Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Diseases affecting the eye.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Product of epinephrine O-methylation. It is a commonly occurring, pharmacologically and physiologically inactive metabolite of epinephrine.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
An anthracycline produced by Streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.
A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
The study of ancient inscriptions and modes of writing. It includes the deciphering of manuscripts and other forms to determine their date, provenance, etc. (Webster's 1st ed)
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
A type of procedural memory manifested as a change in the ability to identify an item as a result of a previous encounter with the item or stimuli.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).

Evaluation of bactericidal activities of LY333328, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin-sulbactam, trovafloxacin, and RP59500 alone or in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against different strains of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus by time-kill curve methods. (1/586)

This in vitro study evaluated the activities of vancomycin, LY333328, and teicoplanin alone and in combination with gentamicin, rifampin, and RP59500 against Staphylococcus aureus isolates with intermediate susceptibilities to vancomycin. Ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin were also evaluated. LY333328 and ampicillin-sulbactam resulted in bactericidal activity against all isolates. The combination of gentamicin with glycopeptides showed synergistic activity, while rifampin had no added benefit.  (+info)

rpoB mutations in multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy. (2/586)

Mutations of rpoB associated with rifampin resistance were studied in 37 multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy. At least one mutated codon was found in each MDR strain. It was always a single-base substitution leading to an amino acid change. Nine different rpoB alleles, three of which had not been reported before, were found. The relative frequencies of specific mutations in this sample were different from those previously reported from different geographical areas, since 22 strains (59.5%) carried the mutated codon TTG in position 531 (Ser-->Leu) and 11 (29.7%) had GAC in position 526 (His-->Asp).  (+info)

Integron-mediated rifampin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (3/586)

A new rifampin resistance gene, arr-2, has been found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ARR-2 protein shows 54% amino acid identity to the rifampin ADP-ribosylating transferase encoded by the arr gene from Mycobacterium smegmatis. This arr-2 gene is located on a gene cassette within a class I integron.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Lesotho. (4/586)

Villages associated with the Lesotho Highlands Development Agency were randomized with a bias in favour of larger villages, and children < 5 years of age from cluster-randomized households in these villages were chosen for the assessment of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci. Children of the same age group attending clinics in the capital, Maseru, were selected for comparison. Nasopharyngeal cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae from both groups of children were examined for antibiotic resistance and a questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for the acquisition of resistant strains. Carriage of penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant pneumococci was significantly higher among 196 Maseru children compared with 324 rural children (P < 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). Maseru children tended to visit clinics at an earlier age compared with their rural counterparts. The rural children were less exposed to antibiotics (P < 0.01), were less frequently hospitalized (P < 0.001), and rarely attended day care centres (P < 0.001). The very low incidence of antibiotic resistance in rural Lesotho and the higher incidence in Maseru are in stark contrast with the much higher frequencies found in the Republic of South Africa, many European countries, and the USA.  (+info)

Rifampicin is not an activator of the glucocorticoid receptor in A549 human alveolar cells. (5/586)

It has recently been reported that rifampicin activates the glucocorticoid receptor and acts as an immunosuppressive drug. Because rifampicin constitutes an essential part of pulmonary tuberculosis therapy, we have examined whether it triggers glucocorticoid-like effects in alveolar cells. We have used reporter gene assays to measure the trans-activating and trans-repressing capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor after treating A549 human alveolar cells with rifampicin. The data show that rifampicin neither activated transcription from a promoter containing a glucocorticoid response element nor repressed the activity of activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB, which are transcription factors involved in the immune response. In addition, rifampicin was also unable to inhibit the expression of an endogenous gene that contains activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB response elements and encodes the proinflammatory cytokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein). Finally, nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor, which occurs after ligand binding, was not triggered by rifampicin. In contrast, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone scored positive in all corresponding control experiments. In conclusion, rifampicin is not an activator of the glucocorticoid receptor in A549 alveolar cells. Our results support the clinical observation that rifampicin is not an immunosuppressive drug and suggest that the current medical practice concerning this antibiotic should not be changed.  (+info)

In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of new rifamycin derivatives, KRM-1648 and KRM-1657. (6/586)

The new rifamycin derivatives KRM-1657 and KRM-1648 were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against 44 strains of Helicobacter pylori. Although the drugs were not very active against other gram-negative bacteria, the MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for these drugs were lower (0.002 and 0.008 microgram/ml, respectively) than those of amoxicillin and rifampin for H. pylori. Time-kill studies revealed that the bactericidal activities of these agents were due to cell lysis. The results presented here indicate that these new rifamycin derivatives may be useful for the eradication of H. pylori infections.  (+info)

Efficacy of microencapsulated rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. (7/586)

Rifampin is a first-line drug useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. By using biocompatible polymeric excipients of lactide and glycolide copolymers, two microsphere formulations were developed for targeted and sustained delivery of rifampin, with minimal dosing. A small-microsphere formulation, with demonstrated ability to inhibit intracellularly replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, was tested along with a large-microsphere formulation in an infected mouse model. Results revealed that by using a single treatment of the large-microsphere formulation, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in M. tuberculosis H37Rv CFUs in the lungs of mice by 26 days postinfection. A combination of small (given as two injections on day 0 and day 7) and large (given as one injection at day 0) rifampin-loaded microsphere formulations resulted in significant reductions in CFUs in the lungs by 26 days, achieving a 1.23 log10 reduction in CFUs. By comparison, oral treatment with 5, 10, or 20 mg of rifampin/kg of body weight, administered every day, resulted in a reduction of 0.42, 1.7, or 1.8 log10 units, respectively. Thus the microsphere formulations, administered in one or two doses, were able to achieve results in mice similar to those obtained with a daily drug regimen within the range of the highest clinically tolerated dosage in humans. These results demonstrate that microsphere formulations of antimycobacterial drugs such as rifampin can be used for therapy of tuberculosis with minimal dosing.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo experimental activities of antifungal agents against Fusarium solani. (8/586)

In the treatment of disseminated Fusarium infections, amphotericin B either alone or in combination with flucytosine and rifampin is the drug therapy most frequently used. The efficacy of these antifungal drugs was evaluated in a murine disseminated-infection model, with five strains of Fusarium solani. All the treatments were clearly ineffective.  (+info)

