Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HemocyaninFluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tetanus ToxoidAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (1/15913)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor antibody inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat carotid arteries. (2/15913)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been suggested to promote atherogenesis. The effects of in vivo neutralization of MCP-1 in a rat model were examined in an effort to clarify the role of MCP-1 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed maximum MCP-1 mRNA expression at 4 hours after carotid arterial injury. Increased immunoreactivities of MCP-1 were also detected at 2 and 8 hours after injury. Either anti-MCP-1 antibody or nonimmunized goat IgG (10 mg/kg) was then administered every 12 hours to rats that had undergone carotid arterial injury. Treatment with 3 consecutive doses of anti-MCP-1 antibody within 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours for 5 days (experiment 2) significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at day 14, resulting in a 27.8% reduction of the mean intima/media ratio (P<0.05) in experiment 1 and a 43.6% reduction (P<0.01) in experiment 2. This effect was still apparent at day 56 (55.6% inhibition; P<0.05). The number of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima at day 4 was significantly reduced by anti-MCP-1 treatment, demonstrating the important role of MCP-1 in early neointimal lesion formation. However, recombinant MCP-1 did not stimulate chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro migration assay. These results suggest that MCP-1 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in early neointimal lesion formation and that neutralization of MCP-1 before, and immediately after, arterial injury may be effective in preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the promotion of neointimal hyperplasia by MCP-1.  (+info)

The amyloid precursor protein interacts with Go heterotrimeric protein within a cell compartment specialized in signal transduction. (3/15913)

The function of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP), a transmembrane molecule involved in Alzheimer pathologies, is poorly understood. We recently reported the presence of a fraction of betaAPP in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipid-enriched microdomains (CSEM), a caveolae-like compartment specialized in signal transduction. To investigate whether betaAPP actually interferes with cell signaling, we reexamined the interaction between betaAPP and Go GTPase. In strong contrast with results obtained with reconstituted phospholipid vesicles (Okamoto et al., 1995), we find that incubating total neuronal membranes with 22C11, an antibody that recognizes an N-terminal betaAPP epitope, reduces high-affinity Go GTPase activity. This inhibition is specific of Galphao and is reproduced, in the absence of 22C11, by the addition of the betaAPP C-terminal domain but not by two distinct mutated betaAPP C-terminal domains that do not bind Galphao. This inhibition of Galphao GTPase activity by either 22C11 or wild-type betaAPP cytoplasmic domain suggests that intracellular interactions between betaAPP and Galphao could be regulated by extracellular signals. To verify whether this interaction is preserved in CSEM, we first used biochemical, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural techniques to unambiguously confirm the colocalization of Galphao and betaAPP in CSEM. We show that inhibition of basal Galphao GTPase activity also occurs within CSEM and correlates with the coimmunoprecipitation of Galphao and betaAPP. The regulation of Galphao GTPase activity by betaAPP in a compartment specialized in signaling may have important consequences for our understanding of the physiopathological functions of betaAPP.  (+info)

Identification of the Kv2.1 K+ channel as a major component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. (4/15913)

Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of a large family of voltage-gated K+ channel genes expressed in mammalian brain. This molecular diversity underlies the vast repertoire of neuronal K+ channels that regulate action potential conduction and neurotransmitter release and that are essential to the control of neuronal excitability. However, the specific contribution of individual K+ channel gene products to these neuronal K+ currents is poorly understood. We have shown previously, using an antibody, "KC, " specific for the Kv2.1 K+ channel alpha-subunit, the high-level expression of Kv2.1 protein in hippocampal neurons in situ and in culture. Here we show that KC is a potent blocker of K+ currents expressed in cells transfected with the Kv2.1 cDNA, but not of currents expressed in cells transfected with other highly related K+ channel alpha-subunit cDNAs. KC also blocks the majority of the slowly inactivating outward current in cultured hippocampal neurons, although antibodies to two other K+ channel alpha-subunits known to be expressed in these cells did not exhibit blocking effects. In all cases the blocking effects of KC were eliminated by previous incubation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the KC antigenic sequence. Together these studies show that Kv2.1, which is expressed at high levels in most mammalian central neurons, is a major contributor to the delayed rectifier K+ current in hippocampal neurons and that the KC antibody is a powerful tool for the elucidation of the role of the Kv2.1 K+ channel in regulating neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Differential expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its downregulation by axotomy. (5/15913)

Sensitivity to the pungent vanilloid, capsaicin, defines a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are mainly polymodal nociceptors. The recently cloned vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) is activated by capsaicin and noxious heat. Using combined in situ hybridization and histochemical methods, we have characterized in sensory ganglia the expression of VR1 mRNA. We show that this receptor is almost exclusively expressed by neurofilament-negative small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion cells. Within this population, VR1 mRNA is detected at widely varying levels in both the NGF receptor (trkA)-positive, peptide-producing cells that elicit neurogenic inflammation and the functionally less characterized glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-responsive cells that bind lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4). Cells without detectable levels of VR1 mRNA are found in both classes. A subpopulation of the IB4-binding cells that produce somatostatin has relatively low levels of VR1 mRNA. A previously uncharacterized population of very small cells that express the receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) and that do not label for trkA or IB4-binding has the highest relative levels of VR1 mRNA. The majority of small visceral sensory neurons of the nodose ganglion also express VR1 mRNA, in conjunction with the BDNF receptor trkB but not trkA. Axotomy results in the downregulation of VR1 mRNA in dorsal root ganglion cells. Our data emphasize the heterogeneity of VR1 mRNA expression by subclasses of small sensory neurons, and this may result in their differential sensitivity to chemical and noxious heat stimuli. Our results also indicate that peripherally derived trophic factors may regulate levels of VR1 mRNA.  (+info)

Antiphospholipid, anti-beta 2-glycoprotein-I and anti-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome. (6/15913)

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta 2-GPI) and anti-oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antibodies are all implicated in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome. To investigate whether different autoantibodies or combinations thereof produced distinct effects related to their antigenic specificities, we examined the frequencies of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-related features in the presence of different antibodies [aPL, beta 2-GPI, anti-oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL)] in 125 patients with APS. Median follow-up was 72 months: 58 patients were diagnosed as primary APS and 67 as APS plus systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-beta 2-GPI and anti-oxidized LDL antibodies were determined by ELISA; lupus anticoagulant (LA) by standard coagulometric methods. Univariate analysis showed that patients positive for anti-beta 2-GPI had a higher risk of recurrent thrombotic events (OR = 3.64, 95% CI, p = 0.01) and pregnancy loss (OR = 2.99, 95% CI, p = 0.004). Patients positive for anti-oxidized LDL antibodies had a 2.24-fold increase in the risk of arterial thrombosis (2.24, 95% CI, p = 0.03) and lower risk of thrombocytopenia (OR = 0.41 95% CI, p = 0.04). Patients positive for aCL antibodies had a higher risk of pregnancy loss (OR = 4.62 95% CI, p = 0.001). When these data were tested by multivariate logistic regression, the association between anti-beta 2-GPI and pregnancy loss and the negative association between anti-oxidized LDL antibodies and thrombocytopenia disappeared.  (+info)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (7/15913)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

Characterization of ZO-2 as a MAGUK family member associated with tight as well as adherens junctions with a binding affinity to occludin and alpha catenin. (8/15913)

ZO-2, a member of the MAGUK family, was thought to be specific for tight junctions (TJs) in contrast to ZO-1, another MAGUK family member, which is localized at TJs and adherens junctions (AJs) in epithelial and nonepithelial cells, respectively. Mouse ZO-2 cDNA was isolated, and a specific polyclonal antibody was generated using corresponding synthetic peptides as antigens. Immunofluorescence microscopy with this polyclonal antibody revealed that, similarly to ZO-1, in addition to TJs in epithelial cells, ZO-2 was also concentrated at AJs in nonepithelial cells such as fibroblasts and cardiac muscle cells lacking TJs. When NH2-terminal dlg-like and COOH-terminal non-dlg-like domains of ZO-2 (N-ZO-2 and C-ZO-2, respectively) were separately introduced into cultured cells, N-ZO-2 was colocalized with endogenous ZO-1/ZO-2, i.e. at TJs in epithelial cells and at AJs in non-epithelial cells, whereas C-ZO-2 was distributed along actin filaments. Consistently, occludin as well as alpha catenin directly bound to N-ZO-2 as well as the NH2-terminal dlg-like portion of ZO-1 (N-ZO-1) in vitro. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the second PDZ domain of ZO-2 was directly associated with N-ZO-1. These findings indicated that ZO-2 forms a complex with ZO-1/occludin or ZO-1/alpha catenin to establish TJ or AJ domains, respectively.  (+info)

*Autoantibody

Antibodies are produced by B cells in two ways: (i) randomly, and (ii) in response to a foreign protein or substance within the ... The Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is often ordered first. ANA is a marker of the autoimmune process - it is positive with a ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the ... Initially, one B cell produces one specific kind of antibody. In either case, the B cell is allowed to proliferate or is killed ...

*CD154

The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. Early evidence for ... As a result of this stimulation, the B cell can undergo rapid cellular division to form a germinal center where antibody ... Randolph Noelle at Dartmouth Medical School generated an antibody that bound a 39 kDa protein on murine T cells and inhibited ... Seth Lederman at Columbia University generated a murine monoclonal antibody, 5c8 that inhibited contact-dependent T cell helper ...

*Monoclonal antibody therapy

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules. Typically when the ADC meets the target ... Four major antibody types that have been developed are murine, chimeric, humanised and human. Antibodies of each type are ... Initial therapeutic antibodies were murine analogues (suffix -omab). These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to ... Murine antibodies in vitro are thereby transformed into fully human antibodies. The heavy and light chains of human IgG ...

*Trifunctional antibody

... antibody as well as pure mouse and pure rat antibody. The trifunctional antibody is extracted chromatographically with protein ... A trifunctional antibody is a monoclonal antibody with binding sites for two different antigens, typically CD3 and a tumor ... Trifunctional antibodies were the first type of bispecific monoclonal antibodies to be produced. The first concepts date back ... 2006). "Phase I trial of the trifunctional antibody anti-HER2/neu x anti-CD3 antibody ertumaxomab in metastatic breast cancer ...

*Antisperm antibodies

... are antibodies produced against sperm antigens. Antisperm antibodies (ASA) are immunoglobulins of IgG, IgA ... Many prostitutes (40-45%) are positive for antisperm antibodies. Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men ... However, these antibodies are also present in approximately 1-2.5 % of fertile men and in 4 % of fertile women; the presence of ... Cui, D; Han, G; Shang, Y; Liu, C; Xia, L; Li, L; Yi, S (15 April 2015). "Antisperm antibodies in infertile men and their effect ...

