antibody testing may be useful to confirm type 1 diabetes and C-peptide levels may be useful to ... Other symptoms may include loss of taste.[24] Many people, however, have no symptoms during the first few years and are ... Symptoms. Increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger[3]. Complications. Hyperosmolar ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on antiphospholipid antibody syndrome at PatientsLikeMe. 640 ... and Oxycodone to treat their antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and its symptoms. ... patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome experience fatigue, Pain, depressed mood, anxious mood, and insomnia and use ... 6 antiphospholipid antibody syndrome patients report mild stress (30%). * 2 antiphospholipid antibody syndrome patients report ...
Learn about the diverse effects antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) can have, from heart attack to miscarriage and how APS ... Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a fascinatingly complex disorder. It is an autoimmune disease, whereby the immune system ... Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome - Causes, Symptoms and Treatments. written by: niknak • edited by: Leigh A. Zaykoski • ... What is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS)?. One of the main targets of the immune response in APS is a protein called b( ...
... Nature News ^ , 5 August 2011 , Amy Maxmen Posted on 08/09/2011 10:53:23 AM PDT by ... The antibodies recognize a snippet of the protein called an epitope, and recruit the immune system to attack the bacterium. The ... And the symptoms could instead be indicative of chronic fatigue syndrome or depression. Now Armin Alaedini at Weill Cornell ... Epitope mapping of antibodies to VlsE protein of Borrelia burgdorferi in post-Lyme disease syndrome. Maybe its some progress. ...
... at BellaOnline ... In this article we explore the fact that unrelieved symptoms may be associated with thyroid antibody levels and not hormone ... Do you still have symptoms of hypothyroidism such as fatigue, brain fog, muscles aches or depression, despite being on ...
Find high antibodies information, treatments for high antibodies and high antibodies symptoms. ... MedHelps high antibodies Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for high antibodies. ... What do high Antibodies mean?(Thyroglobulin AND Thyroid Peroxidase) - Thyroid Disorders Community ... My wife has hypothyroid and high level of antibodies; doctors have said that this could be ... ...
Find HIV antibodies information, treatments for HIV antibodies and HIV antibodies symptoms. ... MedHelps HIV antibodies Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for HIV antibodies. ... In the next few days I will receive the results of a HIV-1 DNA RT- PCR With HIV Antibodies ... ... hi i had an unprotected sex 6 months ago,,and i had symptoms like swollen gland, rash on m... ...
... in the blood of people suffering from multiple sclerosis may appear much earlier than the onset of the disease and its symptoms ... A new study found that the antibodies found ... Blood in Stools - Symptom Evaluation. Blood in stools results ... Multiple Sclerosis Antibodies Appear in Blood Long Before Symptoms Appear. by Dr. Enozia Vakil on February 22, 2014 at 3:59 PM ... "Finding the disease before symptoms appear means we can better prepare to treat and possibly even prevent those symptoms. This ...
No antibodies? HIV symptoms. Apr 23, 2013. Hi, first off I just wanted to tell you Ive never had any serious life threatening ... All these symptoms are new to me or much worse from before I made my mistake. (Ex. much worse, I get headaches a lot more than ... Had ARS symptoms 4 weeks after, was sick for several days, high fever. Then sick at 6 weeks after with a high fever for several ... If these symptoms persist, then I would suggest working with your doctor to determine other possible causes. It is not HIV. I ...
More than twice as many people with optic neuritis taking the experimental drug saw nearly full recovery of their vision compared to those on a placebo.
We searched PubMed using a string of symptoms consistent with DRESS syndrome and monoclonal antibodies approved by the FDA ... or fully human antibodies-although fully human antibodies convey the least immunogenicity, adalimumab is capable of provoking ... Daclizumab, a monoclonal antibody approved on a "first in class" designation, indicating a novel mechanism of action, was ... Monoclonal antibodies constitute a potent and broadly tolerable drug class, representing for some conditions the first newly ...
Does antibiotic affect symptom and antibody test?. Oct 4, 2000. I was treated by antibiotics(3 weeks treatment) because of ... Did the antibiotic affect the symptom and the 27-day antibody test? ... Do I need to wait more than 3 months to take the antibody test? Please help and post!!!! ... Taking antibiotics will not have any effect on the results of an HIV-antibody test. ...
