Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.
A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. This plant should not be confused with microtubule asters (MICROTUBULES) nor with aster yellows phytoplasma (mycoplasma-like organisms).
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A small plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Compounds with 1,2-diphenylethane. They are structurally like reduced STILBENES.
Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.
A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Functions and activities of DENTITION as a whole.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.
A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.
Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.
The individuals employed by the hospital.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
The practice of administering medications in a manner that poses more risk than benefit, particularly where safer alternatives exist.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds with triple bonds to each side of a double bond. Many of these are CYTOTOXINS and are researched for use as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.

Daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in rat cardiac myocytes is inhibited by dexrazoxane. (1/4684)

-The clinical efficacy of anthracycline antineoplastic agents is limited by a high incidence of severe and usually irreversible cardiac toxicity, the cause of which remains controversial. In primary cultures of neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes, we found that daunorubicin, at concentrations /=10 micromol/L induced necrotic cell death within 24 hours, with no changes characteristic of apoptosis. To determine whether reactive oxygen species play a role in daunorubicin-mediated apoptosis, we monitored the generation of hydrogen peroxide with dichlorofluorescein (DCF). However, daunorubicin (1 micromol/L) did not increase DCF fluorescence, nor were the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or the combination of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid able to prevent apoptosis. In contrast, dexrazoxane (10 micromol/L), known clinically to limit anthracycline cardiac toxicity, prevented daunorubicin-induced myocyte apoptosis, but not necrosis induced by higher anthracycline concentrations (>/=10 micromol/L). The antiapoptotic action of dexrazoxane was mimicked by the superoxide-dismutase mimetic porphyrin manganese(II/III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-peridyl)porphyrin (50 micromol/L). The recognition that anthracycline-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis, perhaps mediated by superoxide anion generation, occurs at concentrations well below those that result in myocyte necrosis, may aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to limit the toxicity of these drugs.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (2/4684)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Novel selective inhibitors for human topoisomerase I, BM2419-1 and -2 derived from saintopin. (3/4684)

Compounds BM2419-1 and -2 were isolated from a culture broth of a fungus Paecilomyces sp. BM2419. It was shown that these novel compounds were artifacts derived from saintopin, a dual inhibitor of topoisomerase I and II by independent processes. In the human topoisomerase I inhibition assay using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BM2419-1 and -2 inhibited selectively the yeast growth dependent on human topoisomerase I induction with IC50 values of 0.3 ng/ml and 6.0 ng/ml, respectively.  (+info)

Apicularens A and B, new cytostatic macrolides from Chondromyces species (myxobacteria): production, physico-chemical and biological properties. (4/4684)

A novel macrolide, apicularen A, was produced by several species of the genus Chondromyces. Initially it was discovered by bioassay-guided RP-HPLC-fractionation of culture extracts of Chondromyces robustus, strain Cm a13. Apicularen A showed no antimicrobial activity, but was highly cytotoxic for cultivated human and animal cells, with IC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 3 ng/ml. A cometabolite of apicularen A, the N-acetylglucosamine glycoside apicularen B, was distinctly less cytotoxic with IC50 values between 0.2 and 1.2 microg/ml, and showed weak activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria. Apicularen A is chemically closely related to the salicylihalamides A and B from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.  (+info)

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (5/4684)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Diperamycin, a new antimicrobial antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities. (6/4684)

Antibacterial antibiotics, diperamycin (1) was produced in the culture broth of Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. Various spectroscopic analyses of 1 suggested that 1 belonged to a member of cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic. Antibiotic 1 had potent inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria including Enterococcus seriolicida and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  (+info)

Induction of MDR1 gene expression by anthracycline analogues in a human drug resistant leukaemia cell line. (7/4684)

The effects of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (idarubicin, IDA) and MX2, a new morpholino-anthracycline, on up-regulation of the MDR1 gene in the low-level multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line CEM/A7R were compared at similar concentrations (IC10, IC50 and IC90) over a short time exposure (4 and 24 h). The chemosensitivity of each drug was determined by a 3-day cell growth inhibition assay. Compared with epirubicin (EPI), IDA and MX2 were 17- and eightfold more effective in the CEM/A7R line respectively. No cross-resistance to 5-FU was seen in the CEM/A7R line. Verapamil (5 microM) and PSC 833 (1 microM), which dramatically reversed resistance to EPI in the CEM/A7R line, had no sensitizing effect on the resistance of this line to MX2, but slightly decreased resistance to IDA. The sensitivity to 5-FU was unchanged by these modulators. The induction of MDR1 mRNA expression by IDA, MX2 and 5-FU was analysed by Northern blotting and semiquantitatively assessed by scanning Northern blots on a phosphorimager. The relative level of MDR1 expression was expressed as a ratio of MDR1 mRNA to the internal RNA control glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). IDA, MX2 and 5-FU differentially up-regulated MDR1 mRNA in the CEM/A7R line in a dose-dependent manner. Both IDA and MX2 induced MDR1 expression within 4 h. 5-FU up-regulated MDR1 expression only when drug exposure was prolonged to 24 h. Based on MRK 16 binding, flow cytometric analysis of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression paralleled the increase in MDR1 mRNA levels. For the three anthracyclines, the increase in MDR1 expression was stable in cells grown in the absence of drug for more than 3 weeks after drug treatment. The induction of MDR1 expression by 5-FU was transient, associated with a rapid decrease in the increased Pgp levels which returned to baseline 72 h after the removal of 5-FU. This study demonstrates that MDR1 expression can be induced by analogues of anthracyclines not pumped by Pgp, and that this induction appears to be stable despite a 3-week drug-free period.  (+info)

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. (8/4684)

We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. Fostriecin was administered intravenously over 60 min on days 1-5 at 4-week intervals. Dose was escalated from 2 mg m(-2) day(-1) to 20 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 20 patients. Drug pharmacokinetics was analysed with high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection. Plasma collected during drug administration was tested in vitro for growth inhibition of a teniposide-resistant small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line. The predominant toxicities were elevated liver transaminases (maximum common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 4) and serum creatinine (maximum CTC grade 2). These showed only a limited increase with increasing doses, often recovered during drug administration and were fully reversible. Duration of elevated alanine-amino transferase (ALT) was dose-limiting in one patient at 20 mg m(-2). Other frequent toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea/vomiting, fever and mild fatigue. Mean fostriecin plasma half-life was 0.36 h (initial; 95% CI, 0-0.76 h) and 1.51 h (terminal; 95% CI, 0.41-2.61 h). A metabolite, most probably dephosphorylated fostriecin, was detected in plasma and urine. No tumour responses were observed, but the plasma concentrations reached in the patients were insufficient to induce significant growth inhibition in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been reached, because drug supply was stopped at the 20 mg m(-2) dose level. However, further escalation seems possible and is warranted to achieve potentially effective drug levels. Fostriecin has a short plasma half-life and longer duration of infusion should be considered.  (+info)

Looking for Antitumour antibiotic? Find out information about Antitumour antibiotic. any one of a group of synthetic or natural substances used in the treatment of malignant tumors. Antineoplastics include alkylating agents , antimetabolites... Explanation of Antitumour antibiotic
Synonyms for Anticancer antibiotic in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Anticancer antibiotic. 5 synonyms for antineoplastic: antineoplastic drug, cancer drug, anticancer, antitumor, antitumour. What are synonyms for Anticancer antibiotic?
Anticancer antibiotics, like chromomycinA3, mithramycin, and daunomycin, inhibit replication and transcription via reversible association with DNA. In eukaryotes the nuclear DNA is associated with different proteins in chromatin, the transcription
Synonyms for antineoplastic antibiotic in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for antineoplastic antibiotic. 7 words related to antineoplastic antibiotic: antibiotic, antibiotic drug, antineoplastic, antineoplastic drug, cancer drug, Mithracin, mithramycin. What are synonyms for antineoplastic antibiotic?
KOHNO Jun , ASAI Yasuyuki , NISHIO Maki , SAKURAI Masaaki , KAWANO Kimio , HIRAMATSU Hajime , KAMEDA Noriaki , KISHI Noboru , OKUDA Toru , KOMATSUBARA Saburo Journal of antibiotics 52(12), 1114-1123, 1999-12-25 参考文献6件 被引用文献2件 ...