*Antiganglioside antibodies

These antibodies were first found to react with cerebellar cells. These antibodies show highest association with certain forms ... In vivo studies of isolated anti-GM1 and GD3 antibodies indicate the antibodies can interfere with motor neuron function. Anti- ... Antibodies to a GM1 epitope as well as to one with the GT1a or GD3 epitope were found in different strains of Campylobacter ... In multiple sclerosis, antibodies to GM1 are dominated by the IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4. Also anti-GM1 IgG has been identified in ...

*Polyclonal antibodies

... (pAbs) are antibodies that are secreted by different B cell lineages within the body (whereas monoclonal ... By contrast, monoclonal antibodies are derived from a single cell line Many methodologies exist for polyclonal antibody ... serum antibodies. However, polyclonal antibodies in mice can be collected from ascites fluid using any one of a number of ... Antibodies are currently also being produced from isolation of human B-lymphocytes to produce specific recombinant monoclonal ...

*Natural antibodies

See Antibody#Natural antibodies are produced by the body, in contrast to administrated exogenously. Mahla, Ranjeet Singh. " ... Natural antibodies may refer to antibodies that: are produced without any previous infection, vaccination, other foreign ... Generation of diverse class of antibodies starts during organism development even before birth. Functionally antibodies are not ... In case of auto immune disease these natural antibodies functions deregulates that hampers the proper functioning of immune ...

*Chlamydia antibodies

... are antibodies targeting bacteria of the Chlamydia genus, but it generally refers specifically to ... Testing for Chlamydia antibodies is not the mainstay diagnostic tool for Chlamydia infection, which is preferentially diagnosed ... testing for Chlamydia antibodies is a cost-effective screening device in detecting fallopian tube pathology, as it is often ... "Chlamydia antibody testing and diagnosing tubal pathology in subfertile women: An individual patient data meta-analysis". Human ...

*Anti-centromere antibodies

... are found in approximately 60% of patients with limited systemic scleroderma and in 15% of those ... Anti-centromere antibodies present early in the course of disease and are notably predictive of limited cutaneous involvement ... Anti-centromere antibodies (ACAs; often styled solid, anticentromere) are autoantibodies specific to centromere and kinetochore ... The specificity of this test is >98%. Thus, a positive anti-centromere antibody finding is strongly suggestive of limited ...

*Anti-p62 antibodies

... (AP62A) are found in a primary biliary cirrhosis. The p62 protein is also more frequent in Stage IV primary ... Invernizzi P, Selmi C, Ranftler C, Podda M, Wesierska-Gadek J (2005). "Antinuclear antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis". ... 2003). "Profile and clinical significance of anti-nuclear envelope antibodies found in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis ...

*Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

They are also referred to as anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibody (anti-topo I). Anti Scl-70 antibodies (also called anti- ... Scl-70 antibodies are associated with more severe scleroderma disease. Anti-topoisomerase antibodies can be classified ... and serum antibody levels in systemic sclerosis patients with anti-topoisomerase I antibody". Arthritis Rheum. 56 (8): 2740-6. ... Since this activity occurs in the nucleus of the cell ATA is a form of anti-nuclear antibody. Scleroderma results from the ...

*Anti-actin antibodies

In gastric cancer anti-actin antibodies were elevated, along with other antibodies in severe disease with poor outcomes. It has ... Anti-actin antibodies (AAA) are found at increased frequency in certain autoimmune diseases and may be of some diagnostic value ... Ballot E, Homberg JC, Johanet C (2000). "Antibodies to soluble liver antigen: an additional marker in type 1 auto-immune ... In coeliac disease anti-actin antibodies correlated with the level of intestinal damage. In autoimmune hepatitis anti-actin ...

*Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies

In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein H (AAHA) antibodies, also called anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies, comprise a ... These antibodies are involved in sclerosis and are strongly associated with thrombotic forms of lupus. As a result AAHA are ... However, antiphospholipid antibodies bind phospholipids at sites similar to sites bound by anti-coagulants such as PAP1 sites ... HLA-DR7 may also be associated with these antibodies and the common haplotype association is the HLA-DR53 serotype. Viard JP, ...

*Anti-transglutaminase antibodies

... (ATA) are autoantibodies against the transglutaminase protein. Antibodies serve an important ... Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase (tTG) Antibodies Also Found in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Tg6 Antibody Plays a Key Role in Celiac- ... The antibodies to tissue transglutaminase follow a complex pathway of generation. For most antigens, T-cells specific to those ... Antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (abbreviated as anti-tTG or anti-TG2) are found in patients with several conditions, ...

*Anti-gliadin antibodies

Clinically these antibodies and IgG antibodies to gliadin are abbreviated as AGA. The IgG antibody is similar to AGA IgA, but ... Anti-gliadin antibodies are frequently found with anti-transglutaminase antibodies. The IgE antibodies are more typically found ... removal of gluten results in the benign circulation of antibodies. The half life of these antibodies is typically 120 days. ... This antibody is found in ~80% of patients with coeliac disease. It is directed against the alpha/beta and gamma (α,β,γ) ...

*Anti-sp100 antibodies

... are found in association with primary biliary cirrhosis. The autoimmune target of anti-sp100 is the sp100 ...

*Anti-cardiolipin antibodies

They are a form of anti-mitochondrial antibody. In SLE, anti-DNA antibodies and anti-cardiolipin antibodies may be present ... Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases, including ... Only a subset of autoimmune anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind Apo-H, these anti-apolipoprotein antibodies are associated with ... Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be classified in two ways: As IgM, IgG or IgA As β2-glycoprotein dependent or independent In ...

*Anti-thrombin antibodies

... can react with both types of thrombin in the antithrombin-thrombin complex. Antibodies (IgG) against ... Other than antibodies to thrombin, antibodies to vascular heparin sulfate appear to interfere with antithrombin-thrombin ... Inhibitory anti-thrombin antibodies can be divided into 2 groups, those that inhibit coagulation activity and those the inhibit ... Anti-thrombin antibodies are autoantibodies directed against thrombin that may constitute a fraction of lupus anticoagulant and ...

*Anti-histone antibodies

... are autoantibodies that are a subset of the anti-nuclear antibody family. They are found in 50%-70% of ... An ELISA for detecting anti-histone antibodies is said to be positive when there is more than 25 units/ml anti-histone ... antibodies in a blood sample. Muller, Sylviane (2014). Chapter 23 - Histone Autoantibodies, In Autoantibodies (Third ed.). San ...

*Anti-dsDNA antibodies

... are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) the target antigen of which is double stranded DNA. Blood ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies might also be created secondary to the production of antibodies to other proteins within the nucleosome. ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies can be present in normal individuals, however these antibodies are usually low avidity IgM isotype. In ... Serum is incubated with the beads and in the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies, or any other ANA, the antibodies will bind and ...

*Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies

... are monoclonal antibodies engineered so that the oligosaccharides in the Fc region of the ... When antibodies are afucosylated the effect is to increase antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Most approved ... ADCC is important in the efficacy of cancer antibodies, but with many approved cancer antibodies there is less ADCC that could ... Satoh M, Iida S, Shitara K. "Non-fucosylated therapeutic antibodies as next-generation therapeutic antibodies". Expert Opin ...

*Primary and secondary antibodies

Secondary antibody is especially efficient in immunolabeling. Secondary antibodies bind to primary antibodies, which are ... Then, the secondary antibody's Fab domain binds to the primary antibody's Fc domain. Since the Fc domain is constant within the ... Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or ... Secondary antibodies help increase sensitivity and signal amplification due to multiple secondary antibodies binding to a ...

*Anti-Scl-70 antibodies

Anti Scl-70 antibodies are associated with more severe scleroderma disease. The etymology of scl-70 consists of an abbreviation ... Anti-Scl-70 (also called anti-topoisomerase I after the type I topoisomerase target) is an anti-topoisomerase antibody-type of ... de Rooij DJ, Van de Putte LB, Habets WJ, Van Venrooij WJ (1989). "Marker antibodies in scleroderma and polymyositis: clinical ... of the antibodies. Guldner HH, Szostecki C, Vosberg HP, Lakomek HJ, Penner E, Bautz FA (1986). "Scl 70 autoantibodies from ...

