Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE.
ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.
TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Math calculations done for preparing appropriate doses of medicines, taking into account conversions of WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Mistakes are one of the sources of MEDICATION ERRORS.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.
A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.
Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
The practice of administering medications in a manner that poses more risk than benefit, particularly where safer alternatives exist.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Evaluation of bactericidal activities of LY333328, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin-sulbactam, trovafloxacin, and RP59500 alone or in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against different strains of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus by time-kill curve methods. (1/586)

This in vitro study evaluated the activities of vancomycin, LY333328, and teicoplanin alone and in combination with gentamicin, rifampin, and RP59500 against Staphylococcus aureus isolates with intermediate susceptibilities to vancomycin. Ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin were also evaluated. LY333328 and ampicillin-sulbactam resulted in bactericidal activity against all isolates. The combination of gentamicin with glycopeptides showed synergistic activity, while rifampin had no added benefit.  (+info)

rpoB mutations in multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy. (2/586)

Mutations of rpoB associated with rifampin resistance were studied in 37 multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy. At least one mutated codon was found in each MDR strain. It was always a single-base substitution leading to an amino acid change. Nine different rpoB alleles, three of which had not been reported before, were found. The relative frequencies of specific mutations in this sample were different from those previously reported from different geographical areas, since 22 strains (59.5%) carried the mutated codon TTG in position 531 (Ser-->Leu) and 11 (29.7%) had GAC in position 526 (His-->Asp).  (+info)

Integron-mediated rifampin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (3/586)

A new rifampin resistance gene, arr-2, has been found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ARR-2 protein shows 54% amino acid identity to the rifampin ADP-ribosylating transferase encoded by the arr gene from Mycobacterium smegmatis. This arr-2 gene is located on a gene cassette within a class I integron.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Lesotho. (4/586)

Villages associated with the Lesotho Highlands Development Agency were randomized with a bias in favour of larger villages, and children < 5 years of age from cluster-randomized households in these villages were chosen for the assessment of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci. Children of the same age group attending clinics in the capital, Maseru, were selected for comparison. Nasopharyngeal cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae from both groups of children were examined for antibiotic resistance and a questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for the acquisition of resistant strains. Carriage of penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant pneumococci was significantly higher among 196 Maseru children compared with 324 rural children (P < 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). Maseru children tended to visit clinics at an earlier age compared with their rural counterparts. The rural children were less exposed to antibiotics (P < 0.01), were less frequently hospitalized (P < 0.001), and rarely attended day care centres (P < 0.001). The very low incidence of antibiotic resistance in rural Lesotho and the higher incidence in Maseru are in stark contrast with the much higher frequencies found in the Republic of South Africa, many European countries, and the USA.  (+info)

Rifampicin is not an activator of the glucocorticoid receptor in A549 human alveolar cells. (5/586)

It has recently been reported that rifampicin activates the glucocorticoid receptor and acts as an immunosuppressive drug. Because rifampicin constitutes an essential part of pulmonary tuberculosis therapy, we have examined whether it triggers glucocorticoid-like effects in alveolar cells. We have used reporter gene assays to measure the trans-activating and trans-repressing capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor after treating A549 human alveolar cells with rifampicin. The data show that rifampicin neither activated transcription from a promoter containing a glucocorticoid response element nor repressed the activity of activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB, which are transcription factors involved in the immune response. In addition, rifampicin was also unable to inhibit the expression of an endogenous gene that contains activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB response elements and encodes the proinflammatory cytokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein). Finally, nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor, which occurs after ligand binding, was not triggered by rifampicin. In contrast, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone scored positive in all corresponding control experiments. In conclusion, rifampicin is not an activator of the glucocorticoid receptor in A549 alveolar cells. Our results support the clinical observation that rifampicin is not an immunosuppressive drug and suggest that the current medical practice concerning this antibiotic should not be changed.  (+info)

In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of new rifamycin derivatives, KRM-1648 and KRM-1657. (6/586)

The new rifamycin derivatives KRM-1657 and KRM-1648 were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against 44 strains of Helicobacter pylori. Although the drugs were not very active against other gram-negative bacteria, the MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for these drugs were lower (0.002 and 0.008 microgram/ml, respectively) than those of amoxicillin and rifampin for H. pylori. Time-kill studies revealed that the bactericidal activities of these agents were due to cell lysis. The results presented here indicate that these new rifamycin derivatives may be useful for the eradication of H. pylori infections.  (+info)

Efficacy of microencapsulated rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. (7/586)

Rifampin is a first-line drug useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. By using biocompatible polymeric excipients of lactide and glycolide copolymers, two microsphere formulations were developed for targeted and sustained delivery of rifampin, with minimal dosing. A small-microsphere formulation, with demonstrated ability to inhibit intracellularly replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, was tested along with a large-microsphere formulation in an infected mouse model. Results revealed that by using a single treatment of the large-microsphere formulation, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in M. tuberculosis H37Rv CFUs in the lungs of mice by 26 days postinfection. A combination of small (given as two injections on day 0 and day 7) and large (given as one injection at day 0) rifampin-loaded microsphere formulations resulted in significant reductions in CFUs in the lungs by 26 days, achieving a 1.23 log10 reduction in CFUs. By comparison, oral treatment with 5, 10, or 20 mg of rifampin/kg of body weight, administered every day, resulted in a reduction of 0.42, 1.7, or 1.8 log10 units, respectively. Thus the microsphere formulations, administered in one or two doses, were able to achieve results in mice similar to those obtained with a daily drug regimen within the range of the highest clinically tolerated dosage in humans. These results demonstrate that microsphere formulations of antimycobacterial drugs such as rifampin can be used for therapy of tuberculosis with minimal dosing.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo experimental activities of antifungal agents against Fusarium solani. (8/586)

In the treatment of disseminated Fusarium infections, amphotericin B either alone or in combination with flucytosine and rifampin is the drug therapy most frequently used. The efficacy of these antifungal drugs was evaluated in a murine disseminated-infection model, with five strains of Fusarium solani. All the treatments were clearly ineffective.  (+info)

