Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Ellipticines: Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Leukemia L1210Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Bryostatins: A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.ThiadiazinesGram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids: Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Narcissus: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Aster Plant: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. This plant should not be confused with microtubule asters (MICROTUBULES) nor with aster yellows phytoplasma (mycoplasma-like organisms).Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Olacaceae: A small plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bibenzyls: Compounds with 1,2-diphenylethane. They are structurally like reduced STILBENES.Medical Secretaries: Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Sarcoma 180Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.LaunderingCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Sulindac: A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Dental Physiological Processes: Functions and activities of DENTITION as a whole.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS or the inferior sagittal sinus. Sagittal sinus thrombosis can result from infections, hematological disorders, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Clinical features are primarily related to the increased intracranial pressure causing HEADACHE; NAUSEA; and VOMITING. Severe cases can evolve to SEIZURES or COMA.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Phlebitis: Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Epothilones: A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Chlortetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.Bacitracin: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Amsacrine: An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Streptomyces coelicolor: A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Vanadium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Topoisomerase II Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.OsteomyelitisPersonnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Inappropriate Prescribing: The practice of administering medications in a manner that poses more risk than benefit, particularly where safer alternatives exist.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Sinorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Anthracyclines: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Polyenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enediynes: Compounds with triple bonds to each side of a double bond. Many of these are CYTOTOXINS and are researched for use as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.

Daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in rat cardiac myocytes is inhibited by dexrazoxane. (1/4684)

-The clinical efficacy of anthracycline antineoplastic agents is limited by a high incidence of severe and usually irreversible cardiac toxicity, the cause of which remains controversial. In primary cultures of neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes, we found that daunorubicin, at concentrations /=10 micromol/L induced necrotic cell death within 24 hours, with no changes characteristic of apoptosis. To determine whether reactive oxygen species play a role in daunorubicin-mediated apoptosis, we monitored the generation of hydrogen peroxide with dichlorofluorescein (DCF). However, daunorubicin (1 micromol/L) did not increase DCF fluorescence, nor were the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or the combination of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid able to prevent apoptosis. In contrast, dexrazoxane (10 micromol/L), known clinically to limit anthracycline cardiac toxicity, prevented daunorubicin-induced myocyte apoptosis, but not necrosis induced by higher anthracycline concentrations (>/=10 micromol/L). The antiapoptotic action of dexrazoxane was mimicked by the superoxide-dismutase mimetic porphyrin manganese(II/III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-peridyl)porphyrin (50 micromol/L). The recognition that anthracycline-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis, perhaps mediated by superoxide anion generation, occurs at concentrations well below those that result in myocyte necrosis, may aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to limit the toxicity of these drugs.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (2/4684)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Novel selective inhibitors for human topoisomerase I, BM2419-1 and -2 derived from saintopin. (3/4684)

Compounds BM2419-1 and -2 were isolated from a culture broth of a fungus Paecilomyces sp. BM2419. It was shown that these novel compounds were artifacts derived from saintopin, a dual inhibitor of topoisomerase I and II by independent processes. In the human topoisomerase I inhibition assay using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BM2419-1 and -2 inhibited selectively the yeast growth dependent on human topoisomerase I induction with IC50 values of 0.3 ng/ml and 6.0 ng/ml, respectively.  (+info)

Apicularens A and B, new cytostatic macrolides from Chondromyces species (myxobacteria): production, physico-chemical and biological properties. (4/4684)

A novel macrolide, apicularen A, was produced by several species of the genus Chondromyces. Initially it was discovered by bioassay-guided RP-HPLC-fractionation of culture extracts of Chondromyces robustus, strain Cm a13. Apicularen A showed no antimicrobial activity, but was highly cytotoxic for cultivated human and animal cells, with IC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 3 ng/ml. A cometabolite of apicularen A, the N-acetylglucosamine glycoside apicularen B, was distinctly less cytotoxic with IC50 values between 0.2 and 1.2 microg/ml, and showed weak activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria. Apicularen A is chemically closely related to the salicylihalamides A and B from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.  (+info)

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (5/4684)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Diperamycin, a new antimicrobial antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities. (6/4684)

Antibacterial antibiotics, diperamycin (1) was produced in the culture broth of Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. Various spectroscopic analyses of 1 suggested that 1 belonged to a member of cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic. Antibiotic 1 had potent inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria including Enterococcus seriolicida and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  (+info)

Induction of MDR1 gene expression by anthracycline analogues in a human drug resistant leukaemia cell line. (7/4684)

The effects of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (idarubicin, IDA) and MX2, a new morpholino-anthracycline, on up-regulation of the MDR1 gene in the low-level multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line CEM/A7R were compared at similar concentrations (IC10, IC50 and IC90) over a short time exposure (4 and 24 h). The chemosensitivity of each drug was determined by a 3-day cell growth inhibition assay. Compared with epirubicin (EPI), IDA and MX2 were 17- and eightfold more effective in the CEM/A7R line respectively. No cross-resistance to 5-FU was seen in the CEM/A7R line. Verapamil (5 microM) and PSC 833 (1 microM), which dramatically reversed resistance to EPI in the CEM/A7R line, had no sensitizing effect on the resistance of this line to MX2, but slightly decreased resistance to IDA. The sensitivity to 5-FU was unchanged by these modulators. The induction of MDR1 mRNA expression by IDA, MX2 and 5-FU was analysed by Northern blotting and semiquantitatively assessed by scanning Northern blots on a phosphorimager. The relative level of MDR1 expression was expressed as a ratio of MDR1 mRNA to the internal RNA control glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). IDA, MX2 and 5-FU differentially up-regulated MDR1 mRNA in the CEM/A7R line in a dose-dependent manner. Both IDA and MX2 induced MDR1 expression within 4 h. 5-FU up-regulated MDR1 expression only when drug exposure was prolonged to 24 h. Based on MRK 16 binding, flow cytometric analysis of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression paralleled the increase in MDR1 mRNA levels. For the three anthracyclines, the increase in MDR1 expression was stable in cells grown in the absence of drug for more than 3 weeks after drug treatment. The induction of MDR1 expression by 5-FU was transient, associated with a rapid decrease in the increased Pgp levels which returned to baseline 72 h after the removal of 5-FU. This study demonstrates that MDR1 expression can be induced by analogues of anthracyclines not pumped by Pgp, and that this induction appears to be stable despite a 3-week drug-free period.  (+info)

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. (8/4684)

We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. Fostriecin was administered intravenously over 60 min on days 1-5 at 4-week intervals. Dose was escalated from 2 mg m(-2) day(-1) to 20 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 20 patients. Drug pharmacokinetics was analysed with high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection. Plasma collected during drug administration was tested in vitro for growth inhibition of a teniposide-resistant small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line. The predominant toxicities were elevated liver transaminases (maximum common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 4) and serum creatinine (maximum CTC grade 2). These showed only a limited increase with increasing doses, often recovered during drug administration and were fully reversible. Duration of elevated alanine-amino transferase (ALT) was dose-limiting in one patient at 20 mg m(-2). Other frequent toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea/vomiting, fever and mild fatigue. Mean fostriecin plasma half-life was 0.36 h (initial; 95% CI, 0-0.76 h) and 1.51 h (terminal; 95% CI, 0.41-2.61 h). A metabolite, most probably dephosphorylated fostriecin, was detected in plasma and urine. No tumour responses were observed, but the plasma concentrations reached in the patients were insufficient to induce significant growth inhibition in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been reached, because drug supply was stopped at the 20 mg m(-2) dose level. However, further escalation seems possible and is warranted to achieve potentially effective drug levels. Fostriecin has a short plasma half-life and longer duration of infusion should be considered.  (+info)

*Pirarubicin

An analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Pirarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with ...

*Rebeccamycin

It is an antineoplastic antibiotic and an intercalating agent. Becatecarin (BMS-181176) is a synthetic analog of rebeccamycin. ... a new antitumor antibiotic from nocardia aerocoligenes": D. E. Nettleton, et al.; Tetrahedron Letters 34, 4011 (1985) ...

