Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Tuberculosis, Male Genital
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Drug Dosage Calculations
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Drug Therapy, Combination
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Physician's Practice Patterns
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
Urinary Tract Infections
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Colony Count, Microbial
Molecular Sequence Data
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Evaluation of bactericidal activities of LY333328, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin-sulbactam, trovafloxacin, and RP59500 alone or in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against different strains of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus by time-kill curve methods. (1/586)This in vitro study evaluated the activities of vancomycin, LY333328, and teicoplanin alone and in combination with gentamicin, rifampin, and RP59500 against Staphylococcus aureus isolates with intermediate susceptibilities to vancomycin. Ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin were also evaluated. LY333328 and ampicillin-sulbactam resulted in bactericidal activity against all isolates. The combination of gentamicin with glycopeptides showed synergistic activity, while rifampin had no added benefit. (+info)
rpoB mutations in multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy. (2/586)Mutations of rpoB associated with rifampin resistance were studied in 37 multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy. At least one mutated codon was found in each MDR strain. It was always a single-base substitution leading to an amino acid change. Nine different rpoB alleles, three of which had not been reported before, were found. The relative frequencies of specific mutations in this sample were different from those previously reported from different geographical areas, since 22 strains (59.5%) carried the mutated codon TTG in position 531 (Ser-->Leu) and 11 (29.7%) had GAC in position 526 (His-->Asp). (+info)
Integron-mediated rifampin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (3/586)A new rifampin resistance gene, arr-2, has been found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ARR-2 protein shows 54% amino acid identity to the rifampin ADP-ribosylating transferase encoded by the arr gene from Mycobacterium smegmatis. This arr-2 gene is located on a gene cassette within a class I integron. (+info)
Antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Lesotho. (4/586)Villages associated with the Lesotho Highlands Development Agency were randomized with a bias in favour of larger villages, and children < 5 years of age from cluster-randomized households in these villages were chosen for the assessment of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci. Children of the same age group attending clinics in the capital, Maseru, were selected for comparison. Nasopharyngeal cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae from both groups of children were examined for antibiotic resistance and a questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for the acquisition of resistant strains. Carriage of penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant pneumococci was significantly higher among 196 Maseru children compared with 324 rural children (P < 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). Maseru children tended to visit clinics at an earlier age compared with their rural counterparts. The rural children were less exposed to antibiotics (P < 0.01), were less frequently hospitalized (P < 0.001), and rarely attended day care centres (P < 0.001). The very low incidence of antibiotic resistance in rural Lesotho and the higher incidence in Maseru are in stark contrast with the much higher frequencies found in the Republic of South Africa, many European countries, and the USA. (+info)
Rifampicin is not an activator of the glucocorticoid receptor in A549 human alveolar cells. (5/586)It has recently been reported that rifampicin activates the glucocorticoid receptor and acts as an immunosuppressive drug. Because rifampicin constitutes an essential part of pulmonary tuberculosis therapy, we have examined whether it triggers glucocorticoid-like effects in alveolar cells. We have used reporter gene assays to measure the trans-activating and trans-repressing capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor after treating A549 human alveolar cells with rifampicin. The data show that rifampicin neither activated transcription from a promoter containing a glucocorticoid response element nor repressed the activity of activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB, which are transcription factors involved in the immune response. In addition, rifampicin was also unable to inhibit the expression of an endogenous gene that contains activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB response elements and encodes the proinflammatory cytokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein). Finally, nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor, which occurs after ligand binding, was not triggered by rifampicin. In contrast, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone scored positive in all corresponding control experiments. In conclusion, rifampicin is not an activator of the glucocorticoid receptor in A549 alveolar cells. Our results support the clinical observation that rifampicin is not an immunosuppressive drug and suggest that the current medical practice concerning this antibiotic should not be changed. (+info)