From what Ive read those are generic antibody tests - not specific to Celiac. Ive come acr... ... Testing For Antibodies By nomad4life, October 27, 2009. in Celiac Disease - Pre-Diagnosis, Testing & Symptoms ... Symptoms can change. It is one reason getting a diagnosis can be difficult. Chances are your gut has healed. But if you ... From what Ive read those are generic antibody tests - not specific to Celiac. Ive come across stories of positive / high ...
PubMed journal article Isolated positive anti-gliadin immunoglobin-A antibody in children with gastrointestinal symptom were ... "Isolated Positive Anti-gliadin immunoglobin-A Antibody in Children With Gastrointestinal Symptoms." The Turkish Journal of ... Isolated Positive Anti-gliadin immunoglobin-A Antibody in Children With Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2012; ... Isolated positive anti-gliadin immunoglobin-A antibody in children with gastrointestinal symptoms. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2012; ...
We confirmed the data from the literature, but no cutaneous sign, constitutional symptom or circulating antibody was found ... Anti-Jo-1 antibodies were found in 5% of patients with idiopathic dermatomyositis and low titre ANA in 1/3 of patients. ANA did ... 23897409 - Source activation of p300 correlates with negative symptom severity in patients with sc.... 16504689 - ... Dermatomyositis in 132 patients with different clinical subtypes: cutaneous signs, constitutional symptoms and circulating ...
Biomarkers of exposure, antibodies, and respiratory symptoms in workers heating polyurethane glue. ... Biomarkers of exposure, antibodies, and respiratory symptoms in workers heating polyurethane glue. ... P-MDX and U-MDX were associated with each other (r = 0.64; P = 0.0001), work related symptoms (P-MDX: P = 0.03; Mann-Whitney U ... and IgG antibodies directed against isocyanate conjugated to human serum albumin. RESULTS: The time weighted isocyanate ...
Antibodies that Cause Thyroid Diseases and Symptoms Immune Cells causing Hypothyroidism & Hyperthyroidism Paperback by James M ... CONTENTS: CHAPTER ONE: Facts about Thyroid Antibodies CHAPTER TWO: Do Thyroid Antibodies Cause Symptoms Apart From Abnormal ... Antibodies that Cause Thyroid Diseases and Symptoms: Immune Cells causing Hypothyroidism & Hyperthyroidism , Paperback. by ... My Own Experience with Thyroid Antibody Related Symptoms CHAPTER SEVEN: Autoimmune Hypothyroidism (Hashimotos) a Cause of ...
Temporal relationship between elevation of epstein-barr virus antibody titers and initial onset of neurological symptoms in ... Antibodies including IgA against EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA), and IgG against VCA, nuclear antigens (EBNA complex, EBNA-1, ... To determine whether antibodies to EBV are elevated before the onset of MS. ... Serial samples collected before the onset of symptoms were available for 69 matched case-control sets. ...
Whether the psychiatric symptoms in our patient represent a prodromal stage with the later manifestation of full-blown SLE or a ... Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With Isolated Psychiatric Symptoms and Antinuclear Antibody Detection in the Cerebrospinal Fluid. ... Whether the psychiatric symptoms in our patient represent a prodromal stage with the later manifestation of full-blown SLE or a ...
"Finding the disease before symptoms appear means we can better prepare to treat and possibly even prevent those symptoms. This ... Concentrations of the antibody varied at different time points during pre-MS in individual people. "The next step is to confirm ... Next, researchers looked at antibody levels in the blood at additional time points up to six years before and then after ... In the study, KIR4.1 antibodies were found in the people with pre-clinical MS several years before the first clinical attack. ...
Prevalence or incidence of diseases and medical conditions possibly causing symptom High antiphospholipid antibodies as a ... Symptoms: symptom center, symptom groups Related medical articles for symptom High antiphospholipid antibodies: *Symptom: High ... High antiphospholipid antibodies type of: Immune system symptoms (439 causes), Blood symptoms (2053 causes), Abnormal blood ... Symptoms related to High antiphospholipid antibodies: Miscarriage (116 causes), Threatened abortion, Stillbirth (106 causes), ...
