Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Thioacetazone: A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.NitroimidazolesEthylenediaminesEthionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Nigella: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE.Cryoanesthesia: ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).Adamantane: A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Mycolic AcidsTuberculosis, Gastrointestinal: TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Tuberculosis, Male Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Tuberculoma, Intracranial: A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis, Cutaneous: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Dosage Calculations: Math calculations done for preparing appropriate doses of medicines, taking into account conversions of WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Mistakes are one of the sources of MEDICATION ERRORS.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Oxazoles: Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.IndiaCell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Chlortetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.Bacitracin: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Streptomyces coelicolor: A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.OsteomyelitisTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Inappropriate Prescribing: The practice of administering medications in a manner that poses more risk than benefit, particularly where safer alternatives exist.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Evaluation of bactericidal activities of LY333328, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin-sulbactam, trovafloxacin, and RP59500 alone or in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against different strains of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus by time-kill curve methods. (1/586)

This in vitro study evaluated the activities of vancomycin, LY333328, and teicoplanin alone and in combination with gentamicin, rifampin, and RP59500 against Staphylococcus aureus isolates with intermediate susceptibilities to vancomycin. Ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin were also evaluated. LY333328 and ampicillin-sulbactam resulted in bactericidal activity against all isolates. The combination of gentamicin with glycopeptides showed synergistic activity, while rifampin had no added benefit.  (+info)

rpoB mutations in multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy. (2/586)

Mutations of rpoB associated with rifampin resistance were studied in 37 multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy. At least one mutated codon was found in each MDR strain. It was always a single-base substitution leading to an amino acid change. Nine different rpoB alleles, three of which had not been reported before, were found. The relative frequencies of specific mutations in this sample were different from those previously reported from different geographical areas, since 22 strains (59.5%) carried the mutated codon TTG in position 531 (Ser-->Leu) and 11 (29.7%) had GAC in position 526 (His-->Asp).  (+info)

Integron-mediated rifampin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (3/586)

A new rifampin resistance gene, arr-2, has been found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ARR-2 protein shows 54% amino acid identity to the rifampin ADP-ribosylating transferase encoded by the arr gene from Mycobacterium smegmatis. This arr-2 gene is located on a gene cassette within a class I integron.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Lesotho. (4/586)

Villages associated with the Lesotho Highlands Development Agency were randomized with a bias in favour of larger villages, and children < 5 years of age from cluster-randomized households in these villages were chosen for the assessment of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci. Children of the same age group attending clinics in the capital, Maseru, were selected for comparison. Nasopharyngeal cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae from both groups of children were examined for antibiotic resistance and a questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for the acquisition of resistant strains. Carriage of penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant pneumococci was significantly higher among 196 Maseru children compared with 324 rural children (P < 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). Maseru children tended to visit clinics at an earlier age compared with their rural counterparts. The rural children were less exposed to antibiotics (P < 0.01), were less frequently hospitalized (P < 0.001), and rarely attended day care centres (P < 0.001). The very low incidence of antibiotic resistance in rural Lesotho and the higher incidence in Maseru are in stark contrast with the much higher frequencies found in the Republic of South Africa, many European countries, and the USA.  (+info)

Rifampicin is not an activator of the glucocorticoid receptor in A549 human alveolar cells. (5/586)

It has recently been reported that rifampicin activates the glucocorticoid receptor and acts as an immunosuppressive drug. Because rifampicin constitutes an essential part of pulmonary tuberculosis therapy, we have examined whether it triggers glucocorticoid-like effects in alveolar cells. We have used reporter gene assays to measure the trans-activating and trans-repressing capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor after treating A549 human alveolar cells with rifampicin. The data show that rifampicin neither activated transcription from a promoter containing a glucocorticoid response element nor repressed the activity of activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB, which are transcription factors involved in the immune response. In addition, rifampicin was also unable to inhibit the expression of an endogenous gene that contains activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB response elements and encodes the proinflammatory cytokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein). Finally, nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor, which occurs after ligand binding, was not triggered by rifampicin. In contrast, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone scored positive in all corresponding control experiments. In conclusion, rifampicin is not an activator of the glucocorticoid receptor in A549 alveolar cells. Our results support the clinical observation that rifampicin is not an immunosuppressive drug and suggest that the current medical practice concerning this antibiotic should not be changed.  (+info)

In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of new rifamycin derivatives, KRM-1648 and KRM-1657. (6/586)

The new rifamycin derivatives KRM-1657 and KRM-1648 were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against 44 strains of Helicobacter pylori. Although the drugs were not very active against other gram-negative bacteria, the MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for these drugs were lower (0.002 and 0.008 microgram/ml, respectively) than those of amoxicillin and rifampin for H. pylori. Time-kill studies revealed that the bactericidal activities of these agents were due to cell lysis. The results presented here indicate that these new rifamycin derivatives may be useful for the eradication of H. pylori infections.  (+info)

Efficacy of microencapsulated rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. (7/586)

Rifampin is a first-line drug useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. By using biocompatible polymeric excipients of lactide and glycolide copolymers, two microsphere formulations were developed for targeted and sustained delivery of rifampin, with minimal dosing. A small-microsphere formulation, with demonstrated ability to inhibit intracellularly replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, was tested along with a large-microsphere formulation in an infected mouse model. Results revealed that by using a single treatment of the large-microsphere formulation, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in M. tuberculosis H37Rv CFUs in the lungs of mice by 26 days postinfection. A combination of small (given as two injections on day 0 and day 7) and large (given as one injection at day 0) rifampin-loaded microsphere formulations resulted in significant reductions in CFUs in the lungs by 26 days, achieving a 1.23 log10 reduction in CFUs. By comparison, oral treatment with 5, 10, or 20 mg of rifampin/kg of body weight, administered every day, resulted in a reduction of 0.42, 1.7, or 1.8 log10 units, respectively. Thus the microsphere formulations, administered in one or two doses, were able to achieve results in mice similar to those obtained with a daily drug regimen within the range of the highest clinically tolerated dosage in humans. These results demonstrate that microsphere formulations of antimycobacterial drugs such as rifampin can be used for therapy of tuberculosis with minimal dosing.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo experimental activities of antifungal agents against Fusarium solani. (8/586)

In the treatment of disseminated Fusarium infections, amphotericin B either alone or in combination with flucytosine and rifampin is the drug therapy most frequently used. The efficacy of these antifungal drugs was evaluated in a murine disseminated-infection model, with five strains of Fusarium solani. All the treatments were clearly ineffective.  (+info)

article{ec0a3db2-6375-4444-b969-fd4c516197f3, abstract = {The colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was standardized for direct detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the direct MTT assay matched those of the standard indirect susceptibility assay on 7H10 medium, and interpretable results were obtained for 98.5% of the samples within 2 weeks. Traditional methods of in vitro drug susceptibility testing are time consuming and laborious. Susceptibility tests on clinical isolates require 6 to 9 weeks, and tests conducted directly on smear-positive samples take about 3 weeks (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, The public health service national tuberculosis reference laboratory and the national laboratory network. Minimum requirements, role and operation in a low-income country, Paris, France, 1998, and P. T. Kent and G. P. Kubica, Public health ...
Saint Cloud, Minn. - Microbiologics, Inc. has launched positive and negative controls for quality control of Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB-RIF) molecular assays and test methods to help clinical laboratories deliver fast and accurate results. One fourth of the worlds population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) and 10.0 million people became ill with TB disease in 2017 according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is on the rise due to mismanaged treatment and person-to-person transmission. World Health Organization (WHO) estimated 600,000 people worldwide developed MDR-TB in 2016 with 110,000 cases caused by MTB-RIF.. The new Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Positive Control Panel and Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Negative Control were designed to make quality control testing of molecular assays simple, reliable, and affordable. Features of the controls include:. ...
