Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Nafcillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic related to penicillin.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Ethics, Nursing: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems: The use of communication systems, such as telecommunication, to transmit emergency information to appropriate providers of health services.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Cefamandole: Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Autolysis: The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.PeptidoglycanCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Lysostaphin: A 25-kDa peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans which cleaves a glycine-glcyine bond unique to an inter-peptide cross-bridge of the STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS cell wall. EC 220.127.116.11.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion: Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Cephradine: A semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Staphylococcus hominis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, but containing different esterases. The subspecies Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus is highly virulent and novobiocin resistant.Fusidic Acid: An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Mupirocin: A topically used antibiotic from a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. It has shown excellent activity against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. The antibiotic is used primarily for the treatment of primary and secondary skin disorders, nasal infections, and wound healing.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Leukocidins: Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Staphylococcus haemolyticus: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS found on the skin of humans (and non-human primates), often causing hospital-acquired infections (CROSS INFECTION).Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Daptomycin: A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Novobiocin: An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Pyoderma: Any purulent skin disease (Dorland, 27th ed).Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Virginiamycin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Pneumonia, Staphylococcal: Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 18.104.22.168.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Netilmicin: Semisynthetic 1-N-ethyl derivative of SISOMYCIN, an aminoglycoside antibiotic with action similar to gentamicin, but less ear and kidney toxicity.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Malvaceae: The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Tabernaemontana: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE that contains bisindole alkaloids and IBOGAINE.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.IndiaEvaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Micrococcal Nuclease: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 22.214.171.124.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
There are serious concerns regarding antibiotic-resistant organisms. These would include as methicillin-resistant ... Antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended because of the possibility of encouraging the development of multidrug-resistant ... Neutropenia can be the result of a variety of consequences, including from certain types of drugs, environmental toxins, ... Meanwhile, several subtypes of neutropenia exist which are rarer and chronic, including: acquired (idiopathic) neutropenia, ...
Particularly important are the antibiotics, including the penicillins, a structurally related group of β-lactam antibiotics ... used to help control infection from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Widespread use of antibiotics for the ... Other antibiotics produced by fungi include: ciclosporin, commonly used as an immunosuppressant during transplant surgery; and ... The bacteria were also included in fungi in some classifications, as the group Schizomycetes. The Rozellida clade, including ...
S. epidermidis strains are often resistant to antibiotics, including rifamycin, fluoroquinolones, gentamicin, tetracycline, ... Methicillin resistance is particularly widespread, with 75-90% of hospital isolates resistance to methicilin. Resistant ... This decreased metabolism, in combination with impaired diffusion of antibiotics, makes it difficult for antibiotics to ... Subsequent steps include iron being transferred to surface lipoproteins, then to transport proteins which carry the iron into ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Cats ... This includes 'kissing' or letting the animal lick the mouth or nose. Mucous membranes are easily infected when the pathogen is ... disinfect areas the pet has spent time in, including surfaces and bedding. the spores of this fungus can be killed with common ... Those at the highest risk of contracting a disease from a cat are those with behaviors that include: being licked, sharing food ...
Like other antibiotics, cefalexin cannot treat viral infections, such as the flu, common cold or acute bronchitis. Cefalexin ... Common side effects include stomach upset and diarrhea. Allergic reactions or infections with Clostridium difficile, a cause of ... Cefalexin is not effective against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus, or ... In Canada, it was the 5th most common antibiotic used in 2013. In Australia, it is one of the top 15 most prescribed ...
... is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes impetigo, cellulitis, ... It is not effective for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It is used by mouth and by injection. Side effects ... It is sold under a number of trade names, including Cloxapen, Cloxacap, Tegopen and Orbenin. Dicloxacillin Flucloxacillin ... include nausea, diarrhea, and allergic reactions including anaphylaxis. Clostridium difficile diarrhea may also occur. It is ...
... is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes middle ear infections ... It can be useful against some cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It may also be used for acne and in ... Other antibiotics may be recommended instead due to this reason. It appears to be generally safe in pregnancy. It is of the ... Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, rash, and pain at the site of injection. It increases the risk of hospital- ...
Signs and symptoms include an area of redness which increases in size over a few days. The borders of the area of redness are ... A course of antibiotics is not effective in between 6 and 37% of cases. Cellulitis in 2015 resulted in about 16,900 deaths ... When methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a concern, doxycycline or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole may, in addition, be ... Other risk factors include obesity, leg swelling, and old age. For facial infections, a break in the skin beforehand is not ...
... some organisms have developed resistance to other narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics including methicillin. Such organisms ... include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).[better source needed] Like other β-lactam antibiotics, ... methicillin and oxacillin in methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus detected by dilution and ... Specific approved indications include: Staphylococcal skin infections and cellulitis - including impetigo, otitis externa, ...