*Plicamycin

... (INN, also known as mithramycin; trade name Mithracin) is an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ... Majee, Sangita; Chakrabarti, Abhijit (1999). "Membrane interaction of an antitumor antibiotic, mithramycin, with anionic ...

*Acute inhalation injury

Bleomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic drug isolated in 1966 from the actinomycete Streptomyces verticillus. Bleomycin forms ...

*Bohemic acid

"The Toxicologic Evaluation of Marcellomycin-An Antineoplastic Anthracycline Antibiotic". Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 6 (1): ... Most of those components are antitumor agents and anthracycline antibiotics active against Gram-positive bacteria. Bohemic acid ... Chromatographical separation, in addition to the antibiotics pyrromycin and cinerubin A and B, reveals several individual ... The suffix -mycin is conventionally added to indicate antibiotics derived from actinobacteria or fungi. The individual ...

*Nanoparticles for drug delivery to the brain

Antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, and a variety of CNS-active drugs, especially neuropeptides, are a few examples of ...

*Diarrhea

The classes of medications that are known to cause diarrhea are laxatives, antacids, heartburn medications, antibiotics, anti- ... Antibiotics can also cause diarrhea, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea is the most common adverse effect of treatment with ... In resource-poor countries, treatment with antibiotics may be beneficial. However, some bacteria are developing antibiotic ... Antibiotics, while rarely used, may be recommended in a few cases such as those who have bloody diarrhea and a high fever, ...

*Duocarmycin

Bizelesin is antineoplastic antibiotic which binds to the minor groove of DNA and induces interstrand cross-linking of DNA, ... a new antitumor antibiotic from Streptomyces". The Journal of Antibiotics. 41 (12): 1915-7. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.41.1915. ... They are notable for their extreme cytotoxicity and thus represent a class of exceptionally potent antitumour antibiotics. As ... represent a new class of highly potent antineoplastic compounds. The work of Dale L. Boger and others created a better ...

*Index of oncology articles

... antineoplastic - antineoplastic antibiotic - antioxidant - antiparasitic - antiretroviral therapy - antisense c-fos - ... aminoglycoside antibiotic - aminolevulinic acid - aminopterin - AML - amonafide - amoxicillin - amphotericin B - ampulla - ... anticancer antibiotic - anticarcinogenic - anticoagulant - anticonvulsant - antidepressant - antiemetic - antiestrogen - ... antithymocyte globulin - antituberculosis - antitumor antibiotic - Antiviral drug - anxiolytic - APC - APC vaccine - APC8015 - ...

*Organic anion transporter 1

... beta-lactam antibiotics, antineoplastics, mycotoxins, sulfate conjugates, glucuronide conjugates, cysteine conjugates, ...

*Azaserine

... is a naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic and antibiotic properties deriving from ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... antineoplastic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248.025 --- angiogenesis inhibitors MeSH D27.505.954.248.106 --- antibiotics, ... antineoplastic MeSH D27.505.954.248.147 --- antimitotic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248.150 --- antineoplastic agents, alkylating ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D27.505.519.124 --- alkylating agents MeSH D27.505.519.124.035 --- antineoplastic agents, ... MeSH D27.505.954.248.169 --- antineoplastic agents, hormonal MeSH D27.505.954.248.179 --- antineoplastic agents, phytogenic ...

*Pixantrone

"definition of antineoplastic antibiotic". Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2012-01-31. CS1 ... It belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics. phase III clinical trials of pixantrone have been completed. ... Pixantrone (rINN; trade name Pixuvri) is an experimental antineoplastic (anti-cancer) drug, an analogue of mitoxantrone with ... Pixantrone is being studied as an antineoplastic for different kinds of cancer, including solid tumors and hematological ...

*Antineoplastic resistance

For example, the antibiotic rifampicin has been found to induce MDR1 expression. Experiments in different drug resistant cell ... to ensure their survival against antineoplastic drugs. Antineoplastic resistance, synonymous with chemotherapy resistance, is ... Antineoplastic drugs kill susceptible sub-populations and the tumour mass may shrink as an initial response to the drug, ... Epigenetic modifications in antineoplastic drug resistance play a major role in cancer development and drug resistance as they ...

*List of MeSH codes (E02)

... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.319.162.150 --- antibiotic prophylaxis MeSH E02.319.300.253 --- delayed ... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.319.310.075 --- antiretroviral therapy, highly active MeSH E02.319. ... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.190.044.080 --- acupressure MeSH E02.190.044.105 --- acupuncture ... 452.150 --- estrogen replacement therapy MeSH E02.319.703.150 --- antibiotic prophylaxis MeSH E02.319.913.500 --- hirudin ...

*EPOCH (chemotherapy)

... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; (H)ydroxydaunorubicin, also known as doxorubicin: an anthracycline antibiotic that is able ... This regimen requires the use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent infectious complications, as well as the use of colony- ...

*CEPP

... an antitumor antibiotic. CEPP (B): an effective and well-tolerated regimen in poor-risk, aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; (P)rednisone or (P)rednisolone - a glucocorticoid hormone that has the ability to cause ... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; (E)toposide - a topoisomerase inhibitor from the epipodophyllotoxin group; (P)rocarbazine ...

*Iatrogenesis

The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is iatrogenic as well. Bacteria strains resistant to antibiotics have ... Alkylating antineoplastic agents, for example, cause DNA damage, which is more harmful to cancer cells than regular cells. ... Antiseptics, anesthesia, antibiotics, better surgical techniques, evidence-based protocols and best practices continue to be ... Finland M (1979). "Emergence of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, 1935-1975". Rev. Infect. Dis. 1 (1): 4-22. doi:10.1093/ ...

*Nijmegen breakage syndrome

Prophylactic antibiotics are considered to prevent urinary tract infections as those with NBS often have congenital kidney ... In the treat of malignancies radiation, alkylating antineoplastic agents, and epipodophyllotoxins are not used, and ...

*Adenosine deaminase

Cladribine is an anti-neoplastic agent used in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia; its mechanism of action is inhibition of ... Coformycin was also described as a adenosine deaminase inhibitor but is alleged to be an antibiotic. Adenosine deaminase ...

*Kerria lacca

A recent study has shown that the anthraquinone component of lac dye also possess antineoplastic or anticancer effect It is ... including antibiotic, antiviral, antifeedant effect. ...

*Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles

... antibiotic - antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal ... medication - antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral ...

*Philip J. Wyatt

... and identify effective antibiotics to counter bacterial infections. "Get into a market that is just on the verge of developing ... and monitoring for possible toxicity of AZT and antineoplastic drugs in patients. Nobel prize winner Robert H. Grubbs uses them ...

*Bafilomycin

The bafilomycins are a family of toxic macrolide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces griseus. These compounds all appear in ... Bafilomycin has antibacterial, antifungal, antineoplastic, immunosuppressive activities. In addition, bafilomycin A1 has ...

*Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

However, diagnosis is suspected after there is no response to multiple antibiotics, and blood and sputum cultures are negative ... Pulmonary infection by bacteria, viruses and parasites Drugs: antineoplastic drugs, erlotinib Toxic fumes Ionizing radiations ... of an infection that the majority of patients with COP have been treated with at least one failed course of antibiotics by the ...