We will enroll 24-36 patients, 8-12 at each dose of 600, 900 and 1200 mg rifapentine Admissions for pharmacokinetic studies will take place during the continuation phase of tuberculosis therapy. Patients participating in a double-blinded trial of the tolerability and safety of higher doses of rifapentine during continuation phase therapy and consenting to participate in the pharmacokinetic study may be admitted to a Clinical Research Center (CRC) to allow for frequent blood sampling over a 24-hour period. Otherwise, patients will be evaluated in the clinic ...
We will enroll 24-36 patients, 8-12 at each dose of 600, 900 and 1200 mg rifapentine Admissions for pharmacokinetic studies will take place during the continuation phase of tuberculosis therapy. Patients participating in a double-blinded trial of the tolerability and safety of higher doses of rifapentine during continuation phase therapy and consenting to participate in the pharmacokinetic study may be admitted to a Clinical Research Center (CRC) to allow for frequent blood sampling over a 24-hour period. Otherwise, patients will be evaluated in the clinic ...
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Advice for mothers using Rifapentine (Priftin) while breastfeeding. Includes possible effects on breastfed infants and lactation.
Rifampicin - Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic used for the treatment of certain bacterial infections including tuberculosis.
Rifampicin - Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic used for the treatment of certain bacterial infections including tuberculosis.
As explained in this eMedTV resource, rifampin capsules and injections are typically used once or twice a day. More dosing instructions for rifampin are given in this article, including details on how the dosage is calculated by your healthcare provider.
Only the injected form of rifampin is available in a 600-mg strength. This brief eMedTV segment lists all the other forms and strengths of this drug. This article also discusses what rifampin is used for and how your dosage is determined.
Rifampicin Central is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Rifampicin Central is available on the Drugs.com website.
38 yrs old Male asked about Can I take rifampin, 1 doctor answered this and 206 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
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The study evaluated the effect of Rifampicin on the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of oral and intravenous apixaban in
Rifalazil (also known as KRM-1648 and AMI-1648) is an antibiotic. Rifalazil kills bacterial cells by blocking off the β-subunit in RNA polymerase. Rifalazil is used as treatments for many different diseases. Of the most common are Chlamydia infection, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), and tuberculosis (TB). Using rifalazil and the effects that coincide with taking rifalazil for treating a bacterial disease vary from person to person, as does any drug put into the human body. Food interactions and genetic variation are a few causes for the variation in side effects from the use of rifalazil. Its development was terminated in 2013 due to severe side effects. Rifalazil works well alone, and in conjunction with other antibiotics alone. In a study conducted in 2005, it was found that combining rifalazil with vancomycin increased bacterial killing by a factor of 3.[medical citation needed] Rifalazil also has a very long half-life which allows more infrequent dosages as opposed to ...
Resistance to rifampin arises due to mutations in the beta subunit of RNA polymerase encoded by the gene rpoB. Almost all of the corresponding mutations in rpoB occur in a small region of less than 100 bp, with less than 5% occurring outside of this region (36). This includes point mutations, deletions, and insertions (66). Despite the large number of different possible mutations three are found in more than 70% of clinical isolates. An experimental investigation of this phenomenon used in vitro resistance induction to investigate this. A limited repertoire of mutations was detected. When the growth rate of these organisms was compared with that of their parents in competition, a range of fitness was detected. There was considerable variation in the fitness of the rifampin-resistant strains, with some showing a severe physiological burden with a relative fitness (rf) of as little as 0.21, whereas other strains had a fitness similar to that of the susceptible parent (rf = 1.05; in these ...
Rifapentine - Get up-to-date information on Rifapentine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Rifapentine
Rifapentine is an antibiotic that is used to treat tuberculosis in both children and adults. It is often paired with other medicines for a better effect.
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Rifampin-resistant meningococcal disease occurred in a child who had completed rifampin chemoprophylaxis for exposure to a sibling with meningococcemia. Susceptibility testing of 331 case isolates found only 1 other case of rifampin-resistant disease in Minnesota, USA, during 11 years of statewide surveillance. Point mutations in the RNA polymerase Beta subunit (rpoB) gene were found in isolates from each rifampin-resistant case-patient ...
SUMMARY Rifampicin is an antibiotic mostly used to treat tuberculosis and leprosy, and, occasionally, other diseases. Resistance is due to alterations in membrane permeability or to mutation in the rpoB gene coding for mRNA polymerase. Both these mechanisms originate via chromosomal mutation. However, a rifampicin-resistant Pseudomonas fluorescens strain harboured a multiresistance plasmid which transferred rifampicin resistance when transformed into P. putida or Escherichia coli. Rifampicin readily diffused into the sensitive cells of the E. coli and P. putida recipients, but the transformants with the plasmid, pSCL were resistant to the drug and did not accumulate it. Potassium cyanide restored the diffusion of rifampicin into the resistant cells, indicating that an efflux pump was involved in the resistance mechanism. The resistance of the transformants and the wild strain was also abolished in sphaeroplasts generated by EDTA lysozyme treatment. Analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE revealed the
Results. Jindani A, Harrison TS, Nunn AJ, Phillips PP, Churchyard GJ, Charalambous S, Hatherill M, Geldenhuys H, McIlleron HM, Zvada SP, Mungofa S, Shah NA, Zizhou S, Magweta L, Shepherd J, Nyirenda S, van Dijk JH, Clouting HE, Coleman D, Bateson AL, McHugh TD, Butcher PD, Mitchison DA, , High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis., N. Engl. J. Med., 2014, 371, 17, 1599-1608, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1314210.. ...
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... noun, Pharmacology. 1. a semisynthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic, C 4 3 H 5 8 N 4 O 1 2 , used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, asymptomatic car
Learn how Rifampin is used to treat foals and horses when a systemic antibacterial is needed to treat staphylococcal infections and eradicate pathogens located in difficult to reach target areas, such as abscesses.
Rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae in an elderly leprosy patient in the Peoples Republic of China Meiwen Yu,1,* Kan Wu,1,* Bing Pei,2 Degang Yang,2 Qiulin Wang,1 Hongsheng Wang,1 Jianping Shen,1 Liangbing Yan,1 Guochen Zhang1 1Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Center for STD and Leprosy Control, China CDC, Nanjing, Peoples Republic of China; 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The reported number of registered leprosy patients worldwide declined with the introduction of multidrug therapy. However, the emergence of rifampicin resistance in leprosy patients engenders difficulties for an individual patient, and its dissemination could pose a threat to leprosy control. This study reports an elderly patient who was diagnosed with rifampicin-resistant lepromatous leprosy. This case indicates that
Rifampin is currently the most potent drug used in leprosy control programs. We show that the rifampin resistance which emerged in nine patients with lepromatous leprosy, who had received rifampin monotherapy, stemmed from mutations in the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta subunit of RNA polymerase of Mycobacterium leprae. In eight cases missense mutations were found to affect a serine residue, Ser-425, while in the remaining mutant a small insertion was found close to this site. These findings will be of use for the development of a rapid screening procedure, involving the polymerase chain reaction, for monitoring the emergence of rifampin-resistant M. leprae strains. Honore, N; Cole, S T
Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derived from the rifamycins, a group of antibacterials produced by Streptomyces mediterranei. Rifampicin was initially developed to treat tuberculosis but more recently has been used against other bacteria. The beneficial effect of rifampicin on pruritus was initially discovered serendipitously. Four formal studies (three of which were randomised controlled trials) have suggested a subjective effect of rifampicin on itch severity.10-13 These studies also suggested that rifampicin was better at relieving itch than other hepatic enzyme inducing agents such as phenobarbitone.10 A single small study failed to confirm the effectiveness of rifampicin for subjective itching in cholestatic liver disease (including three patients with PBC).18 All of these studies used subjective measures of itch severity (for example, visual analogue scales). To our knowledge no trial of rifampicin in cholestasis has examined efficacy in terms of objective changes in scratching ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Outbreak due to methicillin- and rifampin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. T2 - Epidemiology and eradication of the resistant strain from the hospital. AU - Bitar, C. M.. AU - Mayhall, C. G.. AU - Lamb, V. A.. AU - Bradshaw, T. J.. AU - Spadora, A. C.. AU - Dalton, H. P.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023111265&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023111265&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1017/S0195941700066935. DO - 10.1017/S0195941700066935. M3 - Article. C2 - 3643888. AN - SCOPUS:0023111265. VL - 8. SP - 15. EP - 23. JO - Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. JF - Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. SN - 0899-823X. IS - 1. ER - ...