"Imagining the Post-Antibiotics Future" is included in The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2014. McKenna received a ... Her book Superbug: The Fatal Menace of MRSA is about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; a review on the CDC website ... She has written for the National Geographic, and spoke on antibiotics at TED 2015. In 2009, McKenna received a Dart Center ... Roush, Wade (January 7, 2015). "The End of the Antibiotic Era? A Talk with KSJ Alum Maryn McKenna". Knight Science Journalism ...
... particularly when combined with antibiotics. Flavonoids identified in the plant include quercetin, avicularin, and guaijaverin ... Laboratory studies show that extracts have some activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ... Common names include Brazilian guava, Castilian guava, sour guava, Guinea guava (English language), Goyavier du Brésil (French ... and includes parts of the Caribbean. It has been widely introduced outside of this range, and it is cultivated in some places. ...
Common causes include infection, or reaction to medication such as an analgesic or antibiotics such as methicillin (meticillin ... Urinary findings include: Eosinophiluria: Original studies with Methicillin-induced AIN showed sensitivity of 67% and ... The drugs that are known to cause this sort of reaction are antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalexin, and nonsteroidal ... Other conditions that may develop include hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure. About 23% of patients have ...
It is primarily used for the treatment of infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria including methicillin-resistant ... Inoue, M.; M. Nonoyama; R. Okamoto; T. Ida (1994). "Antimicrobial activity of arbekacin, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, ... Arbekacin is approved for the treatment of pneumonia and sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). ... Matsumoto T (2014). "Arbekacin: another novel agent for treating infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...
Razupenem (PZ-601) PZ-601 is a carbapenem antibiotic currently being tested as having a broad spectrum of activity including ... Good activity is seen against methicillin-sensitive strains of Staphylococcus species, but many other antibiotics provide ... Further, the porin levels may be down-regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic molecule that successfully ... Carbapenems are antibiotics used for the treatment of infections known or suspected to be caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) ...
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has generated growing concerns over its resistance to almost all antibiotics except ... CLC Microbial Genomics Module includes a set of tools and ready-to-use workflows for MLST in the context of meta-information ... These genes include carbamate kinase (arcC), shikimate dehydrogenase (aroE), glycerol kinase (glpF), guanylate kinase (gmk), ... However, most serious S. aureus infections in the community, and many in hospitals, are caused by methicillin-susceptible ...
... some organisms have developed resistance to it and other narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics including methicillin. Such ... NHS: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - Guidance for nursing staff "methicillin resistance means the same as ... Specific approved indications include: Staphylococcal skin infections and cellulitis - including impetigo, otitis externa, ... However, like methicillin, it is less potent than benzylpenicillin against non-β-lactamase-producing Gram-positive bacteria. ...
It has strong activity against many Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant ... Dalbavancin is an antibiotic used to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) in adults caused by ... caused by certain susceptible bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-susceptible and methicillin- ... It possesses in vitro activity against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens including MRSA and methicillin-resistant ...
... including Staphylococcus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), one of the most virulent strains of antibiotic- ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), one of the most virulent strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and a ... These included a copper alloy set of sink tap handles (60% Cu, 40% Zn) and a ward entrance door push plate (70% Cu, 30% Zn). ... The results indicated that copper has a strong bactericidal effect against S. aureus, including MRSA. When a copper plate was ...
... is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. It is recommended intravenously as a treatment for ... Common side effects include pain in the area of injection and allergic reactions. Occasionally, hearing loss, low blood ... β-Lactamase-resistant semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin (and its successors, nafcillin and cloxacillin) were ... It is a type of glycopeptide antibiotic and works by blocking the construction of a cell wall. Vancomycin was first sold in ...
... including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. It is a semisynthetic glycopeptide antibiotic ... Other trade names include Ticocin marketed by Cipla(India). Oral teicoplanin has been demonstrated to be effective in the ... Teicoplanin is an antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, ... Gilpin M, Milner P (1997). "Resisting changes -- Over the past 40 years the glycopeptide antibiotics have played a crucial role ...
... is not a viable antibiotic against MuH strains. Other antibiotic agents such as azelaic acid, nitrofurazone, silver ... Common side effects include itchiness and rash at the site of application, headache, and nausea. Long term use may result in ... It may also be used to get rid of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) when present in the nose without symptoms. Due to ... The mechanism of mupirocin differs from other clinical antibiotics, rendering cross-resistance to other antibiotics unlikely. ...
... rendering the antibiotic ineffective. Penicillinase-resistant β-lactam antibiotics, such as methicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, ... It is mostly found in fertile, active places, including the armpits, hair, and scalp. Large pimples that appear in those areas ... Methicillin was the first antibiotic in this class to be used (it was introduced in 1959), but, only two years later, the first ... The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide ...