*Anti-glutamate receptor antibodies

Antibodies against the NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor were described by Josep Dalmau, Erdem Tüzün and ... Additionally, antibodies to the mGluR1 subunit of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 have been shown in a small group of ... Anti-glutamate receptor antibodies are autoantibodies detected in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples of a variety of ... So far, these antibodies appear to be associated with an accompanying ovarian or mediastinal teratoma expressing NMDA receptors ...
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Fusion Antibodies Ltd (Fusion Antibodies) is a contract research organization which offers contract services in the production of monoclonal antibodies. The organization also offers antibody sequencing, antibody engineering and humanization, antibody expression and others. It offers a wide range of services in the pre-clinical antibody drug discovery and development space. Fusion Antibodies provides services such as royalty free antibody humanization, antibody chimerization, recombinant protein expression, monoclonal antibody production, stable cell line development and biosimilar development, among others. Fusion Antibodies caters its services to pharmaceutical companies, government agencies and universities around the world. Fusion Antibodies is headquartered in Belfast, the UK.. Fusion Antibodies Ltd-Pharmaceuticals & Healthcare-Deals and Alliances Profile provides you comprehensive data and trend analysis of the companys Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As), partnerships and financings. The ...
Come to the European Antibody Congress 2011 and learn: * How to leverage key issues affecting the shifting global antibodies market * New advances in understanding structure-function relationships in therapeutic antibodies * How to improve efficacy and drugability of monoclonal antibodies * Effective identification of monoclonal antibodies against new targets * How to improve MAb production scale-up, process transfer and comparability * How Antibody Drug Conjugates are on the increase in therapeutic areas * How new scaffolds and technologies are being incorporated in the production of antibodies * Next generation antibodies, including Biosimilars and Biobetters * Novel antibody therapy approaches * How Bispecific antibodies are fuelling the biotech engine The European Antibody Congress 2011 focuses on: * Diverse viewpoints from global Pharma and Biotech, on the most important developments in antibody development and discovery today * Exploring the novel technologies that are redefining the ...
BROOKWOOD BIOMEDICAL is a full service antibody development company in Birmingham, Alabama. We offer a range of services including custom peptide design, custom monoclonal antibody and hybridoma development, custom polyclonal antibody development, antibody production, purification, conjugation, and assay design.. In addition to our custom services, we have a wide selection of high quality primary and secondary antibodies. Our primary antibodies include anti-collagen, anti-apolipoprotein antibodies, fluorescent amplification, transcription factor antibodies, and anti-leptin antibodies. We offer a number of different secondary antibodies including anti-monkey and anti-hamster. All of our secondaries are affinity purified and are sold either unlabeled or labeled with Biotin, HRP, Alkaline Phosphatase, Phycoerytherin, Texas Red, FITC, TRITC, APC, or Agarose. Also, F(ab) and F(ab)2 digests of all antibodies are available.. To place an order, please fill out an order form and email to ...
The invention provides a method for detecting the presence of anti-therapeutic antibody antibodies in a patient being treated with a therapeutic antibody. In one aspect of the invention, the invention is implemented by the following steps: (i) providing a first therapeutic antibody having a molecular tag attached thereto by a cleavable linkage, the molecular tag having one or more predetermined separation characteristics; (ii) providing a second therapeutic antibody having a cleavage-inducing moiety attached thereto, the cleavage-inducing moiety having an effective proximity; (iii) combining in an assay mixture the sample, the first therapeutic antibody, and the second therapeutic antibody under condition such that the first and second therapeutic antibodies form a complex with an anti-therapeutic antibody wherein the cleavable linkage of the first therapeutic antibody is within the effective proximity of the cleavage-inducing moiety of the second therapeutic antibody and molecular tags are released;
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The monoclonal Anti-His antibody facilitates the fast and convenient detection of His-tagged fusion proteins, expressed in either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. The conjugated antibody allows fast and convenient analysis of His-tagged fusion proteins. Conjugation of the Anti-His antibody to HRP simplifies Western blot or ELISA analysis as the incubation with secondary antibodies becomes dispensable. Fluorochorme-conjugated Anti-His antibodies enable direct flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy analyses, while indirect fluorescent labeling of His fusion protein expressing cells is possible with the biotin-conjugated antibody. After incubation the Anti-His-HRP antibody can be directly detected using commercially available chemiluminescent reagents. The monoclonal Anti-His antibody specifically recognizes proteins that contain a polyhistidine tag at their N- and C-terminus. However, the Anti-His-HRP (C-term.) antibody shows higher sensitivity and specificity for C-terminal His-tagged proteins. -
Recombinant antibody engineering involves the use of viruses or yeast to create antibodies, rather than using mice. Advances in molecular biology have lead to the ability to synthesize antibodies de novo in vitro - completely without the use of animals.. These techniques rely on rapid cloning of immunoglobulin gene segments to create libraries of antibodies with slightly different amino acid sequences from which antibodies with desired specificities can be selected. Recombinant antibodies are translated from recombinant DNA and displayed on the surfaces of cells or phage particles. In 1990 John McCafferty demonstrated that variable regions from antibodies could be displayed on the surface of a filamentous phage. In 1990 John McCafferty demonstrated that variable regions from antibodies could be displayed on the surface of a filamentous phage. Since then, various antibody display platforms using yeast, bacteria, mammalian cells, and ribosomes have been developed. General production methods for ...
The Antibody Resource Page (http://www.antibodyresource.com/) is an invaluable website to researchers and educators. Here is just some of what can be found on the page: 1. How to Find an Antibody - a variety of ways on and off the web to find the antibody you are looking for. There are links to free search engines that allow you to search a multitude of companies for the specific antibody you need. 2. Online Companies - links to over 110 companies that sell antibodies or antibody related products. Is your company listed on this page? 3. Antibody Image Gallery - animated antibody pictures are available 4. Bulletin Board - Have a question? Then stop by and post a message. 5. Educational Resources - a variety of new links have been added.There are links to pages on immunochemistry, antibody production, autoimmunity, vaccines, immunology and much more. This page is divided up into sections on research, educational, and health resources. 6. The latest in antibody news - Get up-to-date, ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also known as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. In simple terms, in ELISA, an unknown amount of antigen is affixed to a surface, and then a specific antibody is applied over the surface so that it can bind to the antigen. This antibody is linked to an enzyme, and in the final step a substance is added that the enzyme can convert to some detectable signal, most commonly a colour change in a chemical substrate.. If an immunogen is injected into an animal, a number of cells will bind that antigen, so the antibody which appears in the bloodstream. The antibodies will have arisen from several clones of cells and are different, so the antibody in bloodstream is a polyclonal antibody. Polyclonal antibody contain different antibodies bind to different antigen. ...
Rockland Immunochemicals specializing in Akt Signaling Antibodies Antibody, Custom Assay Development, Custom Antibody Production, Loading Control Antibodies, DyLight Dye Conjugated Antibodies, Secondary Antibody Conjugates, Custom Monoclonal Antibody Production, Anti-GFP Green Fluorescent Protein, Multiplex Fluorescent Western Blotting Assay, Akt PI3 Kinase Signaling Antibodies, Western Blot Blocking Buffer, Streptavidin Peroxidase HRP ELISA, DyLight Dye Immuno fluorescence microscopy, NFkB p65 Antibody, High Content Screen Assay. Rockland Immunochemicals has supported the life science industry for over 40 years with a full range of the highest quality primary and secondary antibodies, fusion proteins, substrates, standards, and controls for basic research, assay development, and preclinical studies.
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OBJECTIVE: To search for antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. METHODS: Using immunoprecipitation from neuronal cultures and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified antibodies against the α1 subunit of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) in a patient whose immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies bound to hippocampal neurons. We searched 2,548 sera for antibodies binding to GABAAR α, β, and γ subunits on live HEK293 cells and identified the class, subclass, and GABAAR subunit specificities of the positive samples. RESULTS: GABAAR-Abs were identified in 40 of 2,046 (2%) referred sera previously found negative for neuronal antibodies, in 5/502 (1%) previously positive for other neuronal surface antibodies, but not in 92 healthy individuals. The antibodies in 40% bound to either the α1 (9/45, 20%) or the γ2 subunits (9/45, 20%) and were of IgG1 (94%) or IgG3 (6%) subclass. The remaining 60% had lower antibody titers (p = 0.0005), which were mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p = 0.0025),
Secondary antibodies are polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies that bind to primary antibodies or antibody fragments, such as the Fc or Fab regions. They are typically labeled with probes that make them useful for detection, purification or sorting applications. Genways polyclonal secondary antibodies are produced from the serum of host animals such as mouse, rabbit, goat and sheep, whereas, monoclonal secondary antibodies are produced from mouse hybridoma clones. Secondary antibodies are used in many applications including IP, ELISA, WB, IHC, FC, and cell based assays.
Immunoprecipitation and immunobloting with different antibodies - posted in Immunology: I used one rabbit polyclonal antibody and one mouse monoclonal antibody to IP the same protein from cell lysate. Then use these two antibodies to detect the IP product. Both of the two antibodies worked well for immunobloting of the total cell lysate--a clear band at the position of the proteins MW. However, only IP/IB with the same antibody worked. That means, I could use Rabbit Ab to IB the IP pr...
Updated WWWsite: The Antibody Resource Page The Antibody Resource Page has been recently updated. The page will be invaluable to researchers and educators alike. Here is just some of what can be found on the page: 1. How to Find an Antibody - a variety of ways on and off the web to find the antibody you are looking for. 2. Online Companies - links to over 110 companies that sell antibodies or antibody related products. Is your company listed on this page? 3. Antibody Image Gallery - some animated gifs have recently been added 4. Bulletin Board - Have a question or have an answer? Then stop by and post a message. 5. Educational Resources - a variety of new links have been added. There are links to pages on immunochemistry, antibody production, autoimmunity, vaccines, immunology and much more. This page is divided up into sections on research, educational, and health resources. ...and there is much more. Check it out at: http://www.antibodyresource.com/ Ps. Don t forget to visit our sponsors, ...
Following exposure to HIV and HCV, there is a window period where a person is infected with the virus but does not produce antibodies at a high enough level so they can be detected by antibody detection test methods. During this time, the person is capable of unknowingly transmitting the virus to others. SMARTstim (SMARTube)is a blood sample additive which pre-treats blood, stimulating antibody production in vitro so as to bring it to detectable levels using ELISA (or any other antibody test method). Accelerated antibody production allows antibody detection in specimens that would otherwise be below the detectable limit of antibody test kits. Plasma samples from blood pretreated with SMARTstim are referred to as SMARTplasma.. A total of 1,600 blood samples will be collected and tested using an ELISA for HIV and HCV using FDA-approved test kits. The populations include:. ...
Following exposure to HIV and HCV, there is a window period where a person is infected with the virus but does not produce antibodies at a high enough level so they can be detected by antibody detection test methods. During this time, the person is capable of unknowingly transmitting the virus to others. SMARTstim (SMARTube)is a blood sample additive which pre-treats blood, stimulating antibody production in vitro so as to bring it to detectable levels using ELISA (or any other antibody test method). Accelerated antibody production allows antibody detection in specimens that would otherwise be below the detectable limit of antibody test kits. Plasma samples from blood pretreated with SMARTstim are referred to as SMARTplasma.. A total of 1,600 blood samples will be collected and tested using an ELISA for HIV and HCV using FDA-approved test kits. The populations include:. ...
Buy anti-A Cyclase I antibody, Rabbit anti-Human, Mouse A Cyclase I Polyclonal Antibody (MBS2535635) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), ELISA (EIA)
Buy anti-A Cyclase I antibody, Rabbit anti-Human, Mouse A Cyclase I Polyclonal Antibody (MBS2535635) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), ELISA (EIA)
Observing the evolution of a particular type of antibody in an infected HIV-1 patient, a study spearheaded by Duke University, including analysis from Los Alamos National Laboratory, has provided insights that will enable vaccination strategies that mimic the actual antibody development within the body. The kind of antibody studied is called a broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibody, and details of its generation could provide a blueprint for effective vaccination, according to the studys authors. In a paper published online in Nature this week, the team reported on the isolation, evolution and structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody from an African donor followed from the time of infection. The observations trace the co-evolution of the virus and antibodies, ultimately leading to the development of a strain of the potent antibodies in this subject, and they could provide insights into strategies to elicit similar antibodies by vaccination.