In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of new rifamycin derivatives, KRM-1648 and KRM-1657. (6/586)The new rifamycin derivatives KRM-1657 and KRM-1648 were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against 44 strains of Helicobacter pylori. Although the drugs were not very active against other gram-negative bacteria, the MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for these drugs were lower (0.002 and 0.008 microgram/ml, respectively) than those of amoxicillin and rifampin for H. pylori. Time-kill studies revealed that the bactericidal activities of these agents were due to cell lysis. The results presented here indicate that these new rifamycin derivatives may be useful for the eradication of H. pylori infections. (+info)
Efficacy of microencapsulated rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. (7/586)Rifampin is a first-line drug useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. By using biocompatible polymeric excipients of lactide and glycolide copolymers, two microsphere formulations were developed for targeted and sustained delivery of rifampin, with minimal dosing. A small-microsphere formulation, with demonstrated ability to inhibit intracellularly replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, was tested along with a large-microsphere formulation in an infected mouse model. Results revealed that by using a single treatment of the large-microsphere formulation, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in M. tuberculosis H37Rv CFUs in the lungs of mice by 26 days postinfection. A combination of small (given as two injections on day 0 and day 7) and large (given as one injection at day 0) rifampin-loaded microsphere formulations resulted in significant reductions in CFUs in the lungs by 26 days, achieving a 1.23 log10 reduction in CFUs. By comparison, oral treatment with 5, 10, or 20 mg of rifampin/kg of body weight, administered every day, resulted in a reduction of 0.42, 1.7, or 1.8 log10 units, respectively. Thus the microsphere formulations, administered in one or two doses, were able to achieve results in mice similar to those obtained with a daily drug regimen within the range of the highest clinically tolerated dosage in humans. These results demonstrate that microsphere formulations of antimycobacterial drugs such as rifampin can be used for therapy of tuberculosis with minimal dosing. (+info)
In vitro and in vivo experimental activities of antifungal agents against Fusarium solani. (8/586)In the treatment of disseminated Fusarium infections, amphotericin B either alone or in combination with flucytosine and rifampin is the drug therapy most frequently used. The efficacy of these antifungal drugs was evaluated in a murine disseminated-infection model, with five strains of Fusarium solani. All the treatments were clearly ineffective. (+info)
* Blurred vision
* Redness and inflammation in the eye
* Pain in the eye
* Sensitivity to light
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in vision)
* Eye discharge
* Physical examination of the eye
* Imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans
* Lymph node biopsy
* Culture tests to identify the presence of Mycobacterium TB
* Anti-TB medications for at least 12 months
* Surgical removal of the affected portion of the eye
* Corticosteroid eye drops or ointments to reduce inflammation
* Antibiotics to prevent infection
* With proper treatment, the prognosis is good and most patients regain their vision.
* However, if left untreated, the condition can lead to severe visual impairment and even blindness.
There are two main forms of TB:
1. Active TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are actively growing and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and fatigue. Active TB can be contagious and can spread to others if not treated properly.
2. Latent TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are present in the body but are not actively growing or causing symptoms. People with latent TB do not feel sick and are not contagious, but they can still become sick with active TB if their immune system is weakened.
TB is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries where access to healthcare may be limited. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging, and laboratory tests such as skin tests or blood tests. Treatment for TB typically involves a course of antibiotics, which can be effective in curing the disease if taken properly. However, drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged in some parts of the world, making treatment more challenging.
Preventive measures against TB include:
1. Vaccination with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of the disease but not against latent TB.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have active TB, especially if they are coughing or sneezing.
3. Practicing good hygiene, such as covering one's mouth when coughing or sneezing and regularly washing hands.
4. Getting regular screenings for TB if you are in a high-risk group, such as healthcare workers or people with weakened immune systems.
5. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, utensils, or drinking glasses with people who have active TB.
Overall, while TB is a serious disease that can be challenging to treat and prevent, with the right measures in place, it is possible to reduce its impact on public health and improve outcomes for those affected by the disease.
Osteoarticular tuberculosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Treatment typically involves a course of antibiotics for a period of at least six months, and surgical intervention may be necessary in some cases.
Preventive measures for osteoarticular tuberculosis include vaccination against tuberculosis, screening for the disease in high-risk populations such as those with weakened immune systems, and avoiding close contact with individuals who have active tuberculosis infections.