article{ec0a3db2-6375-4444-b969-fd4c516197f3, abstract = {The colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was standardized for direct detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the direct MTT assay matched those of the standard indirect susceptibility assay on 7H10 medium, and interpretable results were obtained for 98.5% of the samples within 2 weeks. Traditional methods of in vitro drug susceptibility testing are time consuming and laborious. Susceptibility tests on clinical isolates require 6 to 9 weeks, and tests conducted directly on smear-positive samples take about 3 weeks (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, The public health service national tuberculosis reference laboratory and the national laboratory network. Minimum requirements, role and operation in a low-income country, Paris, France, 1998, and P. T. Kent and G. P. Kubica, Public health ...
Saint Cloud, Minn. - Microbiologics, Inc. has launched positive and negative controls for quality control of Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB-RIF) molecular assays and test methods to help clinical laboratories deliver fast and accurate results. One fourth of the worlds population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) and 10.0 million people became ill with TB disease in 2017 according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is on the rise due to mismanaged treatment and person-to-person transmission. World Health Organization (WHO) estimated 600,000 people worldwide developed MDR-TB in 2016 with 110,000 cases caused by MTB-RIF.. The new Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Positive Control Panel and Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Negative Control were designed to make quality control testing of molecular assays simple, reliable, and affordable. Features of the controls include:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mode of Action of Kanglemycin A, an Ansamycin Natural Product that Is Active against Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. AU - Mosaei, Hamed. AU - Molodtsov, Vadim. AU - Kepplinger, Bernhard. AU - Harbottle, John. AU - Moon, Christopher William. AU - Jeeves, Rose Elizabeth. AU - Ceccaroni, Lucia. AU - Shin, Yeonoh. AU - Morton-Laing, Stephanie. AU - Marrs, Emma Claire Louise. AU - Wills, Corinne. AU - Clegg, William. AU - Yuzenkova, Yulia. AU - Perry, John David. AU - Bacon, Joanna. AU - Errington, Jeff. AU - Allenby, Nicholas Edward Ellis. AU - Hall, Michael John. AU - Murakami, Katsuhiko S.. AU - Zenkin, Nikolay. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the staff at the MacCHESS for support with crystallographic data collection. We also thank UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council for X-ray crystallography facilities (grant EP/F03637X/1), Dr U. Baisch (Newcastle University) for measuring the CuKalpha diffraction data, Diamond Light Source for access to ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to rifampin results from nucleotide changes in the gene encoding the beta-subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB). We developed a reverse hybridization-based line probe assay (LiPA; the INNO-LiPA Rif. TB) carrying one oligonucleotide probe for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex strains and nine probes designed to detect nucleotide changes in the relevant part of rpoB. This assay was evaluated with 107 M. tuberculosis isolates with known rpoB sequences, 52 non-M. tuberculosis complex strains, and 61 and 203 clinical isolates found to be sensitive and resistant, respectively, by in vitro testing. The results indicated that (i) the M. tuberculosis complex probe was 100% specific, (ii) when compared to the results of nucleotide sequencing, no discrepancies with the results of INNO-LiPA Rif. TB were observed, (iii) all strains sensitive by in vitro susceptibility testing were correctly identified, and (iv) among the strains resistant by in vitro susceptibility ...
We will enroll 24-36 patients, 8-12 at each dose of 600, 900 and 1200 mg rifapentine Admissions for pharmacokinetic studies will take place during the continuation phase of tuberculosis therapy. Patients participating in a double-blinded trial of the tolerability and safety of higher doses of rifapentine during continuation phase therapy and consenting to participate in the pharmacokinetic study may be admitted to a Clinical Research Center (CRC) to allow for frequent blood sampling over a 24-hour period. Otherwise, patients will be evaluated in the clinic ...
We will enroll 24-36 patients, 8-12 at each dose of 600, 900 and 1200 mg rifapentine Admissions for pharmacokinetic studies will take place during the continuation phase of tuberculosis therapy. Patients participating in a double-blinded trial of the tolerability and safety of higher doses of rifapentine during continuation phase therapy and consenting to participate in the pharmacokinetic study may be admitted to a Clinical Research Center (CRC) to allow for frequent blood sampling over a 24-hour period. Otherwise, patients will be evaluated in the clinic ...
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Advice for mothers using Rifapentine (Priftin) while breastfeeding. Includes possible effects on breastfed infants and lactation.
Rifampicin - Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic used for the treatment of certain bacterial infections including tuberculosis.
Rifampicin - Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic used for the treatment of certain bacterial infections including tuberculosis.
As explained in this eMedTV resource, rifampin capsules and injections are typically used once or twice a day. More dosing instructions for rifampin are given in this article, including details on how the dosage is calculated by your healthcare provider.
Only the injected form of rifampin is available in a 600-mg strength. This brief eMedTV segment lists all the other forms and strengths of this drug. This article also discusses what rifampin is used for and how your dosage is determined.
Rifampicin Central is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Rifampicin Central is available on the Drugs.com website.
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The study evaluated the effect of Rifampicin on the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of oral and intravenous apixaban in
Rifalazil (also known as KRM-1648 and AMI-1648) is an antibiotic. Rifalazil kills bacterial cells by blocking off the β-subunit in RNA polymerase. Rifalazil is used as treatments for many different diseases. Of the most common are Chlamydia infection, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), and tuberculosis (TB). Using rifalazil and the effects that coincide with taking rifalazil for treating a bacterial disease vary from person to person, as does any drug put into the human body. Food interactions and genetic variation are a few causes for the variation in side effects from the use of rifalazil. Its development was terminated in 2013 due to severe side effects. Rifalazil works well alone, and in conjunction with other antibiotics alone. In a study conducted in 2005, it was found that combining rifalazil with vancomycin increased bacterial killing by a factor of 3.[medical citation needed] Rifalazil also has a very long half-life which allows more infrequent dosages as opposed to ...
Resistance to rifampin arises due to mutations in the beta subunit of RNA polymerase encoded by the gene rpoB. Almost all of the corresponding mutations in rpoB occur in a small region of less than 100 bp, with less than 5% occurring outside of this region (36). This includes point mutations, deletions, and insertions (66). Despite the large number of different possible mutations three are found in more than 70% of clinical isolates. An experimental investigation of this phenomenon used in vitro resistance induction to investigate this. A limited repertoire of mutations was detected. When the growth rate of these organisms was compared with that of their parents in competition, a range of fitness was detected. There was considerable variation in the fitness of the rifampin-resistant strains, with some showing a severe physiological burden with a relative fitness (rf) of as little as 0.21, whereas other strains had a fitness similar to that of the susceptible parent (rf = 1.05; in these ...
Rifapentine - Get up-to-date information on Rifapentine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Rifapentine
Rifapentine is an antibiotic that is used to treat tuberculosis in both children and adults. It is often paired with other medicines for a better effect.