The MERS S1 ELISA antibody titers correlated well with the neutralizing antibody response. Antibody titers in 4 of 6 patients ... Robust antibody responses were detected in all survivors who had severe disease; responses remained detectable, albeit with ... The duration of viral RNA detection (but not viral load) in sputum significantly correlated with the antibody response ... Obtaining convalescent-phase plasma with high antibody titers to treat MERS will be challenging. ...
... antibody that is found in the blood of people with MS may be present long before the onset of the disease and its symptoms. ... MS Symptoms May Be Predicted By Antibody Detected In Your Blood Years Before Warning Signs Appear. Feb 21, 2014 04:00 PM By ... Major symptoms sometimes disappear completely. In severe MS, though, symptoms become permanent and include partial or complete ... "Finding the disease before symptoms appear means we can better prepare to treat and possibly even prevent those symptoms," ...
Using the MAST chemiluminescent system, this study evaluated 36 IgG and 36 IgE antibody levels in 47 office workers from an ... Airborne fungi have been postulated as a cause of symptoms among office workers. ... The Relationship Between Symptoms and IgG and IgE Antibodies in an Office Environment R Malkin 1 , K Martinez, V Marinkovich, T ... The Relationship Between Symptoms and IgG and IgE Antibodies in an Office Environment R Malkin et al. Environ Res. 1998 Feb. . ...
Researchers encourage patients recovering from COVID-19 not to wait too long to donate plasma since antibodies disappear ... Antibodies Decrease With Time After COVID-19 Symptom Onset * Share on Facebook ... HealthDay News - Antibodies decrease with time after COVID-19 symptom onset, according to a research letter published online in ... Close more info about Antibodies Decrease With Time After COVID-19 Symptom Onset ...
... the use of anti-CCP antibodies in individuals with new non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms - a cohort study ... the use of anti-CCP antibodies in individuals with new non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms - a cohort study ... Methods In this prospective cohort study, individuals aged ≥18 years with new non-specific MSK symptoms, without CS, were ... Conclusions Selecting individuals with new non-specific MSK symptoms without CS enriched the prevalence of anti-CCP positivity ...
  • The strongest predictors of MS were serum levels of IgG antibodies to EBNA complex or EBNA-1. (nih.gov)
  • Their serum samples were collected at ≈6 months and ≈12 months after disease onset and used to investigate the long-term kinetics and duration of antibody responses that form the basis of this report. (cdc.gov)
  • A positive serum IgA endomysial antibody indicates the presence of gluten sensitivity, as is seen in individuals with celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and other gluten-sensitive disorders. (celiac.com)
  • Objective To determine the seroprevalence of Borrelia IgG antibodies in serum of young Swedish children and to relate it to gender, geographical location, reported tick bites, symptoms and previous treatment for LB. (bmj.com)
  • Serum samples were collected and a Borrelia specific ELISA test (Dako) were performed for IgG antibody detection. (bmj.com)
  • Previous tick bite had been noted in 66% of these seropositive children but the majority (94%) had not previously been treated for LB. In addition, another 55 children reported a history of LB but were negative to Borrelia IgG antibodies in serum. (bmj.com)
  • Very few of these seropositive children report previous symptoms or treatment for LB. Thus the findings suggest that exposure to the Borrelia spirochaete (with subsequent antibody response in serum) does occur in young children, mostly without giving rise to clinical LB. Future studies on cell-mediated immune responses are needed to investigate explanatory immunological mechanisms. (bmj.com)
  • Not only does having TPO antibodies present in your serum indicate you may have inflammation and autoimmunity present, but it also changes your management and treatment. (restartmed.com)
  • The immune response produces circulating antibodies that can be measured in the serum. (nps.org.au)
  • When testing for both IgG and IgM antibodies, and assuming a 5% prevalence of COVID-19 in the testing population, the FDA had rated the test's predictive value at 46.8% for returning an accurate positive result. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • This study comes just weeks after similar antibody prevalence testing by Stanford researchers took place in Santa Clara County, the raw results of which made a big splash in the news on Friday. (sfist.com)
  • That study found prevalence of 1.5 percent in the community, meaning that 1.5 percent of participants had been exposed to the virus likely without knowing it or showing serious symptoms - and researchers weighted the results to conclude that between 2.5 and 4.2 percent of county residents had had the virus. (sfist.com)