Buy polyclonal and monoclonal GRO alpha antibodies from AntibodyPlus, a Boston (USA)-based antibody vendor. Free trial antibodies are available.|Replacement of Santa Cruz antibodies
Synonyms for antibodies in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for antibodies. 21 words related to antibody: active site, protein, autoantibody, precipitin, ABO antibodies, Rh antibody, antitoxin, agglutinin, Forssman antibody.... What are synonyms for antibodies?
Synonyms for antititin antibody in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for antititin antibody. 21 words related to antibody: active site, protein, autoantibody, precipitin, ABO antibodies, Rh antibody, antitoxin, agglutinin, Forssman antibody.... What are synonyms for antititin antibody?
100 µg RANTES Antibody 1 mg, 100 µg WNT1 Antibody 1 mg, 1, 1 mg, 100 µg IDO Antibody 0, 100 µg TNFR1 Antibody 0, ml, 100 µg LBP Antibody (Monoclonal, 100 µg SAA Antibody (Monoclonal, 100 µg IBA1 Antibody (Monoclonal
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It is possible to produce a humanized antibody without creating a chimeric intermediate. "Direct" creation of a humanized antibody can be accomplished by inserting the appropriate CDR coding segments (responsible for the desired binding properties) into a human antibody "scaffold". As discussed above, this is achieved through recombinant DNA methods using an appropriate vector[3] and expression in mammalian cells. That is, after an antibody is developed to have the desired properties in a mouse (or other non-human), the DNA coding for that antibody can be isolated, cloned into a vector and sequenced. The DNA sequence corresponding to the antibody CDRs can then be determined. Once the precise sequence of the desired CDRs are known, a strategy can be devised for inserting these sequences appropriately into a construct containing the DNA for a human antibody variant.[10][11] The strategy may also employ synthesis of linear DNA fragments based on the reading of CDR sequences.. Alemtuzumab is an ...
Dissolve the lyophilized antibody in 100 μl of distilled water (final concentration: 2.0 mg/ml). This solution can be used as a stock solution. If further dilution is required, use the noted dilution solution just prior to use. When the entire amount of antibody is to be used over a short time period, it may be dissolved directly in 500 μl or more of the noted dilution solution.. Note (1) : Be sure to store the antibody at a minimum concentration of 2.0 mg/ml. A lower antibody concentration may result in decreased stability.. Note (2) : Reconstituted antibody solution should contain 0.1% sodium azide as a preservative when stored at 4°C. ...
Dissolve the lyophilized antibody in 100 μl of distilled water (final concentration: 2.0 mg/ml). This solution can be used as a stock solution. If further dilution is required, use the noted dilution solution just prior to use. When the entire amount of antibody is to be used over a short time period, it may be dissolved directly in 500 μl or more of the noted dilution solution.. Note (1) : Be sure to store the antibody at a minimum concentration of 2.0 mg/ml. A lower antibody concentration may result in decreased stability.. Note (2) : Reconstituted antibody solution should contain 0.1% sodium azide as a preservative when stored at 4°C. ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-PI 3-kinase p85alpha antibody (STJ95076). From Abcams OEM supplier St Johns Laboratory, validated in WB, IHC, ELISA. AntibodyPlus provides trial size antibody samples for antibody validation. Replacement to Abcam, Santa Cruz, Sigma and CST antibody.
MAP1S Antibody (Center), Peptide Affinity Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in WB, IHC-P, FC, E (AP5769c), Abgent
PDE3B Antibody (Center), Peptide Affinity Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in WB, IF, FC, E (AP12018c), Abgent
often used as a critical component of a non-animal laboratory test; for example, in immunoserology tests used to diagnose many diseases.. The response of animals to an injection of an antigen is the same as that of humans to a vaccine; that is, they produce antibodies. Virtually any laboratory animal species can be used to produce antibodies. The choice of species often relates to the properties of the antigen. Animals are given a series of injections of an antigen preparation, usually after a pre-immunization blood sample has been collected to be sure the animal does not already have antibodies that may complicate the study. About three weeks after the series of injections, blood is again collected, and the serum is evaluated for the presence of antibody. If the level of antibody is not adequate for research purposes, additional antigen injections, or boosters, are given. The serum antibody can be stored in a freezer for years, thus providing an ongoing supply of the needed experimental ...
The DNA that encodes antibodies can be manipulated in vitro and reintroduced into lymphoid cell lines. In this way, lymphocyte transfectants can be established which secrete milligram quantities of novel antibody molecules. Here we present data concerning the DNA sequences that are needed for efficient expression of the transfected antibody gene and give examples of the way in which this expression system for immunoglobulin gene DNA can be used for the production of useful antibody-related molecules. ...
KIAA1644 Antibody (N-term), Peptide Affinity Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in IHC-P, WB, E (AP10426a), Abcepta
Antibodies are used in multiple cell biology applications, but there are no standardized methods to assess antibody quality-an absence that risks data integrity and reproducibility. We describe a mass spectrometry-based standard operating procedure for scoring immunoprecipitation antibody quality. We quantified the abundance of all the proteins in immunoprecipitates of 1,124 new recombinant antibodies for 152 chromatin-related human proteins by comparing normalized spectral abundance factors from the target antigen with those of all other proteins. We validated the performance of the standard operating procedure in blinded studies in five independent laboratories. Antibodies for which the target antigen or a member of its known protein complex was the most abundant protein were classified as IP gold standard. This method generates quantitative outputs that can be stored and archived in public databases, and it represents a step toward a platform for community benchmarking of antibody ...
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Purpose: : BVES is a transmembrane protein that regulates tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) formation. Furthermore, disruption of BVES level induces phenotypic changes in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells that are associated with increased wound healing. These observations led us to postulate that antibodies blocking BVES will induce increased corneal healing. Methods: : Rabbit polyclonal antibodies (Y666) against BVES extracellular region (aa 3-16) were generated. Cultured HCE cells and organ cultured mouse eyes were employed to determine the effects of these antibodies on cell adhesion (immunofluorescent staining), RhoA activation (Elisa assay), and mouse model corneal wound healing. Results: : The immunofluorescent staining on confluent HCE cells for BVES with Y666 reveals a cell membrane pattern of distribution, similar to staining with intracellular domain BVES antibodies (846). Furthermore, Y666 is capable of binding to BVES in live HCE cells. Following antibody treatment ...
Our body has a unique method to fight aggressor foreign micro-organisms when they enter our body.. When any virus, fungus, or bacterium enters our body and starts meddling with our system, our body triggers this mechanism. As a result, our body immune system creates antibodies specific to that foreign substance.. They are basically proteins but all antibodies are not the same.. Bacteria, fungi, or viruses contain character specific proteins called antigens. Antigens are also found on non-living micro-particles such as toxins, snake venoms, pollen, bacterial toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. That marks them apart from each other.. After the antibodies are created, the second step is triggered by our defense system. Now there is a fight between the newly generated antibodies and the interfering antigens. This goes on till our body is clear of all antigens or the antigens completely overwhelm the antibodies. But, complete surrender of the antibodies is an ideal condition.. The ...
With the Antibody Dynamics platform, investigators have access to technologies that allow the interrogation of the biophysical and functional properties of antibody isotypes and subclasses to a variety of global health diseases. These properties can lead to the identification of correlates of protection, which is essential for enabling product development and licensure of highly efficacious vaccines. Moreover, characterization of antibody responses can enable a greater understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of immune protection, leading to further innovations in therapeutic and prevention strategies to improve human health.. The Antibody Dynamics platform uses customizable, antigen-specific binding, avidity, and functional assays in a GCLP-compliant environment to profile biophysical and functional antibody responses to infection and vaccination. Profiling is available for all antibody isotypes and subclasses and for several global health diseases, including malaria, TB, hepatitis B, ...
Welcome to Biosensis, providing quality life-science reagents that work. We specialise in antibodies for Neuroscience, Stem Cells and Autophagy research, and have a growing range of antibodies that have proved valuable in the study of Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases, Immunology and Obesity.. In addition to antibodies, we have a wide range of ELISA kits that are ideal for the quantification of target antigens in tissue extracts, serum and cell culture.. Founded and run by researchers, our staff understand the issues faced by scientists at the bench. That is why we only offer antibodies that have been tested under real experimental conditions. Our staff and advisors have many years of experience in the manufacture and use of antibodies for a wide range of techniques including western blot, immunohistochemistry, FACS analysis, real time imaging with confocal microscopy, biological inhibition and antibody cloning. With a combined 340+ peer reviewed research publications, Biosensis staff are ...
A recombinant antibody is an antibody made through the use of recombinant DNA technology by inserting a fragment of DNA into a yeast, virus, or bacterium. The resulting recombinant organism will express the antibody even if it is from a different species. A researcher can harvest the antibodies for medical experimentation and research. It is…
Antibodies are a vital part of our immune system. These proteins bind to specific antigen proteins on the surface of foreign bodies such as bacteria and viruses in order to neutralize or disarm them. Since each antigen has a different shape, it requires a different antibody to attach to it. By tailoring antibodies to attach to proteins responsible for specific diseases, pharmaceutical companies seek to develop drugs that minimise side-effects caused by antibodies binding to the wrong targets. Researchers at Boehringer have been studying a molecule in an antibody and they found that it was unusually compact as a single crystal. The next step was to obtain structural information of the molecule in solution.. ...
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I am trying to establish a basic antibody panel to be used in mouse FFPE spleen but have seen very poor results. Has anybody had any success conjugating their own antibodies from established clones in-house and using them on mouse FFPE sections? So far some of the antibody clones we have tried include CD4 (H129.19), CD19 (6D5), CD8 (4SM15), F4/80 (Cl:A3) all produced poor results with minimal signal from the CD8 antibody. Our group has had good success conjugating CyTOF antibody clones and using them in frozen mouse tissues so I dont believe its a problem our max- par conjugation procedures. We have also run human FFPE samples using antibodies bought from Fluidigm and had good success as well ...
This database contains information about antibodies relevant to the study of Alzheimers disease and related neurodegenerative diseases. Commercially available antibodies as well as those from academic labs and other private sources are included. Please note, this database is not comprehensive, and inclusion does not necessarily mean that an antibody is currently available. To learn about current availability of a specific antibody, please contact the source directly. Questions? Contact us at [email protected] ...
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Natural antibodies (NAbs) circulate in normal individuals in the absence of exogenous antigenic stimulation. In the mouse NAbs derive mainly from B-1 cells, a distinct B-cell subset found in the peritoneal and pleural cavities as well as the spleen. In contrast with B-2 cells, B-1 cells are positively selected against self-antigens. The repertoire of B-1 cell derived natural antibodies is characterized by a preferential usage of germline-encoded VH and VL genes, which lack N-region additions and is evolutionarily selected due to their importance for organisms survival and homeostasis. The natural antibody population rapidly recognizes and protects against pathogens that have not been encountered previously. On the other hand NAbs cross-react with several self-antigens and besides their role as first line defense against pathogens, it has been demonstrated they perform important
Storage of Membrane before addition of primary antibody - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: Hi! Im not sure how and how long it is possible to store a PVDF membane after protein transfer but before addition of the primary antibody. The problem is that Ive ordered a new antibody and delivery will take some days. So is it possible to do the blot/transfer in advance, store the membrane and then add the primary antibody few days later? If yes, what are the best storage co...
Insights into the IgG heavy chain engineering patent landscape as applied to IgG4 antibody development. In this new Perspective, Dumet et al., present the results from their study of the patent landscape of IgG4 Fc engineering, i.e., patents claiming modifications in the heavy chain. Thirty-seven relevant patent families were identified, comprising hundreds of IgG4 Fc variants focusing on removal of residual effector functions (since IgG4s bind to FcγRI and weakly to other FcγRs), half-life enhancement and IgG4 stability. Given the number of expired or soon to expire major patents in those 3 areas, companies developing blocking antibodies now have, or will in the near future, access to free tools to design silenced, half-life extended and stable IgG4 antibodies.. Antibody discovery and engineering by enhanced CRISPR-Cas9 integration of variable gene cassette libraries in mammalian cells. Parola et al. describe an antibody engineering and screening approach where complete variable light (VL) ...