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Rifampin-resistant meningococcal disease occurred in a child who had completed rifampin chemoprophylaxis for exposure to a sibling with meningococcemia. Susceptibility testing of 331 case isolates found only 1 other case of rifampin-resistant disease in Minnesota, USA, during 11 years of statewide surveillance. Point mutations in the RNA polymerase Beta subunit (rpoB) gene were found in isolates from each rifampin-resistant case-patient ...
SUMMARY Rifampicin is an antibiotic mostly used to treat tuberculosis and leprosy, and, occasionally, other diseases. Resistance is due to alterations in membrane permeability or to mutation in the rpoB gene coding for mRNA polymerase. Both these mechanisms originate via chromosomal mutation. However, a rifampicin-resistant Pseudomonas fluorescens strain harboured a multiresistance plasmid which transferred rifampicin resistance when transformed into P. putida or Escherichia coli. Rifampicin readily diffused into the sensitive cells of the E. coli and P. putida recipients, but the transformants with the plasmid, pSCL were resistant to the drug and did not accumulate it. Potassium cyanide restored the diffusion of rifampicin into the resistant cells, indicating that an efflux pump was involved in the resistance mechanism. The resistance of the transformants and the wild strain was also abolished in sphaeroplasts generated by EDTA lysozyme treatment. Analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE revealed the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of rifampin-resistant genotypes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by reverse hybridization assay. AU - Maschmann, Raquel de A. AU - Verza, Mirela. AU - Silva, Marcia S N. AU - Sperhacke, Rosa Dea. AU - Ribeiro, Marta O.. AU - Suffys, Philip Noel. AU - Gomes, Harrison Magdinier. AU - Tortoli, Enrico. AU - Marcelli, Fiorella. AU - Zaha, Arnaldo. AU - Rossetti, Maria Lucia R. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - We used a colorimetric reverse dot blot hybridization (CRDH) assay to detect the presence of mutations in a specific region of the rpoB gene, associated with rifampin (RIF) resistance, in a panel of 156 DNAs extracted from 103 RIF-sensitive and 53 RIF-resistant cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When compared with the antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST), the sensitivity and specificity of the CRDH were 92.3% and 98.1%, respectively. When compared with sequencing, the sensitivity and specificity of the CRDH were 90.6% and 100%, respectively. To evaluate the ...
Rifampicin, an antibiotic widely used in tuberculosis therapy, is known to exert psychotropic side effects in some patients. Recently, rifampicin has been reported to activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in human hepatocytes. Because there is evidence that increased levels of glucocorticoids may induce cognitive impairment, sometimes culminating in depression, the side effects of rifampicin may result from GR activation in central nerve cells. Therefore, we used reporter gene assays to determine whether rifampicin displays glucocorticoid-like effects in human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells or mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Rifampicin was unable to elicit any detectable transactivation of GR in both cell types, whereas cortisol or dexamethasone led to a potent transcriptional response. Rifampicin was also inactive in the same HepG2 cell line that was originally used to demonstrate the effect of rifampicin on GR. Moreover, rifampicin was unable to compete with dexamethasone for binding to GR. ...
Results. Jindani A, Harrison TS, Nunn AJ, Phillips PP, Churchyard GJ, Charalambous S, Hatherill M, Geldenhuys H, McIlleron HM, Zvada SP, Mungofa S, Shah NA, Zizhou S, Magweta L, Shepherd J, Nyirenda S, van Dijk JH, Clouting HE, Coleman D, Bateson AL, McHugh TD, Butcher PD, Mitchison DA, , High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis., N. Engl. J. Med., 2014, 371, 17, 1599-1608, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1314210.. ...
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Rifampin definition. noun, Pharmacology. 1. a semisynthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic, C 4 3 H 5 8 N 4 O 1 2 , used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, asymptomatic car
Learn how Rifampin is used to treat foals and horses when a systemic antibacterial is needed to treat staphylococcal infections and eradicate pathogens located in difficult to reach target areas, such as abscesses.
Rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae in an elderly leprosy patient in the Peoples Republic of China Meiwen Yu,1,* Kan Wu,1,* Bing Pei,2 Degang Yang,2 Qiulin Wang,1 Hongsheng Wang,1 Jianping Shen,1 Liangbing Yan,1 Guochen Zhang1 1Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Center for STD and Leprosy Control, China CDC, Nanjing, Peoples Republic of China; 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The reported number of registered leprosy patients worldwide declined with the introduction of multidrug therapy. However, the emergence of rifampicin resistance in leprosy patients engenders difficulties for an individual patient, and its dissemination could pose a threat to leprosy control. This study reports an elderly patient who was diagnosed with rifampicin-resistant lepromatous leprosy. This case indicates that
Rifampin is currently the most potent drug used in leprosy control programs. We show that the rifampin resistance which emerged in nine patients with lepromatous leprosy, who had received rifampin monotherapy, stemmed from mutations in the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta subunit of RNA polymerase of Mycobacterium leprae. In eight cases missense mutations were found to affect a serine residue, Ser-425, while in the remaining mutant a small insertion was found close to this site. These findings will be of use for the development of a rapid screening procedure, involving the polymerase chain reaction, for monitoring the emergence of rifampin-resistant M. leprae strains. Honore, N; Cole, S T
Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derived from the rifamycins, a group of antibacterials produced by Streptomyces mediterranei. Rifampicin was initially developed to treat tuberculosis but more recently has been used against other bacteria. The beneficial effect of rifampicin on pruritus was initially discovered serendipitously. Four formal studies (three of which were randomised controlled trials) have suggested a subjective effect of rifampicin on itch severity.10-13 These studies also suggested that rifampicin was better at relieving itch than other hepatic enzyme inducing agents such as phenobarbitone.10 A single small study failed to confirm the effectiveness of rifampicin for subjective itching in cholestatic liver disease (including three patients with PBC).18 All of these studies used subjective measures of itch severity (for example, visual analogue scales). To our knowledge no trial of rifampicin in cholestasis has examined efficacy in terms of objective changes in scratching ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outbreak due to methicillin- and rifampin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. T2 - Epidemiology and eradication of the resistant strain from the hospital. AU - Bitar, C. M.. AU - Mayhall, C. G.. AU - Lamb, V. A.. AU - Bradshaw, T. J.. AU - Spadora, A. C.. AU - Dalton, H. P.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023111265&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023111265&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1017/S0195941700066935. DO - 10.1017/S0195941700066935. M3 - Article. C2 - 3643888. AN - SCOPUS:0023111265. VL - 8. SP - 15. EP - 23. JO - Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. JF - Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. SN - 0899-823X. IS - 1. ER - ...
To evaluate the effects of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of sotagliflozin and its metabolite in healthy male and female subjects. Secondary
Emmanuel Fajardo: Added Value of Performing a Second Xpert MTB/RIF Test on a Second Sputum Sample to Confirm Rifampicin Resistance:Analysis of Routinely Collected Data in MSF-Supported Sites in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and ...
The objectives are to compare drug regimens containing rifabutin with those containing rifampicin for treating people with pulmonary tuberculosis. ...
This 24-years old man had fever every night starting April 2019, when a CT scan showed necrotic portal nodes. A biopsy could not be done at the time and he was not put on any treatment. He came in the 3rd week of Dec, with an increase in the size of the nodes. A trans hepatic CT guided biopsy yielded pus and the PCR (GeneXpert) on the same day was positive for TB, with rifampicin resistance.. ...