*Myxobacteria

The Journal of Antibiotics. 48 (1): 21-25. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.48.21. PMID 7868385. The Myxobacteria Web Page ... Metabolites secreted by Sorangium cellulosum known as epothilones have been noted to have antineoplastic activity. This has led ... Myxobacteria produce a number of biomedically and industrially useful chemicals, such as antibiotics, and export those ... "Antibiotics from gliding bacteria. No.61. Gephyronic Acid, a Novel Inhibitor of Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis from Archangium ...
Looking for Antitumour antibiotic? Find out information about Antitumour antibiotic. any one of a group of synthetic or natural substances used in the treatment of malignant tumors. Antineoplastics include alkylating agents , antimetabolites... Explanation of Antitumour antibiotic
Synonyms for Anticancer antibiotic in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Anticancer antibiotic. 5 synonyms for antineoplastic: antineoplastic drug, cancer drug, anticancer, antitumor, antitumour. What are synonyms for Anticancer antibiotic?
Anticancer antibiotics, like chromomycinA3, mithramycin, and daunomycin, inhibit replication and transcription via reversible association with DNA. In eukaryotes the nuclear DNA is associated with different proteins in chromatin, the transcription
Synonyms for antineoplastic antibiotic in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for antineoplastic antibiotic. 7 words related to antineoplastic antibiotic: antibiotic, antibiotic drug, antineoplastic, antineoplastic drug, cancer drug, Mithracin, mithramycin. What are synonyms for antineoplastic antibiotic?
KOHNO Jun , ASAI Yasuyuki , NISHIO Maki , SAKURAI Masaaki , KAWANO Kimio , HIRAMATSU Hajime , KAMEDA Noriaki , KISHI Noboru , OKUDA Toru , KOMATSUBARA Saburo Journal of antibiotics 52(12), 1114-1123, 1999-12-25 参考文献6件 被引用文献2件 ...
Doxorubicin is a lifesaving breast cancer treatment. However, approximately 3-20% of women who receive doxorubicin treatment experience some damage to their heart muscle. Coenzyme Q10 is a fat soluble antioxidant dietary supplement that may protect against this heart damage during doxorubicin treatment. It is unknown how Coenzyme Q10 may interact with doxorubicin. This study will assess the effects of Coenzyme Q10 on doxorubicin metabolism.. This is a phase I randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over pharmacokinetic and dose-finding study to assess the safety of CoQ10 during doxorubicin treatment for breast cancer. Safety will be assessed by measuring 1) intra-patient differences in doxorubicin and its active metabolites, with and without CoQ10, and 2) adverse events. We hypothesize that CoQ10 administration during doxorubicin treatment is safe and will not affect doxorubicin active metabolites. Using three dose levels of CoQ10, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) will be determined by assessing ...
Alterations in Doppler derived diastolic filling characteristics in anthracycline treated children have been reported previously. Some have described frequent abnormalities,5 with numerically small changes, directionally variable and not confined to those receiving anthracyclines. Others have not been able to detect any differences from controls,2 neither at rest nor during dobutamine stress testing. All but one of these studies of diastolic function in anthracycline treated children has included a variety of different diagnostic groups receiving various anthracycline schedules. Rammeloo and colleagues2 studied children with ALL only, but found no indices of diastolic dysfunction. However, anthracycline doses were low (100 mg/mg2).. Restrictive LV filling has been proposed as a consequence of chronic progressive myocardial anthracycline induced damage, but our observations in patients treated with moderate anthracycline doses and a follow up interval of 10-11 years, would question this ...
Shan and colleagues [1] provided a thorough, insightful, and well-balanced review of anthracycline cardiomyopathy. However, the discussion of the clinical significance of late-onset cardiotoxicity presented some confusing information that needs to be clarified. The authors stated that "new-onset symptomatic ventricular dysfunction was not seen until 12 to 14 years after treatment in the study by Lipshultz and coworkers." However, the symptomatic patients reported by Lipshultz and colleagues actually had "recurrent heart failure 3.7 to 10.3 years after completing doxorubicin treatment, and … [n]o patient had late heart failure as a new event" [2]. In fact, the patients Shan and colleagues cited as having "new-onset symptomatic ventricular dysfunction" were described in a study my colleagues and I conducted; in this study, the four patients with de novo late symptoms had been treated 12 to 18 years earlier [3]. Although most patients we described had been followed for less than 10 years after ...
We investigated in vivo the chemotherapeutic anthracycline agents doxorubicin and its ability to activate mitochondrial-mediated, receptor-mediated and endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis transduction pathways in cardiac tissue from male and female rats. We administered a single low dose of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) and then isolated mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins one and four days later from the heart. Caspase-3 protein content and caspase-3 activity were significantly increased after day four of doxorubicin treatment in both male and female rats. However, while males had DNA fragmentation at day one but not day four following doxorubicin administration, females showed no significant increase in DNA fragmentation at either time. Caspase-12, localized in the SR, is considered a central caspase, and its activation by cleavage via calpain indicates activation of the SR-mediated pathway of apoptosis. Cleaved caspase-12 content and calpain activity significantly
The mechanism of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity seems to involve the formation of free radicals leading to oxidative stress. This may cause apoptosis of cardiac cells or immunologic reactions. However, alternative mechanisms may play a role in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity ...
The efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin for treating Kaposis sarcoma (KS) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied. Eight men with HIV infection and KS were to be given liposomal doxorubicin 20 mg/sq m i.v. monthly for six months and 10 mg/sq m i.v. monthly thereafter, depending on the response. They were assessed for the onset, extent, and duration of clinical response; relapse; adverse effects; development of new opportunistic infections; quality of life; and survival. Five patients had a clinical complete response (i.e., complete resolution of the manifestations of KS, as determined by physical examination but not confirmed by biopsy) and three patients had a partial response to the induction regimen of liposomal doxorubicin. Relapse occurred in all patients in whom therapy was stopped; reinstatement of therapy elicited a partial response. Neutropenia occurred in two patients; filgrastim therapy enabled the liposomal doxorubicin therapy to continue uninterrupted.
In the present study, we explored sexual dimorphism of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and energetic and signaling pathways that could be involved in these differences. Two clinically relevant cumulative doses of doxorubicin, either 14 mg/kg after 7 injections or 8 mg/kg after 4 injections were administrated to investigate sex differences in the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin treatment resulted in sex differences characterized in males by (1) important weight loss and decrease in survival rate, (2) strong alterations of myocardial function, (3) decrease in energy signaling pathways, (4) downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, (5) decrease in cardiolipin content, (6) decrease in mitochondrial DNA content, and (7) and alteration of mitochondrial respiration. No sex differences were found for the oxidative stress response or for death markers, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial protein expression were associated with early cardiotoxicity in males.. Several clinical ...
Author Summary In the United States, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of cancer among children. Although the survival rate of childhood leukemia is relatively high, those who do not respond to chemotherapy have very low prognostic outcome. Recent reports point to the critical role of metabolism in determining cell sensitivity to doxorubicin, a conventional drug used in leukemia treatment. Most of the molecular components involved in doxorubicin metabolism have been identified; however, how these components operate as a system and how adaptation of the doxorubicin metabolic network to patient-specific changes in protein components is much less understood. We have therefore chosen to investigate via computational modeling the variations in the distribution of proteins that metabolize doxorubicin can control a cells ability to respond to doxorubicin treatment. This systems-level approach provides a framework for understanding how patient-specific variability leads to patient
Preclinical studies have reported that a single treadmill session performed 24h prior to doxorubicin provides cardio-protection. We aimed to characterize the acute change in cardiac function following an initial doxorubicin treatment in humans and determine whether an exercise session performed 24h prior to treatment changes this response. Breast cancer patients were randomized to either 30min of vigorous-intensity exercise 24h prior to the first doxorubicin treatment (n=13), or no vigorous exercise for 72h prior to treatment (control, n=11). Echocardiographically-derived left ventricular volumes, longitudinal strain, twist, E/A ratio, and circulating NT-proBNP, a marker of later cardiotoxicity, were measured before and 24-48h after the treatment. Following treatment in the control group, NT-proBNP, end-diastolic and stroke volumes, cardiac output, E/A ratio, strain, diastolic strain rate, twist, and untwist velocity significantly increased (all p≤0.01). Whereas systemic vascular resistance ...