article{ec0a3db2-6375-4444-b969-fd4c516197f3, abstract = {The colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was standardized for direct detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the direct MTT assay matched those of the standard indirect susceptibility assay on 7H10 medium, and interpretable results were obtained for 98.5% of the samples within 2 weeks. Traditional methods of in vitro drug susceptibility testing are time consuming and laborious. Susceptibility tests on clinical isolates require 6 to 9 weeks, and tests conducted directly on smear-positive samples take about 3 weeks (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, The public health service national tuberculosis reference laboratory and the national laboratory network. Minimum requirements, role and operation in a low-income country, Paris, France, 1998, and P. T. Kent and G. P. Kubica, Public health ...
Saint Cloud, Minn. - Microbiologics, Inc. has launched positive and negative controls for quality control of Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB-RIF) molecular assays and test methods to help clinical laboratories deliver fast and accurate results. One fourth of the worlds population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) and 10.0 million people became ill with TB disease in 2017 according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is on the rise due to mismanaged treatment and person-to-person transmission. World Health Organization (WHO) estimated 600,000 people worldwide developed MDR-TB in 2016 with 110,000 cases caused by MTB-RIF.. The new Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Positive Control Panel and Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Negative Control were designed to make quality control testing of molecular assays simple, reliable, and affordable. Features of the controls include:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mode of Action of Kanglemycin A, an Ansamycin Natural Product that Is Active against Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. AU - Mosaei, Hamed. AU - Molodtsov, Vadim. AU - Kepplinger, Bernhard. AU - Harbottle, John. AU - Moon, Christopher William. AU - Jeeves, Rose Elizabeth. AU - Ceccaroni, Lucia. AU - Shin, Yeonoh. AU - Morton-Laing, Stephanie. AU - Marrs, Emma Claire Louise. AU - Wills, Corinne. AU - Clegg, William. AU - Yuzenkova, Yulia. AU - Perry, John David. AU - Bacon, Joanna. AU - Errington, Jeff. AU - Allenby, Nicholas Edward Ellis. AU - Hall, Michael John. AU - Murakami, Katsuhiko S.. AU - Zenkin, Nikolay. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the staff at the MacCHESS for support with crystallographic data collection. We also thank UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council for X-ray crystallography facilities (grant EP/F03637X/1), Dr U. Baisch (Newcastle University) for measuring the CuKalpha diffraction data, Diamond Light Source for access to ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to rifampin results from nucleotide changes in the gene encoding the beta-subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB). We developed a reverse hybridization-based line probe assay (LiPA; the INNO-LiPA Rif. TB) carrying one oligonucleotide probe for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex strains and nine probes designed to detect nucleotide changes in the relevant part of rpoB. This assay was evaluated with 107 M. tuberculosis isolates with known rpoB sequences, 52 non-M. tuberculosis complex strains, and 61 and 203 clinical isolates found to be sensitive and resistant, respectively, by in vitro testing. The results indicated that (i) the M. tuberculosis complex probe was 100% specific, (ii) when compared to the results of nucleotide sequencing, no discrepancies with the results of INNO-LiPA Rif. TB were observed, (iii) all strains sensitive by in vitro susceptibility testing were correctly identified, and (iv) among the strains resistant by in vitro susceptibility ...
been administered without serious adverse events. The only adverse events reported with the 1200 Following a single 600 mg oral dose of radiolabeled rifapentine to healthy volunteers (n=4), 87% of the mg dose were heartburn (3/8), headache (2/8) and increased urinary frequency (1/8). In clinical trials, total 14C rifapentine was recovered in the urine (17%) and feces (70%). Greater than 80% of the total tuberculosis patients ranging in age from 20 to 74 years accidentally received continuous daily doses 14C rifapentine dose was excreted from the body within 7 days. Rifapentine was hydrolyzed by an of rifapentine 600 mg. Some patients received continuous daily dosing for up to 20 days without esterase enzyme to form a microbiologically active 25-desacetyl rifapentine. Rifapentine and 25- evidence of serious adverse effects. One patient experienced a transient elevation in SGPT and desacetyl rifapentine accounted for 99% of the total radioactivity in plasma. Plasma AUC(0-∞) and glucose (the ...
We will enroll 24-36 patients, 8-12 at each dose of 600, 900 and 1200 mg rifapentine Admissions for pharmacokinetic studies will take place during the continuation phase of tuberculosis therapy. Patients participating in a double-blinded trial of the tolerability and safety of higher doses of rifapentine during continuation phase therapy and consenting to participate in the pharmacokinetic study may be admitted to a Clinical Research Center (CRC) to allow for frequent blood sampling over a 24-hour period. Otherwise, patients will be evaluated in the clinic ...
We will enroll 24-36 patients, 8-12 at each dose of 600, 900 and 1200 mg rifapentine Admissions for pharmacokinetic studies will take place during the continuation phase of tuberculosis therapy. Patients participating in a double-blinded trial of the tolerability and safety of higher doses of rifapentine during continuation phase therapy and consenting to participate in the pharmacokinetic study may be admitted to a Clinical Research Center (CRC) to allow for frequent blood sampling over a 24-hour period. Otherwise, patients will be evaluated in the clinic ...
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Advice for mothers using Rifapentine (Priftin) while breastfeeding. Includes possible effects on breastfed infants and lactation.
Rifampicin - Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic used for the treatment of certain bacterial infections including tuberculosis.
Rifampicin - Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic used for the treatment of certain bacterial infections including tuberculosis.
As explained in this eMedTV resource, rifampin capsules and injections are typically used once or twice a day. More dosing instructions for rifampin are given in this article, including details on how the dosage is calculated by your healthcare provider.
Only the injected form of rifampin is available in a 600-mg strength. This brief eMedTV segment lists all the other forms and strengths of this drug. This article also discusses what rifampin is used for and how your dosage is determined.
Rifampicin Central is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Rifampicin Central is available on the Drugs.com website.
Hi there everyon I was treated for MAC two years ago 3 x weekly, Ethambutol/Rifampin/Azithromycin Ive recently had scan with buds showing and have symptoms and […] - Page 4
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid detection of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, based on isothermal DNA amplification and DNA chromatography. AU - Takarada, Yutaka. AU - Kodera, Takuya. AU - Kobayashi, Kumi. AU - Nakajima, Chie. AU - Kawase, Mitsuo. AU - Suzuki, Yasuhiko. N1 - Funding Information: This study is based on previous results obtained from a project subsidized by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) . The research was supported in part by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan(MEXT) , the Joint Research Program of the Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University to YS, and in part by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) under Grant Number JP20jk0210005 , JP20jm0110021 and JP20wm0125008 to YS. Funding Information: We thank Dr. Aki Tamaru for providing DNA extracted from clinically isolated M. tuberculosis. This study is based on previous results obtained from a ...
The study evaluated the effect of Rifampicin on the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of oral and intravenous apixaban in