Some of the key features of osteoarticular tuberculosis include:
* Pain and swelling in the affected joint
* Limited mobility in the joint
* Fever, fatigue, and weight loss
* Night sweats and loss of appetite
* Presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the joint fluid or tissue.
Osteoarticular tuberculosis can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as it may mimic other conditions such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. However, early detection and appropriate treatment can help prevent long-term joint damage and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
Overall, osteoarticular tuberculosis is a serious form of tuberculosis that affects the bones and joints, causing pain, swelling, and limited mobility. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
Gastrointestinal TB typically affects the distal portion of the small intestine and the proximal portion of the large intestine, causing inflammation and ulceration in these areas. The symptoms of gastrointestinal TB can vary depending on the location and severity of the infection, but may include:
* Abdominal pain
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
If a doctor suspects gastrointestinal TB, they may perform a series of tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:
1. Endoscopy: A flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth and into the esophagus to visualize the inside of the stomach and intestines.
2. Biopsy: A small sample of tissue is removed from the affected area and examined under a microscope for TB bacteria.
3. Cultures: Samples of fluid or tissue are collected and grown in a laboratory to isolate the TB bacteria.
4. Imaging tests: X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to visualize the affected area and look for signs of inflammation or other complications.
Treatment for gastrointestinal TB typically involves a combination of antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluid replacement and nutritional support. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Preventive measures for gastrointestinal TB include:
1. Avoiding close contact with people who have active TB infections.
2. Practicing good hygiene, such as covering the mouth when coughing and washing hands regularly.
3. Avoiding sharing food or drinks with people who have active TB infections.
4. Getting vaccinated against TB, especially for people who live in areas where TB is common.
5. Avoiding smoking and alcohol consumption, as these can increase the risk of developing TB.
6. Maintaining a healthy diet and getting regular exercise to keep the immune system strong.
It's important to note that gastrointestinal TB is a rare condition and most cases of TB affect the lungs. If you suspect you or someone you know may have TB, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can perform tests to confirm the diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment.
MGT typically presents with symptoms such as scrotal swelling, pain, and fever, as well as difficulty urinating or infertility. The infection can also cause abscesses in the genital area, which can lead to further complications if left untreated.
The bacteria that cause MGT is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the same bacteria that causes tuberculosis in other parts of the body. The infection is typically spread through contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as coughing or sneezing.
Diagnosis of MGT is made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as smear or culture of tissue samples. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for a period of at least 6-9 months, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove affected tissue.
Prevention of MGT includes avoiding close contact with people who have active TB, practicing safe sex, and getting tested regularly for TB if you are at high risk. Early detection and treatment of MGT can help prevent long-term complications and improve the chances of successful treatment.
Tuberculoma intracranial definition
A tuberculoma intracranial is a type of brain tumor caused by the tuberculosis bacteria. It can cause symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and changes in personality or behavior. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as surgery to remove the tumor. Prognosis is generally good if the diagnosis is made early and treatment is effective.
Subcategories of Tuberculoma, Intracranial:
* Cerebral tuberculosis: a type of tuberculosis that affects the brain and spinal cord.
* Meningitic tuberculosis: a type of tuberculosis that affects the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
* Tuberculous abscess: a collection of pus in the brain caused by the tuberculosis bacteria.
* Tuberculous leukomeningitis: an inflammation of the meninges caused by the tuberculosis bacteria.
Synonyms for Tuberculoma, Intracranial:
* Cerebral tuberculosis
* Meningeal tuberculosis
* Tuberculous brain abscess
* Tuberculous leukoencephalitis
Antonyms for Tuberculoma, Intracranial:
* Benign brain tumor
* Malignant brain tumor
* Traumatic brain injury
Keywords associated with Tuberculoma, Intracranial:
* Brain abscess
* Cerebral edema
Note: The above information is for general purposes only and should not be considered as professional medical advice. It is always recommended to consult a qualified healthcare professional for accurate diagnosis and treatment of any medical condition.
Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) can develop when a person with TB does not complete their full treatment course as prescribed by a healthcare provider, or if they do not take their medications correctly. It can also develop in people who have weakened immune systems or other underlying health conditions that make them more susceptible to the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
MDR-TB is a significant global public health concern because it is harder to treat and can spread more easily than drug-sensitive TB. Treatment for MDR-TB typically involves using stronger medications that are more effective against drug-resistant bacteria, such as fluoroquinolones or aminoglycosides. However, these medications can have more side effects and may be less effective in some cases.
Preventing the development of MDR-TB is crucial, and this can be achieved by ensuring that all patients with TB receive complete and correct treatment as prescribed by a healthcare provider. Additionally, screening for drug resistance before starting treatment can help identify patients who may have MDR-TB and ensure they receive appropriate treatment from the outset.
The symptoms of cutaneous TB can vary depending on the location and severity of the infection. Common signs include:
* Skin lesions, which may appear as nodules, papules, or plaques
* Ulcers or open sores
* Fistulae (abnormal connections between two organs or between an organ and the skin)
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Night sweats
Cutaneous TB is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and in severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue.
While cutaneous TB is less common than pulmonary TB, it can be more challenging to treat because the bacteria can penetrate deep into the skin and other connective tissues. However, with prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with cutaneous TB can recover completely.
Pulmonary tuberculosis typically affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, or spine. The symptoms of pulmonary TB include coughing for more than three weeks, chest pain, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.
Pulmonary tuberculosis is diagnosed by a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and radiologic imaging, such as chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment for pulmonary TB usually involves a combination of antibiotics and medications to manage symptoms.
Preventive measures for pulmonary tuberculosis include screening for latent TB infection in high-risk populations, such as healthcare workers and individuals with HIV/AIDS, and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in countries where it is available.
Overall, pulmonary tuberculosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and death.
Some common examples of bacterial infections include:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.
In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:
1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.
2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.
Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:
1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections
Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:
1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath
Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.
Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:
1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.
Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:
1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.
It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Surgical wound infections can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Poor surgical technique: If the surgeon does not follow proper surgical techniques, such as properly cleaning and closing the incision, the risk of infection increases.
2. Contamination of the wound site: If the wound site is contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms during the surgery, this can lead to an infection.
3. Use of contaminated instruments: If the instruments used during the surgery are contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms, this can also lead to an infection.
4. Poor post-operative care: If the patient does not receive proper post-operative care, such as timely changing of dressings and adequate pain management, the risk of infection increases.
There are several types of surgical wound infections, including:
1. Superficial wound infections: These infections occur only in the skin and subcutaneous tissues and can be treated with antibiotics.
2. Deep wound infections: These infections occur in the deeper tissues, such as muscle or bone, and can be more difficult to treat.
3. Wound hernias: These occur when the intestine bulges through the incision site, creating a hernia.
4. Abscesses: These occur when pus collects in the wound site, creating a pocket of infection.
Surgical wound infections can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:
1. Cultures: These are used to identify the type of bacteria or other microorganisms causing the infection.
2. Imaging studies: These can help to determine the extent of the infection and whether it has spread to other areas of the body.
3. Physical examination: The surgeon will typically perform a physical examination of the wound site to look for signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or drainage.
Treatment of surgical wound infections typically involves a combination of antibiotics and wound care. In some cases, additional surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged structures.
Prevention is key when it comes to surgical wound infections. To reduce the risk of infection, surgeons and healthcare providers can take several steps, including:
1. Proper sterilization and disinfection of equipment and the surgical site.
2. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis, which is the use of antibiotics to prevent infections in high-risk patients.
3. Closure of the incision site with sutures or staples to reduce the risk of bacterial entry.
4. Monitoring for signs of infection and prompt treatment if an infection develops.
5. Proper wound care, including keeping the wound clean and dry, and changing dressings as needed.
6. Avoiding unnecessary delays in surgical procedure, which can increase the risk of infection.
7. Proper patient education on wound care and signs of infection.
8. Use of biological dressings such as antimicrobial impregnated dressings, which can help reduce the risk of infection.
9. Use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) which can help to promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection.