Figure 4. Bland-Altman analysis for intra-observer and inter-observer reliability.. Discussion. Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin and epirubicin, have been used extensively and continue to be some of the most active cytotoxic agents available to treat a wide spectrum of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including acute myeloid, lymphoid leukemia, lymphoma and breast cancer. As a result of advances in the treatment of cancers, the number of survivors will fortunately continue to increase.. Unfortunately, despite their success in treating cancer, anthracyclines are limited by their serious toxic effects on the myocardium. Life altering cardiac sequelae from anthracyclines remain a problem, with a range of 5-23% of patients developing late-onset heart failure secondary to anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity [10]. Reliable, sensitive and non-invasive method in detecting cardiac function is of vital importance during anthracycline administration.. Strain is a dimensionless parameter ...
Nakamori S, Jang J, Tschabrunn CM, Pierce P, Goddu B, Rodriguez J, Ngo LH, Tung NM, Manning WJ, Nezafat R. Noncontrast CMR for Detecting Early Myocardial Tissue Injury in a Swine Model of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiotoxicity. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2019 10; 12(10):2085-2087 ...
Alterations in Doppler derived diastolic filling characteristics in anthracycline treated children have been reported previously. Some have described frequent abnormalities,5 with numerically small changes, directionally variable and not confined to those receiving anthracyclines. Others have not been able to detect any differences from controls,2 neither at rest nor during dobutamine stress testing. All but one of these studies of diastolic function in anthracycline treated children has included a variety of different diagnostic groups receiving various anthracycline schedules. Rammeloo and colleagues2 studied children with ALL only, but found no indices of diastolic dysfunction. However, anthracycline doses were low (100 mg/mg2).. Restrictive LV filling has been proposed as a consequence of chronic progressive myocardial anthracycline induced damage, but our observations in patients treated with moderate anthracycline doses and a follow up interval of 10-11 years, would question this ...
New data analyses found no association between anthracycline chemotherapy and greater risk of cognitive decline in breast cancer survivors, according to an article published online by JAMA Oncology.
We investigated in vivo the chemotherapeutic anthracycline agents doxorubicin and its ability to activate mitochondrial-mediated, receptor-mediated and endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis transduction pathways in cardiac tissue from male and female rats. We administered a single low dose of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) and then isolated mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins one and four days later from the heart. Caspase-3 protein content and caspase-3 activity were significantly increased after day four of doxorubicin treatment in both male and female rats. However, while males had DNA fragmentation at day one but not day four following doxorubicin administration, females showed no significant increase in DNA fragmentation at either time. Caspase-12, localized in the SR, is considered a central caspase, and its activation by cleavage via calpain indicates activation of the SR-mediated pathway of apoptosis. Cleaved caspase-12 content and calpain activity significantly
|strong|Resveratrol enhances the sensitivity of doxorubicin-mediated cell proliferation invasion and migration in human breast cancer cell lines.|/stron ...
The efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin for treating Kaposis sarcoma (KS) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied. Eight men with HIV infection and KS were to be given liposomal doxorubicin 20 mg/sq m i.v. monthly for six months and 10 mg/sq m i.v. monthly thereafter, depending on the response. They were assessed for the onset, extent, and duration of clinical response; relapse; adverse effects; development of new opportunistic infections; quality of life; and survival. Five patients had a clinical complete response (i.e., complete resolution of the manifestations of KS, as determined by physical examination but not confirmed by biopsy) and three patients had a partial response to the induction regimen of liposomal doxorubicin. Relapse occurred in all patients in whom therapy was stopped; reinstatement of therapy elicited a partial response. Neutropenia occurred in two patients; filgrastim therapy enabled the liposomal doxorubicin therapy to continue uninterrupted.
Perceived resource constraints within the Canadian health care system might threaten adoption of pharmacogenomic testing. We therefore propose prioritizing serious ADRs where delays in access to tests put patients at risk of devastating consequences that also represent substantial cost burdens on the health care system. Pharmacogenomic testing for serious ADRs also holds the most promise for cost effectiveness. We have shown that cost savings associated with the prevention of one such ADR, anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity, are predicted to outweigh the costs of testing.20 Specifically, severe cases of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity cost more than $1 million owing to the need for heart transplants,20 and incorporation of pharmacogenomic testing is estimated to save $495 per patient, representing a 5.7% reduction in costs associated with anthracycline-based cancer treatment.20. Several parameters must be optimized to improve access for our proposed approach to pharmacogenomic testing, ...
Detection of dose response in chronic doxorubicin-mediated cell death with cardiac technetium 99m annexin V single-photon emission computed tomography. Mol Imaging. 2008 May-Jun; 7(3):132-8 ...
In the present study, we explored sexual dimorphism of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and energetic and signaling pathways that could be involved in these differences. Two clinically relevant cumulative doses of doxorubicin, either 14 mg/kg after 7 injections or 8 mg/kg after 4 injections were administrated to investigate sex differences in the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin treatment resulted in sex differences characterized in males by (1) important weight loss and decrease in survival rate, (2) strong alterations of myocardial function, (3) decrease in energy signaling pathways, (4) downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, (5) decrease in cardiolipin content, (6) decrease in mitochondrial DNA content, and (7) and alteration of mitochondrial respiration. No sex differences were found for the oxidative stress response or for death markers, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial protein expression were associated with early cardiotoxicity in males.. Several clinical ...
Preclinical studies have reported that a single treadmill session performed 24h prior to doxorubicin provides cardio-protection. We aimed to characterize the acute change in cardiac function following an initial doxorubicin treatment in humans and determine whether an exercise session performed 24h prior to treatment changes this response. Breast cancer patients were randomized to either 30min of vigorous-intensity exercise 24h prior to the first doxorubicin treatment (n=13), or no vigorous exercise for 72h prior to treatment (control, n=11). Echocardiographically-derived left ventricular volumes, longitudinal strain, twist, E/A ratio, and circulating NT-proBNP, a marker of later cardiotoxicity, were measured before and 24-48h after the treatment. Following treatment in the control group, NT-proBNP, end-diastolic and stroke volumes, cardiac output, E/A ratio, strain, diastolic strain rate, twist, and untwist velocity significantly increased (all p≤0.01). Whereas systemic vascular resistance ...
Doxorubicin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of many types of cancer. Little is known about the interactions of doxorubicin with cardiac biomolecules. Serious cardiotoxicity including dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting in a fatal congestive heart failure may occur as a consequence of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to doxorubicin on the changes in major amino acids in tissue of cardiac muscle (proline, taurine, glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, leucine, glycine, valine, alanine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine and serine). An in vitro interaction study was performed as a comparison of amino acid profiles in heart tissue before and after application of doxorubicin. We found that doxorubicin directly influences myocardial amino acid representation even at low concentrations. In addition, we performed an interaction study that resulted in the determination of breaking points for each of analyzed amino acids.
Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of Galangin on Doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.. Methods: Albino rats used in this experiment were pretreated with vehicle, Galangin (100 & 200µg/kg) and Vit-C (20 mg/kg) for 28 days. On 25th day, a single dose of Doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, i. p) was administered to groups. After 72 h of Doxorubicin administration, ECG, serum and tissues biomarkers were evaluated. Histopathological examination of the heart was performed.. Results: Doxorubicin treated rats exhibited abnormal ECG pattern followed by significant increase in CK-MB, LDH, SGOT, SGPT and LPO level and decrease in GSH, CAT, TT when compared to control rats. Pretreatment with different doses of Galangin and Vit-C significantly reduced the serum biomarkers and increased the tissue antioxidant level when compared to Doxorubicin alone treated groups. Moreover, pretreatment also improved Doxorubicin induced changes in ECG pattern and ...