To evaluate the effects of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of sotagliflozin and its metabolite in healthy male and female subjects. Secondary
Emmanuel Fajardo: Added Value of Performing a Second Xpert MTB/RIF Test on a Second Sputum Sample to Confirm Rifampicin Resistance:Analysis of Routinely Collected Data in MSF-Supported Sites in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and ...
The objectives are to compare drug regimens containing rifabutin with those containing rifampicin for treating people with pulmonary tuberculosis. ...
Rifampicin (Rifadin-Lepetit; Rimactane-Ciba) is a semi-synthetic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces mediterranei which inhibits the synthesis of bacterial messenger-RNA. In vitro it is active against Gram-positive organisms and mycobacteria in low concentrations (0.0002 - 0.5 mcg/ml); and against Gram-negative organisms in higher concentrations (1 - 10 mcg/ml). Drug-resistant mutants readily emerge if rifampicin is used alone.1 It is already established as an important agent in the treatment of tuberculosis. Its usefulness in other bacterial and in viral infections is uncertain.. ...
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates cultured from 6 patients associated with an isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis outbreak acquired rifampicin resistance. The rpoB gene sequence showed that resistance was associated with rare mutations in each isolate. Three isolates had a mutation outside the rifampicin resistance-determining region.
Rationale: Rifampin at a dose of 10 mg/kg was introduced in 1971 based on pharmacokinetic, toxicity and cost considerations. Available data in mice and humans showed that an increase in dose may shorten the duration of tuberculosis treatment. Objectives: To evaluate the safety and tolerability, the pharmacokinetics and the extended early bactericidal activity of increasing doses of rifampin. Methods: Patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis were enrolled into a control group of 8 patients receiving the standard dose of 10 mg/kg rifampin, followed by consecutive experimental groups with 15 patients each receiving rifampin 20 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 35 mg/kg, respectively, for 14 days. In all patients isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol were added in standard doses for the second 7 days of treatment. Safety, pharmacokinetics of rifampin, and fall in bacterial load were assessed. Measurements and Main Results: Grade 1 and 2 adverse events were equally distributed between the five dose ...
The effect of rifampin on the replication of MVL51, a bullet-shaped mycoplasmavirus with single-stranded circular DNA of molecular weight 2 X 10(6), has been examined in a rifampin-resistant host cell. Rifampin does not block the early steps in MVL51 infection but does decrease the total amount of parental viral DNA taken up. The single-stranded parental viral DNA that enters the cell is found in membrane-associated, double-stranded DNA replicative forms I and II. Rifampin had no significant effect on the synthesis of progeny viral DNA RFI and RFII early in infection and SSI (single-stranded progeny viral chromosomes) later in infection. The rifampin block in virus synthesis was found to be in the step converting SSI into assembled virions. Rifampin was shown to affect the synthesis of virus-specific RNA, Which suggests that viral transcription is necessary for virion assembly. ...
Abstract The effect of rifampin therapy in leprosy was studied in two clinical short-term trials in which skin punch biopsy specimens were taken at regular intervals for the inoculation of mice in order to monitor the decrease in proportion of viable Mycobacterium leprae in the patients' lesions. In a trial of rifampin in a dosage of 600 mg daily, the bacterial viability fell to undetectable levels in the first specimen taken after the start of therapy (at 3-4 days in 4 patients, 7-8 days in 9, and 14 days in 2). Dapsone-treated controls required 20 to more than 112 days for the same change. In a trial of a single dose of 1,500 mg rifampin, the viability fell to undetectable levels in the first specimen taken after the start of therapy also (at 3-5 days in all 14 patients).
Biofilms of S. aureus accumulate cells resistant to the antibiotic rifampicin. We show here that the accumulation of rifampicin resistant mutants (RifR) in biofilms is not equable but rather is a local event, suggesting that the growth of a few locally emerged mutants is responsible for this. Competition assays demonstrated that, compared to wild-type bacteria, the isolated RifR mutants have a growth advantage in biofilms, but not in planktonic culture. To gain insight into the mechanism of the growth advantage, we tested the involvement of the two-component systems (TCS) that sense and respond to environmental changes. We found that a deletion of SrrAB or NreBC has a drastic effect on the growth advantage of RifR mutants, suggesting the importance of oxygen/respiration responses. All six of the RifR isolates tested showed increased resistance to at least one of the common stresses found in the biofilm environment (i.e., oxidative, nitric acid, and organic acid stress). The RifR mutants also had a
Purpose: : We have previously described a patient with reversible retinal dysfunction, and drug accumulation in the cornea and lens, probably caused by rifabutin, an antimycobacterial drug. In the present study we have investigated if and how rifabutin affects rabbit retina, lens and cornea. Methods: : Seven rabbits were treated with a daily dose (10mg/kg body weight) of rifabutin solution perorally, during a period of 12 months. Six rabbits receiving water were used as controls. Repeated full-field electroretinograms (ERG) were assessed during this period. A micro biological method was used to detect rifabutin in serum, in order to prove successful drug exposition. After terminating treatment the rabbits were sacrificed and the morphology of the cornea, the lens and the sectioned retina was studied. Results: : In all treated rabbits rifabutin could be detected in serum (range: 0.11-0.26 mg/L), but not in the controls. Full-field ERG demonstrated in both treated rabbits and in the controls a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - One month of rifapentine plus isoniazid to prevent HIV-related Tuberculosis. AU - BRIEF TB/A5279 Study Team. AU - Swindells, Susan. AU - Ramchandani, Ritesh. AU - Gupta, Amita. AU - Benson, Constance A.. AU - Leon-Cruz, Jorge. AU - Mwelase, Noluthando. AU - Jean Juste, Marc A.. AU - Lama, Javier R.. AU - Valencia, Javier. AU - Omoz-Oarhe, Ayotunde. AU - Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai. AU - Masheto, Gaerolwe. AU - Mohapi, Lerato. AU - Da Silva Escada, Rodrigo O.. AU - Mawlana, Sajeeda. AU - Banda, Peter. AU - Severe, Patrice. AU - Hakim, James. AU - Kanyama, Cecilia. AU - Langat, Deborah. AU - Moran, Laura. AU - Andersen, Janet. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Nuermberger, Eric. AU - Chaisson, Richard E. PY - 2019/3/14. Y1 - 2019/3/14. N2 - BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is the leading killer of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Preventive therapy is effective, but current regimens are limited by poor implementation and low completion rates. METHODS We conducted a ...