10. Proper handling and disposal of sharps and other medical waste to reduce the risk of infection.
It is important for patients to follow their healthcare provider's instructions for wound care and to seek medical attention if they notice any signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or increased pain. By taking these precautions, the risk of surgical wound infections can be significantly reduced, leading to better outcomes for patients.
In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:
1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.
Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.
In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.
Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:
* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:
* Muscle aches
* Shortness of breath
Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for bacteremia include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures
Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.
Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.
Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis
Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:
* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis
Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.
Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.
Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.
Symptoms of a UTI can include:
* Painful urination
* Frequent urination
* Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
* Blood in the urine
* Pelvic pain in women
* Rectal pain in men
If you suspect that you have a UTI, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. UTIs can lead to more serious complications if left untreated, such as kidney damage or sepsis.
Treatment for a UTI typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure that the infection is completely cleared. Drinking plenty of water and taking over-the-counter pain relievers may also help alleviate symptoms.
Preventive measures for UTIs include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as wiping from front to back and washing hands after using the bathroom
* Urinating when you feel the need, rather than holding it in
* Avoiding certain foods that may irritate the bladder, such as spicy or acidic foods
* Drinking plenty of water to help flush bacteria out of the urinary tract.
Pseudomonas infections are challenging to treat due to the bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antibiotics. The treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other supportive therapies, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.
Some common examples of gram-positive bacterial infections include:
1. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections: These are infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is a type of gram-positive bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics.
2. Streptococcal infections: These are infections caused by streptococcus bacteria, such as strep throat and cellulitis.
3. Pneumococcal infections: These are infections caused by pneumococcus bacteria, such as pneumonia.
4. Enterococcal infections: These are infections caused by enterococcus bacteria, such as urinary tract infections and endocarditis.
5. Candidiasis: This is a type of fungal infection caused by candida, which is a type of gram-positive fungus.
Gram-positive bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin and ampicillin, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has made the treatment of these infections more challenging. In some cases, gram-positive bacterial infections may require more aggressive treatment, such as combination therapy with multiple antibiotics or the use of antifungal medications.
Overall, gram-positive bacterial infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Symptoms of pharyngitis may include sore throat, fever, difficulty swallowing, and tender lymph nodes in the neck. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-inflammatory medications to reduce swelling and pain, and plenty of rest and fluids to help the body recover.
Pharyngitis is a common condition that affects people of all ages and can be caused by various factors, such as:
1. Viral infections: The most common cause of pharyngitis is a viral infection, such as the common cold or influenza.
2. Bacterial infections: Strep throat, which is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, is a type of bacterial infection that can cause pharyngitis.
3. Allergies: Allergies to pollens, dust mites, or other substances can cause postnasal drip and irritation of the throat, leading to pharyngitis.
4. Irritants: Exposure to smoke, chemicals, or other irritants can cause inflammation and soreness in the throat.
5. Dry air: Dry air can cause the throat to become dry and irritated, leading to pharyngitis.
6. Hormonal changes: Hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy or menstruation can cause changes in the throat that lead to pharyngitis.
7. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): GERD can cause stomach acid to flow up into the throat, leading to inflammation and soreness.
8. Sinus infections: Sinus infections can cause postnasal drip and irritation of the throat, leading to pharyngitis.
9. Mononucleosis: Mononucleosis, also known as mono, is a viral infection that can cause pharyngitis.
10. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, can cause pharyngitis.
It's important to note that a sore throat can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, so if you have a persistent or severe sore throat, you should see a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The term "osteomyelitis" comes from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "myelitis," meaning inflammation of the spinal cord. The condition is caused by an infection that spreads to the bone from another part of the body, such as a skin wound or a urinary tract infection.
There are several different types of osteomyelitis, including:
1. Acute osteomyelitis: This type of infection occurs suddenly and can be caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
2. Chronic osteomyelitis: This type of infection develops slowly over time and is often caused by bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
3. Pyogenic osteomyelitis: This type of infection is caused by bacteria that enter the body through a skin wound or other opening.
4. Tubercular osteomyelitis: This type of infection is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is often associated with tuberculosis.