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes a variety of infections and toxicoses. In recent years, the percentage of rifampicin-resistant S. aureus has increased rapidly in China. The aims of this study were to analyze 1) the level of rifampicin resistance in S. aureus and its correlation with mutations in the rpoB gene, and 2) the molecular characterization of rifampicin-resistant S. aureus isolates. 88 rifampicin-resistant S. aureus isolates were collected for this study. Of the 88 isolates, 83 (94.3%) were high-level rifampicin resistant (MIC≥8 mg/L) while the remaining 5 isolates (5.7%) had a low-level resistance to rifampicin (MIC, 2 to 4 mg/L). Four amino acid substitutions were found in the 88 isolates, which were 481His/Asn (95.5%), 466Leu/Ser (87.5%), 477Ala/Asp (6.8%) and 486Ser/Leu (4.5%) respectively. All mutations were found to be present in cluster I of the rpoB gene. The low-level resistant isolates were found to have only one mutation, while the high
Rifalazil (also known as KRM-1648 and AMI-1648) is an antibiotic. Rifalazil kills bacterial cells by blocking off the β-subunit in RNA polymerase. Rifalazil is used as treatments for many different diseases. Of the most common are Chlamydia infection, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), and tuberculosis (TB). Using rifalazil and the effects that coincide with taking rifalazil for treating a bacterial disease vary from person to person, as does any drug put into the human body. Food interactions and genetic variation are a few causes for the variation in side effects from the use of rifalazil. Its development was terminated in 2013 due to severe side effects. Rifalazil works well alone, and in conjunction with other antibiotics alone. In a study conducted in 2005, it was found that combining rifalazil with vancomycin increased bacterial killing by a factor of 3.[medical citation needed] Rifalazil also has a very long half-life which allows more infrequent dosages as opposed to ...
Resistance to rifampin arises due to mutations in the beta subunit of RNA polymerase encoded by the gene rpoB. Almost all of the corresponding mutations in rpoB occur in a small region of less than 100 bp, with less than 5% occurring outside of this region (36). This includes point mutations, deletions, and insertions (66). Despite the large number of different possible mutations three are found in more than 70% of clinical isolates. An experimental investigation of this phenomenon used in vitro resistance induction to investigate this. A limited repertoire of mutations was detected. When the growth rate of these organisms was compared with that of their parents in competition, a range of fitness was detected. There was considerable variation in the fitness of the rifampin-resistant strains, with some showing a severe physiological burden with a relative fitness (rf) of as little as 0.21, whereas other strains had a fitness similar to that of the susceptible parent (rf = 1.05; in these ...
Rifapentine - Get up-to-date information on Rifapentine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Rifapentine
Rifapentine is an antibiotic that is used to treat tuberculosis in both children and adults. It is often paired with other medicines for a better effect.
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Rifampin is the name of the medication. It comes in the form of a capsule, and should be taken by mouth. It belongs to a class of medications called Rifamycin Antibiotic.
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Rifampin-resistant meningococcal disease occurred in a child who had completed rifampin chemoprophylaxis for exposure to a sibling with meningococcemia. Susceptibility testing of 331 case isolates found only 1 other case of rifampin-resistant disease in Minnesota, USA, during 11 years of statewide surveillance. Point mutations in the RNA polymerase Beta subunit (rpoB) gene were found in isolates from each rifampin-resistant case-patient ...
SUMMARY Rifampicin is an antibiotic mostly used to treat tuberculosis and leprosy, and, occasionally, other diseases. Resistance is due to alterations in membrane permeability or to mutation in the rpoB gene coding for mRNA polymerase. Both these mechanisms originate via chromosomal mutation. However, a rifampicin-resistant Pseudomonas fluorescens strain harboured a multiresistance plasmid which transferred rifampicin resistance when transformed into P. putida or Escherichia coli. Rifampicin readily diffused into the sensitive cells of the E. coli and P. putida recipients, but the transformants with the plasmid, pSCL were resistant to the drug and did not accumulate it. Potassium cyanide restored the diffusion of rifampicin into the resistant cells, indicating that an efflux pump was involved in the resistance mechanism. The resistance of the transformants and the wild strain was also abolished in sphaeroplasts generated by EDTA lysozyme treatment. Analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE revealed the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of rifampin-resistant genotypes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by reverse hybridization assay. AU - Maschmann, Raquel de A. AU - Verza, Mirela. AU - Silva, Marcia S N. AU - Sperhacke, Rosa Dea. AU - Ribeiro, Marta O.. AU - Suffys, Philip Noel. AU - Gomes, Harrison Magdinier. AU - Tortoli, Enrico. AU - Marcelli, Fiorella. AU - Zaha, Arnaldo. AU - Rossetti, Maria Lucia R. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - We used a colorimetric reverse dot blot hybridization (CRDH) assay to detect the presence of mutations in a specific region of the rpoB gene, associated with rifampin (RIF) resistance, in a panel of 156 DNAs extracted from 103 RIF-sensitive and 53 RIF-resistant cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When compared with the antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST), the sensitivity and specificity of the CRDH were 92.3% and 98.1%, respectively. When compared with sequencing, the sensitivity and specificity of the CRDH were 90.6% and 100%, respectively. To evaluate the ...
Rifampicin, an antibiotic widely used in tuberculosis therapy, is known to exert psychotropic side effects in some patients. Recently, rifampicin has been reported to activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in human hepatocytes. Because there is evidence that increased levels of glucocorticoids may induce cognitive impairment, sometimes culminating in depression, the side effects of rifampicin may result from GR activation in central nerve cells. Therefore, we used reporter gene assays to determine whether rifampicin displays glucocorticoid-like effects in human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells or mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Rifampicin was unable to elicit any detectable transactivation of GR in both cell types, whereas cortisol or dexamethasone led to a potent transcriptional response. Rifampicin was also inactive in the same HepG2 cell line that was originally used to demonstrate the effect of rifampicin on GR. Moreover, rifampicin was unable to compete with dexamethasone for binding to GR. ...
Results. Jindani A, Harrison TS, Nunn AJ, Phillips PP, Churchyard GJ, Charalambous S, Hatherill M, Geldenhuys H, McIlleron HM, Zvada SP, Mungofa S, Shah NA, Zizhou S, Magweta L, Shepherd J, Nyirenda S, van Dijk JH, Clouting HE, Coleman D, Bateson AL, McHugh TD, Butcher PD, Mitchison DA, , High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis., N. Engl. J. Med., 2014, 371, 17, 1599-1608, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1314210.. ...
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Rifampin definition. noun, Pharmacology. 1. a semisynthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic, C 4 3 H 5 8 N 4 O 1 2 , used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, asymptomatic car
Learn how Rifampin is used to treat foals and horses when a systemic antibacterial is needed to treat staphylococcal infections and eradicate pathogens located in difficult to reach target areas, such as abscesses.
Rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae in an elderly leprosy patient in the Peoples Republic of China Meiwen Yu,1,* Kan Wu,1,* Bing Pei,2 Degang Yang,2 Qiulin Wang,1 Hongsheng Wang,1 Jianping Shen,1 Liangbing Yan,1 Guochen Zhang1 1Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Center for STD and Leprosy Control, China CDC, Nanjing, Peoples Republic of China; 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The reported number of registered leprosy patients worldwide declined with the introduction of multidrug therapy. However, the emergence of rifampicin resistance in leprosy patients engenders difficulties for an individual patient, and its dissemination could pose a threat to leprosy control. This study reports an elderly patient who was diagnosed with rifampicin-resistant lepromatous leprosy. This case indicates that