For cefoxitin, this includes patients who are hypersensitive to cephalosporin antibiotics. Patients with colitis, kidney ... Major bacterial strains susceptible to cefoxitin include: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus sp. E. ... Major bacteria resistant to cefoxitin include: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Enterococci Listeria monocytogenes ... Due, in part, to the unavailability of methicillin in the United States, cefoxitin has replaced methicillin for disk diffusion ...
... including Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, most proteins that mediate antibiotic resistance are ... The presence of a single MALDI-TOF mass spectral peak predicts methicillin resistance in staphylococci. et al. Diagn Microbiol ... Popular topics that are addressed by AP-MALDI mass spectrometry include: proteomics; mass analysis of DNA, RNA, PNA, lipids, ... Another advantage is the potential to predict antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria. A single mass spectral peak can predict ...
Along with this several laboratory tests are run including a complete blood count, differential, and blood culture. Antibiotic ... However, due to the increasing rise of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) orbital cellulitis can also be ... Other causes include infection of nearby structures, trauma and previous surgery. Orbital cellulitis occurs commonly from ... The natural course of the disease, as documented by Gamble (1933), in the pre-antibiotic era, resulted in death in 17% of ...
Common sites of bacterial colonization include the nasal passage, groin, oral cavity and skin. ... such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or antifungal-resistant Candida. ... Antibiotic. *Antifungal. *Antiviral drug. ReferencesEdit. *^ a b Septimus, Edward J.; Schweizer, Marin L. (27 January 2016). " ...
Lysostaphin is a potential therapeutic antibiotic for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for which new ... Initially, advanced spectroscopic techniques including X-ray and NMR methods were investigated for molecular interaction ...
Identification of the Markers of Antibiotic Resistance in Daptomycin Non-Susceptible Strains of Staphylococcus Aureus - ... 2.1 Methicillin resistant S. aureus 4. 2.2 MRSA virulence factors 5. 2.3 Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics 7. 2.4 ... made up of four major components including peptidoglycan, teichoic acids (TAs),. lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) and cell surface ... Methicillin was used initially to treat Staphylococcus infections but resistance. developed to methicillin and the first MRSA ...
Choice of antibiotics includes oxacillin, cefazolin, nafcillin, gentamycin etc. for Methicillin sensitive strains (MSSA). ... Choice of antibiotics for MSSA include Cephalexin, Dicloxacillin, Clindamycin, Amoxicillin/clavulanate etc. For MRSA ... aureus resistant to methicillin to produce Methicillin Resistant S. aureus or MRSA. The modification in the mecA gene of the ... Antibiotic therapy. * Treatment for bacteremia or blood infection with S. aureus or infection from a medical device - the ...
... is an interactive web-based application that offers enhanced data visualizations on Antibiotic Resistance, Use, and Stewardship ... The Antibiotic Resistance & Patient Safety Portal (AR&PSP) ... These phenotypes include:. *Methicillin-resistant ... Reported antibiotic classes:. The national data includes 10 antibiotic classes; the state data includes 4 common antibiotic ... AR Data includes resistance data for 29 bug-drug profiles (or phenotypes, pathogen-antibiotic combinations that are used to ...
The overuse of antibiotics in recent years has played a major part in antibiotic resistance. This includes using antibiotics to ... The treatment for osteomyelitis includes intravenous antibiotics and it is common to get more than one antibiotic for this type ... As with all antibiotics they are not without side effects. Antibiotics are designed to kill off bad bacteria in the body, but ... Treatment usually includes intravenous antibiotics and in severe cases, the patient may have to be put on a breathing machine. ...
These tests include antibiotic susceptibility testing (MIC) by using broth microdilution using NCCLS reference methods; strain ... Methicillin - Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (L35_B) Data File: L35_B.xpt First Published: July 2004. Last Revised: ... The phlebotomy file includes auxiliary information such as the conditions precluding venipuncture. The household questionnaire ... These tests include antimicrobial susceptibility testing (MIC) by broth microdilution using NCCLS reference methods; strain ...
Six isolates (2%) were susceptible to all the antibiotics in the panel, including penicillin. A further 164 isolates (58%) were ... Antibiotic resistance patterns.PBP2 (methicillin resistance) was detected in 23% (66 of 283) of isolates (Table 2): 22% (40/184 ... Antibiotic resistance profile of 283 S. aureus isolates showing that isolates of cc75 tend to be resistant to more antibiotics ... 1). Erythromycin resistance was detected in 47% (31/66) of methicillin-resistant isolates and 21% (46/217) of methicillin- ...