The ability of anthracycline drugs to trap topo II cleavage complexes is thought to be important for the biological properties of these clinically relevant drugs. However, anthracyclines differ from other topo poisons in that topo II targeting is only one of the several mechanistic facets by which these agents inactivate cancer cells. Therefore, anthracycline-induced DNA lesions may originate not only from topo II targeting but also from other mechanisms. Trapping of topo II cleavage complexes is expected to increase the fraction of DNA that is covalently linked to topo II molecules (topo II-mediated DNA-protein cross-links). However, some studies reported a marginal or insignificant induction of DNA-protein cross-links by doxorubicin in cancer cells (19, 20). Despite these and other ambiguities, the role of topo II targeting in the antiproliferative effects of anthracycline drugs is widely accepted. This report attempts to better define this role by (a) quantifying the ability of several ...
The characterization of cells that have survived treatment with Adriamycin (MCF-7A), FUdR (MCF-7F), or cells that were subjected to sequential treatment with Adriamycin and FUdR (MCF-7 A/F) was performed to determine whether populations of cells surviving these treatments present different phenotypes than parental, untreated MCF-7 cells. Cells were treated with several concentrations of each of the chemotherapeutic agents. Cell populations from cultures treated with the highest concentrations of Adriamycin or FUdR, still containing viable cells after the period of treatment, were selected. The survivors of the initial Adriamycin treatment were those that remained alive after 5 days of Adriamycin treatment at a concentration of 25 ng/ml, and the survivors of the FUdR treatment were those that survived 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 10 μg/ml of FUdR. These were the highest concentrations in which cells survived, under the conditions used. The MCF-7 A/F cells were developed by treating ...
One major barrier to the eradication of DLBCL with anthracycline-based chemotherapy is the ability of certain lymphomas to exhibit resistance to these drugs. Anthracycline resistance may be intrinsic or acquired and may occur through multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms may be classified in two major groups: (i) decreased drug accumulation and/or increased drug inactivation, for example, via upregulation of the MDR/TAP (multidrug resistance/antigen peptide transporter) genes; this mechanism has been characterized in cell and animal models but its relevance to clinical resistance remains unclear in most tumor types (46-49) and (ii) biologic mechanisms that prevent cell death from occurring after anthracycline-induced damage. Accumulating evidence indicates that the capacity of most cancers to resist the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy is more closely connected to genetic and epigenetic abnormalities that affect critical cell-cycle checkpoint and cell death pathways than to specific mechanisms ...
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A new study shows that the common chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin disrupts the immune system as well as the function of the heart and spleen.
Doxorubicin HCL Pharmachemie is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Doxorubicin HCL Pharmachemie is available on the website.
Doxorubicin Pliva is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Doxorubicin Pliva is available on the website.
Page contains details about example of doxorubicin comprising stable nanocomposition . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
Page contains details about example of doxorubicin comprising stable nanocomposition . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
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Doxorubicin is a highly effective first-line chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of a broad range of solid and hematological tumors. Though effective, the use of Doxorubicin in cancer therapy has been hindered by ...
Looking for online definition of cytotoxic antibiotics in the Medical Dictionary? cytotoxic antibiotics explanation free. What is cytotoxic antibiotics? Meaning of cytotoxic antibiotics medical term. What does cytotoxic antibiotics mean?
Cardiomyopathy is a clinical problem that occurs in the hearts of type 2 diabetic patients as well as cancer patients undergoing doxorubicin chemotherapy. The number of diabetic cancer patients is increasing but surprisingly the cardiac damaging effects of doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug, on diabetic hearts have not been well-examined. As the signaling mechanisms of the doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetic heart are largely unknown, this study examined the molecular signaling pathways that are responsible for the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in type 2 diabetic hearts. Male 14- to 18-week-old db/db mice were used as the type 2 diabetic model, and age-matched non-diabetic db/+ mice served as controls. The db/+ non-diabetic and db/db diabetic mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: db/+CON, db/+DOX-5d, db/+DOX-7d, db/dbCON, db/dbDOX-5d, and db/dbDOX-7d. Mice assigned to doxorubicin (DOX) group were exposed to an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of DOX
Get natural cures for Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy that can make a difference in your life or the life of someone you love with alternative treatments.
Anthracyclines are among the most effective chemotherapy treatments available for various types of cancer. However, there is a risk of damage to the heart (cardiotoxicity) depending on the cumulative dose. Certain drugs might prevent this damage, but for many of these drugs, the review authors found no high quality evidence about whether they were effective in protecting the heart and they were unable to draw conclusions. For dexrazoxane, the review authors found 10 studies enrolling over 1600 patients. These studies provided evidence that dexrazoxane prevented heart damage without interfering with the anti-tumour effects of anthracycline treatment. Patients who got dexrazoxane with their anthracycline treatment had about one third of the risk of heart failure compared to patients who got anthracyclines without dexrazoxane. Dexrazoxane had no effect on survival. We cant be sure about whether it had any undesirable side effects.. ...
Results Doxorubicin decreased calpain activities in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and in vivomouse hearts, which correlated with down-regulation of calpain-1 and calpain-2 proteins. Over-expression of calpastatin or treatment with pharmacological calpain inhibitors aggravated apoptosis in neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes caused by doxorubicin. On the while, over-expression of calpain-2 but not calpain-1 decreased doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. The pro-apoptotic effects of calpain inhibition were concerned with down-regulation of AKT protein and mRNA expression, and a concomitant reduction in GSK-3 beta phosphorylation (Ser9) in doxorubicin-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibiting AKT further increased doxorubicin-induced cardiac injuries, suggesting the effects of calpain inhibition may be mediated through inactivating the AKT signalling. In an in vivomodel of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, overexpression of calpastatin aggravated myocardial dysfunction in transgenic ...
Anthracyclines such as, doxorubicin (DOX) are an effective class of antineoplastic agents. Despite its efficacy in the treatment of a variety of cancers including breast cancer, the clinical use of DOX is limited by cardiac side effects. While it has been shown that DOX alters myocardial fatty acid metabolism, it is poorly understood whether variations in myocardial triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism contribute to DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Since TG catabolism in the heart is primarily controlled by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), this study examined the influence of DOX on cardiac ATGL expression and TG levels as well as the consequence of forced-expression of ATGL in the setting of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. To do this, wild type (WT) mice and mice with cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL over-expression (MHC-ATGL) received weekly intraperitoneal injections of saline or DOX (8mg/kg) for four weeks. Heart rate, heart weight to tibia length ratio and DOX-induced body weight loss were comparable ...
I have read the article by Cardinale and colleagues1 with great interest and congratulate the authors for the completion of a burdensome work and the excellent presentation of their results. As the authors have correctly stated, early preclinical cardiac injury should be looked for soon after anthracycline treatment to effectively treat this disorder from its onset, before its overt clinical expression. However, I would like to point out one aspect that needs further clarification. The authors have reported that the overall incidence of cardiotoxicity is 9%. Previous researches have reported that anthracycline promotes cancer cell death via regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6)-mediated activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated serine/threonine protein kinase and the resultant upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, leading to an apoptosis pathway underlying its cytotoxic activity. The ability of RGS6 to promote p53 activation in response to anthracycline is independent of RGS6 interaction ...
The optimal cardiac toxicity prevention strategy for doxorubicin would include an agent that improves the efficacy of the doxorubicin-based cancer therapy and prevents cardiac toxicity. In our experiments, pretreatment with GGA blocked doxorubicin cardiac toxicity by maintaining systolic function and decreasing cell death in the heart. Most remarkably, GGA also contributed to doxorubicins chemotherapy efficacy in MDA-MB-231 xenografts in parallel with protecting the heart. GGAs antineoplastic effect is likely due to its inhibition of RHO family proteins in both the heart and cancer cells, and we selected MDA-MB-231 for these experiments because of the endogenous high RHO activity in these cells. Because GGA has been used in Japan since 1984 to prevent stomach ulcers and has a long history of safety and lack of adverse effects, we suggest that this novel approach to prevention of doxorubicin toxicity should be further investigated.. By comparison, dexrazoxane, an iron chelator used to reduce ...
Recent studies have shown that the toxic heart effects of anthracycline therapy can have lasting effects on childrens health. Dr. Stephen Lipshulz, a pediatric cancer specialist at the University of Miami, said childhood cancer survivors may be at significant risk of serious cardiovascular problems at a much younger age, than researchers believed a few years ago ...
