Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Murraya: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain murrayanine, koenine, isomahanine, kwangsine, siamenol, murrayafoline A, murrayaquinone A and other cytotoxic carbazolequinones.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chlortetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.Bacitracin: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Teicoplanin: Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Colistin: Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.OsteomyelitisCephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Streptomyces coelicolor: A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Virginiamycin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.Polyenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Inappropriate Prescribing: The practice of administering medications in a manner that poses more risk than benefit, particularly where safer alternatives exist.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Fosfomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Fusidic Acid: An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Enediynes: Compounds with triple bonds to each side of a double bond. Many of these are CYTOTOXINS and are researched for use as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Drug Utilization Review: Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Novobiocin: An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Floxacillin: Antibiotic analog of CLOXACILLIN.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.
Presently, phage therapy for humans is available only at the Phage Therapy Center in the Republic of Georgia and in Poland. ... Antibiotic-resistant E. coli may also pass on the genes responsible for antibiotic resistance to other species of bacteria, ... The enterobacteria phage T4, a highly studied phage, targets E. coli for infection. Researchers have actively been working to ... Increased concern about the prevalence of this form of "superbug" in the United Kingdom has led to calls for further monitoring ...
Phage therapy is another method for treating antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Phage therapy infects pathogenic ... "Keep Antibiotics Working". Keep Antibiotics Working. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010.. ... "superbug" was identified in the United States resistant to colistin, "the last line of defence" antibiotic.[76][77] ... Inappropriate antibiotic treatment and overuse of antibiotics have contributed to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant ...
Identification is critically important as it can reduce the cost and toxicity of the antibiotic therapy and also reduce the ... accessed 12 November 2008) "Kee Antibiotics Working" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 12 ... Abedon, Stephen T; Kuhl, Sarah J; Blasdel, Bob G; Kutter, Elizabeth Martin (1 January 2011). "Phage treatment of human ... Al-Habib A; Al-Saleh, E (2010). "Bactericidal effect of grape seed extract on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ...
Superbug: A solution to the antibiotic crisis?, Macmillan, p. 48, ISBN 978-0-230-55193-0 iBiology video: Phage Therapy (2016) ... To work, the virus has to reach the site of the bacteria, and viruses can sometimes reach places antibiotics cannot. For ... This equates to the complete cure of 50 of 100 patients with terminal antibiotic-resistant infection. The rate of only 50% is ... Phage therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. Phage ...
They are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria (see phage therapy). Nevertheless, ... Superbugs", Macmillan Phage.org general information on bacteriophages bacteriophages illustrations and genomics Bacteriophages ... of marine bacteria may be infected by phages. They have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the ... Twort's work was interrupted by the onset of World War I and shortage of funding. Independently, French-Canadian microbiologist ...
... the antibiotic-resistant superbug known as MRSA. Eating pesticide-laden foods is linked to remarkably low sperm count (49% ... People working a 55-hour week have a 33% increased risk of stroke than those working a 35- to 40-hour week, along with a 13% ... Researchers have achieved a significant breakthrough in combating antibiotic resistance using phages. 8 June NASA reports that ... A nanoparticle therapy has been shown to accelerate the healing of wounds by 50 percent. 30 March A 1,000-year-old treatment ...
Administration of antibiotics is not standardized and is adapted by a case-by-case basis. Antibiotic therapy can last up to 1 ... "MRSA: The Drug-Resistant 'Superbug' That Won't Die". NPR.org. Retrieved 3 June 2017. ""Should I Worry About...?" MRSA (TV ... for MRSA and were prevented from working until they had completed a course of eradication therapy that was proven to work. Loss ... concerns that the presence of MRSA in the environment may allow resistance to be transferred to other bacteria through phages ( ...