Rifampicin (Rifadin-Lepetit; Rimactane-Ciba) is a semi-synthetic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces mediterranei which inhibits the synthesis of bacterial messenger-RNA. In vitro it is active against Gram-positive organisms and mycobacteria in low concentrations (0.0002 - 0.5 mcg/ml); and against Gram-negative organisms in higher concentrations (1 - 10 mcg/ml). Drug-resistant mutants readily emerge if rifampicin is used alone.1 It is already established as an important agent in the treatment of tuberculosis. Its usefulness in other bacterial and in viral infections is uncertain.. ...
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Nocturnal species that is usually in pairs or small groups in shallow reef flats of lagoon and seaward reefs to depths of over 30 m. Juvenile occurs among rocks of inner reef flats and in tide pools (Ref. 205). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Adult feeds mainly on nudibranchs, tubeworm tentacles, and other benthic invertebrates, also feeds on algae and coral polyps. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Forms pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates cultured from 6 patients associated with an isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis outbreak acquired rifampicin resistance. The rpoB gene sequence showed that resistance was associated with rare mutations in each isolate. Three isolates had a mutation outside the rifampicin resistance-determining region.
Rationale: Rifampin at a dose of 10 mg/kg was introduced in 1971 based on pharmacokinetic, toxicity and cost considerations. Available data in mice and humans showed that an increase in dose may shorten the duration of tuberculosis treatment. Objectives: To evaluate the safety and tolerability, the pharmacokinetics and the extended early bactericidal activity of increasing doses of rifampin. Methods: Patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis were enrolled into a control group of 8 patients receiving the standard dose of 10 mg/kg rifampin, followed by consecutive experimental groups with 15 patients each receiving rifampin 20 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 35 mg/kg, respectively, for 14 days. In all patients isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol were added in standard doses for the second 7 days of treatment. Safety, pharmacokinetics of rifampin, and fall in bacterial load were assessed. Measurements and Main Results: Grade 1 and 2 adverse events were equally distributed between the five dose ...
The effect of rifampin on the replication of MVL51, a bullet-shaped mycoplasmavirus with single-stranded circular DNA of molecular weight 2 X 10(6), has been examined in a rifampin-resistant host cell. Rifampin does not block the early steps in MVL51 infection but does decrease the total amount of parental viral DNA taken up. The single-stranded parental viral DNA that enters the cell is found in membrane-associated, double-stranded DNA replicative forms I and II. Rifampin had no significant effect on the synthesis of progeny viral DNA RFI and RFII early in infection and SSI (single-stranded progeny viral chromosomes) later in infection. The rifampin block in virus synthesis was found to be in the step converting SSI into assembled virions. Rifampin was shown to affect the synthesis of virus-specific RNA, Which suggests that viral transcription is necessary for virion assembly. ...
Abstract The effect of rifampin therapy in leprosy was studied in two clinical short-term trials in which skin punch biopsy specimens were taken at regular intervals for the inoculation of mice in order to monitor the decrease in proportion of viable Mycobacterium leprae in the patients' lesions. In a trial of rifampin in a dosage of 600 mg daily, the bacterial viability fell to undetectable levels in the first specimen taken after the start of therapy (at 3-4 days in 4 patients, 7-8 days in 9, and 14 days in 2). Dapsone-treated controls required 20 to more than 112 days for the same change. In a trial of a single dose of 1,500 mg rifampin, the viability fell to undetectable levels in the first specimen taken after the start of therapy also (at 3-5 days in all 14 patients).
Biofilms of S. aureus accumulate cells resistant to the antibiotic rifampicin. We show here that the accumulation of rifampicin resistant mutants (RifR) in biofilms is not equable but rather is a local event, suggesting that the growth of a few locally emerged mutants is responsible for this. Competition assays demonstrated that, compared to wild-type bacteria, the isolated RifR mutants have a growth advantage in biofilms, but not in planktonic culture. To gain insight into the mechanism of the growth advantage, we tested the involvement of the two-component systems (TCS) that sense and respond to environmental changes. We found that a deletion of SrrAB or NreBC has a drastic effect on the growth advantage of RifR mutants, suggesting the importance of oxygen/respiration responses. All six of the RifR isolates tested showed increased resistance to at least one of the common stresses found in the biofilm environment (i.e., oxidative, nitric acid, and organic acid stress). The RifR mutants also had a
Purpose: : We have previously described a patient with reversible retinal dysfunction, and drug accumulation in the cornea and lens, probably caused by rifabutin, an antimycobacterial drug. In the present study we have investigated if and how rifabutin affects rabbit retina, lens and cornea. Methods: : Seven rabbits were treated with a daily dose (10mg/kg body weight) of rifabutin solution perorally, during a period of 12 months. Six rabbits receiving water were used as controls. Repeated full-field electroretinograms (ERG) were assessed during this period. A micro biological method was used to detect rifabutin in serum, in order to prove successful drug exposition. After terminating treatment the rabbits were sacrificed and the morphology of the cornea, the lens and the sectioned retina was studied. Results: : In all treated rabbits rifabutin could be detected in serum (range: 0.11-0.26 mg/L), but not in the controls. Full-field ERG demonstrated in both treated rabbits and in the controls a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - One month of rifapentine plus isoniazid to prevent HIV-related Tuberculosis. AU - BRIEF TB/A5279 Study Team. AU - Swindells, Susan. AU - Ramchandani, Ritesh. AU - Gupta, Amita. AU - Benson, Constance A.. AU - Leon-Cruz, Jorge. AU - Mwelase, Noluthando. AU - Jean Juste, Marc A.. AU - Lama, Javier R.. AU - Valencia, Javier. AU - Omoz-Oarhe, Ayotunde. AU - Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai. AU - Masheto, Gaerolwe. AU - Mohapi, Lerato. AU - Da Silva Escada, Rodrigo O.. AU - Mawlana, Sajeeda. AU - Banda, Peter. AU - Severe, Patrice. AU - Hakim, James. AU - Kanyama, Cecilia. AU - Langat, Deborah. AU - Moran, Laura. AU - Andersen, Janet. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Nuermberger, Eric. AU - Chaisson, Richard E. PY - 2019/3/14. Y1 - 2019/3/14. N2 - BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is the leading killer of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Preventive therapy is effective, but current regimens are limited by poor implementation and low completion rates. METHODS We conducted a ...
Rifampin is an antibiotic that fights bacteria and prevents it from spreading in your body. Rifampin is used to treat or prevent tuberculosis (TB). Rifampin may also be used to reduce certain bacteria in your nose and throat that could cause meningitis or other infections. Rifampin prevents you from spreading these...
Consumer information about the medication RIFAMPIN/ISONIAZID - ORAL (Rifamate), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the prescription drug RIFAMPIN/ISONIAZID - ORAL.
In a review update, XpertMTB/RIF was found to be sensitive and specific for diagnosing pulmonary TB and rifampicin resistance which is consistent with the last review completed in 2014.
Researchers assess all-cause mortality during TB treatment in patients with diabetes, the use of metformin, and effect sputum culture-conversion rates.
Higher daily doses of rifampin, a cornerstone of tuberculosis treatment, killed more TB bacteria in sputum cultures, and the higher doses did so without increasing the adverse effects of treatment, according to a randomized ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two patients with rifampin-related flu-like syndrome successfully treated with rifabutin. AU - De Rosa, F. G.. AU - Cicalini, S.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029617279&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029617279&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0029617279. VL - 10. SP - 247. JO - Mediterranean Journal of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases. JF - Mediterranean Journal of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases. SN - 0394-025X. IS - 4. ER - ...