Methicillin-Resistant,Staphylococcus,aureus,(CA-MRSA),Infections,-,Pipeline,Review,,H2,2016,medicine,advanced medical ... Symptoms include skin rashes, fatigue, chest pain, fever and swelling. MRSA may be managed by the use of antibiotics and by ... The Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide ... Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide helps ...
... including how they are spread and how MDRO infections are treated. ... Examples of MDROs include:. *Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). *Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) ... A multidrug resistant organism (MDRO) is a germ that is resistant to many antibiotics. If a germ is resistant to an antibiotic ... MDRO infections are treated with antibiotics that the germ causing your infection isnt resistant to. Your doctor will decide ...
We assessed the potential for Internet-based surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and examined the ... Google queries were a useful predictor of hospitalizations for methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. ... was included because many news stories refer to MRSA as "antibiotic resistant staph." "Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ... Although some hospital databases include more hospitals, they include fewer diagnostic codes. Therefore, there are no ...
... including both methicillin-sensitive and -resistant isolate infections) at YNHH in the 3-year period, the prevalence of CA-MRSA ... Trends in Prescribing β-Lactam Antibiotics for Treatment of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ... Trends in Prescribing β-Lactam Antibiotics for Treatment of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ... Trends in Prescribing β-Lactam Antibiotics for Treatment of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...
... that have developed resistance to multiple types of antibiotics. ... Examples of MDRO include:. * Methicillin resistant ... This means the antibiotic does not work to treat the bacteria. Another antibiotic will need to be used to treat the bacteria. ... Antibiotic resistance often occurs following frequent antibiotic use or frequent exposure to a health care setting. For most ... A patient can also develop an MDRO through antibiotic use, especially if the antibiotics are inappropriately prescribed or ...
Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, or MSSA, is a strain that remains adequately treated using penicillin, a standard antibiotic ... S. aureus infections are treated with a variety of antibiotics, depending on the strain, including penicillins and ... Medications for Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, or MRSA, is resistant to penicillin ... The antibiotic vancomycin (Vancocin) can be used to treat both MSSA and MRSA. However, due to overuse and the development of ...
Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis,/em, define terms and provide an overview of ... Sixty years ago, S. aureus was very susceptible to many antibiotics, including penicillin. Susceptibility disappeared, and the ... Among these was methicillin, which overcame resistance to penicillin. But in 1960, one year after the introduction of ... As a natural response, antibiotic resistance emerges in pathogen populations. Resistance is a condition in which the antibiotic ...
... a Rockford hospital speeds up how quickly nurses can discover infections from a dangerous bug known for resisting antibiotics. ... MRSA is a subgroup of the bacteria that doesnt respond to the antibiotic methicillin. Symptoms include boils, blisters and ... MRSA stands for methicillin-resistance staphylococcus aureus. Regular staph bacteria is common, often found on the skin and in ... OSF Saint Anthony Medical Center now tests "at-risk" patients for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, called MRSA, ...
Read this full essay on Antibiotic Resistant Organisms. Summary of Article I chose to summarize an article about preventing ... Some epidemic strains include methicillin resistant staph. Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics - Briefly explains the cause ... Antibiotic use promotes development of antibiotic-resistant. Antibiotics. 1125 words - 5 pages Antibiotic use promotes ... It is nearly resistant to all antibiotics and has a high transmission rate and high mortality rate. Some CRE organisms include ...
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Typically, cellulitis requires 10 or more days of oral antibiotic treatment ... Home remedies for nose pimples include:. Basic hygiene and skin care. A person can limit discomfort by not blowing their nose ... These include using warm compresses to reduce pain and applying tea tree oil, which is a natural antiseptic. Avoid removing ... Causes of a pimple in the nose can include ingrown hairs, infections, and lupus. See a doctor for any pimple that gets ...
SUMMARY Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Methicillin-Resistant ... Symptoms include skin rashes, fatigue, chest pain, fever and swelling. MRSA can be managed by the use of antibiotics and by ... Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections - Pipeline by Dong-A Socio Holdings Co Ltd, H2 2017. Methicillin- ... Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections - Pipeline by Bavarian Nordic A/S, H2 2017. Methicillin-Resistant ...
Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus are highly resistant to antibiotics and can be deadly. New research shows that a ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly resistant to treatment with antibiotics. ... These include oxacillin, flucloxacillin, and dicloxacillin.. About 53 percent of S. aureus isolates (which are individually ... Also, they noticed that fengycins inhibited the growth of many S. aureus strains, including USA300 MRSA, the potent superbug ...
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). *Vibrio or Aeromonas species, often ... Other tests may include:. *KOH prep - This is a rapid test performed to detect fungi in a sample. The sample is treated with a ... People with antibiotic-resistant bacteria or with an infection in a location that is difficult for drug therapy to penetrate ( ... Examples of bacteria that can cause skin infections include:. *Bacteria that are often normally found on the skin (normal flora ...