Rifampin is an antibiotic that fights bacteria and prevents it from spreading in your body. Rifampin is used to treat or prevent tuberculosis (TB). Rifampin may also be used to reduce certain bacteria in your nose and throat that could cause meningitis or other infections. Rifampin prevents you from spreading these...
Consumer information about the medication RIFAMPIN/ISONIAZID - ORAL (Rifamate), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the prescription drug RIFAMPIN/ISONIAZID - ORAL.
In a review update, XpertMTB/RIF was found to be sensitive and specific for diagnosing pulmonary TB and rifampicin resistance which is consistent with the last review completed in 2014.
Researchers assess all-cause mortality during TB treatment in patients with diabetes, the use of metformin, and effect sputum culture-conversion rates.
Higher daily doses of rifampin, a cornerstone of tuberculosis treatment, killed more TB bacteria in sputum cultures, and the higher doses did so without increasing the adverse effects of treatment, according to a randomized ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two patients with rifampin-related flu-like syndrome successfully treated with rifabutin. AU - De Rosa, F. G.. AU - Cicalini, S.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029617279&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029617279&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0029617279. VL - 10. SP - 247. JO - Mediterranean Journal of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases. JF - Mediterranean Journal of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases. SN - 0394-025X. IS - 4. ER - ...
Three months of the once-weekly rifapentine + isoniazid 12-dose regimen administered under directly observed therapy offers substantial advantages over the standard 9-month regimen, according to reports from IDWeek 2012.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. rifampicin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Background and Aim Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a renal dyfunction that arises as a result of exposure to nephrotoxic drugs. Anti-tuberculosis therapy can cause nephrotoxicity and permanent kidney damage. The current study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effects of Ruta graveolens L. leaves extract against isoniazid/rifampicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.. Methods:The experimental rats received isoniazid and rifampicin at dose level of 50 mg/kg, and 50 or 100 mg/kg/day Ruta graveolens leaves extract orally for 45 days.. Results: Isoniazid/ rifampicin administration induced kidney injury evidenced by the histopathological alterations as well as significant (P,0.001) increase in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid. soniazid/rifampicin-intoxicated rats exhibited a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (P,0.001), and renal lipid peroxidation (P,0.01) and nitric oxide (P,0.001) levels. On the other hand, reduced glutathione level, and activity of superoxide ...
INTRODUCTION: the diagnosis of tuberculosis and its treatment is challenging in resource limited settings. The growth and speed of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high burden countries like Nigeria is a growing concern. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of rifampicin resistance in sputum specimens of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Yenagoa, Nigeria. METHODS: a descriptive survey of all consecutive sputum specimens of adults greater than 15 years of age that presented to the Tuberculosis Referral Hospital Laboratory were subjected to the automated Genexpert test between January and December 2016. RESULTS: all 446 specimens were tested using the Genexpert automated system. 102 (22.9%) of the sputum specimens were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with 15 (14.7%) showing rifampicin resistance. CONCLUSION: there was significantly high prevalence of MDR-TB much higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO) prediction of 3.2 -5.4% for Nigeria.
Discussion The Xpert MTB/RIF® test is a useful tool for early diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Having the results regarding rifampin resistance in two hours allows choosing the therapy appropriately, and thus reducing the probability of resistance to other drugs during treatment, as well as decreasing the time of patient infectivity and the appearance of aftermath. Its relevance as a diagnostic tool is foremost when respiratory samples are ZN-negative because it reduces the time to start treatment and it is not necessary to wait for culture results (10-12). The Xpert MTB/RIF ® test has high specificity to detect only M. tuberculosis DNA. It has been evaluated in 89 non-tuberculosis bacteria, fungi and viruses with no false positives (13). The last steps of the assay (polymerase chain reaction) are highly susceptible to samples contamination, but as these are kept in a sealed container, there is no possibility of contamination and, therefore, of having false positives. The ...
SILVA, Joas Lucas da et al. Plasmid-based controls to detect rpoB mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 2013, vol.108, n.1, pp.106-109. ISSN 0074-0276. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762013000100017.. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting (qPCR-HRM) analysis was used to screen for mutations related to drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We detected the C526T and C531T mutations in the rifampicin resistance-determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene with qPCR-HRM using plasmid-based controls. A segment of the RRDR region from M. tuberculosis H37Rv and from strains carrying C531T or C526T mutations in the rpoB were cloned into pGEM-T vector and these vectors were used as controls in the qPCR-HRM analysis of 54 M. tuberculosis strains. The results were confirmed by DNA sequencing and showed that recombinant plasmids can replace genomic DNA as controls in the ...
Repeated laboratory passage of pathogens in the presence of rifampicin has been used to generate live-attenuated vaccines [1, 7-12], but the mechanism of rifampicin-induced attenuation remains unknown. There are a variety of potential confounding factors with this type of passage experiment that make cause-and-effect interpretations challenging. Passage can produce changes in global protein expression profiles [12, 13] or altered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis/colony roughness [7]. These changes could be attributed to altered activity of RpoB in the Rif resistant DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) present in rifampicin resistant bacteria [14]. That is, the presence and activity of the mutated rpoB is one hypothesis for the mechanism of attenuation. Alternatively, rifampicin-associated attenuation may result from accumulation of spontaneous mutations acquired in the course of in vitro passaging. Serial passage of a pathogenic bacterium without any antibiotics can also induce changes in ...
We described the population pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin and the effect of high-dose intermittent rifapentine in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were randomized to a continuation-phase regimen of 400 mg moxifloxacin and 900 mg rifapentine twice weekly or 400 mg moxifloxacin and 1,200 mg rifapentine once weekly. A two-compartment model with transit absorption best described moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics. Although rifapentine increased the clearance of moxifloxacin by 8% during antituberculosis treatment compared to that after treatment completion without rifapentine, it did not result in a clinically significant change in moxifloxacin exposure.. ...
AIMS This study aimed to test whether a pharmacokinetic simulation model could extrapolate nonclinical drug data to predict human efavirenz exposure after single and continuous dosing as well as the effects of concomitant rifampicin and further to evaluate the weight-based dosage recommendations used to counteract the rifampicin-efavirenz interaction. METHODS Efavirenz pharmacokinetics were simulated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model implemented in the Simcyp™ population-based simulator. Physicochemical and metabolism data obtained from the literature were used as input for prediction of pharmacokinetic parameters. The model was used to simulate the effects of rifampicin on efavirenz pharmacokinetics in 400 virtual patients, taking into account bodyweight and CYP2B6 phenotype. RESULTS Apart from the absorption phase, the simulation model predicted efavirenz concentration-time profiles reasonably well, with close agreement with clinical data. The simulated effects of ...
Macrolide and rifampin resistance developed on a horse breeding farm after widespread use was instituted for treatment of subclinical pulmonary lesions in foals. Resistance occurred in 6 (24%) of 25 pretreatment and 8 (62%) of 13 (62%) posttreatment isolates from affected foals. Drug-resistant isolates formed 2 distinct genotypic clusters.
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Twice-daily tenofovir alafenamide plus rifampicin provided similar exposures to once-daily TAF in a pharmacokinetic study. This strategy might be a ...
India is considering the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance. We conducted an economic analysis to estimate the costs of different strategies of Xpert implementation in India. Using a decision analytical model, we compared four diagnostic strategies for TB patients: (i) sputum smear microscopy (SSM) only; (ii) Xpert as a replacement for the rapid diagnostic test currently used for SSM-positive patients at risk of drug resistance (i.e. line probe assay (LPA)); (iii) Upfront Xpert testing for patients at risk of drug resistance; and (iv) Xpert as a replacement for SSM for all patients. The total costs associated with diagnosis for 100,000 presumptive TB cases were: (i) US$ 619,042 for SSM-only; (ii) US$ 575,377 in the LPA replacement scenario; (iii) US$ 720,523 in the SSM replacement scenario; and (iv) US$ 1,639,643 in the Xpert-for-all scenario. Total cohort costs, including treatment costs, increased by 46% from the SSM-only to the ...