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Three months of the once-weekly rifapentine + isoniazid 12-dose regimen administered under directly observed therapy offers substantial advantages over the standard 9-month regimen, according to reports from IDWeek 2012.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. rifampicin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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Most clinical antibiotics were found during the "golden age of antibiotics" (1940s-1960s). Actinomycin was the first antibiotic ... A recent screening of TCM extracts revealed a Streptomyces that produces a number of antitubercular pluramycins. Biology portal ... StreptomeDB Antibiotics and Streptomyces : the future of antibiotic discovery Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their ... would go on to comprise over two-thirds of all marketed antibiotics. Streptomyces-derived antibiotics include: Chloramphenicol ...
His research has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, antibiotics, and metal sensing. He has engaged in some research ... "Antitubercular Bis-Substituted Cyclam Derivatives: Structure-Activity Relationships and in Vivo Studies". Journal of Medicinal ... Devi, Prarthana; Rutledge, Peter J. (2017). "Cyclobutanone Analogues of β-Lactam Antibiotics: β-Lactamase Inhibitors with ... "Antitubercular Bis-Substituted Cyclam Derivatives: Structure-Activity Relationships and in Vivo Studies". Journal of Medicinal ...
... antibiotics, antitubercular MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.222 - antitreponemal agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.255 - antitubercular ... agents MeSH D27.505.954. - antibiotics, antitubercular MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.777 - leprostatic agents MeSH ... antibiotics, antineoplastic MeSH D27.505.954.248.125 - anticarcinogenic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248.144 - antimetabolites, ... D27.505.954.122.136 - antifungal agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.136.073 - antibiotics, antifungal MeSH D27.505.954.122.187 - anti- ...
Sulfone - Dapsone (DDS), Phenazine derivative - Clofazimine, Antitubercular drugs - Rifampicin, Ethionamide, Solapsone, Other ... antibiotics - Oflaxacin, Minocycline, Clarithromycin, Current recommendations for the treatment of leprosy suggest multidrug ...
Treatment is usually antibiotics. Parotitis as extrapulmonary tuberculosis: The mycobacterium that cause tuberculosis can also ... When diagnosed and treated with antitubercular medications, the gland may return to normal in 1-3 months. Acute viral parotitis ...
October 1998). "Antitubercular natural products: berberine from the roots of commercial Hydrastis canadensis powder. Isolation ... Berberine alone has weak antibiotic activity in vitro since many microorganisms actively export it from the cell (although a ... 1] Bergner, Paul Goldenseal and the Antibiotic Myth Medical Herbalism: A Journal for the Clinical Practitioner Volume 8, Number ... to work on the immune system as well as on attacking the microbes and hence have a stronger clinical effect than the antibiotic ...
In preclinical studies SQ109 enhanced the activity of anti-tubercular drugs isoniazid and rifampin and reduced by >30% the time ... Receives Russian Regulator's Approval to Conduct Pivotal Clinical Trial for Sequella's Antibiotic, SQ109, for Tuberculosis". ... a new diamine-based antitubercular drug". British Journal of Pharmacology. 144 (1): 80-87. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705984. PMC ...
Antibiotics by mouth and by intravenous appear similar. Due to insufficient evidence it is unclear what the best antibiotic ... Tubercular osteomyelitis of the spine was so common before the initiation of effective antitubercular therapy, it acquired a ... Initial first-line antibiotic choice is determined by the patient's history and regional differences in common infective ... Before the availability of antibiotics the risk of death was significant. Symptoms may include pain in a specific bone with ...
... antibiotic; including antitubercular), antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic (including antiprotozoal and antihelminthic) ... Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in case there is resistance to one antibiotic. Antibiotics only work for bacteria and ... Antibiotics work by slowing down the multiplication of bacteria or killing the bacteria. The most common classes of antibiotics ... Thus, avoiding using antibiotics longer than necessary helps preventing bacteria from forming mutations that aide in antibiotic ...
Besides the antibiotics rifampicin and isoniazid it contains piperine. "Bioenhancers". Zutshi, RK; Singh, R; Zutshi, U; Johri, ... Atal also initiated the bioenhanced anti tubercular drug research project using Rifampicin which later resulted in development ... Glycyrrhizin, a saponin of the liquorice plant, promotes the action of numerous antibiotics and the antifungal agent ... Besides several classes of modern drugs like antibiotics, anti cancer drugs, cardiovascular drugs, anti inflammatory, central ...
... is an antibiotic medication used for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis affecting the lungs. It is ... in a series of 100 nitroimidazopyran derivatives synthesized and tested for antitubercular activity, by PathoGenesis (now a ... Abutaleb Y (14 August 2019). "New antibiotic approved for drug-resistant tuberculosis". The Washington Post. "New Drug Therapy ...
The Journal of Antibiotics. 60 (6): 391-394. doi:10.1038/ja.2007.54. PMID 17617698. editors; Blunt, John; Munro, Murray H.G. ( ... Natural Thioether Michael Addition Adducts as Antitubercular Prodrugs". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 52 (4): 1231- ... novel aminofuran antibiotic and anticancer compounds isolated from marine strains of the actinomycete Verrucosispora". The ... Journal of Antibiotics. 61 (3): 158-63. doi:10.1038/ja.2008.125. PMID 18503194. v t e. ...
"Egg-laying mammal's milk may help for novel antibiotics". Deccan Herald. India: The Printers Mysore. Press Trust of India. 25 ... Usmani SS, Bhalla S, Raghava GP (26 August 2018). "Prediction of Antitubercular Peptides From Sequence Information Using ... Selectivity is a very important feature of the antimicrobial peptides and it can guarantee their function as antibiotics in ... In contrast to many conventional antibiotics these peptides appear to be bactericidal instead of bacteriostatic. In general the ...
... is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis. Specifically it is used, along with other antituberculosis medications ... Belardinelli, Juan M.; Morbidoni, Héctor R. (2013-04-01). "Recycling and refurbishing old antitubercular drugs: the encouraging ...
29 Studies found for: Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia , Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Also searched for Promyelocytic leukemia ...
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis; antibiotics; antitubercular; cytokines; tuberculosis; type 2 diabetes. PMID:. 30258443. PMCID:. ... Unfortunately, with the emergence of drug resistant and multi-drug resistant strains of M. tb the archetypical antibiotics no ... Although antibiotics were ineffective, the effectiveness of steroid therapy suggested a diagnosis of granulomatous IRIS caused ... The Synergistic Effects of the Glutathione Precursor, NAC and First-Line Antibiotics in the Granulomatous Response Against ...
The anti-tubercular drug delamanid and its corresponding S-enantiomer were synthesized (Appendix 1 and Figure 1-figure ... Antibiotic stress induces the expression of an integrase that excises and integrates cassettes, and this unique recombination ... The anti-tubercular drug delamanid as a potential oral treatment for visceral leishmaniasis. ... In addition, a recently reported screen of anti-tubercular nitroimidazoles against L. donovani identified DNDI-VL-2098 as a ...
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Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. To Top. *For Patients and Families ...
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5 FMT Capsule DE along with antibiotic; followed by five capsules FMT Capsule DE x 7 days post-antibiotic course. ... Five capsules per day along with antibiotic; followed by five capsules per day for seven days post-antibiotic treatment. ... Receiving antibiotics at enrollment for reasons other than CDI and having received no more than three doses of the prescribed ... FMT Capsule double-encapsulated (DE) by mouth, 5 capsules once daily with antibiotic, followed by 5 capsules daily for 7 days ...
Active infection requiring systemic antibiotic therapy with antibacterial, antifungal or antiviral agents ...