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). *Vibrio or Aeromonas species, often ... Other tests may include:. *KOH prep - This is a rapid test performed to detect fungi in a sample. The sample is treated with a ... Conditions: Staph Infections and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Anthrax. Elsewhere On The Web. CDC: Methicillin- ... People with antibiotic-resistant bacteria or with an infection in a location that is difficult for drug therapy to penetrate ( ...
Now, S. aureus is resistant to many antibiotics, including methicillin. Although methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( ... Although MRSAs antibiotic resistance and toxin genes appear to have been added to its existing plasmids, it has lost some key ... The term leprosy (including leper, lepers, leprosy, leprous) occurs 68 times in the Bible: 55 times in the Old Testament ( ... Some of the major pathways lacking in M. leprae include synthesis of vitamin B-12 (i.e., cobalamin) and cell wall components (i ...
... were subjected to methicillin susceptibility testing; while including susceptibility testing to other antibiotics by the disc ... Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in Kano, Nigeria Adobe Acrobat PDF ... Antibiotics sensitivity results of methicillin susceptible staphylococcus aureus MSSA) and MRSA with the third generation ... Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in Kano, Nigeria ...
H2 2017Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Hospital Acquired Methicillin- ... Hospital Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) Infections - Pipeline Review, ... Hospital Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) is acquired in the hospital setting. Symptoms include ... This can be prevented by antibiotics and following hygiene procedures. Report Highlights. Global Markets Directs Pharmaceutical ...
Staphylococcus AureusVancomycinInfectionsOxacillinBacterialTypes of antibioticsMSSARise of antibiotic resistanceSuperbugsCertain antibioticsCephalosporinsAntimicrobialMultiple antibioticsEmergenceBroad-spectrum aPotentDaptomycinLinezolidBacteremiaCenters for DiseasNafcillinSuperbugClass of antibioticsAppropriate antibiotic coverageClindamycinUndergoing antibiotic therapyStrainSymptomsGroup of antibioticsEmpiric antibioticCell Wall SynthesisGlycopeptideInpatient
- However, it has now grown resistant to this drug, hence the name methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (hubpages.com)
- We assessed the potential for Internet-based surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and examined the extent to which it reflects trends in hospitalizations and news coverage. (cdc.gov)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus " was too infrequently searched to be useful. (cdc.gov)
- Infection with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus can cause many health problems, including sepsis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Loffler CA, Macdougall C, Update on prevalence and treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. (wikipedia.org)
- Urine and blood cultures grew methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus in 6/6 bottles. (ahajournals.org)
- CAMERA2 - combination antibiotic therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. (duke.edu)
- Hand hygiene noncompliance and the cost of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. (duke.edu)
- Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in a tropical setting: patient outcome and impact of antibiotic resistance. (duke.edu)
- Characterization of serine acetyltransferase (CysE) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and inhibitory effect of two natural products on CysE. (bioportfolio.com)
- Decrease of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in Germany - a prospective analysis over 10 years. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus eradication in cystic fibrosis patients: A randomized multicenter study. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and their toxin genes in the nostrils of dogs and workers at an animal shelter. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: a. (who.int)
- Decline of EMRSA-16 amongst methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing bacteraemias in the UK between 2001 and 2007. (ebscohost.com)
- Reversal of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by thioridazine. (ebscohost.com)
- Factors Influencing Time to Vancomycin-Induced Clearance of Nonendocarditis Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: Role of Platelet Microbicidal Protein Killing and agr Genotypes. (ebscohost.com)
- Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: recurrence and the impact of antibiotic treatment in a prospective multicenter study. (nih.gov)
- Teixobactin exhibits excellent activities against an array of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (nature.com)
- Methicillin is an antibiotic that has long been used to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been the most commonly identified pathogen in hand infections at urban centers, but the evolving antibiotic sensitivity profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are not known. (jove.com)
- The purposes of this study are to determine if multidrug resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is emerging and to provide current recommendations for empiric antibiotic selection for hand infections in endemic regions. (jove.com)
- We tested the effect of a number of mechanistically distinct antibacterial agents on the expression of methicillin resistance in a highly and homogeneously resistant strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (nih.gov)
- Options for therapy of most methicillin-resistant and macrolide-resistant community-acquired strains of Staphylococcus aureus include vancomycin, linezolid, and, in communities with a high proportion of susceptible strains, clindamycin. (nih.gov)
- Their optimism was shaken by the emergence of resistance to multiple antibiotics among such pathogens as Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (jci.org)