Symptoms of osteomyelitis can include fever, chills, fatigue, swelling, redness, and pain in the affected area. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to fight the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged bone.
Preventing osteomyelitis involves taking steps to avoid infections altogether, such as practicing good hygiene, getting vaccinated against certain diseases, and seeking medical attention promptly if an infection is suspected.
Examples of CAIs include:
1. Respiratory infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and influenza.
2. Skin and soft tissue infections such as cellulitis, abscesses, and wound infections.
3. Gastrointestinal infections such as food poisoning, diarrhea, and gastroenteritis.
4. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by bacteria that enter the urinary tract through the urethra or bladder.
5. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
6. Bacterial infections such as staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae.
7. Viral infections such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and norovirus.
CAIs can be treated with antibiotics, antivirals, or other medications depending on the cause of the infection. It's important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated CAIs can lead to serious complications and potentially life-threatening conditions.
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- Tuberculosis, an infectious disease which is curable by following a course of antibiotics, remains a major public health issue on a global scale. (nih.gov)
- The treatment of tuberculosis is standardised but the decision to treat it is inseparable from the evaluation of possible side effects which require assessment prior to the initiation of therapy and close monitoring during treatment which includes ensuring that patients are aware of and vigilant for potential problems.This work describes the adverse events of different antibiotic medications so that, on an individual basis they can be anticipated and appropriately managed. (nih.gov)
- Pyrazinamide is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis ( TB ). (rxlist.com)
- Substances that inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis could potentially be used as antibiotics. (ejbiotechnology.info)
- To fight MDR and XDR tuberculosis, three new antitubercular drugs, bedaquiline (BDQ), delamanid, and pretomanid were approved for use in clinical setting. (figshare.com)
- The first antibiotic discovered to treat tuberculosis in 1947 was streptomycin (STR) [ 2 ], this drug acts inhibiting protein synthesis through 30S ribosomal subunit inhibition [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- A therapeutic strategy has been standardised which calls for the use of four antibiotics. (nih.gov)
- However, resistance of this bacterium to most antibiotic classes, including nearly all anti-tubercular drugs, leads frequently to treatment failure and considerably reduces the therapeutic arsenal available to the clinician. (medecinesciences.org)
- Quantifying the economic cost of antibiotic resistance and the impact of related interventions: Rapid methodological review, conceptual framework and recommendations for future studies. (ox.ac.uk)
- Resistance to antibiotics can occur in a number of ways, one of which is removal of the drugs from the cell via efflux pump macromolecular machineries. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Inhibition of efflux pumps therefore has the potential to reverse resistance to many antibiotics in one go and is an attractive potential for treating resistant infections. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Moreover, for any novel antibiotic developed, it is likely that resistance will quickly emerge once it is brought into clinical use, especially with the frequent misuse of antibiotics which drives selection for resistance. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Therefore, other strategies must be taken in parallel to antibiotic development, or there will be a continuous arms race of drug development and resulting gain of resistance, a battle we are currently losing. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Antibiotic resistance can occur via acquired or intrinsic mechanisms. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Acquired resistance, typically via horizontal transfer or spontaneous mutation, often functions by altering the drug target or production of enzymes which degrade the antibiotic. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Acquired resistance, gained in response to antibiotic treatment, is usually only effective against a single drug. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Intrinsic resistance, on the other hand, refers to the non-specific mechanisms of antibiotic resistance evolved ancestrally, including the impermeable outer membrane of Gram-negative or acid-fast group of bacteria, and drug efflux pumps which remove drugs from the cell . (lupinepublishers.com)
- Finally, we also constructed a data sheet including the mutations associated with BDQ resistance that could be useful for the early detection of BDQ-resistance in MDR/XDR patients with the purpose of a better management of antibiotic resistance in clinical settings. (figshare.com)