Most clinical antibiotics were found during the "golden age of antibiotics" (1940s-1960s). Actinomycin was the first antibiotic ... A recent screening of TCM extracts revealed a Streptomyces that produces a number of antitubercular pluramycins. Biology portal ... StreptomeDB Antibiotics and Streptomyces : the future of antibiotic discovery Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their ... would go on to comprise over two-thirds of all marketed antibiotics. Streptomyces antibiotics include: Chloramphenicol ( ...
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Antibiotics. Macrolide antibiotics have been reported to cause a significant decrease in corticosteroid clearance. ... Antitubercular Drugs. Serum concentrations of isoniazid may be decreased.. Cholestyramine. Cholestyramine may increase the ...
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Antibiotics. Macrolide antibiotics have been reported to cause a significant decrease in corticosteroid clearance (see Hepatic ... Antitubercular Drugs. Serum concentrations of isoniazid may be decreased.. Cholestyramine. Cholestyramine may increase the ... Hepatic Enzyme Inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin and troleandomycin). Drugs which ...
Chemoenzymatic Pathways towards Novel Peptide Antibiotics. Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry ... Recent Development and Future Perspective of Antitubercular Therapy. Author(s): Mahesh Chhabria, Shailesh Patel, Mitesh Jani ... Synthesis of Adamantane Aminoethers with Antitubercular Potential. Medicinal Chemistry. * Editorial [Hot Topic: Tuberculosis; ... Mahesh Chhabria, Shailesh Patel and Mitesh Jani, " Recent Development and Future Perspective of Antitubercular Therapy", Anti- ...
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Antibiotics. Macrolide antibiotics have been reported to cause a significant decrease in corticosteroid clearance (see DRUG ... Antitubercular Drugs. Serum concentrations of isoniazid may be decreased.. Cholestyramine. Cholestyramine may increase the ... Drugs which inhibit CYP 3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole, macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin) have the potential to result in ...
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Antitubercular, antihelminthic, parenteral preparations, and topical antibiotics were excluded.. Insurance claims for in-person ... Although antibiotic resistance continues to be a major public health concern, patterns of antibiotic use have changed ... Within each age group, we calculated population-based antibiotic dispensing rates (number of antibiotic dispensings divided by ... Appropriate antibiotic use: be antibiotics aware. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/. Accessed October 24, 2018 ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular (10) • Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination ... Antibiotics, Cytotoxic (0) see Antibiotics, Antineoplastic. Anticarcinogenic Agents (36) • Agents that reduce the frequency or ... Antibiotics, Antifungal (10) see Antifungal Agents. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic (98) • Chemical substances, produced by ... Antitubercular Agents (33) • Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular / pharmacology*. Bacterial Typing Techniques. Base Sequence. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / ... 0/Antibiotics, Antitubercular; 0/DNA, Bacterial; 0/RNA, Bacterial; 0/Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 13292-46-1/Rifampin; EC 3.1.-/ ...
0 (Antibiotics, Antitubercular); 2KNI5N06TI (Pyrazinamide); 8G167061QZ (Ethambutol); V83O1VOZ8L (Isoniazid); VJT6J7R4TR ( ... 0 (Antitubercular Agents); 0 (Oxazines); 0 (Xanthenes); 1FN9YD6968 (resazurin); 2KNI5N06TI (Pyrazinamide). [Em] M s de entrada: ... Sufficient data for antibiotic susceptibility prediction were obtained from 24 (62%) samples; all results were concordant with ... Antibiotic susceptibility predictions were fully concordant. A critical advantage of MinION is the ability to continue ...
Antitubercular drugs: Serum concentrations of isoniazid may be decreased.. *CYP 3A4 inducers (e.g. barbiturates, phenytoin, ... CYP 3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, macrolide antibiotics): Ketoconazole has been reported to decrease the metabolism of ... individual who is also under treatment with appropriate anti-PCP antibiotics ...
"Antitubercular Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antitubercular Agents" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antitubercular Agents" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antitubercular Agents". ...
Developments in Glycopeptide Antibiotics. Mark A. T. Blaskovich, Karl A. Hansford, Mark S. Butler, ZhiGuang Jia, Alan E. Mark, ... The Mycobacterial Membrane: A Novel Target Space for Anti-tubercular Drugs. Huan Chen, Samuel A. Nyantakyi, Ming Li, Pooja ... A Dual-Function Antibiotic-Transporter Conjugate Exhibits Superior Activity in Sterilizing MRSA Biofilms and Killing Persister ... vancomycin with added synergistic mechanisms of action provide durable and potent antibiotics. Akinori Okano, Nicholas A. Isley ...
We report seventeen selective IMPDH inhibitors with antitubercular activity. The crystal structures of a deletion mutant of ... These structures will greatly facilitate the development of MtbIMPDH2-targeted antibiotics. Organizational Affiliation: Center ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis IMPDH in Complexes with Substrates, Products and Antitubercular Compounds.. Makowska-Grzyska, M., ...
  • 2 , 3 Although many factors promote resistance, experts agree that the high frequency of use of antibiotics in outpatient settings contributes directly to resistance in the community. (aappublications.org)
  • Use of this agent alone led to antibiotic resistance that is still a major problem. (news-medical.net)
  • Antibiotic resistance, once a term appreciated only by microbiologists, has become a common topic in the popular press. (springer.com)
  • Stuart Levy, one of the contributors to this collection, bears some of the responsibility for increasing public awareness with the publication of his book "The Antibiotic Paradox" in 1992: Misuse of antibiotics resulting in increased bacterial resistance had previously been recognized in the infectious disease community. (springer.com)
  • Controlling communicable diseases is complicated by the rise of drug resistance secondary to the misuse of antibiotics. (lsu.edu)
  • Our research also has implications for and applications toward substantial biomedical concerns, including antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence. (auburn.edu)
  • M. abscessus exhibits high intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics making infections with this mycobacterium hard to treat ( van Dorn, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The culture and sensitivity report received after 12 weeks revealed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the sensitivity report received later showed resistance to all primary antitubercular drugs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The lack of proper treatment for serious infectious diseases due to the emergence of multidrug resistance reinforces the need for the discovery of novel antibiotics. (epfl.ch)
  • As with other bacterial diseases, tuberculosis is increasingly drug resistant, with strains resistant to two front-line drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin (multi-drug resistant), and additional resistance to an injectable antibiotic and a quinolone (extensive-drug resistant) killing now over 500 thousand patients out of a total of 1,800,000 deaths ( WHO, 2017 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • the role of efflux pumps in the resistance of tested bacteria and the antibiotic resistance-modulating activities against selected multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes were also investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • Broth microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity, the role of efflux pumps, and the antibiotic resistance-modulating effects of plant extracts. (hindawi.com)
  • Also, it demonstrated that some studied extracts and mostly RHL could be used as antibiotic resistance modulators to fight against resistant strains of S. aureus . (hindawi.com)
  • The fight against S. aureus is hindered by the development of resistance of various strains to antibiotics [ 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The multidrug resistance (MDR) observed in Gram-positive bacteria is mostly attributed to overexpression of efflux pumps and antibiotics-degrading enzymes. (hindawi.com)
  • Their use to combat S. aureus antibiotic resistance is an attractive strategy. (hindawi.com)
  • Reduced treatment times will result in improved patient use and reduced antibiotic resistance. (woolcock.org.au)
  • Also, the increasing predominance of microbial resistance to huge antibiotic is becoming foremost apprehension. (omicsonline.org)