- The treatment of infections due to Staphylococcus aureus was revolutionised in the 1940s by the introduction of the antibiotic penicillin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Methicillin was not degraded by ß-lactamase and so could be used to treat infections due to ß-lactamase-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus . (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Strains unable to resist these antibiotics are classified as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, or MSSA. (sciencephoto.com)
- Other gram-positive cocci that have developed antibiotic resistance include vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, according to Drugs.com. (reference.com)
- However, due to overuse and the development of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, this medication is reserved for people with severe infection or those allergic to alternative antibiotics. (livestrong.com)
- Another agent that may be used if treatment with vancomycin fails is a combination antibiotic called quinupristin-dalfopristin, which is given through an IV line. (livestrong.com)
- Significant glycopeptide antibiotics include the anti-infective antibiotics vancomycin, teicoplanin, telavancin, ramoplanin and decaplanin, and the antitumor antibiotic bleomycin. (wikipedia.org)
- Several derivatives of vancomycin are currently being developed, including oritavancin and dalbavancin (both lipoglycopeptides). (wikipedia.org)
- Some other side-effects of vancomycin are nephrotoxicity including renal failure and interstitial nephritis, blood disorders including neutropenia, and deafness, which is reversible once therapy has stopped. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2002, physicians in the United States documented the first S. aureus strains resistant to the antibiotic, vancomycin, which had been one of a handful of antibiotics of last resort for use against S. aureus. (powershow.com)
- The antibiotic regimen was changed to include vancomycin but the ulcer continued to progress. (dovepress.com)
- This study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of daptomycin, an antibiotic compared to another one which is vancomycin when given around the time of joint replacement surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In 2012, after taking seven rounds of the antibiotic vancomycin and failing to improve, Smith s friend received a DIY fecal transplant from his roommate in their apartment, using an over-the-counter enema kit. (freerepublic.com)
- The emergence of methicillin resistance and the ease of administering vancomycin, especially in patients who have renal insufficiency, have led to reliance on this drug with the assumption that it is as effective as beta-lactam antibiotics, an assumption that remains open to debate. (nih.gov)
- Nafcillin was superior to vancomycin in preventing bacteriologic failure (persistent bacteremia or relapse) for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. (nih.gov)
- Compared with other lipid II inhibitors, including vancomycin, ramoplanin, enduracidin and mannopeptimycin ( Fig. 1a ), teixobactin has a comparatively less complex bioactive pharmacophore structure ( Fig. 1b ). (nature.com)
- Second-generation glycopeptide antibiotics similar to vancomycin are in clinical trials in adults, including dalbavancin and oritavancin. (nih.gov)
- Vancomycin hydrochloride (generic name product, Vancocin): glycopeptide antibiotic used to treat a variety of serious gram-positive bacterial infections for which other medicines are ineffective, including strains of Staphylococcus that are resistant to most oral antibiotics. (encyclopedia.com)
- For skin infections local application of antibiotics like Mupirocin 2% ointment are also prescribed. (news-medical.net)
- Cases represented do not include the many skin infections that has become resistant to many first-line antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
- Community-onset infections include those in people who have not had recent inpatient healthcare exposure or an invasive medical procedure. (cdc.gov)
- This information explains multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs), including how they are spread and how MDRO infections are treated. (mskcc.org)
- MDRO infections are treated with antibiotics that the germ causing your infection isn't resistant to. (mskcc.org)
- Google queries were a useful predictor of hospitalizations for methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. (cdc.gov)
- If the resistant organisms spread to other persons, the resulting infections are resistant before treatment: Control of such infection requires a different antibiotic. (informit.com)
- S. aureus infections are treated with a variety of antibiotics, depending on the strain, including penicillins and cephalosporins. (livestrong.com)
- The introduction of penicillin in the 1940s gave doctors a way to treat staph infections successfully, but by the end of that decade, the S. aureus microbe had begun to develop resistance to the new antibiotic. (bioedonline.org)
- We urgently need legislation that governs how antibiotics are approved as well as used in humans and animals, alongside better surveillance and diagnosis of infections to ensure continuing good health. (theconversation.com)
- 4) Only four new chemical classes of antibiotics have launched in the last 40 years - linezolid (2000) and daptomycin (2003) for systemic infections, mupirocin (1985) and retapamulin (2007) for topical infections. (theconversation.com)
- We were most impressed by the 'adherence' results for the OrthoFuzIon device against the top six antibiotic resistant pathogens that are commonly implicated in hospital-acquired infections. (businesswire.com)
- It can cause a variety of health problems including sepsis, pneumonia and skin and bloodstream infections. (cnn.com)
- Decreasing demand for antibiotics for viral upper respiratory infections among healthy adults and parents of young children, and 3. (apua.org)
- Increasing adherence to prescribed antibiotics for upper respiratory infections. (apua.org)