Since 2001, several studies have reported high rifampicin resistance rates (45 - 100%) among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from South Africa. The authors previously characterised 100 MRSA isolates from hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa; forty-five percent of these isolates were rifampicin-resistant. The majority (44/45) corresponded to ST612-MRSA-IV, which is prevalent in South Africa, but has not been reported frequently elsewhere. The remaining rifampicin-resistant isolate corresponded to ST5-MRSA-I. The aim of this study was to investigate further the prevalence and genetic basis of rifampicin-resistance in MRSA isolates from hospitals in Cape Town. Between July 2007 and June 2011, the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant MRSA in hospitals in Cape Town ranged from 39.7% to 46.4%. Based on the results of the aforementioned study, nine ST612-MRSA-IV isolates, the rifampicin-resistant ST5-MRSA-I isolate, and two rifampicin-susceptible MRSA isolates were investigated. Four
Leprosy, a chronic infectious disease, is caused by an obligate intracellular pathogen- Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). Although the prevalence of this disease has significantly gone down after the introduction of WHO regimen of Multidrug Therapy (MDT), the incidence remains a constant peril with approximately 211, 973 cases reported globally in 2015 out of which 127,334 cases were reported from India alone 1,2. Multi-drug therapy (MDT) includes Rifampicin (RIF), Dapsone and Clofazimine in 1982 by WHO 3. RIF is being used for the treatment of mycobacterial diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy due to its efficient antimicrobial action. However, after its use for more than 3 decades drug resistance to RIF in leprosy is being reported4-8. Considering that the resistance to RIF might pose a problem in the treatment of leprosy, a study on RIF and its interaction with resistant M. leprae mutants at the level of structure and function of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) and its ...
Journal of Spectroscopy is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles on the theory and application of spectroscopy across all disciplines. Articles may contribute to fundamental research, or be highly applied, and must report important experimental results or relate to the development of new methods and instrumentation.
In total, 109 of 238 (45.8%) specimens were culture-positive for M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC), and of these, 67 isolates were rifampicin resistant (RIF-R) by phenotypic DST, and 64/67 (95.5%) were isoniazid resistant (INH-R). Compared to culture of the same specimen, a single direct Xpert was more sensitive for detecting MTBC (95.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 90.0-98.3%) than direct (59.6%, 95% CI, 50.2-68.5%) or concentrated smear (85.3%, 95% CI, 77.7-91.1%) or LJ culture (80.8%, 95% CI, 72.4-87.5%); specificity was 86.0% (95% CI 78.9-91.3%). Compared with MGIT DST, Xpert correctly identified 98.2% (95% CI, 91.5-99.9%) of RIF-R and 95.5% (95% CI, 85.8-99.2%) of RIF-susceptible (RIF-S) specimens. In a subset of 104 specimens, the sensitivity of TB-Biochip for MTBC detection compared to culture was 97.3% (95% CI, 91.0-99.5%); specificity was 78.1% (95% CI, 61.5- 89.9%). TB-Biochip correctly identified 100% (95% CI, 94.2-100%) of RIF-R, 94.7% (95% CI, 76.7-99.7%) of RIF-S, 98.2% (95% CI, ...
1. World Health Organization 2010 Global tuberculosis control Geneva World Health Organization. 2. BoehmeCCNabetaPHillemannDNicolMPShenaiS 2010 Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. N Engl J Med 363 11 1005 1015. 3. BoehmeCCNicolMPNabetaPMichaelJSGotuzzoE 2011 Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet 377 9776 1495 1505. 4. NathansonENunnPUplekarMFloydKJaramilloE 2010 MDR tuberculosis-critical steps for prevention and control. N Engl J Med 363 11 1050 1058. 5. CoxHKebedeYAllamuratovaSIsmailovGDavletmuratovaZ 2006 Tuberculosis recurrence and mortality after successful treatment: impact of drug resistance. PLoS Med 3 10 e384 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030384. 6. ChaudharyMGuptaSKhareSLalS 2010 Diagnosis of tuberculosis in an era of HIV pandemic: a review of current status and future prospects. Indian J Med Microbiol ...
A Randomised Placebo - Controlled Double Blind Trial Comparing 1) a Two Month Intensive Phase of Ethambutol, Moxifloxacin, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide Versus the Standard Regimen (Ethambutol, Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide) and 2) a Treatment Shortening Regimen Comparing Two Months Moxifloxacin, Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide Followed by Two Months Moxifloxacin, Isoniazid, Rifampicin Versus the Standard Regimen (Two Months Ethambutol, Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide Followed by Four Months Isoniazid and Rifampicin) for the Treatment of Adults With Pulmonary Tuberculosis. ...
Tetracyclines and sulfonamides are no longer effective for the treatment of chancroid in many parts of the world. Rifampin and trimethoprim both possess in vitro activity against Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid. In a randomized, controlled study, 22 patients with H. ducreyi-positive genital ulcers received 600 mg of rifampin once daily for three days, and 32 patients received 600 mg of rifampin plus 160 mg of trimethoprim once daily for three days. Both regimens rapidly eradicated H. ducreyi from ulcers, with subsequent healing of ulcers and buboes. Two relapses of ulcers and one therapeutic failure were observed in the rifampin-trimethoprim group, whereas no relapses or failures were noted in the rifampin group. In addition, all of 16 H. ducreyi-negative ulcers responded rapidly to treatment with either regimen. In an uncontrolled, open study, 22 H. ducreyi-positive ulcers were treated with a single dose of rifampin (600 mg) plus trimethoprim (160 mg). Ulcers and buboes ...
BioAssay record AID 562238 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis assessed as growth inhibition in mid-logarithmic phase by spectrophotometry.
You can take medicine to prevent getting active TB disease. Rifampin is a common medicine used to treat LTBI. It kills the sleeping TB germs before they make you sick. It can take many months for the medicine to kill the TB germs because they are strong.. Take your Rifampin as often and as long as your doctor or nurse tells you. Taking your Rifampin without food is best. If your stomach is upset, it is okay to take your Rifampin with a small amount of food or try taking it at bedtime.. ...
Ethambutol And Isoniazid - Get up-to-date information on Ethambutol And Isoniazid side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Ethambutol And Isoniazid
One-third of the worlds population is infected with tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that survives and replicates within huma...
Description of the drug capreomycin Injection. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is capreomycin Injection!
Tips to help with your thrombocytopenia: Rifampicin Induced Thrombocytopenia Treatment. My thrombocytopenia, Online resources for thrombocytopenia.
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Background.Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis is difficult to treat, given the propensity for drug interactions between the rifamycins and the antiretroviral drugs. We examined the pharmacokinetics of rifabutin before and after the addition of lopinavir-ritonavir.. Methods.We analyzed 10 patients with HIV infection and active tuberculosis in a state tuberculosis hospital. Plasma was collected for measurement of rifabutin, the microbiologically active 25-desacetyl-rifabutin, and lopinavir by validated high-performance liquid chromatography assays. Samples were collected 2-4 weeks after starting rifabutin at 300 mg thrice weekly without lopinavir-ritonavir, 2 weeks after the addition of lopinavir-ritonavir at 400 and 100 mg, respectively, twice daily to rifabutin at 150 mg thrice weekly, and (if rifabutin plasma concentrations were below the normal range) 2 weeks after an increase in rifabutin to 300 mg thrice weekly with lopinavir-ritonavir. Noncompartmental and population ...