  • There is a worldwide current interest in the development of new antimicrobial agents due to the increasing emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapy and to the newly emerging pathogens. (ijpsonline.com)
  • His research has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, antibiotics, and metal sensing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before antibiotics were found effective against tuberculosis, surgical treatment of tuberculosis was common and often life saving. (news-medical.net)
  • Antibiotics were used against tuberculosis for the first time in 1944 after the discovery of streptomycin. (news-medical.net)
  • The repeated exposure of tuberculosis carriers to ineffective doses of antitubercular drugs dramatically increases the incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. (lsu.edu)
  • If underlying tuberculosis is detected, antitubercular treatment using rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol should be administered for 6 months. (medscape.com)
  • Catalase-peroxidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been exploited for the activation of the front-line antitubercular agent isoniazid to its antibiotic form. (auburn.edu)
  • There was no past history of antitubercular treatment as well as there was no family history of tuberculosis. (ispub.com)
  • http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/ World Tuberculosis Report , 2018 . (eurekaselect.com)
  • Ethambutol (EMB) is an antibiotic used to treat infection by Mycobacterium species, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non- tubercular infections like M. avium complex and M. kansasii . (aao.org)
  • His medical history included two episodes of pulmonary tuberculosis in 2009 and 2015, both well-treated with antitubercular antibiotics. (ctsnet.org)
  • Some medications such as antibiotics , barbiturates, anti-tuberculosis drugs, high blood pressure medications, and several medications used to treat nervous disorders and psychological problems may cause color blindness. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tuberculosis is a complex and unique disease, whereby M. tuberculosis evades eradication by the immune system and often by chemotherapy with antibiotics. (elifesciences.org)
  • Capreomycin is a peptide antibiotic, prescribed for tuberculosis. (medindia.net)
  • Cycloserine is an antibiotic, prescribed for tuberculosis (TB). (medindia.net)
  • Isoniazid is an antibiotic agent, prescribed for tuberculosis (TB) either alone or with other medications. (medindia.net)
  • Rifampin is a rifamycin antibiotic, prescribed for tuberculosis (TB). (medindia.net)
  • Rifapentine is an antibiotic, prescribed for tuberculosis (TB). (medindia.net)
  • Terizidone is a second-line antitubercular drug which is prescribed for the treatment of both pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis caused by resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. (medindia.net)
  • Pseudopteroxazole also exhibited activity against strains of M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv resistant to six clinically used antibiotics. (mdpi.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causative agent of tuberculosis, requires its phosphate sensing signal transduction system for virulence and antibiotic tolerance, but the molecular mechanisms of phosphate sensing remain poorly characterized. (frontiersin.org)
  • Orally bioavailable with excellent single-drug activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo , SQ609 has demonstrated synergistic activity with several front-line antitubercular drugs and can be readily synthesized on a large scale. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We use interactome network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and gene expression data which are treated with two kinds of antibiotic, Isoniazid and Ethionamide as our test data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other than cancer, chemotherapy may also refer to antibiotic treatment - antibacterial or antitubercular treatment (ATT). (ndtv.com)
  • In regard to the loss of efficacy of several antibiotics and the scarcity of new antibacterial agents, it is also important to search for substances capable of restoring the activity of antibiotics. (hindawi.com)
  • Antibacterial and antibiotic-modifying activities of three food plants (Xanthosoma mafaffa Lam. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of the methanol extract of three edible plants, namely Xanthosoma mafaffa , Moringa oleifera and Passiflora edulis and their synergistic effects with some commonly used antibiotics against MDR Gram-negative bacteria expressing active efflux pumps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In view of persistence of symptoms, recurrent cold abscess, positive IgG and no improvement in general condition, second line antitubercular drug i.e. kanamycin, ciprofloxacin and PAS were added after 6 weeks to the ongoing treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cerebral decongestive therapy with antibiotics was instituted and second line antitubercular drug ciprofloxacin was replaced by clofazimine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There are only a few effective antitubercular drugs. (lsu.edu)
  • Management is essentially by antitubercular drugs, rest to part in functioning position and early active exercises of the involved parts. (ispub.com)
  • Primary peritonitis may respond to the administration of antibiotics or antitubercular drugs, but the prognosis is guarded. (tabers.com)
  • The company's lead drug candidate, SQ109 is a new diamine antibiotic intended to replace one or more of the current first-line anti-TB drugs and simplify patient therapy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Zolpidem, Necopidem, Alpidem, Saripidem, Miroprofen , Zolimidine, Olprinone and Abafungin ( Figure 1 ) have severed as rich sources of variety of medicinal, pharmaceutical, anti-tumor, antibiotics and antiviral drugs ( Figure 2 ) and biological properties [ 1 - 18 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Zolpidem, Necopidem, Alpidem, Saripidem, Miroprofen, Zolimidine, Olprinone and Abafungin have shown wide variety of biological such as Central Nervous System (CNS) drugs in medicinal chemistry and antiviral, antibiotics and anti-tumor activities. (omicsonline.org)
  • The primary objective of this study is to compare the gut microbiota and clinical outcomes of oral FMT during antibiotic treatment, immediately following antibiotic treatment, and placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Most clinical antibiotics were found during the "golden age of antibiotics" (1940s-1960s). (wikipedia.org)
  • A high level of clinical suspicion is needed for early diagnosis and antitubercular therapy should be started as soon as possible to prevent the possible complication. (ispub.com)
  • She took antibiotics and other supportive treatment for one month without any clinical improvement. (ispub.com)
  • A combination of surgery and antitubercular-drug therapy resulted in clinical recovery. (ovid.com)
  • Handwerger, S. & Tomasz, A. Antibiotic tolerance among clinical isolates of bacteria. (nature.com)
  • In the 100 years since, the world has seen the introduction of the first modern antibiotic (1941), the first commercially formulated antimalarial (1943), and the first antitubercular (1944). (who.int)
  • Overprescription by physicians, sharing prescriptions by patients, the use of massive amounts of antibiotics in animal husbandry, and the absence of international controls on antibiotics leads to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant strains of common diseases. (lsu.edu)
  • What is particularly concerning is that antibiotic resistant strains of TB now exist and are becoming more common. (woolcock.org.au)
  • Dialysis patients may also develop peritonitis after the infusion of irritating substances (such as antibiotics like vancomycin) into the peritoneal cavity during treatment for these infections. (tabers.com)
  • Streptomyces isolates have yielded the majority of human, animal, and agricultural antibiotics, as well as a number of fundamental chemotherapy medicines. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was referred to us from peripheral hospital for pneumonectomy when his condition did not improve after six months of antitubercular chemotherapy and intercostals drainage. (hindawi.com)
  • A 23-year-old male who had complaints of fever and left-sided chest pain six months before he was referred to us had been diagnosed as tubercular pyopneumothorax with bronchopleural fistula and given antitubercular chemotherapy with intercostal drainage (ICD) at several thoracic centers. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the abundance of antibiotics used in chemotherapy, there is a drastic increase of resistant bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A polypeptide quinoxaline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces echinatus. (unt.edu)