- Neutropenia can be the result of a variety of consequences, including from certain types of drugs, environmental toxins, vitamin deficiencies, metabolic abnormalities, as well as cancer or infections. (wikipedia.org)
- In the 1940s, medical treatment for S. aureus infections became routine and successful with the discovery and introduction of antibiotic medication, such as penicillin. (powershow.com)
- From that point on, however, use of antibioticsincluding misuse and overusehas aided natural bacterial evolution by helping the microbes become resistant to drugs designed to help fight these infections. (powershow.com)
- More than 80,000 severe methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections, as well as more than 11,000 related deaths, occurred in the United States alone in 2011. (redorbit.com)
- It is "super" because it is resistant to numerous antibiotics, including methicillin and penicillin, so it is harder to treat than many bacterial infections . (medicinenet.com)
- Most staph infections are minor and can be treated without antibiotics. (ny.gov)
- This makes these infections harder to treat because it is resistant to the antibiotic most commonly used. (ny.gov)
- Trius' pipeline includes two preclinical programs with lead candidates being developed to treat serious infections caused by gram-negative bacterial pathogens. (bio-medicine.org)
- Data continue to demonstrate that cIAI represents a significant threat to patients that is exacerbated by growing resistance to many of the antibiotics commonly used to treat these infections," said Larry Tsai, M.D., Chief Medical Officer of Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals. (benzinga.com)
- Since then, numerous antibiotic agents have been developed and are effective against bacterial infections, but the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains caused a big problem in the treatment of patients [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A broad-spectrum antibiotic that could become the first of its kind to treat specific Gram-negative and Gram-positive infections as well as tularemia, a bioterrorism threat, will undergo the last steps in development with support from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Under an 18-month, $20 million agreement between ASPR's Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) and Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd., the company will conduct Phase 3 clinical studies of the antibiotic, Ceftobiprole, in treating specific Gram-negative and Gram-positive infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- CDC estimates that in the United States, more than 2 million people are sickened every year with antibiotic-resistant infections, with at least 23,000 dying as a result. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Within ASPR, BARDA develops and procures medical countermeasures - vaccines, medicines, diagnostics and medical equipment - that address the public health and medical consequences of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) accidents, incidents and attacks, pandemic influenza, and emerging infectious diseases including anti-microbial resistant infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Many antibiotics used for treating infections, including penicillin and methicillin, are designed to target late stages of bacterial cell wall synthesis. (nih.gov)
- As antibiotic resistance in staphylococci continues to evolve, the ability to treat infections in children with confidence using first-generation cephalosporins, penicillins, and macrolides is decreasing. (nih.gov)
- The recent worldwide emergence and rapid spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus has prompted a change in the approach to therapy of staphylococcal infections in both the outpatient clinic and the hospital. (nih.gov)
- Treatment for staph infections is antibiotics . (medlineplus.gov)
- There are still certain antibiotics that can treat these infections. (medlineplus.gov)
- Inevitably this has left fewer effective bactericidal antibiotics to treat these often life-threatening infections (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
- Data include the total number of infections from 1987 to 1997. (jci.org)
- Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) kill nearly 200 people in the U.S. every day and affect 1 in 25 hospital patients - and these numbers do not include infections acquired at skilled nursing, long-term acute care and outpatient surgery facilities. (azorobotics.com)
- Aztreonam (Azactam): monobactam antibiotic used to treat gram-negative bacterial infections of the urinary and lower respiratory tracts and the female organs, and infections that are present throughout the body (systemic infections or septicemia). (encyclopedia.com)
- Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim (SMZ-TMP) (generic name product, Bactrim, Cofatrim Forte, Cotrim, Septra, Sulfatrim): the sulfonamide antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole, used in combination with trimethoprim, to prevent and treat PCP and bacterial infections, such as bronchitis and middle ear and urinary tract infections. (encyclopedia.com)
- Antibiotic resistance develops due to the misuse of antibiotics and may result in untreatable and life-threatening infections. (reference.com)
- Because blue and green clays abound in nature, Williams says, the discovery of how their antibacterial action works should lead to alternative ways of treating persistent infections and diseases that are difficult to treat with antibiotics. (nsf.gov)
- These include the antibiotics of the carbapenem family, which are a mainstay for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
- Choice of antibiotics includes oxacillin, cefazolin, nafcillin, gentamycin etc. for Methicillin sensitive strains (MSSA). (news-medical.net)
- These include oxacillin, flucloxacillin, and dicloxacillin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Penicillins commonly include nafcillin, oxacillin (Bactocill) and dicloxacillin (Dynapen). (livestrong.com)
- The aim of this study was to investigate whether thioridazine alone or in combination with oxacillin affects the transcription of the methicillin resistance. (ebscohost.com)