Rifampin is currently the most potent drug used in leprosy control programs. We show that the rifampin resistance which emerged in nine patients with lepromatous leprosy, who had received rifampin monotherapy, stemmed from mutations in the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta subunit of RNA polymerase of Mycobacterium leprae. In eight cases missense mutations were found to affect a serine residue, Ser-425, while in the remaining mutant a small insertion was found close to this site. These findings will be of use for the development of a rapid screening procedure, involving the polymerase chain reaction, for monitoring the emergence of rifampin-resistant M. leprae strains. Honore, N; Cole, S T
Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derived from the rifamycins, a group of antibacterials produced by Streptomyces mediterranei. Rifampicin was initially developed to treat tuberculosis but more recently has been used against other bacteria. The beneficial effect of rifampicin on pruritus was initially discovered serendipitously. Four formal studies (three of which were randomised controlled trials) have suggested a subjective effect of rifampicin on itch severity.10-13 These studies also suggested that rifampicin was better at relieving itch than other hepatic enzyme inducing agents such as phenobarbitone.10 A single small study failed to confirm the effectiveness of rifampicin for subjective itching in cholestatic liver disease (including three patients with PBC).18 All of these studies used subjective measures of itch severity (for example, visual analogue scales). To our knowledge no trial of rifampicin in cholestasis has examined efficacy in terms of objective changes in scratching ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Outbreak due to methicillin- and rifampin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. T2 - Epidemiology and eradication of the resistant strain from the hospital. AU - Bitar, C. M.. AU - Mayhall, C. G.. AU - Lamb, V. A.. AU - Bradshaw, T. J.. AU - Spadora, A. C.. AU - Dalton, H. P.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023111265&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023111265&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1017/S0195941700066935. DO - 10.1017/S0195941700066935. M3 - Article. C2 - 3643888. AN - SCOPUS:0023111265. VL - 8. SP - 15. EP - 23. JO - Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. JF - Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. SN - 0899-823X. IS - 1. ER - ...
To evaluate the effects of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of sotagliflozin and its metabolite in healthy male and female subjects. Secondary
Emmanuel Fajardo: Added Value of Performing a Second Xpert MTB/RIF Test on a Second Sputum Sample to Confirm Rifampicin Resistance:Analysis of Routinely Collected Data in MSF-Supported Sites in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and ...
The objectives are to compare drug regimens containing rifabutin with those containing rifampicin for treating people with pulmonary tuberculosis. ...
This 24-years old man had fever every night starting April 2019, when a CT scan showed necrotic portal nodes. A biopsy could not be done at the time and he was not put on any treatment. He came in the 3rd week of Dec, with an increase in the size of the nodes. A trans hepatic CT guided biopsy yielded pus and the PCR (GeneXpert) on the same day was positive for TB, with rifampicin resistance.. ...
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Rifampicin (Rifadin-Lepetit; Rimactane-Ciba) is a semi-synthetic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces mediterranei which inhibits the synthesis of bacterial messenger-RNA. In vitro it is active against Gram-positive organisms and mycobacteria in low concentrations (0.0002 - 0.5 mcg/ml); and against Gram-negative organisms in higher concentrations (1 - 10 mcg/ml). Drug-resistant mutants readily emerge if rifampicin is used alone.1 It is already established as an important agent in the treatment of tuberculosis. Its usefulness in other bacterial and in viral infections is uncertain.. ...
The objective of the present work was to formulate the enteric minitablets of isoniazid by cold extrusion method. The minitablets were prepared using isoniazid, hydroxylpropylmethy..
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Most clinical antibiotics were found during the "golden age of antibiotics" (1940s-1960s). Actinomycin was the first antibiotic ... A recent screening of TCM extracts revealed a Streptomyces that produces a number of antitubercular pluramycins. Biology portal ... StreptomeDB Antibiotics and Streptomyces : the future of antibiotic discovery Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their ... would go on to comprise over two-thirds of all marketed antibiotics. Streptomyces antibiotics include: Chloramphenicol ( ...
Treatment requires the use of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem with ... The benefits and risks of giving anti-tubercular drugs in those exposed to MDR-TB is unclear. Making HAART therapy available to ... Active TB is best treated with combinations of several antibiotics to reduce the risk of the bacteria developing antibiotic ... Treatment with appropriate antibiotics kills bacteria and allows healing to take place. Upon cure, affected areas are ...
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High-dose intravenous antibiotics are required in order to control the infection and reduce the size of the abscess prior to ... surgery.Chronic retropharyngeal abscess is usually secondary to tuberculosis and the patient needs to be started on anti-tubercular ...
... antibiotics, antitubercular MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.222 - antitreponemal agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.255 - antitubercular ... agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.255.135 - antibiotics, antitubercular MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.777 - leprostatic agents MeSH ... antibiotics, antineoplastic MeSH D27.505.954.248.125 - anticarcinogenic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248.144 - antimetabolites, ... D27.505.954.122.136 - antifungal agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.136.073 - antibiotics, antifungal MeSH D27.505.954.122.187 - anti- ...
Sulfone - Dapsone (DDS), Phenazine derivative - Clofazimine, Antitubercular drugs - Rifampicin, Ethionamide, Solapsone, Other ... antibiotics - Oflaxacin, Minocycline, Clarithromycin, Current recommendations for the treatment of leprosy suggest multidrug ...
His research has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, antibiotics, and metal sensing. He has engaged in some research ... "Antitubercular Bis-Substituted Cyclam Derivatives: Structure-Activity Relationships and in Vivo Studies". Journal of Medicinal ... Devi, Prarthana; Rutledge, Peter J. (2017). "Cyclobutanone Analogues of β-Lactam Antibiotics: β-Lactamase Inhibitors with ... "Antitubercular Bis-Substituted Cyclam Derivatives: Structure-Activity Relationships and in Vivo Studies". Journal of Medicinal ...
October 1998). "Antitubercular natural products: berberine from the roots of commercial Hydrastis canadensis powder. Isolation ... Berberine alone has weak antibiotic activity in vitro since many microorganisms actively export it from the cell (although a ... 1] Bergner, Paul Goldenseal and the Antibiotic Myth Medical Herbalism: A Journal for the Clinical Practitioner Volume 8, Number ... to work on the immune system as well as on attacking the microbes and hence have a stronger clinical effect than the antibiotic ...
Raman, K.; Rajagopalan, P.; Chandra, N. (2005). "Flux Balance Analysis of Mycolic Acid Pathway: Targets for Anti-Tubercular ... Lampart, PA (2002). "Cellular impermeability and uptake of biocides and antibiotics in Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria ... and limit the effectiveness of hydrophilic antibiotics and biocides. Mycolic acids also allow the bacterium to grow inside ...
It is almost always used together with other antibiotics with two notable exceptions when given as a second-line treatment for ... Mycobacterial resistance to rifampicin may occur alone or along with resistance to other first line antitubercular drugs. Early ... Rifampicin is of the rifamycin group of antibiotics. It works by decreasing the production of RNA by bacteria. Rifampicin was ... For those reasons as well as some ethical concerns regarding off-label use of antibiotics, rifampin as a very effective ...