  • Mahesh Chhabria, Shailesh Patel and Mitesh Jani, " Recent Development and Future Perspective of Antitubercular Therapy", Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2010) 9: 59. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Medical therapy includes antibiotics and analgesics. (medscape.com)
  • Following prolonged antimycobacterial therapy, the patient developed an aortoduodenal fistula that required emergency surgery and prompted a repeat course of antibiotics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclobutanone Analogues of β-Lactam Antibiotics: β-Lactamase Inhibitors with Untapped Potential? (wikipedia.org)
  • We report seventeen selective IMPDH inhibitors with antitubercular activity. (rcsb.org)
  • We also report the structures of complexes with IMP and three structurally distinct inhibitors, including two with antitubercular activity. (rcsb.org)
  • The study was extended to the ability of the studied extracts to potentiate the activity of some commonly used antibiotics against some of the tested MDR bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, it is easier to quickly grasp the strengths and weaknesses of a newly marketed antibiotic if you understand the general pharmacology of its class. (netce.com)
  • Antibiotics from Streptomyces isolates (including various aminoglycosides) would go on to comprise over two-thirds of all marketed antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria resistant to common antibiotic regimens were being isolated more frequently, often as organisms classified as "multi-resistant" with decreased susceptibilities to two or more structural classes of agents. (springer.com)
  • The red flag in this case was the patient's progressive deterioration despite a variety of antibiotic regimens. (ovid.com)
  • Antitubercular Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antitubercular Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antitubercular Agents" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antitubercular Agents" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This course is intended as an overview of the general characteristics of the major antibiotic classes, with a brief discussion of the individual agents and indications, giving greater perspective to the actions and characteristics of antibiotics. (netce.com)
  • Our results suggest that M. smegmatis can serve as a tractable model for further characterization of the molecular mechanism of phosphate sensing in mycobacteria and to screen for compounds that would interfere with signal transduction and thereby increase the efficacy of existing anti-tubercular antibiotics. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results provide promising information for the potential use of the tested plants alone or in combination with some commonly used antibiotics in the fight against MDR Gram-negative bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In combination with antibiotics, extracts of X. mafaffa , M. oleifera and pericarp of P. edulis showed synergistic effects with some antibiotics against more than 75 % of the tested bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, the massive side effects associated with the frequent use of antibiotics make it crucial to analyze the quantity and detect even the subservient amounts of antibiotics in vivo following their administration to patients. (springer.com)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics, composed of amino sugars in glycoside linkage, interfere with the synthesis of bacterial proteins and are used primarily for treating infections caused by gram-negative organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, prescribed for serious bacterial infections. (medindia.net)
  • Antibiotics are widely used in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SQ609, a second compound being developed by Sequella is a novel small molecule dipiperidine antibiotic selected from a proprietary chemical library of over 250,000 new molecular entities with activity for a broad spectrum of infectious diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • He was finally referred to us for pneumonectomy, as his collapsed left lung had failed to expand despite repeated intercostal drain repositioning and standard multidrug antitubercular treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • The continuous spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, partially due to efflux pumps drastically reduced the efficacy of the antibiotic armory, increasing the frequency of therapeutic failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • to improve the activity of commonly used antibiotics against MDR Gram-negative bacteria expressing active efflux pumps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-lactam antibiotic any of a group of antibiotics, including the cephalosporins and the penicillins , whose chemical structure contains a β-lactam ring. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antibiotic tolerance is associated with the failure of antibiotic treatment and the relapse of many bacterial infections. (nature.com)
  • facilulatum and Basilicum polystachyon showed synergistic effects (FIC ≤ 0.5) against the studied bacteria, with an average of 75.3% of the tested antibiotics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Streptomyces-derived antibiotics include: Chloramphenicol (Streptomyces venezuelae) Daptomycin (Streptomyces roseosporus) Fosfomycin (Streptomyces fradiae) Lincomycin (Streptomyces lincolnensis) Neomycin (Streptomyces fradiae) Platensimycin (Streptomyces platensis) Puromycin (Streptomyces alboniger) Streptomycin (Streptomyces griseus) Tetracycline (Streptomyces rimosus and Streptomyces aureofaciens) Clavulanic acid (Streptomyces clavuligerus) is used in combination with some antibiotics (such as amoxicillin) to weaken bacterial-resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The search for new compounds to potentiate the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics is therefore important. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dynamic persistence of antibiotic-stressed mycobacteria. (nature.com)
  • Our biochemical experiments show that this antibiotic inhibits the elongation step of protein synthesis in mycobacteria. (epfl.ch)
  • Because of the proliferation of diverse antibiotic classes with increasing potency and broader activity spectra, it had been assumed that any ordinary bacterial infection could be eradicated with the proper selection of drug. (springer.com)
  • Actinomycin was the first antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces in 1940, followed by streptomycin three years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, current medicines require lengthy treatment times (>9 months) using high doses of antibiotics taken in tablet form. (woolcock.org.au)
  • Efforts to decrease unnecessary prescribing continue to have an impact on antibiotic use in ambulatory practice. (aappublications.org)
  • Public health officials, professional societies, and researchers have been on a decades-long quest to decrease unnecessary antibiotic use in both children and adults as a way to slow the spread of resistant pathogens. (aappublications.org)
  • However, it has become evident that we are surrounded by resistant bacteria, many of which were introduced unwittingly into our en- vironment through the unnecessary use of antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • Non-Streptomyces actinomycetes, filamentous fungi, and non-filamentous bacteria, have also yielded important antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent screening of TCM extracts revealed a Streptomyces that produces a number of antitubercular pluramycins. (wikipedia.org)
  • How many antibiotics are produced by the genus Streptomyces? (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary peritonitis is treated with surgical drainage, repair or removal of the ruptured viscus, fluid resuscitation, and antibiotics. (tabers.com)
  • Lamiaceae) or 'Musk Basil' to potentiate the effect of common antibiotics against Gram-negative MDR phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High-throughput screening is a valuable way to identify hit compounds that combined with a robust medicinal chemistry program could lead to the identification of new antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • Broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the extracts, as well as those of antibiotics in association with the extracts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Macrolide antibiotics, consisting of a large lactone ring and deoxamino sugar, interfere in the protein synthesis of susceptible bacteria during multiplication without affecting nucleic acid synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)