For antibodies both the amine and carboxylate groups are plentiful. For this reason, conjugation procedures that utilize these groups will cross link randomly to all parts of the antibody molecule. The distribution of amine and carboxylate groups on a three dimensional structure of an immunoglobin is nearly uniform throughout the surface topology. Conjugation to these functional groups can lead to random conjugation and hence, random orientation of the antibody often blocking the antigen binding site. Obscuring the binding site will decrease antigen binding activity in the conjugate. Site directed conjugation generally leads to conjugation chemistry that is successful at preserving the activity of the antibody. Conjugation through the sulfhydryl of a fragmented antibody is one such method of site directed conjugation. In this method the conjugation takes place at certain positions on the immunoglobin surface that is far from the antigen binding sites thus preventing blockage of these sites and ...
The role of bivalence of antibody in its capacity to neutralize virus was studied with rabbit antibodies to the bacteriophage, ϕX174. Univalent Fab or Fab fragments of IgG isolated from antiviral antisera obtained early in the immunization schedule had virtually no activity compared to that of the intact IgG. When the antibodies were isolated from antisera of the same rabbits several months later, the univalent fragments and IgG were essentially equal in activity. The results are interpreted on the basis that an IgG molecule, because of its bivalence, has a higher effective combining affinity (avidity) than a univalent fragment. After prolonged immunization, however, the affinity of univalent antibody becomes sufficiently high that it exceeds a threshold value, above which further increase in affinity, through bivalence, is no longer significant. The results could explain the variability in relative effectiveness of univalent antibodies observed in previous studies. These data, and the fact ...
Polyneuropathy may be caused by an autoimmune disorder. Tests included MAG antibody, GM antibody, GD antibody and sulfatide antibody.
An antigen is a substance which is used to generate the production of antibodies. In the case of this PolyExpressTM package, this is either a native protein or peptide sequence. The origin of your target antigen is the type of organism that the protein or peptide sequence to be used as an antigen originally came from. An accession number is a unique identification given to a biological polymer sequence and may be found in protein databases such as UniProt. Peptides created through GenScripts OptimumAntigen™ design program have many advantages over full proteins when it comes to antibody production. Our OptimumAntigen™ Design Tool combines the industrys most advanced algorithms with GenScripts time-tested expertise. Each peptide antigen is measured against several protein databases to confirm the desired antibody and epitope specificity. We guarantee a polyclonal antibody with ELISA titer of 1:32,000 or better for any host with the aid of our antigen design tool and unique antibody ...
Since antibodies are only produced after exposure to foreign material including organisms such as bacteria and viruses, they indicate exposure to that organism.. Because antibodies remain in circulation for quite some time, the presence of an antibody titre to a particular organism does not necessarily mean that that organism is the cause of the illness that your pet is experiencing.. The lack of an antibody titre to an organism can indicate either of two things. The first is that no exposure to that organism has occurred and therefore your pets current clinical condition is due to another cause. The other is that your pet has been so recently exposed to the organism that there has been insufficient time for antibodies to be produced in sufficient quantities to be detectable in the serum.. Therefore if we suspect that a particular disease (for example leptospirosis) is causing illness in your pet, it is important to obtain both acute and convalescent serum titres. This simply means that blood ...
Existing data about Neu5Gc in human cells is controversial (16, 18, 19, 21, 22). Even in studies claiming its presence in malignant tissues, the cell type specificity of the presumed Neu5Gc was not defined. We have advanced understanding of this issue by using an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody against Neu5Gc. Our data support prior reports of Neu5Gc in human cancers and extends the finding to normal and fetal human tissues. Of course, despite our extensive efforts to define specificity, we cannot rule out the possibility of an unexpected epitope cross-reactive with this polyclonal antibody. Thus, we confirmed the presence of Neu5Gc in the normal human tissues with MS.. The inactivating mutation of CMAH in humans is genetically irreversible, no human genes have homology to CMAH, and evidence for an alternate biosynthetic pathway is lacking. Although human cells cultured in FCS appear to incorporate Neu5Gc (8, 24), this could be just passive adsorption. For example, glycolipids containing ...
Inhibitors of PD-1 signaling have revolutionized cancer therapy. PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies have been approved for the treatment of cancer. To date, therapeutic PD-1 inhibitors have not been compared in a functional assay. We used an efficient T cell reporter platform to evaluate the efficacy of five clinically used PD-1 inhibitors to block PD-1 signaling. The half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) for nivolumab and pembrolizumab were 76.17 ng/ml (95% CI 64.95-89.34 ng/ml) and 39.90 ng/ml (34.01-46.80 ng/ml), respectively. The EC50 values of the PD-L1 inhibitors were 6.46 ng/ml (5.48-7.61 ng/ml), 6.15 ng/ml (5.24-7.21 ng/ml) and 7.64 ng/ml (6.52-8.96 ng/ml) for atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab, respectively. In conclusion, a functional assay evaluating antibodies targeting PD-1 inhibition in vitro revealed that pembrolizumab is a slightly more effective PD-1 blocker than nivolumab, and that PD-L1 antibodies are superior to PD-1 antibodies in reverting PD-1 signaling.
The structures of only a few hundred antibodies have been solved by X-ray crystallography and there are even fewer structures of antibody-antigen complexes. There are however, many more antibody sequences in the databases, and homology modeling can be a useful tool in extending the number of structures of antigen-binding sites. Being able to model the structures of anitgen-binding sites can help in guiding the synthesis of novel antibody variable regions for potential therapeutics and laboratory regents ...
... ,Histone H2A Polyclonal Antibody 100 ug affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibody. Detects ~14 kDa Histone H2A. It does not cross-react with other Histones. Reacts with human/mouse/rat. Performs well in Western blot and Immunohistochemistry.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Capralogics specializes in making polyclonal antibody products to varied targets. Below find a link to view a printable catalog of antibody products. To order: visit our online polyclonal antibodies store or call 1-800-975-6866. Polyclonal antibody
Oh boy, I get to get flamed again. JCAHO and CAP do not let you use expired reagents, including antibodies. therefore, everyone gets to through money down the drain time and time again. I called CAP and talked to a person who got very defensive when I asked him to give the rule that says we can not use expired antibodies. He referred me to the U.S. National Register. Im sorry, I dont have that information with right now but Im sure someone will let me know. My beef is, if you run a known positive control with every run, you are, in essence, revalidating that antibody. Once that antibody doesnt work, replace it with one that has not expired. I know this causes a repeat and maybe a delay in reporting the results, but ask your pathologists if they would want a one day delay, or throw thousands of dollars down the sink. When I was supervising the immuno lab at the AFIP, we froze concentrated antibodies at -70 C and they still worked up to 10 years later. Now, you cant even do that. A big waste, ...
SLCO4A1 Antibody - middle region (ARP85243_P050) | Polyclonal Antibody | Application: WB | Species Reactivity: Human | Alias: POAT, OATP1, OATPE, OATP-E, OATP4A1, OATPRP1, SLC21A12
MTF1 Antibody - middle region (ARP90618_P050) | Polyclonal Antibody | Application: WB | Species Reactivity: Mouse | Alias: MTF-1, Thyls
Polyclonal, anti-idiotypic, rabbit antibodies have been raised against four murine monoclonal anti-morphine Fab fragments. The antibody preparations, after affinity purification, have been shown to contain an anti-paratypic fraction which reversibly inhibits morphine binding to the anti-morphine antibodies and to cellular opiate receptors. Using some of the unique properties of this system, for the first time cross-reactivities of anti-paratypic antibodies with the monoclonal anti-morphine IgGs have been examined including competition for the same binding sites by a classical opiate agonist/antagonist pair.
Cosenza, H, "Anti-receptor antibodies. II. Specific inhibition of induction of an antibody response to a pneumococcal antigen. Abstr." (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 580 ...
You are hot in pursuit of an interesting protein but there are no commercial antibodies or they are bad. Its time to think about raising your own antibodies against the protein. It will be a time and money consuming undertaking but once you developed a specific antibody or set of antibodies, you will be in a unique position to generate interesting data. ...
Caltech biologists create neutralizing antibody that shows increased potency. Using highly potent antibodies isolated from HIV-positive people, researchers have recently begun to identify ways to broadly neutralize the many possible subtypes of HIV. Now, a team led by biologists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) has built upon one of these naturally occurring antibodies to create a stronger version they believe is a better candidate for clinical applications.. Current advances in isolating antibodies from HIV-infected individuals have allowed for the discovery of a large number of new, broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies directed against the host receptor (CD4) binding site-a functional site on the surface of the virus that allows for cell entry and infection. Using a technique known as structure-based rational design, the team modified one already-known and particularly potent antibody-NIH45-46-so that it can target the binding site in a different and more powerful way. A ...
IL-20 R alpha Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our IL-20 R alpha Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody - The scanning electron micrograph (right) shows a human macrophage (gray) approaching a chain of Streptococcus pyogenes (yellow). Riding atop the macrophage is a spherical lymphocyte. Both macrophages and lymphocytes can be found near an infection, and the interaction between these cells is important in eliminating infection. Below is an animation that illustrates the basic cell-cell interactions that lead to antibody production can be seen in the accompanying animation.. Guidelines for the Use of Adjuvants And Antibody Production - Many methodologies exist for polyclonal antibody production in laboratory animals. Institutional guidelines governing animal use and procedures relating to these methodologies are generally oriented around humane considerations and appropriate conduct for adjuvant use. This includes adjuvant selection, routes and sites of administration, injection volumes per site and number of sites per animal.. Immunological Techniques Making ...
Interleukin 5 (IL-5) is pre-dominantly secreted by CD4+ T cells. It is involved in a range of allergic reactions and mediates immune reactions against parasites. IL-5 also acts on other cell types such as B cells. The Anti-IL-5 antibody has been designed for intracellular staining of IL-5-producing cells. Cells can be stimulated for IL-5-production, for example, by polyclonal stimulation with mitogens. For induction of IL-5 production by antigen-specific T cells, cells are restimulated with respective antigen. IL-5 can be accumulated in the cells by addition of secretion inhibitors like brefeldin A. After fixation and permeabilization of the cell sample, IL-5-producing cells can be stained intracellularly with Anti-IL-5 antibodies. Staining of surface markers allows simultaneous flow cytometric analysis of subsets and activation status of the IL-5-producing cells. Magnetically enriched cells can be stained intracellularly for IL-5 production directly on the MACS® Column. This procedure ensures higher
CD107b antibody LS-C261691 is an FITC-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human CD107b (LAMP2 ). Validated for ELISA and WB.
Synchronized C. elegans L3 larvae from strain N2 were treated with the cross-linking reagent formaldehyde. Sonicated chromatin was prepared and immunoprecipitated with an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody that recognizes lin-53. The recovered DNA fragments (as well as a sample of input DNA) were sequenced on the Illumina GA-II platform. The signal graph data track shows the coverage of short reads in each sample. The alignment files were used to call binding peaks with the MACS algorithm to generate the track showing sequence features ...
References for Abcams Anti-Interferon beta antibody (ab85803). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
The nature of the antibodies produced by the rabbit during the primary and secondary responses to T2 phage, proteins, and the O and H antigens of Salmonella typhosa has been determined. Immune sera have been fractionated by zone electrophoresis, sucrose density ultracentrifugation, and anion exchange chromatography. The resulting fractions have been assayed by phage neutralization or hemagglutination (antisera to proteins) or bacterial agglutination. In confirmation and extension of earlier work from this laboratory, the primary response to these antigens, with the exception of the O antigen of the Salmonella, included the early synthesis of 19S, γ-1 globulin antibody, and the later synthesis of 7S, γ-2 globulin antibody. The primary response to the O antigen consisted of the synthesis of only a macroglobulin agglutinin. The secondary response to the proteins, including the H antigen of the Salmonella, comprised the early synthesis of large amounts of the 7S γ-2 globulin antibody to the same ...
The kits are optimized for labeling antibodies with a concentration between 0.5-1.0 mg/mL. If your antibody solution is too dilute, you can concentrate it by centrifugation using the ultra-filtration vial provided in the kit. If your antibody solution is too concentrated, you can dilute it with 1x PBS. Antibody concentrations outside the recommended range may result in either under or over labeling ...
Ladd, President of American Autoimmune Related Illnesses Association, Inc. . Regarding to AARDA, in healthy people, when a foreign invader, like a bacteria or virus, enters the body, the immune system produces antibodies to attack those foreign substances. In people with autoimmunity, the immune system mistakenly recognizes the bodys personal healthy organs and tissues as international invaders and produces antibodies to attack them. These auto-antibodies - or antibodies created against the self - - then trigger disease. The condition that results is dependent upon which cells and/or organs the antibodies are attacking. Some 50 million Americans live and cope with autoimmune disease , 75 % of whom are females. AD is among the top 10 leading causes of death of women beneath the age of 65.Nicotine and opiates are very different drugs, but the endpoint, with respect to the control of dopamine signaling, is almost identical. This research is vital that you scientists because it demonstrates in the ...