Evaluation of Biochip System in Determining Isoniazid and Rifampicin Resistances of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Sputum Samples. Wei Lu; Cheng Chen; Yan Shao; Jinyan Shi; Chongqiao Zhong; Dandan Yang; Honghuan Song; Guoli Li; Xiaoyan Ding; Hong Peng; Linyang Zhu; Yang Zhou; Limei Zhu // PLoS ONE;Dec2012, Vol. 7 Issue 12, p1 Objective: To evaluate a biochip system in determining isoniazid and rifampicin resistances of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples in a Chinese population. Methods: We assembled 907 sputum smeared positive specimens of tuberculosis patients in total. Each sample would be separated into... ...
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has become one of the major obstacles currently encountered in the control of this disease worldwide.1 The widespread and sometimes inappropriate use of rifampicin in the last 40 years has generated a growing number of cases of rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). Rifampicin resistance is the most decisive factor in the prognosis of TB patients.2 If this drug cannot be used, treatment must continue for at least 21-24 months, and combinations of less effective, more toxic drugs3 are required, leading to cure rates of only 50%.1 Moreover, more than 90% of RR-TB cases are also carriers of isoniazid (H)-resistant strains3; these patients make up the so-called multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) group.. The problem is further compounded by the appearance and spread of cases of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), which is MDR-TB that is also resistant to the fluoroquinolones (FQ: levofloxacin and/or moxifloxacin) and second-line injectable drugs (SLID: amikacin and/or ...
Efavirenz is currently the antiretroviral backbone recommended for HIV-tuberculosis-coinfected patients, but in the absence of an alternative to efavirenz in patients who cannot receive it, nevirapine is still prescribed for some HIV-tuberculosis-coinfected patients. This is the first study comparing pharmacokinetic parameters of rifampin and isoniazid when prescribed alone and with nevirapine when prescribed without a lead-in dose in Mozambican HIV-tuberculosis-coinfected patients. To our knowledge, our study contributes to the limited data on the pharmacokinetics of antituberculosis drugs in HIV-infected patients treated with efavirenz. Our main finding is that rifampin exposure was not altered to a clinically significant extent when combined with either nevirapine or efavirenz. A 29% significant decrease in isoniazid exposure (AUC) was demonstrated when coadministered with efavirenz but not nevirapine. The consequence of such a reduction is unknown. However, it has been suggested from an in ...
Introduction: : Due to the importance of Rifampin on Tuberculosis treatment and the high prevalence of brucellosis and tuberculosis in Iran, it is necessary to replace Rifampin in brucellosis treatment with other drugs that are better tolerated and have fewer side effects. Methods: This research is a double-blinded clinical trial in which ...
Capreomycin is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body. Capreomycin is used in combination with other medicines to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Capreomycin is usually given after other tuberculosis medications have been tried without success. Capreomycin may also be used for purposes not listed in this...
Main / Clearance & Specials / Rifampin tacrolimus interaction A pharmacokinetic interaction with rifampin, an antituberculosis agent and potent inducer of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, and tacrolimus was evaluated in six healthy male volunteers. Tacrolimus was administered at doses of mg/kg orally and mg/kg/4 hours intravenously. The pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus were. Rifampin is known to affect the metabolism of tacrolimus through induction of CYP3A4 and, to a far lesser extent, CYP3A5., Although the interaction between these drugs is in theory well recognized, its clinical significance in adults has been reported for only 4 Asian patients,- 2 Hispanic patients,, and one Kuwaiti patient.‎INTRODUCTION · ‎CASE REPORT · ‎DISCUSSION · ‎CONCLUSIONS.. Aladdin Imitates. Education. Dublin Swimming Broke. Amateur Sports Team. Dfb Kilbarrack. Severe reduction in tacrolimus levels with rifampin despite multiple cytochrome P inhibitors: a case report. Bhaloo S(1), Prasad GV. Author information: ...
Couples wedding photos capture eruption The history of Taal Volcano eruptions This year promises to be an exciting one for sport, with soccers European Championships and rifampin golfs Ryder Cup on the horizon. There may be a new tournament in mens tennis -- but the title will be decided by two of the games longstanding legends. Googles Chromebook Pixel is quite versatile after all. I can run Chrome OS and Linux at the same time, and switch between the two, allowing me to use Skype and other third party apps! Helen Ward, 52,suffered from debilitating mood swings during the menopause after her HRT ran out, she picked up a four month supply in Spain for 50. A Ukrainian airliner that crashed shortly after take-off was accidentally shot down by Iran, Canadas prime minister and U.S. officials rifampin said on Thursday. Conway G. Gittens has the details. After eight years since the last season of Supernanny, Jo Frost is back. And she has revealed she might be bringing her hit show to Australia. ...
Rifampicin is an antituberculosis drug which is used in treating patient with tuberculosis as well as leprosy. Rifampicin is also useful in treating condition such as staphylococcal infections, brucellosis, legionnaires disease and acts as prophylaxis ag
Rifampicin - Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic used for the treatment of certain bacterial infections including tuberculosis.
Citation: NIEHS Technical Report on the Reproductive, Developmental, and General Toxicity Study of 3-Azido-3-deoxythymidine (AZT) and Rifabutin Combinations (CASRNs 30516-87-1 and 72559-06-9) Administered by Gavage to Swiss (CD-1®) ...
Indikasi, Manfaat, dan Kegunaan RifapentineIndikasi merupakan petunjuk mengenai kondisi medis yang memerlukan efek terapi dari suatu produk kesehatan (obat, suplemen, dan lain-lain) atau kegunaan dari suatu produk kesehatan untuk suatu kondisi medis tertentu. Berikut ini indikasi dari Rifapentine: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) yang disebabkan oleh Mycobacterium tuberculosis. KontraindikasiKontraindikasi merupakan suatu petunjuk mengenai kondisi-kondisi dimana penggunaan obat… Read More ». ...
Garcia-Contreras, L., Sung, J., Elbert, K., Hawi, A., Robinson, M., Edwards, D., & Hickey, A. (2006). Pharmacokinetics of aerosolized rifampicin large porous particles in the guinea pig. In Respiratory Drug Delivery X (pp. 873 - 876). Boca Raton, FL: Davis Healthcare International Publishing, LLC ...
Structural characterization of form I of anhydrous rifampicin CrystEngComm, 2014, 16,8555-8562DOI: 10.1039/C4CE01157K, PaperAmanda Laura Ibiapino, Rafael Cardoso Seiceira, Altivo Pitaluga, Antonio Carlos Trindade, Fabio Furlan Ferreira Amanda Laura Ibiapino,a Rafael Cardoso Seiceira,b Altivo Pitaluga, Jr.,c Antonio Carlos Trindaded and Fabio Furlan Ferreira*a *Corresponding authorsaCenter of Natural and Human Sciences (CCNH), Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André,…
The fight against TB has taken several promising steps forward - scientists from Rutgers University have not only uncovered vital new information about how rifampicin, the frontline anti-TB drug, binds to its target, but have also discovered a completely new class of compounds that specifically kill TB bacteria. The paper was published in the journal … Read more. ...
Find great deals on eBay for An Orally Effective, Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Is : A. Isoniazid B. Clarithrmycin. Shop with confidence.
Most clinical antibiotics were found during the "golden age of antibiotics" (1940s-1960s). Actinomycin was the first antibiotic ... A recent screening of TCM extracts revealed a Streptomyces that produces a number of antitubercular pluramycins. Biology portal ... StreptomeDB Antibiotics and Streptomyces : the future of antibiotic discovery Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their ... would go on to comprise over two-thirds of all marketed antibiotics. Streptomyces antibiotics include: Chloramphenicol ( ...