Doxorubicin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of many types of cancer. Little is known about the interactions of doxorubicin with cardiac biomolecules. Serious cardiotoxicity including dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting in a fatal congestive heart failure may occur as a consequence of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to doxorubicin on the changes in major amino acids in tissue of cardiac muscle (proline, taurine, glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, leucine, glycine, valine, alanine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine and serine). An in vitro interaction study was performed as a comparison of amino acid profiles in heart tissue before and after application of doxorubicin. We found that doxorubicin directly influences myocardial amino acid representation even at low concentrations. In addition, we performed an interaction study that resulted in the determination of breaking points for each of analyzed amino acids.
Doxorubicin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of many types of cancer. Little is known about the interactions of doxorubicin with cardiac biomolecules. Serious cardiotoxicity including dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting in a fatal congestive heart failure may occur as a consequence of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to doxorubicin on the changes in major amino acids in tissue of cardiac muscle (proline, taurine, glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, leucine, glycine, valine, alanine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine and serine). An in vitro interaction study was performed as a comparison of amino acid profiles in heart tissue before and after application of doxorubicin. We found that doxorubicin directly influences myocardial amino acid representation even at low concentrations. In addition, we performed an interaction study that resulted in the determination of breaking points for each of analyzed amino acids.
Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of Galangin on Doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.. Methods: Albino rats used in this experiment were pretreated with vehicle, Galangin (100 & 200µg/kg) and Vit-C (20 mg/kg) for 28 days. On 25th day, a single dose of Doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, i. p) was administered to groups. After 72 h of Doxorubicin administration, ECG, serum and tissues biomarkers were evaluated. Histopathological examination of the heart was performed.. Results: Doxorubicin treated rats exhibited abnormal ECG pattern followed by significant increase in CK-MB, LDH, SGOT, SGPT and LPO level and decrease in GSH, CAT, TT when compared to control rats. Pretreatment with different doses of Galangin and Vit-C significantly reduced the serum biomarkers and increased the tissue antioxidant level when compared to Doxorubicin alone treated groups. Moreover, pretreatment also improved Doxorubicin induced changes in ECG pattern and ...
The ability of anthracycline drugs to trap topo II cleavage complexes is thought to be important for the biological properties of these clinically relevant drugs. However, anthracyclines differ from other topo poisons in that topo II targeting is only one of the several mechanistic facets by which these agents inactivate cancer cells. Therefore, anthracycline-induced DNA lesions may originate not only from topo II targeting but also from other mechanisms. Trapping of topo II cleavage complexes is expected to increase the fraction of DNA that is covalently linked to topo II molecules (topo II-mediated DNA-protein cross-links). However, some studies reported a marginal or insignificant induction of DNA-protein cross-links by doxorubicin in cancer cells (19, 20). Despite these and other ambiguities, the role of topo II targeting in the antiproliferative effects of anthracycline drugs is widely accepted. This report attempts to better define this role by (a) quantifying the ability of several ...
The characterization of cells that have survived treatment with Adriamycin (MCF-7A), FUdR (MCF-7F), or cells that were subjected to sequential treatment with Adriamycin and FUdR (MCF-7 A/F) was performed to determine whether populations of cells surviving these treatments present different phenotypes than parental, untreated MCF-7 cells. Cells were treated with several concentrations of each of the chemotherapeutic agents. Cell populations from cultures treated with the highest concentrations of Adriamycin or FUdR, still containing viable cells after the period of treatment, were selected. The survivors of the initial Adriamycin treatment were those that remained alive after 5 days of Adriamycin treatment at a concentration of 25 ng/ml, and the survivors of the FUdR treatment were those that survived 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 10 μg/ml of FUdR. These were the highest concentrations in which cells survived, under the conditions used. The MCF-7 A/F cells were developed by treating ...
The characterization of cells that have survived treatment with Adriamycin (MCF-7A), FUdR (MCF-7F), or cells that were subjected to sequential treatment with Adriamycin and FUdR (MCF-7 A/F) was performed to determine whether populations of cells surviving these treatments present different phenotypes than parental, untreated MCF-7 cells. Cells were treated with several concentrations of each of the chemotherapeutic agents. Cell populations from cultures treated with the highest concentrations of Adriamycin or FUdR, still containing viable cells after the period of treatment, were selected. The survivors of the initial Adriamycin treatment were those that remained alive after 5 days of Adriamycin treatment at a concentration of 25 ng/ml, and the survivors of the FUdR treatment were those that survived 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 10 μg/ml of FUdR. These were the highest concentrations in which cells survived, under the conditions used. The MCF-7 A/F cells were developed by treating ...
Daunorubicin is a cancer medication that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. Daunorubicin is used in the treatment of leukemia (blood cancer). Daunorubicin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Doxorubicin HCL Pharmachemie is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Doxorubicin HCL Pharmachemie is available on the Drugs.com website.
Doxorubicin Market report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state. The Doxorubicin Industry analysis is provided for the international ma
Doxorubicin Pliva is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Doxorubicin Pliva is available on the Drugs.com website.
Influence of GEX1 and GEX2 on the PKA and MAPK pathways. (A) WT cells transformed with pADH1-MSN2-GFP alone or in combination with the pØ or pGEX1-HA plasmids,
Page contains details about example of doxorubicin comprising stable nanocomposition . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Page contains details about example of doxorubicin comprising stable nanocomposition . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
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Doxorubicin is a highly effective first-line chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of a broad range of solid and hematological tumors. Though effective, the use of Doxorubicin in cancer therapy has been hindered by ...
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Get natural cures for Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy that can make a difference in your life or the life of someone you love with alternative treatments.
Results Doxorubicin decreased calpain activities in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and in vivomouse hearts, which correlated with down-regulation of calpain-1 and calpain-2 proteins. Over-expression of calpastatin or treatment with pharmacological calpain inhibitors aggravated apoptosis in neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes caused by doxorubicin. On the while, over-expression of calpain-2 but not calpain-1 decreased doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. The pro-apoptotic effects of calpain inhibition were concerned with down-regulation of AKT protein and mRNA expression, and a concomitant reduction in GSK-3 beta phosphorylation (Ser9) in doxorubicin-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibiting AKT further increased doxorubicin-induced cardiac injuries, suggesting the effects of calpain inhibition may be mediated through inactivating the AKT signalling. In an in vivomodel of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, overexpression of calpastatin aggravated myocardial dysfunction in transgenic ...
Anthracyclines such as, doxorubicin (DOX) are an effective class of antineoplastic agents. Despite its efficacy in the treatment of a variety of cancers including breast cancer, the clinical use of DOX is limited by cardiac side effects. While it has been shown that DOX alters myocardial fatty acid metabolism, it is poorly understood whether variations in myocardial triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism contribute to DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Since TG catabolism in the heart is primarily controlled by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), this study examined the influence of DOX on cardiac ATGL expression and TG levels as well as the consequence of forced-expression of ATGL in the setting of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. To do this, wild type (WT) mice and mice with cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL over-expression (MHC-ATGL) received weekly intraperitoneal injections of saline or DOX (8mg/kg) for four weeks. Heart rate, heart weight to tibia length ratio and DOX-induced body weight loss were comparable ...
I have read the article by Cardinale and colleagues1 with great interest and congratulate the authors for the completion of a burdensome work and the excellent presentation of their results. As the authors have correctly stated, early preclinical cardiac injury should be looked for soon after anthracycline treatment to effectively treat this disorder from its onset, before its overt clinical expression. However, I would like to point out one aspect that needs further clarification. The authors have reported that the overall incidence of cardiotoxicity is 9%. Previous researches have reported that anthracycline promotes cancer cell death via regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6)-mediated activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated serine/threonine protein kinase and the resultant upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, leading to an apoptosis pathway underlying its cytotoxic activity. The ability of RGS6 to promote p53 activation in response to anthracycline is independent of RGS6 interaction ...