- For many years this drug was used in monotherapy in TB treatment therefore high drug-resistance levels appeared and the incorporation of different antibiotics to the treatment scheme became necessary [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Antitubercular event may occur with other drugs within the irrespective of the types of tyrosine kinase inhibitors agents antitubercular agents. (who.int)
- This review lists the 20 new antibiotics launched since 2000 and records the 40 compounds currently in active clinical development. (nature.com)
- This article reviews all antibiotics that have been launched since 2000, and compounds that are currently undergoing clinical development in phase-I, II or III trials, and under regulatory evaluation as of early 2011. (nature.com)
- Social and contextual influences on antibiotic prescribing and antimicrobial stewardship: A qualitative study with clinical commissioning group and general practice professionals. (ox.ac.uk)
- Gram-negative bacteria are especially difficult to kill as they have an additional outer membrane permeability barrier that compounds need to surmount to be efficacious, as well as often possessing multiple efflux pumps, and antibiotic and target-modifying enzymes. (nature.com)
- Inhibition from the nonmevalonate pathway (NMP) of isoprene biosynthesis continues to be examined being a way to obtain new antibiotics with book mechanisms of actions. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
- For catheter-related infections, the usual treatment is catheter removal combined with appropriate antibiotics (amikacin plus cefoxitin) for 6-12 weeks. (medscape.com)
- The discovery of sulfonamides and β-lactam antibiotics in the 1930s had a profound impact on human health by enabling rapid treatment of patients with bacterial infections that previously had often proved fatal. (nature.com)
- Both older antituberculous medications and new generation antibiotic medications used for the treatment of resistant bacilli can also be the source of adverse events. (nih.gov)
- The pivaloyl ester of 22 substance 26 comes with an MIC of 9.4 μg/mL representing a substantial improvement in antitubercular strength in this course of substances. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
- There is a desperate need for new antibiotics to treat these most resistant of infections, but the huge costs, long timescale and high attrition rate of drug discovery means that this is a slow process. (lupinepublishers.com)
- The emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria and the lack of new antibiotics in the antibiotic drug development pipeline, especially those with new modes of action, is a major health concern. (nature.com)
- The lack of new antibiotics, the emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria and the economic and regulatory challenges of antibiotic research have been discussed in depth. (nature.com)
- Compounds in the pipeline from new antibiotic classes are reviewed in detail with reference to their development status, mode of action, spectrum of activity and lead discovery. (nature.com)
- Twenty classes of antibiotics were discovered between 1940 and 1962, yet only two have been developed since then . (lupinepublishers.com)
- Delayed antibiotic prescription by general practitioners in the UK: a stated-choice study. (ox.ac.uk)
- 120 patients ont ete soumis a ce protocole en fonction du degre de leur septicite de leur intervention. (bvsalud.org)
- The treatment of tuberculosis is standardised but the decision to treat it is inseparable from the evaluation of possible side effects which require assessment prior to the initiation of therapy and close monitoring during treatment which includes ensuring that patients are aware of and vigilant for potential problems.This work describes the adverse events of different antibiotic medications so that, on an individual basis they can be anticipated and appropriately managed. (nih.gov)
- [ 1 ] Several different antibiotic regimens are available for the treatment of intra-abdominal infections (see Table 1 below). (medscape.com)
- If the participant has used antibiotics, antifungals, anti-viral medication in the last 6 months. (who.int)
- Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic is used with or without systemic antibiotics (either oral or parenteral). (medscape.com)
- In case of severe infections with features of systemic sepsis, a policy of "hit early and hit hard" (starting therapy as soon as infection is suspected with broad spectrum antibiotics) reduces the mortality of infection. (medscape.com)
- Antipseudomonal coverage is recommended for patients who have had previous treatment with antibiotics or who have had a prolonged hospitalization or any intervention. (medscape.com)
- Patients who are immunocompromised or who have received long-term, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy (eg, patients with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis) or steroid therapy are predisposed to candidal infections. (medscape.com)
- Antibiotic therapy is used to prevent local and hematogenous spread of an intra-abdominal infection and to reduce late complications. (medscape.com)
- It is recommended to treat in combination with other antibiotics. (medscape.com)
- Translating these strategies into clinically useful drugs engages the chemistry portion of the group in areas such as chemical modification of promising new synthetic antitubercular compounds, identification and optimization of products derived from natural sources with antitubercular activity, and development of novel delivery methods and formulations. (nih.gov)