  • We included studies describing the psychiatric symptomatology of onconeural antibody positive patients and the prevalence of onconeural antibodies in patients with psychiatric disorders. (springer.com)
  • The available evidence suggests that the prevalence of well-characterized onconeural antibodies in patients with psychiatric disorders is generally low. (springer.com)
  • Health experts have begun using antibody tests to determine the prevalence, or rate, of COVID-19 in certain places. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • For the study, 16 healthy blood donors who were later diagnosed with MS were compared to 16 healthy blood donors of the same age and sex who did not develop MS. Scientists looked for a specific antibody to KIR4.1. (medindia.net)
  • An enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect IgG, IgM, and IgA antibody in urine to a crude antigenic mixture prepared from six arbitrarily chosen strains of common coliform urinary pathogens. (bmj.com)
  • In a group of patients with symptoms of urinary tract infection 24 of 80 (30%) urine samples were positive on culture by conventional methods, 58 of 80 (72.5%) were positive for polymorphs on microscopy, and 72 of 80 (90%) were positive for antibody by ELISA. (bmj.com)
  • Antibodies against P. gingivalis virulence factor arginine gingipainB (RgpB), and a citrullinated peptide (CPP3) derived from the P. gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase enzyme, were analysed by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibodies to oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were measured using ELISA in 71 children with CCP-positive JIA and 74 children with CCP-negative JIA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This finding suggests that patients with chronic symptoms have experienced a prolonged infection, caused by microbes that have evaded the immune system by varying the epitopes they carry. (freerepublic.com)
  • With any traditional vaccine, the idea is to get the immune system to generate antibodies that will recognize and attack a specific foreign invader, explained Rowena Johnston, vice president of research for amfAR, a nonprofit that supports HIV/AIDS research. (medicinenet.com)
  • But Hardy also pointed to the bigger picture: Now that researchers are learning which antibodies neutralize HIV, they may be able to "work backwards" to develop vaccines that spur the immune system to produce those antibodies. (medicinenet.com)
  • That's an indication that antibodies that the body's immune system makes against SARS-CoV-2 are killing viruses that get out of cells, Wendtner says. (sciencenews.org)
  • It is not exactly known why the body produces antibodies against itself, but in the case of APAS, the immune system produces antibodies that attack "phospholipids"- molecules that are the major component of cell membranes and the linings of our blood vessels. (bloodworkslab.com)
  • The hypothesis is that at least a subset of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients have an activated immune system involving B-lymphocytes, and that prolonged B-cell depletion may alleviate symptoms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A man can make sperm antibodies when his sperm come into contact with his immune system. (nkch.org)
  • They can be synthesized as chimeric, humanized, or fully human antibodies-although fully human antibodies convey the least immunogenicity, adalimumab is capable of provoking antidrug antibody responses in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • According to the Arthritis Foundation, rheumatoid arthritis affects about 1.5 million people in the U.S. Women develop RA two to three times more often than men, and symptoms in women tend to appear between the ages of 30 and 60, while symptoms often develop later in life for men. (rxlist.com)
  • In addition to these symptoms, muscle and joint stiffness of rheumatoid arthritis is usually worst in the morning or after extended periods of inactivity. (rxlist.com)
  • It seems like all of a sudden, everybody just decided that antibody tests are going to give them some grand answer," said Dr. Michael Osterholm, an infectious diseases expert at the University of Minnesota. (nytimes.com)
  • Researchers from the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) found that each of four HIV antibodies helped protect macaque monkeys from repeated exposure to a modified version of HIV, although some of the antibodies protected the animals longer than others. (medicinenet.com)
  • Many of the respiratory symptoms of heartworm in cats are almost indistinguishable from those of other respiratory diseases, like asthma and allergic bronchitis. (petmd.com)
  • For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. (nih.gov)
  • Related diseases are conditions that have similar signs and symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Antibiotics are routinely used to treat NTHi infections, but the increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the limited success of currently available pharmaceuticals used to manage the symptoms of these diseases present an urgent need for the development of nonantibiotic therapeutics. (genengnews.com)