The optimal cardiac toxicity prevention strategy for doxorubicin would include an agent that improves the efficacy of the doxorubicin-based cancer therapy and prevents cardiac toxicity. In our experiments, pretreatment with GGA blocked doxorubicin cardiac toxicity by maintaining systolic function and decreasing cell death in the heart. Most remarkably, GGA also contributed to doxorubicins chemotherapy efficacy in MDA-MB-231 xenografts in parallel with protecting the heart. GGAs antineoplastic effect is likely due to its inhibition of RHO family proteins in both the heart and cancer cells, and we selected MDA-MB-231 for these experiments because of the endogenous high RHO activity in these cells. Because GGA has been used in Japan since 1984 to prevent stomach ulcers and has a long history of safety and lack of adverse effects, we suggest that this novel approach to prevention of doxorubicin toxicity should be further investigated.. By comparison, dexrazoxane, an iron chelator used to reduce ...
Despite major advances in adjuvant therapy, the number of patients with metastatic breast cancer who are expected to relapse is substantial," he said. "In this setting the treatment is not curative, but it is important to explore all the available alternatives.". "In the case of chemotherapy, toxicity is the main drawback. Almost all studies carried out up to now associate maintenance therapy with a longer time-to-progression, and sometimes more overall survival. However, dealing with toxicity forces us to balance benefits and risks.". "The main finding of this trial was the low toxicity profile of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin at a dose of 40mg/m2. This dose presented no gastrointestinal toxicity, no grade IV alopecia, and grade IV adverse effects such as mucositis or hand-and-foot syndrome (HFS) were lower than 5%. The treatment also presented no cardiotoxicity. The subjective tolerance was very good.". ...
Recent studies have shown that the toxic heart effects of anthracycline therapy can have lasting effects on childrens health. Dr. Stephen Lipshulz, a pediatric cancer specialist at the University of Miami, said childhood cancer survivors "may be at significant risk of serious cardiovascular problems at a much younger age," than researchers believed a few years ago ...
The women were about 55 years old. The researchers measured the womens cognitive functioning with standard tests and also looked at functional MRI test results. A functional MRI uses MRI technology to measure brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow caused by brain activity. The results showed that women who had been treated with an anthracycline had worse short-term and long-term memory compared to the women in the other two groups. These differences were statistically significant, which means they were likely because of the difference in chemotherapy treatment and not just due to chance. Women treated with an anthracycline also had less left precuneus connectivity. The left precuneus region of the brain is involved in memory, spatial processing, and consciousness. It is part of whats called the brains default mode network, which means it helps perform cognitive activities while the brain is at rest. Changes in connectivity in the left precuneus region could make a ...
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Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antineoplastic agent used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Unfortunately, its use is limited as this drug induces cardiotoxicity and heart failure as a side effect. There is no report that describes whether
Doxorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. Doxorubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. Doxorubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. The anthracyclines are cell cycle-nonspecific ...
Introduction: Protection of the heart from chemotherapeutic (Doxorubicin, DOX) drug-induced toxicity is a desirable goal, to limit side effects of cancer treatments. DOX toxicity has been linked to the activation (phosphorylation) of the AMP-activated kinase, AMPK. The 18 kDa low molecular weight isoform of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Lo-FGF-2) is a known cardioprotective and cytoprotective agent. In this study we have tested the ability of Lo-FGF-2 to protect from DOX-induced damage in rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, and in transgenic mouse models in vivo, in relation to AMPK activation.. Methods: Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in culture were exposed to DOX (0.5 μM) in the presence or absence of pre-treatment Lo-FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). Compound C was used to block phosphorylation (activity) of AMPK. Levels of cell viability/death (using Calcein-AM/Propidium iodide assay), phospho -and total AMPK, and apoptotic markers such as active caspase 3 were analyzed. In addition, transgenic mice expressing only ...
1.Sánchez G, Cervantes G y Maldonado J. Linfomas No Hodgkin. Med Int Mex 2004; 20: 111-23. 2.Estrada D, Rajdev L and Sparado J. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin. Emedicine. Last Updated: June 24, 2004. 3.Ng R, Better N, Green MD. Anticancer agents and cardiotoxicity. Semin Oncol. 2006; 33 (1): 2-14. 4.Youssef G, Links M. The prevention and management of cardiovascular complications of chemotherapy in patients with cancer. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2005; 5 (4): 233-43. 5.Pasca A, Pereiro G, Mansilla S y Lastiri H. Toxicidad miocardiaca por antraciclinas. Rev Fed Arg Cardiol 2000; 29:319-325. 6.Suter T and Meier B. Detection of anthracycline- induced cardiotoxicity: is there light at the end of the tunnel?. Editorial. Annals of Oncology. 2002; 13: 647-649. 7.Cvetkovic RS, Scott LJ. Dexrazoxane a review of its use for cardioprotection during anthracycline chemotherapy. Drugs. 2005; 65 (7): 1005-24. 8.Gianni L, Haerman E, Lipshultz S, Minotti G, sarvazyan N and Sawyer D.Anthracycline Cardiotoxicity: From Bench ...
2463 Combination treatment regimens that include the anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are widely used in the treatment of both early and metastatic breast cancer. We found that co-treating breast cancer cells with interferon-γ and doxorubicin synergistically enhanced apoptosis. We observed up-regulation of caspase-8 expression following treatment with IFN-γ, which correlated with the onset of apoptosis induced by IFN-γ and doxorubicin. Since caspase-8 is an apical caspase involved in death receptor-mediated apoptosis, this suggested that IFN-γ and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was mediated through death-receptor signaling. In this regard, we found that IFN-γ up-regulated expression of Fas whereas DR5 was up-regulated by doxorubicin. Importantly, IFN-γ and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was attenuated by simultaneous siRNA gene silencing of Fas and DR5, indicating that the death phenotype was mediated via these two receptors. However, the cognate ligands for these receptors (FasL and ...
DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Diagnosis of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer High likelihood of anthracycline resistance due to prior anthracycline exposure in the adjuvant or metastatic setting Prior anthraquinone (e.g., mitoxantrone) insufficient Prior cumulative anthracycline dose limited to doxorubicin-equivalent 350 mg/m2 by IV bolus or 450 mg/m2 by prolonged (at least 48 hours) infusion Measurable or evaluable disease Brain metastases treated by prior surgery and/or radiotherapy allowed if neurologic status stable 2 weeks after discontinuation of dexamethasone Hormone receptor status: Not specified. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Age: 18 and over Sex: Male or female Menopausal status: Not specified Performance status: Zubrod 0-2 Life expectancy: At least 12 weeks Hematopoietic: Absolute granulocyte count greater than 1,500/mm3 Platelet count greater than 100,000/mm3 Hepatic: Bilirubin no greater than 1.5 mg/dL Renal: Creatinine no greater than 1.5 mg/dL Cardiovascular: No history of heart ...
We have previously demonstrated a protective role for COX-2 against Dox-induced cardiac injury by using pharmacological inhibitors, an approach that can be confounded by the nonspecific effects of the drugs. Here we show that genetic disruption of COX-2 increased the severity of the acute cardiac injury induced by Dox. Dox-treated COX-2−/− animals had impaired left ventricular function compared with WT Dox-treated mice. Dox also induced cardiac cell apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related genes in the COX-2−/− animals. The Dox-induced changes in cardiac function and injury in COX-2−/− animals were attenuated by treatment with iloprost, an analog of prostacyclin.. The mechanism underlying the described protective effect of COX-2 in this model of cardiac injury is not yet clear. Here we show that COX-2 and prostacyclin modulate the expression of genes encoding for proteins involved in apoptosis. Dox has previously been shown to induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis at low ...
In the current issue of ONCOLOGY, Hershman and Shao provide a comprehensive review of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Risk factors for AIC include age (??18 or ??65 years) at time of treatment, increasing cumulative dose or dose intensity of anthracyclines, mediastinal radiation therapy (RT), and female gender.[1-4] The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database showed […]. ...
Septacin, a new antitumor and antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fimbriatus Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1963, 83-88, ...