Browse 95 market data tables and 43 figures spread through 182 pages and in-depth TOC on "Antibody Production Market". http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/antibody-production-market-181543091.html. Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report.. This report studies the global antibody production market for the forecast period of 2014 to 2019. This market is expected to reach $2.572 Billion by 2019 from $1.425 Billion in 2014, and is poised to grow at a CAGR of 12.5% during the forecast period.. The global antibody production market is segmented on the basis of products, types, technologies, end users, and regions.. Based on products, the global market is categorized into equipment and consumables. In 2014, the consumables segment accounted for a major share of the antibody production market.. Inquiry before Buying: http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Enquiry_Before_Buying.asp?id=181543091. On the basis of types, this market is segmented into monoclonal and polyclonal ...
This technique is based on the lock and key theory of antibodies. Basically, antibodies and antigens work like locks and keys. One key for one lock. One antibody fits one antigen. Having the antibody means the antigen is also present.. So the ELISA technique basically involves getting a little cup (aka microwell) and sticking HIV antigens (locks) all over the bottom. The cup is then filled with the serum to be tested. If the appropriate anti-HIV antibodies are present (keys), they will stick to the antigens (locks). So far so good?. Now this is the clever bit. Since these antigens and antibodies are microscopic, the scientists had to figure out a way to be able to see if the locks have captured any keys. Microscopes do not work because these antigens and antibodies are just too small. They figured out that since antibodies are proteins too, they themselves are also antigens! In other words, the other end of the key is also a lock. So the scientist developed an anti-HIV antibody antibody. So this ...
The antibody response is crucial for preventing many viral infections and may also contribute to resolution of infection. When a vertebrate is infected with a virus, antibodies are produced against many epitopes on multiple virus proteins. A subset of these antibodies can block virus infection by a process that is called neutralization. Antibodies can neutralize viral infectivity…
Anti-TSP-1 antibody inhibition of integrin α6 production in TSP-1 stably transfected cells. Cells were grown in six well chamber slides in either serum-free me
Rabbit polyclonal Interferon beta antibody validated for WB, I-ELISA, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding to…
This is the first book to describe how antibodies can be exploited to block biological functions or to confer new phenotypic traits (e.g. resistance to a
Our main activity is design and production of monospecific clonal antibodies which are uniquely characterized by exceptional specificity, affinity and avidity. Antibodies are used for WB, ELISA, IP and ICC application, IHC-P and IHC-Fr application and Flow cytometry.
Antibody Purification using Protein A, Protein G, or Protein L Agarose protocol is designed as a quick purification method for antibodies from mammalian sera, ascites, and cell culture supernatants. It should be noted that if the starting material is serum or ascites the final preparation will contain endogenous host IgG as well as specific antibodies. In general, the presence of this endogenous IgG should not interfere with assays using the antibodies.
Life Research is the leading supplier of quality antibodies to Australian researchers. Search for primary, secondary, polyclonal & monoclonal antibodies.
I recently spoke with Dr. Richard Buick, Chief Technical Officer of Fusion Antibodies to find out how his group uses NovaFold software as part of their antibody humanization service. Check out the interview below to learn more about antibody humanization, and what Fusion Antibodies customers have to say about the NovaFold structure prediction results!. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-HPA059596, Anti-C2orf73 antibody produced in rabbit for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
In a study challenging a long-held doctrine of antibody binding -- which states that a single antibody corresponds to just one antigen, fitting it like a lock fits a key -- researchers have created a designer version of an antibody that can bind two completely different targets. Two-in-one antibodiesImage: Allison Bruce & Jenny BostromThe findings, reported in this weeks Science, raise the possibility that antibodies with dual specificity could occur naturally, the authors say. The result
Weekly injections of an experimental monoclonal antibody known as PRO 140 may work as a standalone treatment for individuals living with HIV, according to ...
Capralogics has developed many unique and novel antibody products. Many of them were made in conjunction with researchers or from customer recommendations. Do you have an antibody product that you would like to see developed? We would love to hear from
With high-quality immune antibodies, ProSci offers custom antibody services varying on your level of research. Buy your antibodies from ProSci today.
Early etiological diagnosis is very important for the control of sudden viral infections, and requires antibodies with both high sensitivity and high specificity. Traditional antibody preparation...
Noooooooooooooooo. I tried it for frozens......and it is pants. (sorry, slang english for not terribly good.......i realised what pants were in US!!!) You may have luck with ffpe, i hope so....... emma c , -----Original Message----- , From: Tracy Bartolotta [SMTP:[email protected]] , Sent: Tuesday, May 09, 2000 6:16 PM , To: [email protected] , Subject: GFP antibodies? , , I have an investigator who would like to try the Living Colors Peptide , Antibody (cat.# 8367-1 from Clontech). He wants to use it to detect , Green Fluorescent Protein using DAB instead of its fluorescence. We , have found a paper that got this antibody to work on 4% PFA fixed frozen , tissue. Does anyone know if it will also work on paraffin embedded , tissue? Or, if you have experience with another antibody to detect GFP , Id be interested. I know this has been discussed before on histonet, , but I cant seem to access the archives with the url address that I , have. Thank you. , , Tracy Bartolotta , UNC ...
Reinisch and colleagues (Gut 2006;55:1138-44) recently reported that the infusion of fontolizumab, an anti-interferon γ antibody, into patients with Crohns disease was generally well tolerated with encouraging clinical responses. Unfortunately, not all first trials with therapeutic antibodies go as well as planned. As we recently witnessed with the intravenous administration of TGN1412, designed to activate regulatory T cells for the treatment of leukaemia and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, six volunteers were hospitalised, four of whom suffered major organ failure. The patients conditions was described as "cytokine release syndrome" which occurs when activated T cells produce a systemic inflammatory response.. Could the violent reaction to the monoclonal antibody be avoided with oral administration? Ochi et als recent report may offer an answer. They observed that oral was as effective as intravenous administration of anti-CD3 in reversing established experimental ...
LI-COR has introduced Goat anti-Mouse IgM secondary antibodies to provide customers even more diversity within its line of IRDye® infrared dye secondary antibodies. These antibodies offer minimal cross reactivity with mouse IgG 1 , IgG 2a , and IgG 3 , pooled human sera, and purified human para proteins.
An antibody microarray (also known as antibody array) is a specific form of protein microarray. In this technology, a collection of capture antibodies are spotted and fixed on a solid surface such as glass, plastic, membrane, or silicon chip, and the interaction between the antibody and its target antigen is detected. Antibody microarrays are often used for detecting protein expression from various biofluids including serum, plasma and cell or tissue lysates. Antibody arrays may be used for both basic research and medical and diagnostic applications. The concept and methodology of antibody microarrays were first introduced by Tse Wen Chang in 1983 in a scientific publication and a series of patents, when he was working at Centocor in Malvern, Pennsylvania. Chang coined the term "antibody matrix" and discussed "array" arrangement of minute antibody spots on small glass or plastic surfaces. He demonstrated that a 10×10 (100 in total) and 20×20 (400 in total) grid of antibody spots could be ...
Looking for online definition of anti-receptor antibody in the Medical Dictionary? anti-receptor antibody explanation free. What is anti-receptor antibody? Meaning of anti-receptor antibody medical term. What does anti-receptor antibody mean?
Creative Biolabs is a leader in the field of single domain antibody. Based on its well-known phage display technology, its scientists are specialized in the production and discovery of specific single domain antibodies.. As single domain antibodies were first engineered from the VHH domain of heavy-chain antibody identified in camelids, they are sometimes referred to as camelid antibodies. Single-domain camelids antibodies have been shown to be just as specific as a regular antibody, and in some cases they are more robust. Moreover, they can be easily isolated using the same phage panning procedure used for traditional antibodies, allowing them to be cultured in vitro in large concentrations.. Single domain antibodies can recognize novel epitopes that regular size antibodies cannot. They have outstanding penetrability which is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. They also have great potential in downstream engineering and can be expressed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ...
Selective suppression of IgE antibody response was demonstrated. Preadministration of DNP-coupled mycobacterium (DNP-Tbc) inhibited the formation of anti-DNP IgE antibody induced by DNP-OA without any suppressive effect on anti-DNP IgG antibody response. Secondary anti-DNP IgE antibody response by DNP-OA was also significantly depressed by the preadministration of DNP-Tbc. Anti-OA IgE antibody response induced by DNP-OA was also depressed by DNP-Tbc, whereas anti-OA IgE antibody response induced by PAB-OA was not affected by the preadministration of DNP-Tbc. Preimmunization with DNP-MGG induced much higher anti-DNP IgG antibody response than DNP-Tbc, but DNP-MGG did not suppress the induction of anti-DNP IgE antibody. The transfer of DNP-Tbc-primed spleen cells into normal mice depressed anti-DNP IgE antibody response. B cell-depleted cell populations also showed a comparable inhibitory effect to that of unfractionated DNP-Tbc primed cells. In the adoptive cell transfer experiment, ...
Human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) is an antibody found in humans which reacts to immunoglobins found in mice. Antibody treatment is a type of therapy that is used to treat certain types of cancer and immune disorders. Antibodies are proteins which are naturally formed by the body in response to a foreign substance, known as an antigen. Antibodies can also be grown outside of the patients body and injected into them to help aid the immune system to fight disease. These types of antibodies are typically called monoclonal antibodies because they are created to target one specific antigen. Herceptin and Avastin, two widely used cancer fighting drugs, are examples of monoclonal antibodies. For several decades, and until recently, mice were used extensively in the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). But the treatments were not as effective as doctors had hoped. One problem was that patients reacted to the mouse antibodies as if they were a foreign substance, and created a new set of antibodies ...
Based on years of experience in phage display technology, Creative Biolabs now is able to provide services for the construction and screening of immune antibody library.. With years of research and development in the past decades, phage display has been a powerful technology to display millions or even billions of different peptides or proteins. It is now a common choice for the studies of protein-protein, protein-peptide and protein-DNA interactions. Among all the applications of phage display technology, one of the most successful ones is the isolation of monoclonal antibodies utilizing large capacity phage antibody libraries.. Thanks to the rapid development of this technology, it has become a reliable tool for the production of monoclonal antibody with high specificity and affinity. "Compared with conventional hybridoma technology, the generation of immune antibody libraries is not limited by the requirement of fusion partners. This expands the possibility to develop monoclonal antibodies ...
A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; a method for the production of the aforementioned monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody specific to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the product of fusion a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent and as an adsorbent.
Background: Anti-ganglioside antibody assays are widely used for diagnosis of autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. Objective: This study aimed to determine serum levels of anti-ganglioside antibodies in children with Guillain-Barre syndrome by immunoblotting technique and compare the results with those obtained by ELISA method. Method: In this investigation, 50 children with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) who were admitted from July 2006 to July 2008, to Tabriz Childrens hospital in the northwest of Iran were studied. 30 children admitted for various other reasons than GBS were randomly selected as a control group. The levels of anti-ganglioside antibodies in serum were measured by ELISA and immunoblotting methods using commercial kits. Results: Anti-ganglioside antibodies (IgG) were detected in 16 (32%) GBS patients and in 1 (3.3%) control using ELISA assay. However, by employing immunoblotting technique, antibodies against seven gangliosides were found positive in 28 (56%) GBS patients and none in the
Asexual stage antibody responses following initial Plasmodium falciparum infections in previously healthy adults may inform vaccine development, yet these have not been as intensively studied as they have in populations from malaria-endemic areas. Serum samples were collected over a six-month period from twenty travellers having returned with falciparum malaria. Fourteen of these were malaria-naïve and six had a past history of one to two episodes of malaria. Antibodies to seven asexual stage P. falciparum antigens were measured by ELISA. Invasion inhibitory antibody responses to the 19kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119) were determined. Short-lived antibody responses were found in the majority of the subjects. While MSP119 antibodies were most common, MSP1 block 2 antibodies were significantly less frequent and recognized conserved domains. Antibodies to MSP2 cross-reacted to the dimorphic allelic families and anti-MSP2 isotypes were not IgG3 skewed as shown previously. MSP119