Keep Antibiotics Working»։ Keep Antibiotics Working։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 18 November 2010-ին։ Վերցված է 21 May 2010 ,df=. ... Moyer Melinda Wenner։ «Dangerous New Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Reach U.S.»։ Scientific American։ Վերցված է 27 May 2016 ... Antibiotics being incorrectly prescribed in Australian nursing homes, prompting superbug fears»։ ABC Australia։ 10 June 2016։ ... Short-course versus prolonged-course antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia in critically ill adults»։ The Cochrane ...
They are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria (see phage therapy).[6] Nevertheless ... of marine bacteria may be infected by phages.[4] They have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the ... Twort's work was interrupted by the onset of World War I and shortage of funding. Independently, French-Canadian microbiologist ... Superbugs", Macmillan. *Animation of bacteriophage targeting E. coli bacteria. *Phage.org general information on bacteriophages ...
... or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. Phage therapy has many potential applications in human medicine as well as dentistry, veterinary science, and agriculture. If the target host of a phage therapy treatment is not an animal, the term "biocontrol" (as in phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria) is usually employed, rather than "phage therapy". Bacteriophages are much more specific than antibiotics. They are typically harmless not only to the host organism, but also to other beneficial bacteria, such as the gut flora, reducing the chances of opportunistic infections. They have a high therapeutic index, that is, phage therapy would be expected to give rise to few side effects. Because ...
... is the use of transplanted bacteria inside of an organism. Fecal bacteriotherapy works due to bacterial interference, the process by which bacteria displace pathogens. Bioremediation Biodegradation Microbial biodegradation van Nood, E; Vrieze, A; Nieuwdorp, M; et al. (January 2013). "Duodenal Infusion of Donor Feces for Recurrent Clostridium difficile". N. Engl. J. Med. 368 (5): 407-15. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1205037. PMID 23323867. Huovinen, Pentti (18 August 2001). "Bacteriotherapy: the time has come". British Medical Journal. BMJ Group. 323 (7309): 353-354. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7309.353. PMC 1120965 . PMID 11509411 ...
... is a development-stage American pharmaceutical company headquartered in Maryland that focuses on developing immunotherapies against different types of cancer. The company was founded in 1996 by Alton L. Boynton. Northwest relies upon the contract manufacturing organization Cognate Bioservices for services supporting manufacture of product for clinical trials. The relationship with Cognate is long term, having begun before 2007 and slated to extend through the first quarter of 2016. Due to cash flow issues common to development-stage companies, Northwest compensates Cognate through a combination of cash and stock payments. Further, Cognate has provided Northwest with at least one short-term loan, provided and paid in mid-2013. As of 2014[update], Northwest is undergoing an increase in activities as a result of expanding clinical trials, which has led to increasing reliance on Cognate for services, and subsequent renegotiation of the agreement with Cognate. The DCVax ...
Biological agents are relatively easy to obtain by terrorists and are becoming more threatening in the U.S., and laboratories are working on advanced detection systems to provide early warning, identify contaminated areas and populations at risk, and to facilitate prompt treatment. Methods for predicting the use of biological agents in urban areas as well as assessing the area for the hazards associated with a biological attack are being established in major cities. In addition, forensic technologies are working on identifying biological agents, their geographical origins and/or their initial son. Efforts include decontamination technologies to restore facilities without causing additional environmental concerns. Early detection and rapid response to bioterrorism depend on close cooperation between public health authorities and law enforcement; however, such cooperation is currently lacking. National detection assets and vaccine stockpiles are not useful if local and state ...
... (also known as erythrodermic psoriasis) represents a generalized form of psoriasis that affects all body sites, including the face, hands, feet, nails, trunk, and extremities. First-line treatments for psoriatic erythroderma include immunosuppressive medications such as methotrexate, acitretin, or ciclosporin. Psoriasis Skin lesion List of cutaneous conditions Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0. James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Zattra E, Belloni Fortina A, Peserico A, Alaibac M (May 2012). "Erythroderma in the era of biological therapies". Eur J Dermatol. 22 (2): 167-71. doi:10.1684/ejd.2011.1569. PMID 22321651 ...