Cancer continues to be a leading cause death in the United States despite improved treatments. Cancerous lesions form after acquiring oncogenic driver mutations or losing tumor suppressor function in normal cells. Traditional therapies have included use of genotoxic substances that take advantage of the increased growth rate and loss of tumor suppressor function to cause cell death. One such drug is the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOX). DOX interchelates into DNA and disrupts transcriptional machinery while also poisoning topoisomerase II. This results in single and double stranded DNA breaks, which if severe enough leads to either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. DOX has been very effective at treating several different cancers and is still widely used today however its clinical use is limited due to cumulative dose dependent cardiotoxicity. Therefore, combination therapy targeting survival pathways is utilized to minimize the cumulative dose of DOX without ameliorating its anti-tumor
Doxorubicin - Get up-to-date information on Doxorubicin side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Doxorubicin
Anthracyclines are the most effective anticancer drugs with broad cancer spectrum. They demonstrate strong anticancer efficacy in vitro but are less effective in vivo during treatment of brain cancer...
Anthracyclines (such as doxorubicin) are very important (effective) agents for the treatment of lymphomas, however the use of anthracyclines increases the risk of damage to the heart (cardio toxicity. The risk of cardio toxicity is greater for the elderly and pediatric patients, and in persons with preexisting heart issues. The risk is also related to the cumulative dose of the anthracycline drug, and possibly the rate of administration - how fast it is given.. ...
Aim: To research whether myosin light string kinase (MLCK) contributed towards the high proliferative capability of Rabbit polyclonal to Myocardin. breast tumor cells. analyzed using stream cytometry Annexin and analysis V-FITC fluorescence microscopy. Outcomes: The breasts tumor LM-MCF-7 cell range with high metastasis potential (a metastitic sub-clone of MCF-7) got higher anti-apoptosis capability in accordance with MCF-7 cells in response to adriamycin treatment (apoptosis price: 6.76% 28.58% participates along the way resulting in caspase-9 activation accompanied by activation of caspase-3. Cells are constantly necessary to integrate exterior tension indicators and therefore decide cell fates to perish or survive on a continuing basis. These destiny decisions are created by an array of signaling pathways that are managed by kinases. The mitogen-activated proteins kinases (MAPKs) will be the category of kinases that transduce indicators through the cell membrane towards the nucleus in ...
Daunorubicin (DNR) and doxorubicin (DOX) are two of the most effective anthracycline drugs known for the treatment of systemic neoplasms and solid tumors. However, their clinical use is hampered due to profound cardiotoxicity ...
142062-87-1 - XBOFKRSRRQVHGD-JBBRCQKFSA-N - Pradimicin L - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Evidence-based information on doxorubicin from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. Make better, quicker, evidence based decisions. Evidence search provides access to selected and authoritative evidence in health, social care and public health.
Evidence-based information on doxorubicin from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. Make better, quicker, evidence based decisions. Evidence search provides access to selected and authoritative evidence in health, social care and public health.
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Anthracycline antibiotics are included in the chemotherapy regimens of approximately 82% of patients with bone cancer and 44% of those with soft tissue
Learn more about Doxorubicin at West Florida Hospital Trade Names : Adriamycin Doxil Rubex Antioxidants - Possible Helpful Interactions ...
Learn more about Doxorubicin at West Florida Hospital Trade Names : Adriamycin Doxil Rubex Antioxidants - Possible Helpful Interactions ...
Abstract The antineoplastic drug doxorubicin is capable of generating a variety of free radical species in subcellular systems and this capacity has been considered critical for it..
Anthracycline Chemistry and Biology I (Karsten Krohn) ISBN: 9783642094965 - pp. xiv + 324 bulmak ✐ Karşılaştır ✐ satın almak ✐ -
The wide spectrum of anthracycline activity as well as the unique cumulative dose related cardiac toxicity pose a significant clinical challenge. These drugs, particularly doxorubicin (AdriamycinR),...
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Cellular uptakes of ATF-HSA:DOX (5 μM), HSA:DOX (5 μM), and DOX (5 μM) in H1299 cells and HELF cells after incubation for different time periods.Notes: The
lonchophylloid A: reverses resistance to doxorubicin in cancer cells; isolated from Ephemerantha lonchophylla; structure in first source
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Doxorubicin-mediated radiosensitivity in multicellular spheroids from a lung cancer cell line is enhanced by composite micelle encapsulation Wen-Hong Xu,1 Min Han,2 Qi Dong,3 Zhi-Xuan Fu,3 Yuan-Yuan Diao,2 Hai Liu,3 Jing Xu,3 Hong-Liang Jiang,4 Su-Zhan Zhang,3 Shu Zheng,3 Jian-Qing Gao,2 Qi-Chun Wei11Department of Radiation Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 2Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, China National Ministry of Education), The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, 4Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of composite doxorubicin-loaded micelles for enhancing doxorubicin radiosensitivity in multicellular spheroids from a non-small cell lung cancer cell line.Methods: A novel composite doxorubicin-loaded micelle consisting
From 24/07/ until 04/08/17 the first summer school organized by Study & Work International, an initiative of the Bavarian Association of Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS), takes place at the Lutheran UAS Nuremberg and the technical UAS OTH Amberg-Weiden.The Future of Health Care: New Concepts - New Technologies is the topic of this two-week interdisciplinary summer school for Bachelors students from the fields of health care as well as various engineering disciplines (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen - idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft). - Weiterlesen ...
Aims: Doxorubicin is an important anti-cancer drug which can cause renal toxicity. Nigella sativa has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on doxorubicin-induced functional damage of kidney in rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was ...
Different classes of cardiovascular biomarkers are thought to provide information concerning different pathophysiological mechanisms.16 Because anthracycline therapy is associated with both cardiomyocyte injury, loss of cardiac contractile function, inflammation, and development of diffuse fibrosis,17 we selected biomarkers that are believed to reflect these processes in our study.. Cardiac troponins are markers of cardiomyocyte injury and are associated with risk for cardiovascular death and heart failure.18 Moreover, the use of high‐sensitivity assays for cTnI and cTnT also permits detection and monitoring of low‐grade, chronic myocardial injury.19 BNP and NT‐proBNP are associated with cardiac function and provide strong prognostic information across the spectrum of cardiovascular disease.20, 21, 22 CRP is a prototypical inflammatory biomarker that has been associated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and death, both in the general population, in patients with coronary artery ...
Young cancer patients may occasionally face infertility and premature gonadal failure. Apart from its direct effect on follicles and oocytes, chemotherapy may induce ovarian toxicity via an impact on the entire ovary. The role of doxorubicin in potential ovarian failure remains obscure. Our intention was to elucidate doxorubicin-related toxicity within ovaries. Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 or 10 mg/kg doxorubicin and their ovaries were visualized in vivo by high resolution MRI, one day and one month following treatment. Ovaries of other treated mice were excised and weighed at the same post-treatment intervals. Ovarian histological sections were stained for TUNEL or active caspase-3 and follicles were counted and categorized. Ovulation rates were evaluated in superovulated female mice treated with doxorubicin. A single injection of doxorubicin resulted in a major reduction in both ovarian size and weight that lasted even one month post treatment. A dramatic reduction in ovulation
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
is an antitumor antibiotic that was isolated from a strain ofStreptomyces verticillusin 1966. It has been used successfully to treat a variety of malignancies, predominantly germ cell tumors and Hodgkin lymphoma. The major limitation of bleomycin the
Principal Investigator:KODAMA Shoji, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Obstetrics and gynecology
Twenty-three children with advanced cancer refractory to conventional therapy received weekly iv doses of neocarzinostatin for 5 weeks. Doses were escalated from 500 to 6750 units/m2/week. Four types of toxic manifestations occurred: acute reactions
The protein p53 plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular responses to diverse stresses. Thus, a major priority in cell biology is to define the mechanisms that regulate p53 activity in response to stresses or maintain it at basal levels under normal conditions. Moreover, further investigation is required to establish whether RNA participates in regulating p53s interaction with other proteins. Here, by conducting systematic experiments, we discovered a p53 interactor-hnRNPC-that directly binds to p53, destabilizes it, and prevents its activation under normal conditions. Upon doxorubicin treatment, the lncRNA SNHG1 is retained in the nucleus through its binding with nucleolin and it competes with p53 for hnRNPC binding, which upregulates p53 levels and promotes p53‐dependent apoptosis by impairing hnRNPC regulation of p53 activity. Our results indicate that a balance between lncRNA SNHG1 and hnRNPC regulates p53 activity and p53‐dependent apoptosis upon doxorubicin treatment, and ...