PatientsLikeMe | Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome symptoms, treatments & patient forums | PatientsLikeMePatientsLikeMe | Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome symptoms, treatments & patient forums | PatientsLikeMe

640 patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome experience fatigue, Pain, depressed mood, anxious mood, and insomnia and ... Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on antiphospholipid antibody syndrome at PatientsLikeMe. ... use Aspirin, Hydroxychloroquine, Warfarin, Enoxaparin, and Oxycodone to treat their antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and its ... 6 antiphospholipid antibody syndrome patients report mild stress (30%). * 2 antiphospholipid antibody syndrome patients report ...
more infohttps://www.patientslikeme.com/conditions/515-antiphospholipid-antibody-syndrome

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome - Oncology Nurse AdvisorAntiphospholipid antibody syndrome - Oncology Nurse Advisor

"Antiphospholipid antibodies-we are not quite there yet". Blood Reviews. vol. 25. 2011. pp. 97-106. (Nice overview of antibody ... Pathologic antibodies appear to bind to both phospholipid and to a protein antigen bound with the phospholipid; antibodies that ... Overview of APS, with details on drug-related antibodies.). Pham, C, Shen, YM. "Antiphospholipid antibodies and malignancy". ... Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL-Abs), IgG or IgM, present in serum or plasma on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart ...
more infohttps://www.oncologynurseadvisor.com/home/decision-support-in-medicine/dermatology/antiphospholipid-antibody-syndrome-2/

Genetic Risk Factors Associated With Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome | Clinical Research Trial Listing ( Antiphospholipid...Genetic Risk Factors Associated With Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome | Clinical Research Trial Listing ( Antiphospholipid...

... treatments for Antiphospholipid syndrome in clinical trial on Genetic Risk Factors Associated With Antiphospholipid Antibody ... Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, which are proteins in ... Genetic Risk Factors Associated With Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Brief description of study. ... Clinical problems associated with antiphospholipid antibodies include an increased risk for the formation of blood clots in the ...
more infohttps://www.centerwatch.com/clinical-trials/listings/37423/antiphospholipid-syndrome-genetic-risk-factors-associated/?&radius=50

Learn about Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and the Symptoms it can CauseLearn about Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and the Symptoms it can Cause

Learn about the diverse effects antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) can have, from heart attack to miscarriage and how APS ... Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a fascinatingly complex disorder. It is an autoimmune disease, whereby the immune system ... What is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS)?. One of the main targets of the immune response in APS is a protein called b( ... Antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies can cause a wide range of medical problems. The first documented cases of APS in medical ...
more infohttp://www.healthguideinfo.com/autoimmune-immune-disorders/p66527/

The Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer | Details for OTU domain, ubiquitin aldehyde binding 1The Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer | Details for OTU domain, ubiquitin aldehyde binding 1

... highly characterized monoclonal antibodies to human proteins associated with cancer. ... This antibody is not suitable for use in a Reverse Phase Protein Array format as described in SOP M-105. ... This antibody is not suitable for use in a Reverse Phase Protein Array format as described in SOP M-105. ... This antibody is not suitable for use in a Reverse Phase Protein Array format as described in SOP M-105. ...
more infohttps://antibodies.cancer.gov/detail/CPTC-OTUB1-1

The Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer | Details for Ataxia Telangiectasia And Rad3 Related Peptide 1The Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer | Details for Ataxia Telangiectasia And Rad3 Related Peptide 1

... highly characterized monoclonal antibodies to human proteins associated with cancer. ... Robotic Assay Procedure for Antibody Antigen Characterization with MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometric Detection (121.5 KB) ... Immuno-MRM chromatogram of CPTC-ATR-1 antibody (see CPTAC assay portal for details: https://assays.cancer.gov/CPTAC-3215) ...
more infohttps://antibodies.cancer.gov/detail/CPTC-ATR-1

Antibody: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaAntibody: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

An antibody is a protein produced by the bodys immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of ... An antibody is a protein produced by the bodys immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of ... Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly considers healthy tissue a harmful substance. This is called an ... Each type of antibody is unique and defends the body against one specific type of antigen. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002223.htm

Antibody - WikipediaAntibody - Wikipedia

Antibody mimetic[edit]. Antibody mimetics are organic compounds that, like antibodies, can specifically bind antigens. They are ... Asymmetrical antibodies[edit]. Heterodimeric antibodies, which are also asymmetrical and antibodies, allow for greater ... How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody from Cells Alive!. *Antibody applications Fluorescent antibody image library, University of ... Nucleic acids and small molecules are sometimes considered antibody mimetics, but not artificial antibodies, antibody fragments ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibody

Seattle Genetics | Antibody-Drug Conjugates for CancerSeattle Genetics | Antibody-Drug Conjugates for Cancer

Seattle Genetics is dedicated to improving patient outcomes with advanced antibody-drug conjugate technology delivering cancer- ...
more infohttp://www.seattlegenetics.com

Adjuvants help vaccines work better. | Vaccine Safety | CDCAdjuvants help vaccines work better. | Vaccine Safety | CDC

Vaccine adjuvants boost a persons immune response, providing better protection against disease. Learn which vaccines have them, and how theyre monitored for safety by CDC.
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/adjuvants.html

2017-03: A Single-Arm, Open-label Study of Anti-Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule F7 (Anti-SLAMF7) Monoclonal Antibody ...2017-03: A Single-Arm, Open-label Study of Anti-Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule F7 (Anti-SLAMF7) Monoclonal Antibody ...