... antibiotic; including antitubercular), antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic (including antiprotozoal and antihelminthic) ... Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in case there is resistance to one antibiotic. Antibiotics only work for bacteria and ... Antibiotics work by slowing down the multiplication of bacteria or killing the bacteria. The most common classes of antibiotics ... Thus, avoiding using antibiotics longer than necessary helps preventing bacteria from forming mutations that aide in antibiotic ...
High-dose intravenous antibiotics are required in order to control the infection and reduce the size of the abscess prior to ... Chronic retropharyngeal abscess is usually secondary to tuberculosis and the patient needs to be started on anti-tubercular ...
... antitubercular agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.255.135 --- antibiotics, antitubercular MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.777 --- ... antibiotics, antitubercular MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.222 --- antitreponemal agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.255 --- ... antibiotics, antineoplastic MeSH D27.505.954.248.125 --- anticarcinogenic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248.144 --- antimetabolites, ... leprostatic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.136 --- antifungal agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.136.073 --- antibiotics, antifungal MeSH ...
Sulfone - Dapsone (DDS), Phenazine derivative - Clofazimine, Antitubercular drugs - Rifampicin, Ethionamide, Solapsone, Other ... antibiotics - Oflaxacin, Minocycline, Clarithromycin, Current recommendations for the treatment of leprosy suggest multidrug ...
October 1998). "Antitubercular natural products: berberine from the roots of commercial Hydrastis canadensis powder. Isolation ... Berberine alone has weak antibiotic activity in vitro since many microorganisms actively export it from the cell (although a ... 1] Bergner, Paul Goldenseal and the Antibiotic Myth Medical Herbalism: A Journal for the Clinical Practitioner Volume 8, Number ... to work on the immune system as well as on attacking the microbes and hence have a stronger clinical effect than the antibiotic ...
Raman, K.; Rajagopalan, P.; Chandra, N. (2005). "Flux Balance Analysis of Mycolic Acid Pathway: Targets for Anti-Tubercular ... Lampart, PA (2002). "Cellular impermeability and uptake of biocides and antibiotics in Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria ... and limit the effectiveness of hydrophilic antibiotics and biocides. Mycolic acids also allow the bacterium to grow inside ...
... is of the rifamycin group of antibiotics. It works by stopping the production of RNA by bacteria. Rifampicin was ... Mycobacterial resistance to rifampicin may occur alone or along with resistance to other first line anti-tubercular drugs. ... Even in this deacetylated form, rifampicin is still a potent antibiotic; however, it can no longer be reabsorbed by the ... It is almost always used along with other antibiotics, except when given to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b and ...
Initial first-line antibiotic choice is determined by the patient's history and regional differences in common infective ... Tubercular osteomyelitis of the spine was so common before the initiation of effective antitubercular therapy, it acquired a ... Before the availability of antibiotics the risk of death was significant. Symptom may include pain in a specific bone with ... At this point, the bacteria may be resistant to some antibiotics. These combined facts may explain the chronicity and difficult ...
In preclinical studies SQ109 enhanced the activity of anti-tubercular drugs isoniazid and rifampin and reduced by >30% the time ... s Approval to Conduct Pivotal Clinical Trial for Sequella's Antibiotic, SQ109, for Tuberculosis". Reuters. 26 July 2012. ... a new diamine-based antitubercular drug". British Journal of Pharmacology. 144 (1): 80-87. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705984. PMC ...
Besides the antibiotics rifampicin and isoniazid it contains piperine. "Bioenhancers". Zutshi, RK; Singh, R; Zutshi, U; Johri, ... Dr.Atal also initiated the bioenhanced anti tubercular drug research project using Rifampicin which later resulted in ... Glycyrrhizin, a saponin of the liquorice plant, promotes the action of numerous antibiotics and the antifungal agent ... Besides several classes of modern drugs like antibiotics, anti cancer drugs, cardiovascular drugs, anti inflammatory, central ...
The Journal of Antibiotics. 60 (6): 391-394. doi:10.1038/ja.2007.54. PMID 17617698. editors; Blunt, John; Munro, Murray H.G. ( ... Natural Thioether Michael Addition Adducts as Antitubercular Prodrugs". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 52 (4): 1231- ... novel aminofuran antibiotic and anticancer compounds isolated from marine strains of the actinomycete Verrucosispora". The ... Journal of Antibiotics. 61 (3): 158-63. doi:10.1038/ja.2008.125. PMID 18503194. ...
While a potentially useful antibiotic in its own right, it has now been shown that platensimycin is not specifically active on ... Raman K, Rajagopalan P, Chandra N (October 2005). "Flux Balance Analysis of Mycolic Acid Pathway: Targets for Anti-Tubercular ... Despite the availability of the BCG vaccine and multiple antibiotics, until 2005 TB resurged due to multidrug resistance, ... Furthermore, this capsule inhibits entry of antibiotics. The enzymes involved in mycolate biosynthesis are essential for ...
If someone is believed to have been in contact with another person who has TB, preventive antibiotic treatment may have to be ... The preferred treatment regimen for both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis is a 6-month regimen of the antibiotics ... antitubercular agent. *Antituberculotic. *Apsheron Peninsula. *avian tuberculosis. *Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. *Biggs, ...
29 Studies found for: Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia , Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Also searched for Promyelocytic leukemia ...
... Mar 11, 2005 - 5:22:00 PM ... What is the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy?. Should children with suspected meningitis be given antibiotics before ... Tigecycline, world s first glycylcycline expanded broad-spectrum antibiotic, launched in UK. ... Hence, there is still a great deal of interest in developing new anti-tubercular drugs. Researchers at the University of ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; antibiotics; antitubercular; cytokines; tuberculosis; type 2 diabetes. PMID:. 30258443. PMCID:. ... Unfortunately, with the emergence of drug resistant and multi-drug resistant strains of M. tb the archetypical antibiotics no ... Although antibiotics were ineffective, the effectiveness of steroid therapy suggested a diagnosis of granulomatous IRIS caused ... The Synergistic Effects of the Glutathione Precursor, NAC and First-Line Antibiotics in the Granulomatous Response Against ...
Antibiotics. Antifungal agents. Antileprosy agents. Antimalarial agents. Antiprotozoal agents. Antitubercular agents --. 2. ... Antibiotics. Antifungal agents. Antileprosy agents. Antimalarial agents. Antiprotozoal agents. Antitubercular agents -- 2. ...
Antibiotics Part 1. 39. Antibiotics Part 2. 40. Antiviral Drugs. 41. Antitubercular Drugs. 42. Antifungal Drugs. 43. ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. To Top. *For Patients and Families ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. To Top. *For Patients and Families. *For Researchers ...
Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors. Hypolipidemic Agents. ...
The purpose of this research study is to know if the antibiotic azithromycin, an antibiotic approved by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Antibiotic prophylaxis therapy or history of neuropsychiatric non-response to prior antibiotic trial. ... Antibiotic Treatment Trial for the PANDAS/PANS Phenotype (AZT). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Antibiotic will be transferred to identical bottles as placebo and dispensed without the manufacturer label. Labels will be ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Leprostatic Agents. Nucleic Acid Synthesis ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Leprostatic Agents. Nucleic ... patterns of antibiotic resistance [ Time Frame: 6/2008 ]. *clinical and epidemiological factors associated with developing TB ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. To Top. *For Patients and Families ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Leprostatic Agents. Nucleic Acid Synthesis ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Leprostatic Agents. Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 ... Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors. Hypolipidemic Agents. ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. To Top. *For Patients and Families ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. Leprostatic Agents. Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 ... Several fluoroquinolone antibiotics have potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in preclinical ... Known allergy to any fluoroquinolone antibiotic. *Concomitant disorders or conditions for which moxifloxacin (MXF), isoniazid ( ...