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Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antineoplastic agent used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Unfortunately, its use is limited as this drug induces cardiotoxicity and heart failure as a side effect. There is no report that describes whether
Doxorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. Doxorubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. Doxorubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. The anthracyclines are cell cycle-nonspecific ...
Age, Anthracycline Dose, Hypertension Contribute to Higher CVD Risk in HCT Recipients - Blood Advances in a Different Vein, From the Blood Journals, News - ASH Clinical News
Introduction: Protection of the heart from chemotherapeutic (Doxorubicin, DOX) drug-induced toxicity is a desirable goal, to limit side effects of cancer treatments. DOX toxicity has been linked to the activation (phosphorylation) of the AMP-activated kinase, AMPK. The 18 kDa low molecular weight isoform of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Lo-FGF-2) is a known cardioprotective and cytoprotective agent. In this study we have tested the ability of Lo-FGF-2 to protect from DOX-induced damage in rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, and in transgenic mouse models in vivo, in relation to AMPK activation.. Methods: Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in culture were exposed to DOX (0.5 μM) in the presence or absence of pre-treatment Lo-FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). Compound C was used to block phosphorylation (activity) of AMPK. Levels of cell viability/death (using Calcein-AM/Propidium iodide assay), phospho -and total AMPK, and apoptotic markers such as active caspase 3 were analyzed. In addition, transgenic mice expressing only ...
1.Sánchez G, Cervantes G y Maldonado J. Linfomas No Hodgkin. Med Int Mex 2004; 20: 111-23. 2.Estrada D, Rajdev L and Sparado J. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin. Emedicine. Last Updated: June 24, 2004. 3.Ng R, Better N, Green MD. Anticancer agents and cardiotoxicity. Semin Oncol. 2006; 33 (1): 2-14. 4.Youssef G, Links M. The prevention and management of cardiovascular complications of chemotherapy in patients with cancer. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2005; 5 (4): 233-43. 5.Pasca A, Pereiro G, Mansilla S y Lastiri H. Toxicidad miocardiaca por antraciclinas. Rev Fed Arg Cardiol 2000; 29:319-325. 6.Suter T and Meier B. Detection of anthracycline- induced cardiotoxicity: is there light at the end of the tunnel?. Editorial. Annals of Oncology. 2002; 13: 647-649. 7.Cvetkovic RS, Scott LJ. Dexrazoxane a review of its use for cardioprotection during anthracycline chemotherapy. Drugs. 2005; 65 (7): 1005-24. 8.Gianni L, Haerman E, Lipshultz S, Minotti G, sarvazyan N and Sawyer D.Anthracycline Cardiotoxicity: From Bench ...
The CC-1065 and duocarmycin family of compounds are ultrapotent antitumour antibiotics which demonstrate activity in the picomolar range. These agents exert their biological effect through a sequence selective alkylation at the N3 position of adenine resulting in apoptosis. Despite the potential of this family to exert themselves as successful chemotherapeutic agents, a lack of clinical success has been observed for these compounds. This has been attributed to a lack of selectivity resulting in off-target side effects and toxicity. For this reason, research now focuses on ways in which these alkylating agents could realise their potential using tumour specific, targeted delivery strategies.. Herein, we investigate the use of a duocarmycin SA analogue, functionalised for solid phasesynthesis, in the design of conjugates for targeted delivery to cancerous tissue via the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T-antigen). This antigen is overexpressed in 90% of primary human carcinomas, yet is cryptic in ...
DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Diagnosis of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer High likelihood of anthracycline resistance due to prior anthracycline exposure in the adjuvant or metastatic setting Prior anthraquinone (e.g., mitoxantrone) insufficient Prior cumulative anthracycline dose limited to doxorubicin-equivalent 350 mg/m2 by IV bolus or 450 mg/m2 by prolonged (at least 48 hours) infusion Measurable or evaluable disease Brain metastases treated by prior surgery and/or radiotherapy allowed if neurologic status stable 2 weeks after discontinuation of dexamethasone Hormone receptor status: Not specified. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Age: 18 and over Sex: Male or female Menopausal status: Not specified Performance status: Zubrod 0-2 Life expectancy: At least 12 weeks Hematopoietic: Absolute granulocyte count greater than 1,500/mm3 Platelet count greater than 100,000/mm3 Hepatic: Bilirubin no greater than 1.5 mg/dL Renal: Creatinine no greater than 1.5 mg/dL Cardiovascular: No history of heart ...
In the current issue of ONCOLOGY, Hershman and Shao provide a comprehensive review of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Risk factors for AIC include age (??18 or ??65 years) at time of treatment, increasing cumulative dose or dose intensity of anthracyclines, mediastinal radiation therapy (RT), and female gender.[1-4] The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database showed […]. ...
Researchers used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to identify specific markers of doxorubicin-induced side effects during breast cancer treatment, finding a way to block these negative effects and improve efficacy at the same time.
In cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), there is a greater risk of symptomatic heart failure in the first year following initiation of anthracycline treatment.
Cardiotoxicity is a condition when there is damage to the heart muscle. It may be caused by chemotherapy drugs or medications concerning other diseases. As a result of cardiotoxicity, the heart becomes weaker and is unable to pump blood throughout the body.. DelveInsights Cardiotoxicity Market Insights, Epidemiology, and Market Forecast-2030″ report delivers an in-depth understanding of the Cardiotoxicity, historical and forecasted epidemiology as well as the Cardiotoxicity market trends in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France, and United Kingdom) and Japan.. Some Key Highlights from the Cardiotoxicity Market Report:. ...
Cardiotoxicity is a condition when there is damage to the heart muscle. It may be caused by chemotherapy drugs or medications concerning other diseases. As a result of cardiotoxicity, the heart becomes weaker and is unable to pump blood throughout the body.. DelveInsights Cardiotoxicity Market Insights, Epidemiology, and Market Forecast-2030″ report delivers an in-depth understanding of the Cardiotoxicity, historical and forecasted epidemiology as well as the Cardiotoxicity market trends in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France, and United Kingdom) and Japan.. Some Key Highlights from the Cardiotoxicity Market Report:. ...
Septacin, a new antitumor and antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fimbriatus Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1963, 83-88, ...
The purpose of this study is to find the answers to the following research question(s):. 1. Is the study drug equivalent to the approved drug, Doxil/Caelyx, and does it act the same way in the body as the approved drug?. ATI-0918 is believed to be a generic of Doxil/Caelyx and this is what the study is trying to prove. All people who participate in this study will receive the research study medication (ATI-0918) and Doxil/Caelyx in addition to best supportive care (treatment for symptoms).. The study drug being tested in this study works the same as the FDA (government) approved drug doxorubicin HCl. ATI-0918 is a generic (the same) formulation of doxorubicin HCl being delivered (given to the patient). ...
Cancer continues to be a leading cause death in the United States despite improved treatments. Cancerous lesions form after acquiring oncogenic driver mutations or losing tumor suppressor function in normal cells. Traditional therapies have included use of genotoxic substances that take advantage of the increased growth rate and loss of tumor suppressor function to cause cell death. One such drug is the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOX). DOX interchelates into DNA and disrupts transcriptional machinery while also poisoning topoisomerase II. This results in single and double stranded DNA breaks, which if severe enough leads to either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. DOX has been very effective at treating several different cancers and is still widely used today however its clinical use is limited due to cumulative dose dependent cardiotoxicity. Therefore, combination therapy targeting survival pathways is utilized to minimize the cumulative dose of DOX without ameliorating its anti-tumor
Shed vesicles isolated from MCF7-conditioned media were found to passively accumulate and retain doxorubicin, suggesting that simple thermodynamic binding interactions may explain the accumulation of drug in shed vesicles. Incubating isolated vesicle preparations with different doxorubicin concentrations allows the monitoring of passive affinity for drug with shed vesicles (Fig. 4C) ⇓ . To explore the mechanism of doxorubicin sequestration in shed vesicles, we probed the nature of the binding interaction biochemically (Fig. 4D) ⇓ . Doxorubicin could not be released from vesicles by incubation with hypotonic media (double-distilled H2O), suggesting that the drug is sequestered in an osmotically insensitive compartment. Treatment with high salt (2 M NaCl) and with proteinase K released less than 20% of drug. Nevertheless, 80-100% of bound drug was released by treatment with methanol, ethanol, acetone, dimethyl formamide, or 1% SDS. Treatment with low concentrations of nonionic detergent ...