In preclinical studies SQ109 enhanced the activity of anti-tubercular drugs isoniazid and rifampin and reduced by >30% the time ... Receives Russian Regulator's Approval to Conduct Pivotal Clinical Trial for Sequella's Antibiotic, SQ109, for Tuberculosis". ... a new diamine-based antitubercular drug". British Journal of Pharmacology. 144 (1): 80-87. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705984. PMC ...
Antibiotics by mouth and by intravenous appear similar. Due to insufficient evidence it is unclear what the best antibiotic ... Tubercular osteomyelitis of the spine was so common before the initiation of effective antitubercular therapy, it acquired a ... Initial first-line antibiotic choice is determined by the patient's history and regional differences in common infective ... Before the availability of antibiotics the risk of death was significant. Symptoms may include pain in a specific bone with ...
... is an antibiotic medication used for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis affecting the lungs. It is ... in a series of 100 nitroimidazopyran derivatives synthesized and tested for antitubercular activity, by PathoGenesis (now a ... Abutaleb Y (14 August 2019). "New antibiotic approved for drug-resistant tuberculosis". The Washington Post. "New Drug Therapy ...
The Journal of Antibiotics. 60 (6): 391-394. doi:10.1038/ja.2007.54. PMID 17617698. editors; Blunt, John; Munro, Murray H.G. ( ... Natural Thioether Michael Addition Adducts as Antitubercular Prodrugs". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 52 (4): 1231- ... novel aminofuran antibiotic and anticancer compounds isolated from marine strains of the actinomycete Verrucosispora". The ... Journal of Antibiotics. 61 (3): 158-63. doi:10.1038/ja.2008.125. PMID 18503194. v t e. ...
"Egg-laying mammal's milk may help for novel antibiotics". Deccan Herald. India: The Printers Mysore. Press Trust of India. 25 ... Usmani SS, Bhalla S, Raghava GP (26 August 2018). "Prediction of Antitubercular Peptides From Sequence Information Using ... Selectivity is a very important feature of the antimicrobial peptides and it can guarantee their function as antibiotics in ... In contrast to many conventional antibiotics these peptides appear to be bactericidal instead of bacteriostatic. In general the ...
While a potentially useful antibiotic in its own right, it has now been shown that platensimycin is not specifically active on ... Raman K, Rajagopalan P, Chandra N (October 2005). "Flux Balance Analysis of Mycolic Acid Pathway: Targets for Anti-Tubercular ... Despite the availability of the BCG vaccine and multiple antibiotics, until 2005 TB resurged due to multidrug resistance, ... Furthermore, this capsule inhibits entry of antibiotics. The enzymes involved in mycolate biosynthesis are essential for ...
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... patient was successfully managed by drainage along with meticulous excision of the capsule and prolonged antibiotic and anti-tubercular ...
Rifampicin is an antibiotic used for treatment of tuberculosis ... Rifampicin is an antibiotic that is commonly used together with ... Antitubercular. Children, Adult. Rifampicin - What is it for. ...
Mycolic acid biosynthesis is inhibited by isoniazid, a key frontline antitubercular drug that is inactivated by mycobacterial ... bovis BCG to antibiotics that permeate the cell wall. Phenotypic traits are fully complemented by introduction of Mycobacterium ...
Although mangrolide D did not display antibiotic activity, this work should prove enabling toward the synthesis of the ... this work should prove enabling toward the synthesis of the antitubercular tiacumicins which display a virtually identical ... Although mangrolide D did not display antibiotic activity, this work should prove enabling toward the synthesis of the ... Although mangrolide D did not display antibiotic activity, this work should prove enabling toward the synthesis of the ...
... laying a basis for another therapeutic chemistry optimisation programs and acceleration of GuaB2 as another anti-tubercular ... High-throughput phenotypic displays possess re-emerged as testing equipment in antibiotic finding.. August 27, 2018. by Lee ... High-throughput phenotypic displays possess re-emerged as testing equipment in antibiotic finding. high-throughput testing (HTS ...
Antibiotics, Gatifloxacin, Pimozide, verdenafil,ziprasidone, Avanafil,Antifungal drugs, medicines for the treatment of HIV, ... anti-tubercular drugs, other PDE-5 inhibitors.. What are the possible side effects?. Side effects are unwanted response of the ...
Antibiotics, Gatifloxacin, Pimozide, verdenafil,ziprasidone, Avanafil,Antifungal drugs, medicines for the treatment of HIV, ... anti-tubercular drugs, other PDE-5 inhibitors.. What are the possible side effects?. Side effects are unwanted response of the ...
Antitubercular Agents - Therapeutic Use, Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use, Community-Acquired Infections - Diagnosis, ... Tags: 2010, Acute - Microbiology, Adult, Adult/microbiology, Aged, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*therapeutic use, Antibiotics - ...
The antibiotic and antibacterial properties of moringa may help inhibit the growth of various pathogens, and its high vitamin B ... Moringa appears to protect the liver against damage caused by anti-tubercular drugs and can quicken its repair process. ...
antitubercular agent. *Antituberculotic. *antitumor antibiotic. *antitussive. *antitwilight arch. *antitype. *Antium. *▼. Full ...
Advances in Medical, Dental and Health Sciences (AMDHS) [www.amdhs.org] [e-ISSN : AF] is a OZZIE Publishers journal. It is an international peer-reviewed journal. AMDHS publishes four issues per year devoted to research and review articles in the field of Medical, dental and health sciences. AMDHS welcomes articles with theoretical or applied approaches, focusing on different phases of medical, dental and health sciences research; medical, dental and health production and management; discovering new medicines, new technologies and new ways to manage human health. Research papers can represent broad range of medical, dental and health related sciences including biochemistry, epidemiology, genetics, pharmacology, endocrinology, biomedical engineering, clinical and laboratory sciences, physiotherapy, and psychology. All articles are now welcome.. ...
Antibiotic Resistance: A Complete Trouble Maker for Healthcare System Especially among Lower and Middle-Income Countries. ... Evaluation of Antibiotics used and Treatment Outcomes in Postoperative Appendectomy Patients. Advances in Medical, Dental and ...
... antifungal and antitubercular activities with a good correlation between the phytochemical composition of all prepared ... The total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were quantified and antibacterial, antifungal and antitubercular activities ... Algal metabolites: An inevitable substitute for antibiotics.. *Sukanya Bhowmick, A. Mazumdar, Amitava Moulick, V. Adam ... The total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were quantified and antibacterial, antifungal and antitubercular activities ...
PTB Reports [Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biomedical Reports] - It is an international, peer-review, open access, online journal publishing research articles, review articles, clinical case reports and recent trends in experimental and clinical pharmacology, toxicology and Biomedicine. It covers clinical pharmacokinetics, biochemical pharmacology, clinical biochemistry, molecular biology, analytical toxicology, psychopharmacology, neuropharmacology, cardiovascular and renal pharmacology and other systemic pharmacology.. ...
Manuscripts can be now submitted via Online CLICK HERE A timely submission, however, is not a guarantee that your work will be accepted for forthcoming publication. All submissions are peer reviewed by the editorial board and a select group of reviewers. Please make sure that all guidelines are followed carefully. All the accepted articles will be queued for publication and
PTB Reports [Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biomedical Reports] - It is an international, peer-review, open access, online journal publishing research articles, review articles, clinical case reports and recent trends in experimental and clinical pharmacology, toxicology and Biomedicine. It covers clinical pharmacokinetics, biochemical pharmacology, clinical biochemistry, molecular biology, analytical toxicology, psychopharmacology, neuropharmacology, cardiovascular and renal pharmacology and other systemic pharmacology.. ...