Puerarin extracted from Radix Puerariae is well known for its pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective properties. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of puerarin on the daunorubicin (DNR)-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cells and to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved. MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to assess changes in the expression levels of proteins, including caspase-3, Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt). Ratiometric imaging of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) using cells loaded with Fura-2 was also carried out. Our results revealed that puerarin pre-treatment protected the H9c2 cells against DNR-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting cell apoptosis, which was also confirmed by the decrease in the expression of cleaved caspase-3. Additionally, p-Akt activation was associated with the suppressive effects of puerarin. ...
Brand Names Daunoxome® (There may be other brand names for this medication.) How is it Administered? Your medicine will be given by given intravenously (IV), which means it will be given through a tube placed in a vein, usually in your arm, wrist, hand or chest. What is it Used For? This drug is used to treat advanced Kaposis sarcoma. How Does it Work?
Trade Name: Mutamycin®. How is this drug used? Mitomycin is FDA approved for the treatment of advanced stomach and pancreatic cancer in combination with other agents. It is important for patients to remember that physicians have the ability to prescribe medication for conditions other than those for which the drug has been approved by the FDA. Patients who have received a prescription of this drug for a condition other than which it is approved may wish to discuss this issue with their physician.. What is the mechanism of action? Mitomycin belongs to a class of agents called antitumor antibiotics. An antitumor antibiotic produces its anti-cancer effects by binding to DNA and inhibiting the production of proteins necessary for sustaining the life of a cell.. How is mitomycin given (administered)? Mitomycin may be administered into a vein (intravenous) and the dose depends on several factors, including the condition being treated, the size of the patient, the particular treatment regimen being ...
A new way of detecting which breast cancer patients are going to respond best to chemotherapy that includes anthracycline antibiotics has been discovered by an international team of researchers.
Aclarubicin is one of the derivatives of anthracycline drugs exhibiting less side effects in comparison with the commonly used anthracyclines Generation - doxorubicin and daunorubicin. This article presents the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxic effect of the ACL, such as the effect on the activity of topoisomerase I and II, the processes of replication and transcription. Also discussed was the impact of the ACL with the cell membrane, drug transport through the membrane and the plasma membrane involved in the acquisition of multidrug resistance. ...
Antibacterial and antitumor agents designated LL-E33288 complex and their production by new strains of Micromonospora echinospora ssp. calichensis NNRL-15839, NRRL-15975 and NRRL-18149, are disclosed.
Launch Several inhibitors of histone deacetylase have already been proven to enhance chemotherapy induced apoptosis and reduce sarcoma tumor quantity in preclinical versions. abexinostat at 30 mg/m2 Bet and then following cohorts were implemented dosages of 15 45 or 60 mg/m2 Bet. All sufferers without intensifying disease after finding a cumulative life time dosage of 450 mg/m2 of doxorubicin received the option to Lamivudine keep with abexinostat as an individual agent until disease development. Results 22 individuals (10 with preceding tumor development Lamivudine after doxorubicin therapy) had been enrolled (6 in Arm A 14 in Arm B) 20 had been evaluable for DLT and 17 had been evaluable for radiologic response. In Arm A individuals were administered at 15 or 30 mg/m2 BID abexinostat. DLTs of quality 3 and 4 ANC had been seen in two out of three individuals dosed at 30 mg/m2 Bet. Neither of the sufferers received G-CSF prophylaxis. In Arm B individuals were implemented abexinostat at 30 45 or ...
Consumer information about the medication DOXORUBICIN - INJECTION (Adriamycin, Rubex), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the prescription drug DOXORUBICIN - INJECTION.
129985-03-1 - SUMIBTQDHCFPDZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Dynemicin H - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
BioAssay record AID 735493 submitted by ChEMBL: Activation of SIRT1 in human MCF7 cells assessed as reduction in doxorubicin-induced acetyl-p53 level up to 100 uM after 6 hrs by Western blotting analysis.
You can now download VisualDx for your iOS and Android devices. Launch the VisualDx app from your device and sign in using your VisualDx personal account username and password.. ...
The enzyme, characterized from the bacteria Streptomyces anulatus and Streptosporangium sibiricum, activates 3-hydroxy-4-methylanthranilate, a precursor of actinomycin antibiotics and the antitumor antibiotic sibiromycin, to an adenylate form, so it can be loaded onto a dedicated aryl-carrier protein ...
Such uncertainties translate into a lack of guidelines about how and when a cancer patient should be protected with e.g. beta blockers or ACE inhibitors. Further complexity is introduced by the rapidly expanding repertoire of targeted drugs, whether antibodies or small tyrosine kinase inhibitors. These were hoped to eliminate cardiac toxicity, but the experience gained with many of them shows that the goal of combining improved activity with reduced cardiotoxicity was not fully met. Thus, the state-of-the-art in Cardio-Oncology turned out to be a collection of unanswered questions and unmet goals that the speakers dissected with intellectual loyalty ...
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The cardiotoxicity sometimes seen with doxorubicin may be caused by the effects of chemotherapy on the enzyme topoisomerase-IIβ.
The objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical efficacy and tolerance of vinorelbine and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with prior taxane and/or anthracycline treatment. A total of 25 patients who previously received taxane- and/or anthracycline-based chemotherapy as first- and/or second-line treatment of MBC were entered into the study and were treated with 20 mg/m2 vinorelbine on day 1 and 8 and 30 mg/m2 PLD on day 1 every 3 weeks. All were evaluated for efficacy, quality of life, and tolerance. Three complete and 6 partial responses were observed in 25 patients for an objective response rate of 36% (95% confidence interval: 17-55%). Eight patients (32%) had stable disease of not less than 3 months and 8 patients (32%) had disease progression. The median progression-free survival was 6.7 months (range, 2-18 months), and the median overall survival was 13.2 months (range, 3-31 months). Severe toxicities (grade 3 or above) ...
Nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics C-1027, neocarzinostatin (NCS), and kedarcidin (KED) possess enediyne cores to which activity-modulating peripheral moieties are attached via (R)- or (S)-vicinal diols. We have previously shown that this stereochemical difference arises from hydrolysis of epoxide precursors by epoxide hydrolases (EHs) with different regioselectivities. The inverting EHs, such as SgcF, hydrolyze an (S)-epoxide substrate to yield an (R)-diol in C-1027 biosynthesis, whereas the retaining EHs, such as NcsF2 and KedF, hydrolyze an (S)-epoxide substrate to yield an (S)-diol in NCS and KED biosynthesis. We now report the characterization of a series of EH mutants and provide a predictive model for EH regioselectivity in the biosynthesis of the nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics. A W236Y mutation in SgcF increased the retaining activity toward (S)-styrene oxide by 3-fold, and a W236Y/Q237M double mutation in SgcF, mimicking NcsF2 and KedF, resulted in a 20-fold ...
CRAIGAVON, Northern Ireland, November 15, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --. Galen announced today that the European Commission has designated liposomal daunorubicin as an orphan medicinal product for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).[1] The designation follows a positive opinion from the Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP) within the European Medicines Agency (EMA).[2] Liposomal daunorubicin is currently approved in a number of European countries, the U.S. and Brazil for the treatment of advanced HIV-related Kaposis sarcoma, as the medicinal product DaunoXome®.. Acute myeloid leukaemia is estimated to affect not more than 1.2 in 10,000 people in the European Union. It is chronically debilitating and life threatening due to bone marrow dysfunction. If left untreated, the condition progresses rapidly and is often fatal.[2]. Galen is dedicated to supporting the development and provision of innovative medicines in an effort to improve health worldwide. Speaking about the European ...
Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), a widely used anticancer drug, has been associated with cardiotoxicity. Recently, DOX-induced cardiotoxicity has been attributed to topoisomerase II (TOPII)-β expression and activity. In our study, we investigated the effect of inhibiting TOPII in attenuating the DOX induced cardiotoxicity. Method: H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were treated with 1 or 2 µM DOX (+/-) 1 µM ETO. Cardiotoxicity was assessed by examining cell viability using the MTT assay, hypertrophy of crystal violet stained cardiomyoblasts and ROS production. Results: DOX induced a dose dependent increase in cardiotoxicity as indicated by the significant reduction in cell viability (71.77 ± 9.25% 2 µM DOX vs. 100% control, P,0.05), ROS production and hypertrophy. Stimulation of H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with both 2 µM DOX and 1µM ETO did not show a significant difference in cell viability, ROS production or hypertrophy. Conclusion: DOX induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts was not exacerbated in the ...
PPAR Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on advances in basic research, as well as preclinical and clinical trials, involving Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs).
Cardiovasc Res. 2010 Mar 1;85(4):773-84. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvp369. Epub 2009 Nov 26. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt

Antineoplastic antibiotic | definition of antineoplastic antibiotic by Medical dictionaryAntineoplastic antibiotic | definition of antineoplastic antibiotic by Medical dictionary

What is antineoplastic antibiotic? Meaning of antineoplastic antibiotic medical term. What does antineoplastic antibiotic mean? ... Looking for online definition of antineoplastic antibiotic in the Medical Dictionary? antineoplastic antibiotic explanation ... antineoplastic antibiotic. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. antineoplastic antibiotic. a chemical ... antineoplastic antibiotic. Anticancer antibiotic, antitumor antibiotic Oncology Any of a group of anticancer drugs that block ...
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Differential Diagnosis: Antineoplastic antibiotic, Multiple skin lesionsDifferential Diagnosis: Antineoplastic antibiotic, Multiple skin lesions

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Anthracyline
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        Antibiotics,  Antineoplastic Agents,  ATC:L01DB02Anthracyline - Antibiotics, Antineoplastic Agents, ATC:L01DB02

Daunorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction ... Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the ... antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor ...
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STREPTOZOTOCIN
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        Antibiotics,  Antineoplastic Agents,  ATC:L01AD04STREPTOZOTOCIN - Antibiotics, Antineoplastic Agents, ATC:L01AD04

Streptozocin is an antitumour antibiotic consisting of a nitrosourea moiety interposed between a methyl group and a glucosamine ...
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Precio augmentin 400 - Antibiotics/antineoplasticsPrecio augmentin 400 - Antibiotics/antineoplastics

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Bystolic side effects eyes - Antibiotics/antineoplasticsBystolic side effects eyes - Antibiotics/antineoplastics

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Antineoplastic antibiotic synonyms, antineoplastic antibiotic antonyms - FreeThesaurus.comAntineoplastic antibiotic synonyms, antineoplastic antibiotic antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com

Antonyms for antineoplastic antibiotic. 7 words related to antineoplastic antibiotic: antibiotic, antibiotic drug, ... antineoplastic, antineoplastic drug, cancer drug, Mithracin, mithramycin. What are synonyms for antineoplastic antibiotic? ... Words related to antineoplastic antibiotic. an antibiotic drug used as an antineoplastic in chemotherapy. Related Words. * ... antineoplastic antibiotic,type:0,children:[{name:antibiotic,type:4},{name:antibiotic drug,type:4},{name: ...
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Doxorubicin | drug | Britannica.comDoxorubicin | drug | Britannica.com

antineoplastic antibiotics. * In antineoplastic antibiotic. doxorubicin, daunorubicin, bleomycin, mitomycin, and dactinomycin, ...
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Doxorubicin and mitoxantrone Drug Interactions - Drugs.comDoxorubicin and mitoxantrone Drug Interactions - Drugs.com

The recommended maximum number of medicines in the antineoplastic antibiotics category to be taken concurrently is usually ...
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Antibiotics - Therapeutic ClassficationAntibiotics - Therapeutic Classfication

View list of generic drugs that are Therapeutically classified under Antibiotics. Find related prescribing information and ... antineoplastic antibiotic. Generic Name(S). Strength. Dosage Form. ICD Code. Plicamycin 2500 mcg. Injection. Y43.3. ... Antibiotics - Drugs. On Medindia find the complete list of Antibiotics drugs with their available forms and strength. More ... Bacteriostatic Antibiotic. Generic Name(S). Strength. Dosage Form. ICD Code. Fusidic acid 20mg/1gm, 2%/10gm. Cream, Ointment. ...
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Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Medication: Antineoplastics, Other, PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors, Corticosteroids, Antibiotics, Other,...Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Medication: Antineoplastics, Other, PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors, Corticosteroids, Antibiotics, Other,...

Antineoplastics, Other. Class Summary. Cancer chemotherapy is based on an understanding of tumoral cell growth and on how drugs ... Antibiotics, Other. Class Summary. Therapy should cover all likely pathogens in the context of this clinical setting. ... Antineoplastic agents interfere with cell reproduction. Some agents are cell cycle specific, whereas others (eg, alkylating ... Nystatin is a fungicidal and fungistatic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces noursei. It is effective against candidal ...
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Global Platinum Antineoplastics Market Highlights - 2015Global Platinum Antineoplastics Market Highlights - 2015

... , provides the global Platinum Antineoplastics market valuation, ... 2. Platinum Antineoplastics - Marketed Products. 3. Global Platinum Antineoplastics Market Size. 3a. Platinum Antineoplastics ... Table 4: Platinum Antineoplastics - Key Late Stage Pipeline, 2015. Figure 1: Global Platinum Antineoplastics Market Size ($), ... 6. Platinum Antineoplastics - Key Late Stage Pipeline. 7. Research Methodology. Table 1: Platinum Antineoplastics: Marketed ...
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Anthracycline drug targeting: cytoplasmic versus nuclear--a fork in the road.  - PubMed - NCBIAnthracycline drug targeting: cytoplasmic versus nuclear--a fork in the road. - PubMed - NCBI

Antibiotics, Antineoplastic. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. Other Literature Sources. *Cited ... The anthracycline antibiotics doxorubicin (Adriamycin; DOX) and daunorubicin (DNR) continue to be essential components of first ...
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9781401889258 - Essentials Of Pharmacology For Health | eCampus.com9781401889258 - Essentials Of Pharmacology For Health | eCampus.com

Antibiotic Antineoplastics. 222. (1). Hormone Therapy. 222. (1). Biological Response Modifiers. 223. (1). ...
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Pasireotide & Everolimus in Adult Patients With Radioiodine-Refractory Differentiated & Medullary Thyroid Cancer - Full Text...Pasireotide & Everolimus in Adult Patients With Radioiodine-Refractory Differentiated & Medullary Thyroid Cancer - Full Text...

Antineoplastic Agents. Immunosuppressive Agents. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Bacterial Agents. ... Antibiotics, Antineoplastic. Antifungal Agents. Hormones. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists. To Top ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01270321?term=sirolimus+cancer&recr=Open&rank=17

A Phase I, Open-label, Study of Pazopanib in Combination With Epirubicin or Doxorubicin for Advanced Solid Tumors - Full Text...A Phase I, Open-label, Study of Pazopanib in Combination With Epirubicin or Doxorubicin for Advanced Solid Tumors - Full Text...

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Induction Therapy Study in Live Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients With a Positive Crossmatch - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...Induction Therapy Study in Live Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients With a Positive Crossmatch - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...

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EpSSG (European Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study Group) Protocol for Non-Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma in Children - Full Text View -...EpSSG (European Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study Group) Protocol for Non-Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma in Children - Full Text View -...

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SERIES III RUN-IN Clinical Trial: A Comparison of the Supralimus® Stent With the Xience V™ Stent - Full Text View -...SERIES III RUN-IN Clinical Trial: A Comparison of the Supralimus® Stent With the Xience V™ Stent - Full Text View -...

Antineoplastic Agents. Immunosuppressive Agents. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Bacterial Agents. ...
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Epirubicin hydrochloride | definition of epirubicin hydrochloride by Medical dictionaryEpirubicin hydrochloride | definition of epirubicin hydrochloride by Medical dictionary

Therapeutic class: Antibiotic antineoplastic. Pregnancy risk category D. FDA Box Warning. • Extravasation during administration ... Be aware that drug may be given with antibiotics.. • Know that previous anthracycline use must be considered when determining ... An antibiotic that is an isomer of doxorubicin, used in the treatment of breast cancer. ... Refractory secondary leukemia is more common when such drugs are given in combination with DNA-damaging antineoplastics, when ...
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Epirubicin Intravenous, Injection Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.comEpirubicin Intravenous, Injection Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com

Drug class: antibiotics/antineoplastics. Consumer resources. *Epirubicin. Other brands: Ellence, Pharmorubicin PFS ... Epirubicin belongs to the group of medicines called antineoplastics. It interferes with the growth of cancer cells, which are ... with an increased risk of refractory cases in patients with concomitant DNA-damaging antineoplastic agent use, heavy ...
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Doxil - FDA prescribing information, side effects and usesDoxil - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

Drug class: antibiotics/antineoplastics. Consumer resources. *Doxorubicin. *Doxorubicin (Conventional). *Doxorubicin ...
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British Library EThOS: Development and pharmacology of mitomycin C albumin microspheres.British Library EThOS: Development and pharmacology of mitomycin C albumin microspheres.

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