ImSAIDs are a class of peptides being developed by IMULAN BioTherapeutics, LLC, which were discovered to have diverse biological properties, including anti-inflammatory properties. ImSAIDs work by altering the activation and migration of inflammatory cells, which are immune cells responsible for amplifying the inflammatory response.[10][11] The ImSAIDs represent a new category of anti-inflammatory and are unrelated to steroid hormones or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories. The ImSAIDs were discovered by scientists evaluating biological properties of the submandibular gland and saliva. Early work in this area demonstrated that the submandibular gland released a host of factors that regulate systemic inflammatory responses and modulate systemic immune and inflammatory reactions. It is now well accepted that the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems communicate and interact to control and modulate inflammation and tissue repair. One of the neuroendocrine pathways, when ...
Verdine has founded companies including Enanta Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: ENTA),[5] Gloucester Pharmaceuticals, Tokai Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: TKAI), Eleven Biotherapeutics (NASDAQ: EBIO),[4] Fog Pharmaceuticals, Aileron Therapeutics (NASDAQ: ALRN), Warp Drive Bio, and WaVe Life Sciences (NASDAQ: WVE). The commonality between his companies is that each develops molecules intended to target "hard-to-drug" pathogens that cannot yet be treated because they are out of reach of modern technologies.[3][6] He became the CEO of Warp Drive Bio in 2013 upon leaving his tenured post at Harvard University,[7] a company that maps the genome of microbes that are found in the soil in order to develop potential treatments for drug-resistant ailments. He was later made President and CEO of Fog Pharmaceuticals,[8] remaining a Director of Warp Drive Bio.[4] Verdine is the Chairman of the Board of WaVe Life Sciences,[9] which uses synthetic chemistry to develop nucleic acid therapeutic candidates.[10] He is also ...
Bacteriophage (phage) are viruses of bacteria and arguably are the most numerous "organisms" on Earth. The history of phage study is captured, in part, in the books published on the topic. This is a list of over 100 monographs on or related to phages. Rakonjac, J., Das, B. Derda, R. 2017. Filamentous Bacteriophage in Bio/Nano/Technology, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Ecology. ISBN 9782889450954 Allen, H. K., Abedon, S. T. 2015. Viral Ecology and Disturbances: Impact of Environmental Disruption on the Viruses of Microorganisms. ISBN 978-2-88919-448-3 Google Books Wei, H. 2015. Phages and Therapy as published as a special issue in Virologica Sinica consisting of four reviews, three research articles, six letters, and one insight article. Weitz, J.S., 2015. Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ISBN 978-1-40087-396-8. ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Cystoviridae. Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola bacteria serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Pseudomonas phage phi6. Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Cystoviridae Genus: Cystovirus Pseudomonas phage phi6 Pseudomonas phage phi8 Pseudomonas phage phi12 Pseudomonas phage phi13 Pseudomonas phage phi2954 Pseudomonas phage phiNN Pseudomonas phage phiYY Cystoviruses are distinguished by their tripartite dsRNA genome, totaling ~14 kb in length and their protein and lipid outer layer. No other bacteriophage has any lipid in its outer coat, though the Tectiviridae and the Corticoviridae have lipids within their capsids. Most identified cystoviruses infect Pseudomonas species, but this is likely biased due to the method of screening and enrichment. The type ...
... or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. Phage therapy has many potential applications in human medicine as well as dentistry, veterinary science, and agriculture. If the target host of a phage therapy treatment is not an animal, the term "biocontrol" (as in phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria) is usually employed, rather than "phage therapy". Bacteriophages are much more specific than antibiotics. They are typically harmless not only to the host organism, but also to other beneficial bacteria, such as the gut flora, reducing the chances of opportunistic infections. They have a high therapeutic index, that is, phage therapy would be expected to give rise to few side effects. Because ...