  • The problem with APAS is that its symptoms can easily be mistaken for other diseases. (bloodworkslab.com)
  • Because these symptoms are so often seen in association with other diseases, these signs and symptoms are not part of the diagnostic criteria for SLE. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signs and symptoms of lymphoma are similar to those of illnesses such as viral diseases and the common cold, but they continue for longer than would normally be expected. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What other diseases/conditions shares some of these symptoms? (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a hypersensitivity condition easily missed due to its long incubation period and nonspecific presentation. (hindawi.com)
  • By screening human memory B cells from a large cohort of healthy elderly subjects, we generated a recombinant human monoclonal antibody (α-miSOD1) that selectively bound to misfolded SOD1, but not to physiological SOD1 dimers. (sciencemag.org)
  • My mother was recently told she has elevated cardiolipin antibodies. (healthlinkusa.com)
  • Once again if anyone could demystify what 'elevated cardiolipin antibodies' mean and what this implies regarding my mother's health it would be very much appreciated! (healthlinkusa.com)
  • The antibodies disappear rapidly, so people recovering from COVID-19 who want to donate blood plasma should not wait too long once they become eligible to donate," a coauthor said in a statement. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • A test for platelet-associated antibodies shows whether you have antibodies that are directed against platelets in your blood. (drugster.info)
  • Antiplatelet antibodies may appear in the blood for unknown reasons (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura), or as a side effect of certain drugs such as heparin. (drugster.info)
  • It is believed that this is caused by aPL antibodies sticking the blood vessel walls. (healthguideinfo.com)
  • This is probably because the aPL antibodies hinder the function of the placenta and so impair the blood supply to the foetus. (healthguideinfo.com)
  • The immune hemolytic anemias are classified according to the optimal temperature at which the antibodies act to destroy red blood cells. (rarediseases.org)
  • The antibodies activate other constituents of the blood (complement) causing changes in the red cell surface membrane that results in the breakdown of the outer membrane of the red blood cell and its removal from the circulation by macrophages. (rarediseases.org)
  • Additional symptoms and findings may include irritability, bizarre behavior, absence of menstrual cycles in affected females (amenorrhea), gastrointestinal complaints, low levels of circulating red blood cells (anemia), enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly), and/or persistent yellowing of the skin, mucuous membranes, and whites of the eyes (jaundice). (rarediseases.org)
  • People with antibodies to phospholipids (aPL) may have a very high risk of forming blood clots. (umm.edu)
  • Often, you will not need treatment if you do not have symptoms or if you have never had a blood clot in the past. (umm.edu)
  • These are the most common antibodies in blood and act especially against viruses and bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • They first studied blood samples from almost 700 test subjects aged between 18 und 88 with respect to the sugars attached to their IgG antibodies. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • therefore, patients may have very high concentrations of cold agglutinins, but these antibodies may be unable to hemolyze red blood cells (erythrocytes) at the warmer temperatures achieved in the bloodstream. (petmd.com)
  • Chronic symptoms appear such a reduced oxygen levels in the blood. (hubpages.com)
  • This test measures the level of TSH receptor antibody in the blood. (allhealth.com.au)
  • To measure the amount of TSH receptor antibody in the blood, a blood sample is taken from a vein on the forearm or hand. (allhealth.com.au)
  • Normally, there is no TSH receptor antibody in the blood. (allhealth.com.au)
  • If TSH receptor antibody is found in the blood, this usually indicates that the TSH receptor antibody is the cause of the of a person's hyperthyroidism. (allhealth.com.au)
  • The FDA revoked its emergency green light for a fingerstick COVID-19 antibody blood test developed by Chembio Diagnostic Systems following new concerns over the test's accuracy. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The move comes after the agency stepped up its oversight of blood-based antibody tests compared to the earlier stages of the pandemic, which had previously allowed manufacturers to distribute their tests without federal or independent review. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Neonatal sepsis will be assessed in the presence of clinical signs and symptoms and one blood culture positive for S. aureus or two blood cultures positive for Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Females tend to have a greater number of relapses , a low white blood cell count , more arthritis , Raynaud's phenomenon , and psychiatric symptoms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Case-finding by asking for CD-associated symptoms and/or conditions would have identified 52 cases (38% of all cases) at a cost of analyzing blood samples for 2282 children (37%) in the study population. (aappublications.org)