- These antibiotics include methicillin, oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin. (montgomeryschoolsmd.org)
- 8. A method according to claim 1 , wherein the antibacterial agent active on bacterial cell wall is a β-lactam antibiotic. (google.com)
- But having that lack of definition in the middle of the animal-to-human bacterial flow permits uncertainty - which proponents of continued ag antibiotic use exploit. (wired.com)
- Bacterial resistance to antibiotics (antimicrobial resistance) is a natural consequence of antibiotic use. (theconversation.com)
- Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities) may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. (mdpi.com)
- PMX-30063 is the first and only small molecule mimetic of host defense proteins in clinical development, with a novel mechanism of action distinct from other antibiotic drugs, that is believed to work in such a way that makes bacterial resistance unlikely to develop. (drugs.com)
- The appearance of such antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains tends to increase due to the overuse of antibiotics. (hindawi.com)
- To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. (nature.com)
- The carbapenems were developed to overcome antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
- SAN JOSE, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Silver Bullet Therapeutics, Inc. , a privately held medical device company that has developed an antimicrobial technology for implantable medical devices such as orthopedic bone screws, reported today the results of a study testing the "Time Kill" and "Adherence" effectiveness of its CE-marked OrthoFuzIon ® Antimicrobial Bone Screw against the Top Six CDC Antibiotic-Resistant "Superbugs. (businesswire.com)
- The fight against superbugs has taken a leap forward thanks to the discovery that powerful new antibiotics could come from frogs. (telegraph.co.uk)
- MDRO can be more difficult to treat, because they are resistant to certain antibiotics. (nationaljewish.org)
- Those who are at greatest risk for this highly resistant organism are those who are on long-term therapy of certain antibiotics and those with indwelling devices such as urinary catheters, IV catheters, and ventilators. (brightkite.com)
- fingerprinting, PFGE and MLVA) and had the same resistance pattern, susceptible to antibiotics that were not beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins). (wired.com)
- For people allergic to penicillin, a group of antibiotics called cephalosporins, such as cephalexin (Keflex) and cefazolin (Ancef), may be used as an alternative. (livestrong.com)
- Several new compounds, including cephalosporins active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, are in preclinical development as well. (nih.gov)
- Many hospitals and health systems in the U.S. are making efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use through antimicrobial stewardship programs and various interventions to help ensure that patients get the right antibiotics at the right time for the right duration. (eurekalert.org)
- There is also significant resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents and strict adherence to antibiotic policy is required to preserve the usefulness of these agents. (uwi.edu)
- Historically, over the years, the excessive prescribing of antibiotics led to the emergence of a 'super bug. (hubpages.com)
- Emergence of resistance often begins with a large pathogen population in which a tiny fraction is naturally resistant to the antibiotic, either through spontaneous changes or through the acquisition of resistance genes from other microbes. (informit.com)
- In response to rising rates of resistance and inappropriate prescribing, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the National Campaign for Appropriate Antibiotic Use in the Community in 1995. (apua.org)
- There are several million cases of strep-related diseases including impetigo each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (livestrong.com)
- Recent data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that antibiotic resistance costs the nation an estimated $20 billion a year in excess health care costs. (nih.gov)
- In cases associated with sepsis syndrome, therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), which is thought to neutralize superantigens (eg, streptotoxins A and B) believed to mitigate the exaggerated cytokine response, has been shown to be a good adjuvant to appropriate antibiotic coverage and complete surgical debridement. (medscape.com)
- Other possible choices include ampicillin/sulbactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate, or piperacillin/tazobactam in combination with an aminoglycoside and metronidazole or clindamycin. (medscape.com)
- Classically, empiric IV antibiotics such as a penicillinase-resistant penicillin, first or second generation cephalosporin, and clindamycin (may limit toxin production) have been recommended. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Methicillin, a kind of penicillin, was introduced in 1959 to combat the growing problem, but British scientists identified the first methicillin-resistant strain only two years later. (bioedonline.org)
- It is common in hospital patients, and a different strain has been infecting people, including children, outside of hospitals. (nypost.com)
- Glycopeptide antibiotics are a class of drugs of microbial origin that are composed of glycosylated cyclic or polycyclic nonribosomal peptides. (wikipedia.org)
- Due to their toxicity, use of glycopeptide antibiotics is restricted to patients who are critically ill, who have a demonstrated hypersensitivity to the β-lactams, or who are infected with β-lactam-resistant species. (wikipedia.org)
- Description: Data on inpatient antibiotic stewardship practices in U.S. acute care hospitals. (cdc.gov)
- Its partner campaigns, Get Smart for Healthcare and Get Smart on the Farm , are focused on optimization of antibiotic use in inpatient healthcare settings and in veterinary medicine/animal agriculture. (apua.org)