Doxorubicin - Get up-to-date information on Doxorubicin side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Doxorubicin
Anthracyclines are the most effective anticancer drugs with broad cancer spectrum. They demonstrate strong anticancer efficacy in vitro but are less effective in vivo during treatment of brain cancer...
Anthracyclines (such as doxorubicin) are very important (effective) agents for the treatment of lymphomas, however the use of anthracyclines increases the risk of damage to the heart (cardio toxicity. The risk of cardio toxicity is greater for the elderly and pediatric patients, and in persons with preexisting heart issues. The risk is also related to the cumulative dose of the anthracycline drug, and possibly the rate of administration - how fast it is given.. ...
Aim: To research whether myosin light string kinase (MLCK) contributed towards the high proliferative capability of Rabbit polyclonal to Myocardin. breast tumor cells. analyzed using stream cytometry Annexin and analysis V-FITC fluorescence microscopy. Outcomes: The breasts tumor LM-MCF-7 cell range with high metastasis potential (a metastitic sub-clone of MCF-7) got higher anti-apoptosis capability in accordance with MCF-7 cells in response to adriamycin treatment (apoptosis price: 6.76% 28.58% participates along the way resulting in caspase-9 activation accompanied by activation of caspase-3. Cells are constantly necessary to integrate exterior tension indicators and therefore decide cell fates to perish or survive on a continuing basis. These destiny decisions are created by an array of signaling pathways that are managed by kinases. The mitogen-activated proteins kinases (MAPKs) will be the category of kinases that transduce indicators through the cell membrane towards the nucleus in ...
Daunorubicin (DNR) and doxorubicin (DOX) are two of the most effective anthracycline drugs known for the treatment of systemic neoplasms and solid tumors. However, their clinical use is hampered due to profound cardiotoxicity ...
Evidence-based information on doxorubicin from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. Make better, quicker, evidence based decisions. Evidence search provides access to selected and authoritative evidence in health, social care and public health.
Evidence-based information on doxorubicin from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. Make better, quicker, evidence based decisions. Evidence search provides access to selected and authoritative evidence in health, social care and public health.
Caelyx Caelyx on kontsentraat, millest valmistatakse infusioonilahus (veeni tilgutatav lahus). Caelyx Kokkuvõte üldsusele Caelyx
Antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces verticillus; anticancer agent; induces DNA strand breaks and inhibits DNA synthesis. Linnert, M., Gehl, J., Bleomycin treatment of brain tumors:
The wide spectrum of anthracycline activity as well as the unique cumulative dose related cardiac toxicity pose a significant clinical challenge. These drugs, particularly doxorubicin (AdriamycinR),...
Generic name Bleomycin Pronunciation blee-oh-MY-sin Brand name(s), other common name(s) Blenoxane® Drug type Antitumor antibiotic How the drug is given
If you do not receive a response to your e-mail within 2 hours and you need information immediately, call us at 1-800-387-0620 ...
Biological properties of streptonigrin derivatives. III. In vitro and in vivo antiviral and antitumor activities.:III. ,i,IN VITRO,/i, AND ,i,IN VIVO,/i, ANTIVIRAL AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITIES (1989 ...
Cellular uptakes of ATF-HSA:DOX (5 μM), HSA:DOX (5 μM), and DOX (5 μM) in H1299 cells and HELF cells after incubation for different time periods.Notes: The
Bleomycin- ಉಪಯೋಗಗಳು, ಡೋಸೇಜ್, ಅಡ್ಡ ಪರಿಣಾಮಗಳು, ಪ್ರಯೋಜನಗಳು, ಪರಸ್ಪರ ಕ್ರಿಯೆ ಎಚ್ಚರಿಕೆಗಳನ್ನು ಕಂಡುಹಿಡಿಯಿರಿ
lonchophylloid A: reverses resistance to doxorubicin in cancer cells; isolated from Ephemerantha lonchophylla; structure in first source
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... an antitumor antibiotic. CEPP (B): an effective and well-tolerated regimen in poor-risk, aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; (P)rednisone or (P)rednisolone - a glucocorticoid hormone that has the ability to cause ... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; (E)toposide - a topoisomerase inhibitor from the epipodophyllotoxin group; (P)rocarbazine ...
An analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Pirarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with ...
It is an antineoplastic antibiotic and an intercalating agent. Becatecarin (BMS-181176) is a synthetic analog of rebeccamycin. ... a new antitumor antibiotic from nocardia aerocoligenes": D. E. Nettleton, et al.; Tetrahedron Letters 34, 4011 (1985) ...
... (INN, also known as mithramycin; trade name Mithracin) is an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ... Majee, Sangita; Chakrabarti, Abhijit (1999). "Membrane interaction of an antitumor antibiotic, mithramycin, with anionic ...
Bleomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic drug isolated in 1966 from the actinomycete Streptomyces verticillus. Bleomycin forms ...
"The Toxicologic Evaluation of Marcellomycin-An Antineoplastic Anthracycline Antibiotic". Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 6 (1): ... Most of those components are antitumor agents and anthracycline antibiotics active against Gram-positive bacteria. Bohemic acid ... Chromatographical separation, in addition to the antibiotics pyrromycin and cinerubin A and B, reveals several individual ... The suffix -mycin is conventionally added to indicate antibiotics derived from actinobacteria or fungi. The individual ...
... resulting in antibiotic resistance. Furthermore there is mounting concern over the abuse of antibiotics in the farming of ... Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a ... there is a possibility that they might replace novel antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance Fecal bacteriotherapy Mass drug ... Bacteria are capable of not only altering the enzyme targeted by antibiotics, but also by the use of enzymes to modify the ...
Broad categories of medications associated with toxic effects on nerves include: antineoplastic agents, antibiotics, ... While antibiotics are effective at eradicating the bacterium, neurological sequelae of infection must be treated with ... While commonly self-limiting, treatment with antibiotics may hasten resolution of symptoms. Diphtheria, a once common childhood ...
The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is iatrogenic as well. Bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics have ... Alkylating antineoplastic agents, for example, cause DNA damage, which is more harmful to cancer cells than regular cells. ... Antiseptics, anesthesia, antibiotics, better surgical techniques, evidence-based protocols and best practices continue to be ... Finland M (1979). "Emergence of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, 1935-1975". Rev. Infect. Dis. 1 (1): 4-22. doi:10.1093/ ...
Antibiotics are widely produced and consumed to treat bacterial and fungal diseases. Since antibiotics are only partially ... Antineoplastic drugs are employed during chemotherapy all over the world. They pollute water courses and have 'mutagenic, ... There is an urgent push to eradicate antibiotics from the environment because they could cause a generation of antibiotics ... Antibiotics were found to reduce growth in algae, aquatic plants and environmental bacteria. Drug pollution still reminds to be ...
A recent study has shown that the anthraquinone component of lac dye also possess antineoplastic or anticancer effects. It is ... including antibiotic, antiviral, antifeedant effect. ... 2016). "Lac dye as a potential anti-neoplastic agent". Journal ...
A noteworthy counterexample, however, includes the antineoplastic antibiotic chloramphenicol, which successfully inhibits ... The same of mitochondria cannot be said of chloroplasts, where antibiotic resistance in ribosomal proteins is a trait to be ... Due to the differences in their structures, the bacterial 70S ribosomes are vulnerable to these antibiotics while the ... The differences in structure allow some antibiotics to kill bacteria by inhibiting their ribosomes, while leaving human ...
Prophylactic antibiotics are considered to prevent urinary tract infections as those with NBS often have congenital kidney ... In the treatment of malignancies, radiation therapy, alkylating antineoplastic agents, and epipodophyllotoxins are not used, ...
They are also used to monitor smog and fly ash, and identify effective antibiotics to counter bacterial infections. "Get into a ... and monitoring for possible toxicity of AZT and antineoplastic drugs in patients. Nobel prize winner Robert H. Grubbs uses them ...
Antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, and a variety of CNS-active drugs, especially neuropeptides, are a few examples of ...
... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; Hydroxydaunorubicin, also known as doxorubicin: an anthracycline antibiotic that is able to ... This regimen requires the use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent infectious complications, as well as the use of colony- ...
Plicamycin, an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces plicatus, and Withaferin A, a steroidal lactone from Withania ...
The classes of medications that are known to cause diarrhea are laxatives, antacids, heartburn medications, antibiotics, anti- ... Antibiotics can also cause diarrhea, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea is the most common adverse effect of treatment with ... In resource-poor countries, treatment with antibiotics may be beneficial. However, some bacteria are developing antibiotic ... Antibiotics, while rarely used, may be recommended in a few cases such as those who have bloody diarrhea and a high fever, ...
... is a naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic and antibiotic properties deriving from ...
Bizelesin is antineoplastic antibiotic which binds to the minor groove of DNA and induces interstrand cross-linking of DNA, ... a new antitumor antibiotic from Streptomyces". The Journal of Antibiotics. 41 (12): 1915-7. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.41.1915. ... They are notable for their extreme cytotoxicity and thus represent a class of exceptionally potent antitumour antibiotics. As ... represent a new class of highly potent antineoplastic compounds. The work of Dale L. Boger and others created a better ...
Are the levels of antibiotics in the aquatic environment sufficient to promote antibiotic resistance? What is the effect of ... antineoplastics, and diagnostic contrast media.[2] Personal care products have four classes: fragrances, preservatives, ... Moreover, antibiotic resistant bacteria may also remain in sewage sludge and enter the food chain if the sludge is not ... It has also been proven that at even sub-inhibitory concentrations (e.g., one-fourth of the MIC), several antibiotics are able ...
Bush, Karen (December 2010). "The coming of age of antibiotics: discovery and therapeutic value: Origins of antibiotic drug ... Chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and use as an antineoplastic agent". Pharmacotherapy. 4 (2): 61-73. ... cause streptomyces to produce antibiotics. Quinolones are amongst the most commonly used antibiotics for bacterial infections ... These antibiotics are further divided into two group: actinomycin A and actinomycin B. It was shown that both actinomycin A and ...
... is a polyamide-antibiotic, which acts as a minor groove binder, binding to the small furrow of the double helix. ... Derivates from distamycin are used as alkylating antineoplastic agents to combat tumours. Derivates with fluorophores are used ... Distamycin is a pyrrole-amidine antibiotic and analogous to netropsin and the class of lexitropsins. As opposed to netropsin, ...
... antineoplastic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248.025 - angiogenesis inhibitors MeSH D27.505.954.248.106 - antibiotics, antineoplastic ... antineoplastic agents, alkylating MeSH D27.505.954.248.169 - antineoplastic agents, hormonal MeSH D27.505.954.248.179 - ... MeSH D27.505.519.124 - alkylating agents MeSH D27.505.519.124.035 - antineoplastic agents, alkylating MeSH D27.505.519.155 - ... antibiotics, antifungal MeSH D27.505.954.122.187 - anti-infective agents, local MeSH D27.505.954.122.237 - anti-infective ...
... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.319.162.150 - antibiotic prophylaxis MeSH E02.319.300.253 - delayed- ... antibiotic prophylaxis MeSH E02.319.913.500 - hirudin therapy MeSH E02.365.647.110 - cardiopulmonary resuscitation MeSH E02.365 ... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.190.044.080 - acupressure MeSH E02.190.044.105 - acupuncture analgesia ... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.319.310.075 - antiretroviral therapy, highly active MeSH E02.319. ...
Drugs that have been found previously include analgesics such as aspirin and dipyrone, anesthetics, multiple antibiotics, ... anticoagulants such as heparin and Lepirudin, thrombolytics such as TPA, anti-platelet therapy including Clopidogrel, anti- ...
... cancer-treating antineoplastics, cardiovascular medication, painkillers, antibiotics, and related products. It is the largest ...
... antineoplastic - antineoplastic antibiotic - antioxidant - antiparasitic - antiretroviral therapy - antisense c-fos - ... aminoglycoside antibiotic - aminolevulinic acid - aminopterin - AML - amonafide - amoxicillin - amphotericin B - ampulla - ... anticancer antibiotic - anticarcinogenic - anticoagulant - anticonvulsant - antidepressant - antiemetic - antiestrogen - ... antithymocyte globulin - antituberculosis - antitumor antibiotic - Antiviral drug - anxiolytic - APC - APC vaccine - APC8015 - ...
... anti- biotics, antineoplastic agents, and psychiatric medications. (Lerner, David P et al. Neurol Clin. 2020. Toxin-Induced ...
... antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - antisense drugs - antitoxins - Antiviral drug - aphasia - aphthous ... antibiotic - antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal ...
The Journal of Antibiotics. 71: 97-103. doi:10.1038/ja.2017.93. PMID 28831149.. ... Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ...
doi:10.7164/antibiotics.47.301. PMID 7513682.. *^ Li KW, Wu J, Xing W, Simon JA (July 1996). "Total synthesis of the antitumor ... Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... doi:10.7164/antibiotics.47.311. PMID 8175483.. *^ Ueda, H.; Manda, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Mukumoto, S.; Nishigaki, F.; Kawamura, I ... doi:10.7164/antibiotics.47.315. PMID 8175484.. *^ Greshock, Thomas J.; Johns, Deidre M.; Noguchi, Yasuo; Williams, Robert M. ( ...
Cytotoxic antibiotics[edit]. The cytotoxic antibiotics are a varied group of drugs that have various mechanisms of action. The ... Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. Several classification ... The increased use of antineoplastic agents in veterinary oncology also puts these workers at risk for exposure to these drugs.[ ... Antineoplastic Agents in Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology, 2nd Edition, Volume 1. Eds. Offermanns S and Rosenthal W. ...
AntibioticsEdit. Antimetabolites may also be antibiotics, such as sulfanilamide drugs, which inhibit dihydrofolate synthesis in ... Antineoplastic+Antimetabolites at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Antitumor antibiotics are a class of antimetabolite drugs that are cell cycle nonspecific. They act by binding with DNA ... Anthracyclines are anti-tumor antibiotics that interfere with enzymes involved in copying DNA during the cell cycle. [4] ...
Streptomyces isolates have been such a valuable source of antibiotics, that they have been called medicinal molds. The classic ... For certain therapy areas, such as antimicrobials, antineoplastics, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory drugs, the numbers ... example of an antibiotic discovered as a defense mechanism against another microbe is penicillin in bacterial cultures ...
8 Immunomodulators and antineoplastics *8.1 Immunomodulators for non-malignant disease. *8.2 Antineoplastics and supportive ... 6.2.1 Access group antibiotics. *6.2.2 Watch group antibiotics. *6.2.3 Reserve group antibiotics ... Immunomodulators and antineoplastics[edit]. Immunomodulators for non-malignant disease[edit]. *Adalimumabα[note 59] ...
Candidiasis is known to cause GI symptoms particularly in immunocompromised patients or those receiving steroids or antibiotics ...
"Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal". Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2010 ...
... field sterilisation after cancer surgery and for the control of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.[5] ... Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ...
In the 1930s antibiotics emerged: first sulfa drugs, then penicillin and other antibiotics. Drugs increasingly became "the ... systemic antibiotics, topical antibiotics, hormones, desloughing agents, exudate absorbents, fibrinolytics, proteolytics, ... Antibiotics first arrived on the medical scene in 1932 thanks to Gerhard Domagk;[25] and were coined the "wonder drugs". The ... Management of pneumonia before antibiotics". JAMA. 220 (10): 1341-5. doi:10.1001/jama.1972.03200100053011. PMID 4553966.. ...
Other cytotoxic antibiotics are anthracyclines, mitomycin C, bleomycin, mithramycin. Antibodies[edit]. Antibodies are sometimes ... Cytotoxic antibiotics[edit]. Among these, dactinomycin is the most important. It is used in kidney transplantations. ...
... an antibiotic obtained by fermentation of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens.[7] PharmaMar have entered into an agreement ... Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ...