Antitubercular API. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome API. Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists API. Antiviral Agent API. Miscarriage API. ... API For Antibiotics. API 2. Antihypertensive API. High Blood Pressure API. Bacterial Infections API. Vitamin API. ...
Antitubercular API. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome API. Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists API. Antiviral Agent API. Miscarriage API. ... API For Antibiotics. API 2. Antihypertensive API. High Blood Pressure API. Bacterial Infections API. Vitamin API. ...
2012 Future Microbiol Discovery and development of SQ109: a new antitubercular drug with a novel mechanism of action ... 2-ethylene diamine small molecule drug with 3 unique mechanisms of action that are distinct from other antibiotics used for the ... 2010 Antimicrob Agents Chemother In vitro interactions between new antitubercular drug candidates SQ109 and TMC207 ...
International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Sciences (Int. J. Pharm. Clin Sci). ISSN : 2278-0068. Aim and Scope. The International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Sciences is an official journal of Glorious Future Institution for Trade based in Saudi Arabia; A Quarterly Open access journal aim to publish Latest Research, Important Reviews, Useful guidelines, topics related Total Quality Management Pharmacy and Health Sciences Standard, cases studies, and research papers written by National and International healthcare providers across all over the world relevant to pharmacy practice and Health Sciences. It is an online peer reviewed publication dedicated to publishing novel, original findings in the field of Pharmacy Practice and Health Sciences. The Journal aims to foster the dissemination of scientific information by publishing manuscripts that provide new insights in the field of Pharmacy and Health Sciences.. The Aim of the Journal is to offer the practicing pharmacy and Health ...
Antibiotic footprint as a communication tool to aid reduction of antibiotic consumption ... Humans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Tuberculosis, Pulmonary, HIV Infections, Antitubercular Agents, Treatment Outcome, Case- ... Antibiotic use and prescription and its effects on Enterobacteriaceae in the gut in children with mild respiratory infections ... Quantifying antibiotic impact on within-patient dynamics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase resistance ...
Glycopeptide antibiotics (4) *H-2 receptor antagonists (87) *Haematinics/iron preparations (66) ... Antitubercular agents (53) *Antitussives (82) *Antiviral agents (89) *Anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics/neuroleptics (66) ...
Glycopeptide antibiotics (4) *H-2 receptor antagonists (87) *Haematinics/iron preparations (66) ... Antitubercular agents (53) *Antitussives (82) *Antiviral agents (89) *Anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics/neuroleptics (66) ...
Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and toxicology study of some metal complexes of mixed antibiotics ... E) - N -(2, 4-dihydroxybenzylidene)nicotinohydrazide and its Metal Complexes: Synthesis, Characterisation and Antitubercular ... Synthesis, characterization, theoretical treatmentand antitubercular activity evaluation of (E)-N-(2,5-dimethoxylbenzylidene) ...
Shows antimalarial and antitubercular activity. Antibacterial against Gram-positive bacteria and antifungal. ... Shows antimalarial and antitubercular activity.. *Anticancer compound. Cytotoxic against several cancer cell lines (pro- ...
  • Use of this agent alone led to antibiotic resistance that is still a major problem. (news-medical.net)
  • 2 , 3 Although many factors promote resistance, experts agree that the high frequency of use of antibiotics in outpatient settings contributes directly to resistance in the community. (aappublications.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance, once a term appreciated only by microbiologists, has become a common topic in the popular press. (springer.com)
  • Stuart Levy, one of the contributors to this collection, bears some of the responsibility for increasing public awareness with the publication of his book "The Antibiotic Paradox" in 1992: Misuse of antibiotics resulting in increased bacterial resistance had previously been recognized in the infectious disease community. (springer.com)
  • Controlling communicable diseases is complicated by the rise of drug resistance secondary to the misuse of antibiotics. (lsu.edu)
  • Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem with increasing rates of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). (wikipedia.org)
  • Our research also has implications for and applications toward substantial biomedical concerns, including antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence. (auburn.edu)
  • M. abscessus exhibits high intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics making infections with this mycobacterium hard to treat ( van Dorn, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The culture and sensitivity report received after 12 weeks revealed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the sensitivity report received later showed resistance to all primary antitubercular drugs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The lack of proper treatment for serious infectious diseases due to the emergence of multidrug resistance reinforces the need for the discovery of novel antibiotics. (epfl.ch)
  • As with other bacterial diseases, tuberculosis is increasingly drug resistant, with strains resistant to two front-line drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin (multi-drug resistant), and additional resistance to an injectable antibiotic and a quinolone (extensive-drug resistant) killing now over 500 thousand patients out of a total of 1,800,000 deaths ( WHO, 2017 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • the role of efflux pumps in the resistance of tested bacteria and the antibiotic resistance-modulating activities against selected multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes were also investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • Broth microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity, the role of efflux pumps, and the antibiotic resistance-modulating effects of plant extracts. (hindawi.com)
  • Also, it demonstrated that some studied extracts and mostly RHL could be used as antibiotic resistance modulators to fight against resistant strains of S. aureus . (hindawi.com)
  • The fight against S. aureus is hindered by the development of resistance of various strains to antibiotics [ 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The multidrug resistance (MDR) observed in Gram-positive bacteria is mostly attributed to overexpression of efflux pumps and antibiotics-degrading enzymes. (hindawi.com)
  • Their use to combat S. aureus antibiotic resistance is an attractive strategy. (hindawi.com)
  • His continued research interest in infectious bacterial diseases (funded by the Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council, Global Challenges Research Fund, UK, European and International) is focussed on validating novel therapeutic targets as well as repurposing existing drugs to tackle antibiotic resistance and persistence in tuberculosis (TB). (bbk.ac.uk)
  • Reduced treatment times will result in improved patient use and reduced antibiotic resistance. (woolcock.org.au)
  • Before antibiotics were found effective against tuberculosis, surgical treatment of tuberculosis was common and often life saving. (news-medical.net)
  • Antibiotics were used against tuberculosis for the first time in 1944 after the discovery of streptomycin. (news-medical.net)
  • The repeated exposure of tuberculosis carriers to ineffective doses of antitubercular drugs dramatically increases the incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. (lsu.edu)
  • If underlying tuberculosis is detected, antitubercular treatment using rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol should be administered for 6 months. (medscape.com)
  • Catalase-peroxidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been exploited for the activation of the front-line antitubercular agent isoniazid to its antibiotic form. (auburn.edu)
  • There was no past history of antitubercular treatment as well as there was no family history of tuberculosis. (ispub.com)
  • http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/ World Tuberculosis Report , 2018 . (eurekaselect.com)