  • Because this condition affects your blood vessels, symptoms might occur in various parts of your body. (healthline.com)
  • Other early symptoms are only detectable through a blood test. (healthline.com)
  • If these antibodies are found in your blood sample, you may have SNV. (healthline.com)
  • Besides standard medical examination, the AHA blood levels were observed, including antinuclear antibodies, antiendothelial cell antibodies, anti-cardiomyocyte antibodies (AbC), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), and cardiac conducting tissue antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • Rituximab is a widely used B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody. (scoop.it)
  • Approved amendment (December 2011): for patients with gradual improvement in CFS/ME symptoms after 12 months follow-up, but not having reached a clear response, up to 6 additional Rituximab infusions (500 mg/m2, max 1000 mg) may be given during the following 12 months period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Understanding this process is of great interest to researchers, because the identity of the sugar that is attached (in a process called glycosylation) dramatically influences the function of the antibody. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Back in 2007, researchers discovered that there was a form of immune encephalitis that affects specific brain receptor functions and triggers symptoms, such as paranoia and hearing voices, that are associated with bipolar disorder and with schizophrenia as well. (scoop.it)
  • There, researchers will use a combination of at least two different antibody tests to look at the samples, in order to minimize the risk of a faulty test skewing the results. (ctvnews.ca)
  • The Kansas City Fire Department , working with researchers at the University of Miami and the University of Missouri-Kansas City , hoped this week to begin offering antibody testing to its 1,300 firefighters and paramedics. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • In contrast, the α-miSOD1 antibody did not bind to its epitope in most of the 41 postmortem spinal cord sections from non-neurological control (NNC) patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • These findings suggest that the intrabody reduces the specific neurotoxicity of cytoplasmic mutant huntingtin and its associated neurological symptoms by preventing the accumulation of mutant huntingtin in neuronal processes and promoting its clearance in the cytoplasm. (rupress.org)
  • This intrabody, when expressed in neurons, reduces the cytotoxicity of N-terminal mutant htt and decreases both the formation of neuropil aggregates and the neurological symptoms of HD mice. (rupress.org)
  • Using the MAST chemiluminescent system, this study evaluated 36 IgG and 36 IgE antibody levels in 47 office workers from an area with elevated airborne fungal concentrations and 44 office workers from an otherwise similar area with lower airborne fungal exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-Jo-1 antibodies were found in 5% of patients with idiopathic dermatomyositis and low titre ANA in 1/3 of patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • No association was found between cytomegalovirus antibodies and MS. (nih.gov)
  • No difference was found in IgG antibody to fungi between the lower and higher exposure areas, but high IgG antibody to one or more of the fungi studied was detected in 67% of all the workers tested. (nih.gov)
  • The FDA said the internal data submitted by Chembio had met its authorization standard, however an independent evaluation of the antibody test's performance by the National Cancer Institute found its positive results to be much less accurate. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • I recently found a neurologist that took her symptoms serioiusly and after doing the cunningham panel she immediately started her on Azithromycin 500mg. (latitudes.org)
  • Two cerebrospinal fluid studies found well-characterized onconeural antibodies in 3.5% and 0% of patients with psychotic and depressive syndromes, respectively. (springer.com)
  • The higher the level of antibody-affected sperm found in the semen, the lower the chance of the sperm fertilizing an egg. (nkch.org)
  • Direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) assay has been found to be prone to false-positive results ( 6 ), and although serodiagnosis can be sensitive and specific ( 20 ), its requirement of a convalescent-phase specimen makes serology of minimal clinical utility. (asm.org)