... Known allergies, hypersensitivity, or intolerance to monoclonal antibodies or human proteins or any of the study medications, ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03168100?term=

Antibodies | DazedAntibodies | Dazed

Youth and pop culture provocateurs since 1991. Fearless fashion, music, art, film, politics and ideas from todays bleeding edge. Declare Independence.
more infohttp://www.dazeddigital.com/artsandculture/gallery/17495/5/antibodies

Antibodies - MeSH - NCBIAntibodies - MeSH - NCBI

BispecificAntibodies, BlockingAntibodies, CatalyticAntibodies, FungalAntibodies, HelminthAntibodies, HeterophileAntibodies, ... BispecificAntibodies, BlockingAntibodies, CatalyticAntibodies, FungalAntibodies, HelminthAntibodies, HeterophileAntibodies, ... BispecificAntibodies, BlockingAntibodies, CatalyticAntibodies, FungalAntibodies, HelminthAntibodies, HeterophileAntibodies, ... NeoplasmAntibodies, NeutralizingAntibodies, Phospho-SpecificAntibodies, ProtozoanAntibodies, ViralDeltaretrovirus Antibodies + ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=%22Antibodies%22%5BMeSH+Terms%5D

Anti Bodies | MoMAAnti Bodies | MoMA

Anti Bodies Sunday, January 28, 2018, 2:00-. 6:00 p.m. MoMA PS1 ... Anti Bodies on January 28, 2018, presented at MoMA PS1 as part ... Anti Bodies is an afternoon of performance, readings and installations organized with Topical Cream, a platform for female- ...
more infohttps://www.moma.org/calendar/events/3837

Cardiolipin AntibodiesCardiolipin Antibodies

... antibodies are autoantibodies that can affect blood clotting. Cardiolipin antibody tests help diagnose the cause of blood clots ... Cardiolipin antibodies are the most common of the antiphospholipid antibodies. It is not unusual to detect them in a persons ... When cardiolipin antibody is detected, then the test may be repeated several weeks later to determine whether the antibody is ... Cardiolipin antibodies are the most common antiphospholipid antibody, a group of autoantibodies associated with excessive ...
more infohttps://labtestsonline.org/tests/cardiolipin-antibodies

IgE Antibodies | HealthCentralIgE Antibodies | HealthCentral

Definition IgE Antibodies are a type of immunoglobulin made by the body which are implicated in allergic reactions. Description ... An IgE antibody made to respond to ragweed pollen, for example, will react only against ragweed, and not oak tree or bluegrass ... When the antibodies encounter the allergen they are programmed against, they immediately signal the basophils or mast cells to ... IgE Antibodies are a type of immunoglobulin made by the body which are implicated in allergic reactions. ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/ige-antibodies

Antibodies | ALZFORUMAntibodies | ALZFORUM

Antibodies. This database contains information about antibodies relevant to the study of Alzheimers disease and related ... Commercially available antibodies as well as those from academic labs and other private sources are included. Please note, this ... To learn about current availability of a specific antibody, please contact the source directly. Questions? Contact us at ... database is not comprehensive, and inclusion does not necessarily mean that an antibody is currently available. ...
more infohttps://www.alzforum.org/antibodies

Roche - Bispecific AntibodiesRoche - Bispecific Antibodies

Monoclonal Antibodies. Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbs) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells, cloned from a ... Bispecific Antibodies. Bispecific Antibodies combine two or more antigen-recognizing elements into a single construct, able to ... The DutaMab™ technology platform further enables the development of bi-specific antibodies on a single arm of the antibody that ... At Roche, we also have designed a new format for bispecific antibodies, called CrossMAbs (where MAb stands for Monoclonal ...
more infohttps://www.roche.com/research_and_development/what_we_are_working_on/research_technologies/protein-related_technologies/bispecific_antibodies.htm

Catalytic Antibodies | SpringerLinkCatalytic Antibodies | SpringerLink

... groups led by Tramontano and Lerner1 and by Schultz2independently demonstrated that antibodies can catalyze the hydrolysis of ... G. C. Rao, Enzyme Models Based on Boronic Acids and on a Monoclonal Antibody, Ph.D. Thesis, City University of New York (1987). ... Then we will discuss the properties of the antibody catalysts isolated to date and will speculate on the future directions, ... In December of 1986, groups led by Tramontano and Lerner1 and by Schultz2 independently demonstrated that antibodies can ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-4597-9_14

Monoclonal Antibodies | SpringerLinkMonoclonal Antibodies | SpringerLink

... the procedure developed by George Kohler and Cesar Milstein for immortalizing antibody producing B-lymphocytes (1) is ... the antibodies are monoclonal It is this property, together with the ability to produce unlimited amounts of antibody, that has ... Winter, G, Griffiths, A D, Hawkins R E, et al (1994) Making antibodies by phage display technology Ann Rev Immunol 12, 433-455 ... Anderson, D V, Tucker, E M, Powell, J R, and Porter, P (1987) Bovine monoclonal antibodies to the FS (K99) pilus antigen of E ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-59259-642-3_44

PR3 AntibodiesPR3 Antibodies

If you would like to schedule an appointment with one of our nationally ranked specialists or Primary Care physicians please click or call 800-881-7385.. ...
more infohttps://www.nationwidechildrens.org/specialties/laboratory-services/lab-test-directory/pr3-antibodies

help! antibodies!help! antibodies!

... Mr. G. Morley gmorley at hgmp.mrc.ac.uk Tue Jan 27 06:45:51 EST 1998 *Previous message: WRN gene ... Dear all, I was hoping someone could help me locate a source for the following antibodies - they are quite urgent and any ... The antibodies are: Phospholipase A2 activating protein Ab. 5-lipoxygenase activating protein 5-lipoxygenase They are required ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/ageing/1998-January/002983.html

Custom AntibodiesCustom Antibodies

... Gustavo Nolasco gnolasco at mozart.si.ualg.pt Fri Mar 22 13:36:48 EST 1996 *Previous message: calyculin A ... Hi, I am expressing a fusion protein in E.coli and now want to obtain policlonal antibodies against it. Does anybody know the ... address (and prices) of a Lab that will acept to make antibodies against this protein? Gus Gustavo Nolasco Universidade do ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1996-March/042197.html

betagalactosidase antibodiesbetagalactosidase antibodies

... David Gonda david_gonda at qm.yale.edu Sun Oct 30 15:55:44 EST 1994 *Previous message: stop- ... Does anyone have a recommendation for a good monoclonal antibody that gives excellent sensitivity on Westerns? Thanks in ...
more infohttp://bio.net/bionet/mm/yeast/1994-October/001830.html

HIV antibodies | Encyclopedia.comHIV antibodies | Encyclopedia.com

See also Antibiotic resistance, tests for; Antibody and antigen; Antibody-antigen, biochemical and molecular reactions; ... The presence of antibodies in the serum occurs much earlier in the case of infections that occur very soon after the ... Again, the nature of the antibodies can help alert a physician to the presence of a hitherto undetected bacterial infection , ... Seroconversion is am important aspect of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS ). Antibodies to HIV can sometimes be ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/hiv-antibodies
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to a GM1 epitope as well as to one with the GT1a or GD3 epitope were found in different strains of Campylobacter jejuni and patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome have a high occurrence of C. jejuni infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the short time since then, antibodies that catalyze a variety of additional reactions, including the sequence-specific hydrolysis of a peptide and a Claisen rearrangement, have been elicited. (springer.com)
  • Every individual has different IgE antibodies, and each allergic substance stimulates production of its own specific IgE. (healthcentral.com)
  • In contrast to other technologies the CrossMAb allows production and correct chain assembly using a standard process applied for the production of therapeutic antibodies. (roche.com)
  • In women, spermatozoa in the genital tract after intercourse are not a factor in the production of antisperm antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a mouse model of herpes simplex 2 virus infection, circulating memory B cells-rather than plasma cells-are shown to be the source of antibody secretion in the vaginal lumen following secondary infection. (nature.com)
  • If you happen to have herpes you will most likely have antibodies of herpes in your blood. (answers.com)
  • Each type of antibody is unique and defends the body against one specific type of antigen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Measurable allergen-specific antibodies can be identified by radioallergosorbent tests (RAST). (healthcentral.com)
  • The RAST tests measure the increase and quantity of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. (healthcentral.com)
  • To learn about current availability of a specific antibody, please contact the source directly. (alzforum.org)
  • In December 2014, we announced the acquisition of Dutalys to strengthen our capabilities in the discovery and development of fully human, bi-specific antibodies based on their proprietary DutaMabs™ technology. (roche.com)
  • The DutaMab™ technology platform further enables the development of bi-specific antibodies on a single arm of the antibody that are characterized by a high affinity and simultaneous binding against both targets, excellent stability and good manufacturing properties. (roche.com)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which uses modification specific histone antibodies, is the most commonly used method to analyze histone modifications associated with genes (2). (neb.com)
  • The antigen-binding site of the antibody has a unique structure that allows it to bind antigen in a highly specific manner. (nature.com)
  • A multivalent vaccine that presents diverse influenza virus subtype H1 hemagglutinins on its surface induces broadly neutralizing antibodies in an animal model by displaying conserved epitopes at higher density than strain-specific epitopes. (nature.com)
  • To ensure that our antibodies are specific and provide reproducible results, we have recently introduced knockout (KO) validation at scale. (news-medical.net)
  • Anti-GD3 antibodies have been found in association with specific forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This database contains information about antibodies relevant to the study of Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative diseases. (alzforum.org)
  • Studies of these antibodies reveal large disruption of the Schwann cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following incubation, excessive antibodies are removed by washing. (news-medical.net)
  • An IgE antibody made to respond to ragweed pollen, for example, will react only against ragweed, and not oak tree or bluegrass or any other kind of pollen. (healthcentral.com)
  • Most of the antibodies in the body are made of lipids. (answers.com)
  • Antibodies are made in the lymph nodes. (answers.com)
  • Antibodies are what is found on a blood test. (answers.com)
  • The number of antibodies that you have can lead to a positive or negative result. (answers.com)
  • however most infants born to infected mothers test positive for 6-18 months because of the presence of maternal antibodies. (answers.com)
  • A positive ANA test means that the antibodies were detected in the individual's blood sample. (news-medical.net)
  • Many prostitutes (40-45%) are positive for antisperm antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti- GM1 antibodies are positive in around 80% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue Micro-Array(TMA) core of colon cancer showing cytoplasmic staining using Antibody CPTC-OTUB1-2. (cancer.gov)
  • Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the blood‑testis barrier, trauma and surgery, orchitis, varicocele, infections, prostatitis, testicular cancer, failure of immunosuppression and unprotected anal or oral sex with men. (wikipedia.org)
  • This test detects the presence of cardiolipin antibodies in the blood. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Dear all, I was hoping someone could help me locate a source for the following antibodies - they are quite urgent and any information on companies selling them would be very welcome. (bio.net)
  • Does anybody know the address (and prices) of a Lab that will acept to make antibodies against this protein? (bio.net)