Other drugs (such as the aminoglycoside antibiotic class) may also cause ototoxicity, and the administration of this class of ... Cisplatin is in the platinum-based antineoplastic family of medications.[1] It works in part by binding to DNA and inhibiting ... antibiotics in patients receiving cisplatin is generally avoided. The ototoxicity of both the aminoglycosides and cisplatin may ...
Some medications, such as seizure and ulcer medications and antibiotics containing erythromycin, can interfere with the way ...
Certain antibiotics (e.g., ampicillin, tetracyclines) may decrease estradiol levels by limiting enterohepatic recirculation of ...
Hypoplasia may also result from antineoplastic therapy. Destruction after development[edit]. Tooth destruction from processes ... Some medications, such as tetracycline antibiotics, may become incorporated into the structure of a tooth, causing intrinsic ...
Mitomycin C (MMC) is from a class of antibiotics that are used broadly in chemotherapy, often with gastrointestinal related ... Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ...
The classes of medications that are known to cause diarrhea are laxatives, antacids, heartburn medications, antibiotics, anti- ... treatment with antibiotics may be beneficial.[82] However, some bacteria are developing antibiotic resistance, particularly ... and antibiotic-associated diarrhea is the most common adverse effect of treatment with general antibiotics. ... While antibiotics are beneficial in certain types of acute diarrhea, they are usually not used except in specific situations.[ ...
... aminoglycoside antibiotics). Most anti-cancer drugs have a narrow therapeutic margin: toxic side-effects are almost always ...
See also: Antineoplastic resistance. A major cause for the ineffectiveness of current chemotherapy treatments is multiple drug ... It has been noted that the introduction of silver nano particles has shown to have synergistic activity with common antibiotics ... "Synthesis and effect of silver nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics against Staphylococcus ...
Inhibitors of this pathway (FASII) are being investigated as possible antibiotics.[14] ... "Fatty acid synthesis: a potential selective target for antineoplastic therapy". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (14): 6379-83 ...
... medications to reduce cough as an adjunct to antibiotics for acute pneumonia in children and adults". The Cochrane Database of ...
AR antagonists have been found much less effective compared to established treatments like benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics.[ ... Hormonal antineoplastic drugs. *Prostate cancer. *Sex hormones. *Transgender and medicine. Hidden categories: *CS1 French- ...
Metabolites secreted by Sorangium cellulosum known as epothilones have been noted to have antineoplastic activity. This has led ... Myxobacteria produce a number of biomedically and industrially useful chemicals, such as antibiotics, and export those ... 48 (1): 21-5. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.48.21. PMID 7868385. The Myxobacteria Web Page Schwarmentwicklung und Morphogenese bei ...
The cytotoxic antibiotics are a varied group of drugs that have various mechanisms of action. The common theme that they share ... Antineoplastic drugs may also increase the risk of learning disabilities among children of health care workers who are exposed ... In the 1970s, antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drugs were identified as hazardous, and the American Society of Health-System ... A written policy needs to be in place in case of a spill of antineoplastic products. The policy should address the possibility ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Antineoplastic Antibiotics. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the ... The anthracycline antibiotics, particularly doxorubicin, have become important antineoplastic antibiotics. These drugs ... The antineoplastic antibiotics are products of Streptomyces. The important drugs in this group include actinomycin D ( ... Actinomycin A was the first Streptomyces antibiotic isolated and was followed by related antibiotics, including actinomycin D. ...
... used as an antibiotic to treat microsporidiosis. Quality confirmed by NMR & HPLC. See customer reviews, validations & product ... Fumagillin is a selective and potent irreversible inhibitor of Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2), used as an antibiotic to ... Fumagillin is a selective and potent irreversible inhibitor of Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2), used as an antibiotic to ... Antineoplastic and Immunosuppressive Antibiotics. *Selection Antibiotics for Transfected Cell. *Antibiotics for Mammalian Cell ...
Antineoplastic and Immunosuppressive Antibiotics inhibitor & PKC inhibitor & ADC Cytotoxin & PKA inhibitor & S6 Kinase ... Antineoplastic and Immunosuppressive Antibiotics. *Selection Antibiotics for Transfected Cell. *Antibiotics for Mammalian Cell ...
What is antineoplastic antibiotic? Meaning of antineoplastic antibiotic medical term. What does antineoplastic antibiotic mean? ... Looking for online definition of antineoplastic antibiotic in the Medical Dictionary? antineoplastic antibiotic explanation ... antineoplastic antibiotic. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. antineoplastic antibiotic. a chemical ... antineoplastic antibiotic. Anticancer antibiotic, antitumor antibiotic Oncology Any of a group of anticancer drugs that block ...
Antibiotics. Class Summary. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is recommended for prophylaxis against Pjiroveci pneumonia ... Antineoplastics, Monoclonal Antibody. Class Summary. Rituximab gained FDA approval for GPA in adults in 2011 and for children ... Antineoplastics, Alkylating. Class Summary. These agents have improved the prognosis of GPA. Cyclophosphamide is initiated with ...
You can now download VisualDx for your iOS and Android devices. Launch the VisualDx app from your device and sign in using your VisualDx personal account username and password.. ...
Antineoplastics, Other. Class Summary. Cancer chemotherapy is based on an understanding of tumoral cell growth and on how drugs ... Antibiotics, Other. Class Summary. Therapy should cover all likely pathogens in the context of this clinical setting. ... Antineoplastic agents interfere with cell reproduction. Some agents are cell cycle specific, whereas others (eg, alkylating ... Nystatin is a fungicidal and fungistatic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces noursei. It is effective against candidal ...
antineoplastic antibiotics. * In antineoplastic antibiotic. doxorubicin, daunorubicin, bleomycin, mitomycin, and dactinomycin, ...
The recommended maximum number of medicines in the antineoplastic antibiotics category to be taken concurrently is usually ...
Daunorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction ... Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the ... antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor ...
Streptozocin is an antitumour antibiotic consisting of a nitrosourea moiety interposed between a methyl group and a glucosamine ...
... , provides the global Platinum Antineoplastics market valuation, ... 2. Platinum Antineoplastics - Marketed Products. 3. Global Platinum Antineoplastics Market Size. 3a. Platinum Antineoplastics ... Table 4: Platinum Antineoplastics - Key Late Stage Pipeline, 2015. Figure 1: Global Platinum Antineoplastics Market Size ($), ... 6. Platinum Antineoplastics - Key Late Stage Pipeline. 7. Research Methodology. Table 1: Platinum Antineoplastics: Marketed ...
Antonyms for antineoplastic antibiotic. 7 words related to antineoplastic antibiotic: antibiotic, antibiotic drug, ... antineoplastic, antineoplastic drug, cancer drug, Mithracin, mithramycin. What are synonyms for antineoplastic antibiotic? ... Words related to antineoplastic antibiotic. an antibiotic drug used as an antineoplastic in chemotherapy. Related Words. * ... antineoplastic antibiotic,type:0,children:[{name:antibiotic,type:4},{name:antibiotic drug,type:4},{name: ...