  • The duration of viral RNA detection (but not viral load) in sputum significantly correlated with the antibody response magnitude. (cdc.gov)
  • On September 29, 2020, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: REGN) announced the first data from a descriptive analysis of a seamless Phase 1/2/3 trial of its investigational antibody cocktail REGN-COV2, showing it reduced viral load and the time to alleviate symptoms in non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19. (bioquicknews.com)
  • After months of incredibly hard work by our talented team, we are extremely gratified to see that Regeneron's antibody cocktail REGN-COV2 rapidly reduced viral load and associated symptoms in infected COVID-19 patients," said George D. Yancopoulos, MD, PhD, President and Chief Scientific Officer of Regeneron. (bioquicknews.com)
  • These populations could be identified serologically by the presence (seropositive) or absence (seronegative) of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and/or by high viral loads at baseline. (bioquicknews.com)
  • The kinetics of the serologic responses during the acute phase have already been reported, and they showed that robust but delayed antibody responses could be detected in patients who were more severely ill ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We report the results of a 1-year follow-up on the antibody responses in 11 of these patients. (cdc.gov)
  • have now developed a human antibody derived from a cohort of healthy elderly individuals that specifically recognizes abnormal SOD1 in postmortem spinal cord tissue from patients with ALS. (sciencemag.org)
  • On postmortem spinal cord sections from 121 patients with ALS, α-miSOD1 antibody identified misfolded SOD1 in a majority of cases, regardless of their SOD1 genotype. (sciencemag.org)
  • The patients were also assessed with questionnaires about depression, anxiety and self-rated symptoms before medication was started and after 36 weeks. (figshare.com)
  • These patients were less likely to clear the virus on their own, and were at greater risk for prolonged symptoms. (bioquicknews.com)
  • In the untreated (placebo) patients, seropositive patients had a median time to alleviation of symptoms of 7 days, compared to seronegative patients who had a median time to alleviation of symptoms of 13 days. (bioquicknews.com)
  • In addition to the hallmark symptoms of swollen, painful, and stiff joints and muscles, patients with RA may also experience other symptoms. (rxlist.com)
  • antibodies as a prognostic marker in early breast cancer patients. (docphin.com)
  • Patients with intracellular onconeural antibodies may present with neuro-psychiatric syndromes. (springer.com)
  • We aimed to evaluate the evidence for an association between well-characterized onconeural antibodies and psychiatric symptoms in patients with and without paraneoplastic central nervous system syndromes. (springer.com)
  • However, the question whether onconeural antibodies are important in select patients with a purely psychiatric phenotype needs to be addressed by appropriately designed studies in the future. (springer.com)
  • On a visual analog scale, patients were significantly worse with gluten within 1 week for overall symptoms (P=0.047), pain (P=0.016), bloating (P=0.031), satisfaction with stool consistency (P=0.024), and tiredness (P=0.001). (nih.gov)
  • Here, we combined the use of Aβ-rich aqueous extracts of brain samples from AD patients as a source of human Aβ and live-cell imaging of iPSC-derived human neurons to develop a bioassay capable of quantifying the relative protective effects of multiple anti-Aβ antibodies. (nature.com)
  • Described herein are methods and systems for the detection of anti-vinculin antibodies, for determining a presence or likely presence of a gastrointestinal. (patents.com)
  • 9. A method of detecting contamination of a shrimp allergen according to any one of claim 6, wherein the method of detecting the presence or absence of one of the shrimp collagen and the polypeptide fragment thereof in the extract is an immunological detection means using an anti-shrimp allergen antibody, the anti-shrimp allergen antibody recognizing one of the shrimp collagen and the polypeptide fragment thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We evaluated PCR product detection by using either agarose gel electrophoresis (PCR-gel) or dot blot hybridization with 32 P-labeled oligonucleotide probes, and we compared these methods to both culture and direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) assays with microscopy for the detection of pertussis. (asm.org)
  • We generated an intracellular antibody (intrabody) whose binding to a unique epitope of human huntingtin is enhanced by polyglutamine expansion. (rupress.org)
  • The damaged cells will no longer be able to take up iodine in order to manufacture further supplies of thyroid hormone, and thus in due course the patient comes to experience the symptoms of an underactive thyroid (feels cold, tired, depressed, gains weight, dry skin and hair) with low free T3 and free T4, and eventually increased TSH. (wikipedia.org)