  • Ethambutol (EMB) is an antibiotic used to treat infection by Mycobacterium species, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non- tubercular infections like M. avium complex and M. kansasii . (aao.org)
  • His medical history included two episodes of pulmonary tuberculosis in 2009 and 2015, both well-treated with antitubercular antibiotics. (ctsnet.org)
  • Some medications such as antibiotics , barbiturates, anti-tuberculosis drugs, high blood pressure medications, and several medications used to treat nervous disorders and psychological problems may cause color blindness. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tuberculosis is a complex and unique disease, whereby M. tuberculosis evades eradication by the immune system and often by chemotherapy with antibiotics. (elifesciences.org)
  • Capreomycin is a peptide antibiotic, prescribed for tuberculosis. (medindia.net)
  • Cycloserine is an antibiotic, prescribed for tuberculosis (TB). (medindia.net)
  • Isoniazid is an antibiotic agent, prescribed for tuberculosis (TB) either alone or with other medications. (medindia.net)
  • Rifampin is a rifamycin antibiotic, prescribed for tuberculosis (TB). (medindia.net)
  • Rifapentine is an antibiotic, prescribed for tuberculosis (TB). (medindia.net)
  • Terizidone is a second-line antitubercular drug which is prescribed for the treatment of both pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis caused by resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. (medindia.net)
  • Pseudopteroxazole also exhibited activity against strains of M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv resistant to six clinically used antibiotics. (mdpi.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causative agent of tuberculosis, requires its phosphate sensing signal transduction system for virulence and antibiotic tolerance, but the molecular mechanisms of phosphate sensing remain poorly characterized. (frontiersin.org)
  • Orally bioavailable with excellent single-drug activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo , SQ609 has demonstrated synergistic activity with several front-line antitubercular drugs and can be readily synthesized on a large scale. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In view of persistence of symptoms, recurrent cold abscess, positive IgG and no improvement in general condition, second line antitubercular drug i.e. kanamycin, ciprofloxacin and PAS were added after 6 weeks to the ongoing treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cerebral decongestive therapy with antibiotics was instituted and second line antitubercular drug ciprofloxacin was replaced by clofazimine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Other than cancer, chemotherapy may also refer to antibiotic treatment - antibacterial or antitubercular treatment (ATT). (ndtv.com)
  • In regard to the loss of efficacy of several antibiotics and the scarcity of new antibacterial agents, it is also important to search for substances capable of restoring the activity of antibiotics. (hindawi.com)
  • There are only a few effective antitubercular drugs. (lsu.edu)
  • Management is essentially by antitubercular drugs, rest to part in functioning position and early active exercises of the involved parts. (ispub.com)
  • Primary peritonitis may respond to the administration of antibiotics or antitubercular drugs, but the prognosis is guarded. (tabers.com)
  • The company's lead drug candidate, SQ109 is a new diamine antibiotic intended to replace one or more of the current first-line anti-TB drugs and simplify patient therapy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the 100 years since, the world has seen the introduction of the first modern antibiotic (1941), the first commercially formulated antimalarial (1943), and the first antitubercular (1944). (who.int)
  • The name antibiotic is often used synonymously with antimicrobial. (wepapers.com)
  • He is an "Antibiotic Action Champion" member of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • Non-Streptomyces actinomycetes, filamentous fungi, and non-filamentous bacteria, have also yielded important antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it has become evident that we are surrounded by resistant bacteria, many of which were introduced unwittingly into our en- vironment through the unnecessary use of antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • Bacteria resistant to common antibiotic regimens were being isolated more frequently, often as organisms classified as "multi-resistant" with decreased susceptibilities to two or more structural classes of agents. (springer.com)
  • broad-spectrum antibiotic one that is effective against a wide range of bacteria, both gram-positive and gram-negative. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • broad-spectrum antibiotic one effective against a wide range of bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Macrolide antibiotics, consisting of a large lactone ring and deoxamino sugar, interfere in the protein synthesis of susceptible bacteria during multiplication without affecting nucleic acid synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Handwerger, S. & Tomasz, A. Antibiotic tolerance among clinical isolates of bacteria. (nature.com)
  • For most bacteria, the envelope biosynthesis is also the site of action of some of the most important groups of antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • There is increasing evidence that phenotypically drug-resistant bacteria may be important determinants of antibiotic treatment failure. (sciencemag.org)
  • One compelling explanation for the long treatment duration is that within a population of genetically identical mycobacterial cells, there are subpopulations of cells that are significantly less susceptible to antibiotics and that prolonged drug exposure is required to clear these bacteria. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, it is easier to quickly grasp the strengths and weaknesses of a newly marketed antibiotic if you understand the general pharmacology of its class. (netce.com)
  • The primary objective of this study is to compare the gut microbiota and clinical outcomes of oral FMT during antibiotic treatment, immediately following antibiotic treatment, and placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We propose a pilot randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial comparing oral FMT with placebo in patients with a history of CDI, currently undergoing antibiotic treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this 3 group study, FMT will be administered daily via oral capsules containing frozen fecal microbiota from universal donors in group 1, administered at the end of antibiotic treatment for group 2, and group 3 will receive daily placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antibiotics are widely used in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Treatment requires the use of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • She took antibiotics and other supportive treatment for one month without any clinical improvement. (ispub.com)
  • Swelling was disappeared after two months of institution of antitubercular treatment along with decrement of shadow in radiology. (ispub.com)
  • Antibiotic tolerance is associated with the failure of antibiotic treatment and the relapse of many bacterial infections. (nature.com)
  • Axillary lymphnode biopsy was done which showed granulomatous changes and hence the child was put on 2 EHRZ+10 HR regime of antitubercular treatment (ATT). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Later on, when he did not recover after intercostal drainage and 6 months of antitubercular treatment, he was referred to us for pneumonectomy which was actually not required. (hindawi.com)
  • He was finally referred to us for pneumonectomy, as his collapsed left lung had failed to expand despite repeated intercostal drain repositioning and standard multidrug antitubercular treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Dialysis patients may also develop peritonitis after the infusion of irritating substances (such as antibiotics like vancomycin) into the peritoneal cavity during treatment for these infections. (tabers.com)
  • Additionally, current medicines require lengthy treatment times (>9 months) using high doses of antibiotics taken in tablet form. (woolcock.org.au)
  • In Australia, we are working with 9 hospitals, trialing shorter duration antibiotics for the treatment of TB. (woolcock.org.au)