Measured if diarrhea develops in hospital during antibiotic treatment or during the 3 weeks following last antibiotic dose ]. * ... Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common adverse drug reaction, occurring in 5-35% of patients, and is of significant ... Time Frame: Monitored cnce daily at start of study product, then weekly x 3 weeks after last antibiotic dose ]. ... Anticipated to receive antibiotics (intravenous or oral) for greater than 72 hours for any indication, and ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. *Antiinfectives for Systemic Use. *Antitubercular Agents. *Antiviral Agents. *Antivirals for ...
5 FMT Capsule DE along with antibiotic; followed by five capsules FMT Capsule DE x 7 days post-antibiotic course. ... Five capsules per day along with antibiotic; followed by five capsules per day for seven days post-antibiotic treatment. ... Receiving antibiotics at enrollment for reasons other than CDI and having received no more than three doses of the prescribed ... FMT Capsule double-encapsulated (DE) by mouth, 5 capsules once daily with antibiotic, followed by 5 capsules daily for 7 days ...
Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. To Top. *For Patients and Families. *For Researchers ...
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic. Antifungal Agents. Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Antitubercular Agents. Enzyme Inhibitors. ...
Antibiotic miuse of broad spectrum antibiotics and total costs of antibiotic treatment Superfluous antibiotic treatment [ Time ... Appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment [ Time Frame: 48 hours ]. Appropriateness of the antibiotic treatment given during ... Use of broad spectrum antibiotics and total costs of antibiotic treatment. *Costs [ Time Frame: 30 days ]. Costs incurred ... All patients for whom antibiotic treatment (but not prophylaxis or intra-peritoneal, inhalation or local antibiotics therapy ) ...
Active Comparator: Oral antibiotics Drug: Antibiotics The trial protocol does not specify individual antibiotics, as the trial ... Active Comparator: Intravenous antibiotics Drug: Antibiotics The trial protocol does not specify individual antibiotics, as the ... The choice of antibiotic is complex, and antibiotics that are suitable oral choices are often not suitable intravenous choices ... The trial is of antibiotic strategy rather than of individual antibiotics. The study will be open label, but the primary ...
Drug: short-course antibiotic treatment On day 7 of appropriate intravenous or oral antibiotic treatment for the bacteremic ... Type of empiric antibiotic treatment and later, specific antibiotic treatment, will be chosen by the treating physicians in ... Intervention group - antibiotic treatment stopped on day 7. *Control group - antibiotic treatment continued for 14 days ... Total antibiotic days [ Time Frame: Until day 30 after randomization ]. Total antibiotic days ...
  • The intervention is to discontinue antibiotics at 24h, and he/she will be kept under observation in the NICU for at least an additional 24h, pending blood culture results at 48h. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Stoppage of antibiotics at 24h in the intervention arm, randomization based on neutrophil CD64 values. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The objectives of the study were to determine whether treatment of AOM using a "Wait and See Prescription" (WASP) significantly reduces use of antimicrobials compared with a "Standard Prescription" (SP) and to evaluate the effects of this intervention on clinical symptoms and adverse outcomes related to antibiotic use. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Secondary endpoints: Costs-savings from the intervention, acceptability of the program, percentage of prescriptions fulfilling disease-specific quality indicators for outpatient antibiotic criteria by the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Intervention: Quarterly postal and electronic feedback for 24 months on the crude number of antibiotics prescribed, a population adjusted benchmark-profile in comparison to other primary care physicians, and evidence-based guidelines for the use of antibiotics in primary care. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Percentage of prescriptions fulfilling disease-specific quality indicators for outpatient antibiotic criteria by the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mycobutin capsules contain the antimycobacterial agent rifabutin, which is a semisynthetic ansamycin antibiotic derived from rifamycin S. Mycobutin capsules for oral administered contain 150mg of rifabutin, USP, per capsule, along with the inactive ingredients microcrystalline cellulose magenesium stearate, red iron oxide3, silica gel, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide, and edible white ink. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Rifampicin is of the rifamycin group of antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, we propose that collection of a urine culture while inserting the new bladder catheter would yield growth of only organisms that truly contribute to UTI and, therefore, obviate the need to administer unnecessary antibiotics to cover additional organisms that would grow only from urine cultures obtained through the original catheter. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The investigators believe that the proposed study will provide the answer to reducing unnecessary antibiotic usage in the PICU without causing any harm to the patient in the form of treatment failure and/or mortality. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This indiscriminate use is much more pronounced in the ICUs with observations from various studies indicating that 30% to 60% of antibiotics prescribed in ICUs are unnecessary, inappropriate, or suboptimal. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Background: Excessive use of antibiotics may lead to unnecessary adverse events and raise the emergence of bacterial resistance, an increasingly serious problem in Europe. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Procalcitonin may not be the long sought for bio-marker to establish the diagnosis of sepsis but may help decrease the duration of the administered antibiotic courses once they are started. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Number of infants with early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) randomized to either stopping or continuing antibiotics at 24h, based on the neutrophil CD64 measurement [ Time Frame: At 48h after initiation of antibiotics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Given this background, the investigators plan to conduct this pragmatic randomized controlled trial in children with sepsis admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and already on antibiotics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study hypothesizes that children receiving antibiotic will show significantly greater overall improvement in severity compared with placebo, and that children with sudden onset of OCD and whose subsequent course shows dramatic fluctuations will have evidence of immune risk factors that predisposes to this presentation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this 3 group study, FMT will be administered daily via oral capsules containing frozen fecal microbiota from universal donors in group 1, administered at the end of antibiotic treatment for group 2, and group 3 will receive daily placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hirunwiwatkul P, Wachirasereechai K. Effectiveness of combined antibiotic ophthalmic solution in the treatment of hordeolum after incision and curettage: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial: a pilot study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Subjects will receive the antibiotic or the saline placebo 30 minutes prior to the initial incision in their palatoplasty procedure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether the gentamicin-collagen sponge when combined with standard daily wound care and an oral antibiotic (levofloxacin) is safe and effective in treating moderately infected skin ulcers compared to treatment only with standard daily wound care and an oral antibiotic (levofloxacin). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All subjects will also receive oral an antibiotic (levofloxacin). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prednisone 40mg orally twice daily for 11 days, followed by 40mg once daily for 5 days, followed by 20mg once daily for 5 days and antibiotics (Bactrim, Pentamidine, Atovaquone, Primaquine/Clindamycin, or Trimethoprim/Dapsone). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • TREAT is based on a state of the art stochastic model of the domain (a causal probabilistic network) and uses a cost benefit model for antibiotic treatment, including costs assigned to future resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Streptomyces antibiotics include: Chloramphenicol (Streptomyces venezuelae) Daptomycin (Streptomyces roseosporus) Fosfomycin (Streptomyces fradiae) Lincomycin (Streptomyces lincolnensis) Neomycin (Streptomyces fradiae) Platensimycin (Streptomyces platensis) Puromycin (Streptomyces alboniger) Streptomycin (Streptomyces griseus) Tetracycline (Streptomyces rimosus and Streptomyces aureofaciens) Clavulanic acid (Streptomyces clavuligerus) is used in combination with some antibiotics (like amoxicillin) to weaken bacterial-resistance. (wikipedia.org)