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  • The anthracycline antibiotics, particularly doxorubicin , have become important antineoplastic antibiotics. (
  • Includes the antineoplastic drugs doxorubicin and daunorubicin. (
  • Doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin and valrubicin are structurally related cytotoxic antineoplastic antibiotics used in the therapy of several forms of lymphoma, leukemia, sarcoma and solid organ cancers. (
  • Doxorubicin (dox" oh roo' bi sin), epirubicin (ep" i roo' bi sin), idarubicin (eye" da roo' bi sin) and valrubicin (val roo' bi sin) are cytotoxic, anthracycline antibiotics which are believed to act by intercalating between DNA base pairs and uncoiling the DNA helix, which results in inhibition of DNA synthesis and the normal DNA breaking and resealing action of DNA toposiomerase II. (
  • A semisynthetic derivative of the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin. (
  • Some antineoplastic agents, such as cisplatin and doxorubicin, lead to increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may contribute to their therapeutic effect ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • An analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. (
  • Daunorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. (
  • 4'-Acetoxy N-(Trifluoroacetyl)daunorubicin-13C,d3 6,8,11-Triyl Triacetate is an intermediate in the synthesis of Daunorubicin-13C,d3 (D194502), an anthracycline antibiotic related to the rhodomycins. (
  • Alkylating agents, antimetabolites, and antibiotics have all been considered inhibitors of wound healing. (
  • Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. (
  • Antineoplastic agents interfere with cell reproduction. (
  • Cellular apoptosis (ie, programmed cell death) is another potential mechanism of many antineoplastic agents. (
  • What health effects can be caused by exposure to antineoplastic agents? (
  • Who might be exposed to antineoplastic agents in hospitals? (
  • When are workers most likely to be exposed to antineoplastic agents in hospitals? (
  • How can I protect myself from exposure to antineoplastic agents? (
  • More information about antineoplastic agents. (
  • Some of these antineoplastic agents are also being used for other purposes such as the treatment of nonmalignant diseases. (
  • The purpose of this brochure is to -- make you aware of the adverse health effects of antineoplastic agents, -- describe how you can be exposed to these agents, and -- provide and identify control methods and work practices to prevent or reduce your exposure to antineoplastic agents. (
  • If you experience any of these health problems when working with antineoplastic agents, report them to your supervisor or safety officer. (
  • Statistically significant genotoxic effects and genetic damage (for example, increased micronuclei formation and increases in sister chromatid exchange and chromo- somal aberrations) have been reported in hospital phar- macists and nurses exposed to antineoplastic agents. (
  • The adverse health effects associated with antineoplastic agents (cancer chemotherapy drugs, cytotoxic drugs) in cancer patients and some non-cancer patients treated with these drugs are well-documented. (
  • The very nature of antineoplastic agents makes them harmful to healthy cells and tissues, as well as the cancerous cells. (
  • However, for the healthcare workers that are exposed to antineoplastic agents as part of their work practice, precautions should be taken to eliminate or reduce exposure as much as possible. (
  • Pharmacists that prepare these drugs or nurses that may prepare and/or administer them are the two occupational groups with the highest potential exposure to antineoplastic agents. (
  • The increased use of antineoplastic agents in veterinary oncology also puts these workers at risk for exposure to these drugs. (
  • What is the dermatologic preoperative evaluation and management of antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agents? (
  • Many antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agents have been thought to retard wound healing. (
  • However, the use of immunosuppressive or antineoplastic agents may predispose the patient to an even greater risk of infection, and physicians may consider the use of prophylactic antibiotics. (
  • Pretreatment with vitamin C caused a dose-dependent attenuation of cytotoxicity, as measured by trypan blue exclusion and colony formation after treatment with all antineoplastic agents tested. (
  • Vitamin C treatment led to a dose-dependent decrease in apoptosis in cells treated with the antineoplastic agents that was not due to up-regulation of P-glycoprotein or vitamin C retention modulated by antineoplastics. (
  • All antineoplastic agents tested caused mitochondrial membrane depolarization that was inhibited by vitamin C. These findings indicate that vitamin C given before mechanistically dissimilar antineoplastic agents antagonizes therapeutic efficacy in a model of human hematopoietic cancers by preserving mitochondrial membrane potential. (
  • Conversely, some reports have suggested that vitamin C might potentiate the effects of some antineoplastic agents, such as arsenic trioxide ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • Most of those components are antitumor agents and anthracycline antibiotics active against Gram-positive bacteria. (
  • Nearly all components of bohemic acid are anthracycline antibiotic agents active against Gram-positive bacteria, but not against Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts or fungi. (
  • The hydrochloride salt of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic idarubicin. (
  • Bleomycin is an anti-cancer ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. (
  • Antineoplastics (or "antitumor antibiotics", or "noncovalent DNA-binding drugs", or "cytotoxic antibiotics", see also neoplastics) are drugs that inhibit and combat the development of tumors . (
  • None of them showed antibiotic, antifungal or antitumor activity. (
  • Bleomycin is classified as an "antitumor antibiotic. (
  • The antineoplastic antibiotics are products of Streptomyces . (
  • Actinomycin A was the first Streptomyces antibiotic isolated and was followed by related antibiotics, including actinomycin D. Actinomycin D binds with double-stranded DNA and blocks the action of RNA polymerase, which prevents DNA transcription. (
  • Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. (
  • An antibiotic that inhibits the growth and spread of neoplasms or malignant cells. (
  • Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes more efficiently than other anthracycline antibiotic compounds. (
  • Streptozocin is an antitumour antibiotic consisting of a nitrosourea moiety interposed between a methyl group and a glucosamine. (
  • are semisynthetic antibiotics, resistant to ß-lactamase(advantage over penicillins). (
  • Dactinomycin, used in the treatment of Wilms' tumor, testicular carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and some other sarcomas, exerts its antineoplastic effect by interfering with ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis. (
  • Examples of target-altering pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and macrolide-resistant Streptococcus, while examples of antibiotic-modifying microbes are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aminoglycoside-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. (
  • Permanent loss may result from aminoglycoside antibiotics, quinine, and antineoplastic drugs. (
  • Background: The Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers describes current practices used to minimize chemical exposures and barriers to using recommended personal protective equipment for the following: antineoplastic drugs, anesthetic gases, high level disinfectants, surgical smoke, aerosolized medications (pentamidine, ribavirin, and antibiotics), and chemical sterilants. (
  • Furthermore there is mounting concern over the abuse of antibiotics in the farming of livestock, which in the European Union alone accounts for three times the volume dispensed to humans - leading to development of super-resistant bacteria. (
  • Bacteria are capable of not only altering the enzyme targeted by antibiotics, but also by the use of enzymes to modify the antibiotic itself and thus neutralise it. (
  • Center for Global Development "The overuse of antibacterial cleaning products in the home may be producing strains of multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (
  • An antibiotic effective against Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. (
  • Rocephin ( ceftriaxone sodium ) for Injection is a cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat many kinds of bacterial infections, including severe or life-threatening forms such as meningitis . (
  • It is possible to increase the effectiveness of the treatment and decrease the toxic effects of the preparation by special injection methods, when the antineoplastic is injected into the vessels that supply the tumor with blood. (
  • Refractory secondary leukemia is more common when such drugs are given in combination with DNA-damaging antineoplastics, when patients have been heavily pretreated with cytotoxic drugs, or when epirubicin dosage has been escalated. (
  • On the other hand, noise exposure and cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, have a significant synergistic interaction with the effect being greatest in the high frequencies. (
  • Rocephin is a sterile, semisynthetic, broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic for intravenous or intramuscular administration. (
  • The suffix -mycin is conventionally added to indicate antibiotics derived from actinobacteria or fungi. (
  • Be aware that drug may be given with antibiotics. (
  • The sample may have been biased as many patients receiving treatments frequently associated with drug-induced hyperpigmentation, such as antineoplastic drugs, are diagnosed and treated by other specialties, such as oncologists. (
  • Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition. (
  • Because the drug is so specific, any mutation in these molecules will interfere with or negate its destructive effect, resulting in antibiotic resistance. (
  • A multiparticulate, pharmaceutical dosage form containing at least one antibiotic which is sparingly wettable with aqueous media or sparingly soluble in aqueous media and a combination of carrageenan and tricalcium phosphate and optionally sucrose ester. (
  • 15. A dosage form according to claim 1, further comprising at least one antibiotic selected from the group consisting of penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides. (
  • 16. A dosage form according to claim 15, wherein the at least one antibiotic is amoxicillin, clarithromycin, azithromycin (mono- or dihydrate) or cefixim, cefpodoxime or cefpodoxime proxetil. (
  • 20. A dosage form according to claim 19, wherein, at a pH value of 6-7, the antibiotic is released in a quantity of at least 85% within 30 min. (
  • This medication is classified as an "anthracyline antitumor antibiotic. (
  • Treatment with antineoplastics is based on the differences between the biochemical properties of normal and tumoral tissues and is directed predominantly toward suppressing the accelerated reproduction of tumoral cells. (
  • Antineoplastics also affect normal tissues when they act on a tumor. (
  • Many antineoplastics are toxic and produce side effects that may or may not be associated with the mechanism of suppressing cell reproduction. (
  • Streptozotocin or streptozocin (INN, USP) (STZ) is a naturally occurring alkylating antineoplastic agent that is particularly toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas in mammals. (