  • Streptomyces isolates have yielded the majority of human, animal, and agricultural antibiotics, as well as a number of fundamental chemotherapy medicines. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was referred to us from peripheral hospital for pneumonectomy when his condition did not improve after six months of antitubercular chemotherapy and intercostals drainage. (hindawi.com)
  • A 23-year-old male who had complaints of fever and left-sided chest pain six months before he was referred to us had been diagnosed as tubercular pyopneumothorax with bronchopleural fistula and given antitubercular chemotherapy with intercostal drainage (ICD) at several thoracic centers. (hindawi.com)
  • A polypeptide quinoxaline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces echinatus. (unt.edu)
  • Overprescription by physicians, sharing prescriptions by patients, the use of massive amounts of antibiotics in animal husbandry, and the absence of international controls on antibiotics leads to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant strains of common diseases. (lsu.edu)
  • What is particularly concerning is that antibiotic resistant strains of TB now exist and are becoming more common. (woolcock.org.au)
  • Most clinical antibiotics were found during the "golden age of antibiotics" (1940s-1960s). (wikipedia.org)
  • A high level of clinical suspicion is needed for early diagnosis and antitubercular therapy should be started as soon as possible to prevent the possible complication. (ispub.com)
  • A combination of surgery and antitubercular-drug therapy resulted in clinical recovery. (ovid.com)
  • Mahesh Chhabria, Shailesh Patel and Mitesh Jani, " Recent Development and Future Perspective of Antitubercular Therapy", Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2010) 9: 59. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Similar attenuation of decline in antibiotic use and increases in use of broad-spectrum agents were seen in other age groups. (aappublications.org)
  • Programs encouraging judicious antibiotic use have focused both on decreasing overall antibiotic use and appropriate prescribing of broad-spectrum agents. (aappublications.org)
  • Antitubercular Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antitubercular Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antitubercular Agents" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antitubercular Agents" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • This course is intended as an overview of the general characteristics of the major antibiotic classes, with a brief discussion of the individual agents and indications, giving greater perspective to the actions and characteristics of antibiotics. (netce.com)
  • β-lactam antibiotic any of a group of antibiotics, including the cephalosporins and the penicillins , whose chemical structure contains a β-lactam ring. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Medical therapy includes antibiotics and analgesics. (medscape.com)
  • Following prolonged antimycobacterial therapy, the patient developed an aortoduodenal fistula that required emergency surgery and prompted a repeat course of antibiotics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Outpatient antibiotic use for children has decreased substantially since the 1990s. (aappublications.org)
  • Antibiotic use for children has decreased dramatically over the last 20 years. (aappublications.org)
  • Streptomycetes isolates (including various aminoglycosides) would go on to comprise over two-thirds of all marketed antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red flag in this case was the patient's progressive deterioration despite a variety of antibiotic regimens. (ovid.com)
  • Our results suggest that M. smegmatis can serve as a tractable model for further characterization of the molecular mechanism of phosphate sensing in mycobacteria and to screen for compounds that would interfere with signal transduction and thereby increase the efficacy of existing anti-tubercular antibiotics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similarly, the massive side effects associated with the frequent use of antibiotics make it crucial to analyze the quantity and detect even the subservient amounts of antibiotics in vivo following their administration to patients. (springer.com)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics, composed of amino sugars in glycoside linkage, interfere with the synthesis of bacterial proteins and are used primarily for treating infections caused by gram-negative organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, prescribed for serious bacterial infections. (medindia.net)
  • Previous analyses of data from 3 large health plans suggested that the substantial downward trend in antibiotic use among children appeared to have attenuated by 2010. (aappublications.org)
  • 001). The downward trend in antibiotic dispensing slowed, stabilized, or reversed during this 10-year period. (aappublications.org)
  • Analysis of data from 3 health plans revealed new, substantial declines in outpatient antibiotic use between 2010 and 2014, despite previous evidence that a plateau had been reached. (aappublications.org)
  • Large declines in antibiotic rates were prominent in the early 2000s. (aappublications.org)
  • Dynamic persistence of antibiotic-stressed mycobacteria. (nature.com)
  • Streptomyces antibiotics include: Chloramphenicol (Streptomyces venezuelae) Daptomycin (Streptomyces roseosporus) Fosfomycin (Streptomyces fradiae) Lincomycin (Streptomyces lincolnensis) Neomycin (Streptomyces fradiae) Platensimycin (Streptomyces platensis) Puromycin (Streptomyces alboniger) Streptomycin (Streptomyces griseus) Tetracycline (Streptomyces rimosus and Streptomyces aureofaciens) Clavulanic acid (Streptomyces clavuligerus) is used in combination with some antibiotics (like amoxicillin) to weaken bacterial-resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 2 million individuals in the United States acquire antibiotic-resistant infections each year. (aappublications.org)
  • When it became evident that a number of people were returning for multiple visits to their family physicians for persist- ent ear infections or non-responsive bronchitis, questions were raised about the antibiotic treatments that were being prescribed. (springer.com)
  • We report seventeen selective IMPDH inhibitors with antitubercular activity. (rcsb.org)
  • We also report the structures of complexes with IMP and three structurally distinct inhibitors, including two with antitubercular activity. (rcsb.org)
  • Our biochemical experiments show that this antibiotic inhibits the elongation step of protein synthesis in mycobacteria. (epfl.ch)
  • Efforts to decrease unnecessary prescribing continue to have an impact on antibiotic use in ambulatory practice. (aappublications.org)
  • Public health officials, professional societies, and researchers have been on a decades-long quest to decrease unnecessary antibiotic use in both children and adults as a way to slow the spread of resistant pathogens. (aappublications.org)
  • Actinomycin was the first antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces in 1940, followed by streptomycin three years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent screening of TCM extracts revealed a Streptomyces that produces a number of antitubercular pluramycins. (wikipedia.org)
  • How many antibiotics are produced by the genus Streptomyces? (wikipedia.org)
  • Gefen, O. & Balaban, N. Q. The importance of being persistent: heterogeneity of bacterial populations under antibiotic stress. (nature.com)
  • However, the patient did not respond to a 3 weeks of cell infiltration) to chronic inflammation antibiotics course and there was persistent (fibroblastic organization and bony sclerosis). (who.int)
  • Secondary peritonitis is treated with surgical drainage, repair or removal of the ruptured viscus, fluid resuscitation, and antibiotics. (tabers.com)
  • Because of the proliferation of diverse antibiotic classes with increasing potency and broader activity spectra, it had been assumed that any ordinary bacterial infection could be eradicated with the proper selection of drug. (springer.com)
  • However, it is unknown whether or not fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an efficacious choice for CDI recurrence prevention when used concurrently with antibiotics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The report also showed that the infection could be treated by Amikacin and Methenamine Mandelate and that the infection was resistant to other antibiotics. (scribd.com)

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