Existen varias opsinas moi relacionadas que difiren soamente nuns poucos aminoácidos e na lonxitude de onda da luz que absorben máis intensamente. Os humanos teñen outras catro opsinas ademais da rodopsina. As fotopsinas atópanse en diferentes tipos de conos da retina e son básicas para a visión en cor. Presentan unha absorción máxima para a luz de cor verde amarelado (fotopsina I), verde (fotopsina II), e violeta azulado (fotopsina III). A cuarta opsina é a melanopsina, que se encontra nas células ganglionares fotosensibles e absorbe principalmente luz azul. Na rodopsina, o aldehido do retinal está ligado covalentemente co grupo amino dunha lisina da opsina formando unha base de Schiff protonada (-NH+=CH-).[5] Cando a rodopsina absorbe luz, o seu cofactor retinal isomerízase da configuración 11-cis á todo-trans, e a proteína sofre seguidamente unha serie de relaxacións para acomodar a forma alterada do cofactor isomerizado. Os intermediatos formados durante este proceso foron ...
Bacteriophage (phage) are viruses of bacteria and arguably are the most numerous "organisms" on Earth. The history of phage study is captured, in part, in the books published on the topic. This is a list of over 100 monographs on or related to phages. Rakonjac, J., Das, B. Derda, R. 2017. Filamentous Bacteriophage in Bio/Nano/Technology, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Ecology. ISBN 9782889450954 Allen, H. K., Abedon, S. T. 2015. Viral Ecology and Disturbances: Impact of Environmental Disruption on the Viruses of Microorganisms. ISBN 978-2-88919-448-3 Google Books Wei, H. 2015. Phages and Therapy as published as a special issue in Virologica Sinica consisting of four reviews, three research articles, six letters, and one insight article. Weitz, J.S., 2015. Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ISBN 978-1-40087-396-8. ...
Uszkodzenie ściany przewodu pokarmowego w eozynofilowym zapaleniu żołądka i jelit spowodowane jest jej nacieczeniem przez eozynofile i degranulację[10].. Eozynofile odpowiedzialne są za zwalczanie pasożytów, mają też udział w reakcjach alergicznych. W warunkach fizjologii są obecne w śluzówce przewodu pokarmowego, natomiast ich obecność w głębiej położonych tkankach niemal zawsze świadczy o patologii[11]. Czynniki odpowiedzialne za inicjację nacieczenia ściany jelita przez eozynofile w eozynofilowym zapaleniu żołądka i jelit nie są dobrze poznane. Możliwe, że różne mechanizmy patogenetyczne występują w różnych grupach chorych. U niektórych pacjentów opisywane były alergia pokarmowa i zmienna odpowiedź IgE na alergeny pokarmowe, co sugeruje rolę nadwrażliwości w patogenezie choroby. U części pacjentów stwierdza się dodatni wywiad w kierunku schorzeń z kręgu atopii, wyprysku atopowego, astmy itp.. Rekrutacja eozynofilów do tkanki zapalnej jest ...
The bacteria in her system was resistant to 26 different antibiotics. ... A new company is using phage therapy for superbugs and it appears to be working. Check out Ampliphi Biosciences ... A Nevada woman dies of a superbug resistant to every available antibiotic in the US. ... Antibiotics do not work in such situations without very assiduous surgical intervention, repeated debridements etc. No details ...
... lytic phage an antibiotic-resistant superbug is just another opportunity to multiply and finally antibiotic-resistant superbugs ... Filed Under: antibiotics, bacteria, bacteriophages, biofilm, drug-resistant, health, infection, microbes, phage therapy, ... these new tactics will be tested and ready by the time our current line of antibiotics stop working. Here are just a few links ... Phage therapy. Lytic phages love bacteria, including superbugs, to deaths or to put it another way, to the right ...
... are generating renewed interest as potential weapons to fight bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics - the so- ... called superbugs. Although the recent phage therapy has been focused on the treatment of sick patients, preventing infection ... we hope that the phage cocktail will work similarly in humans. There are three advantages to using phages in this manner. ... having intimate knowledge of how the phages infect the bacteria and discovering how the bacteria become resistant to the phages ...
... which is seen as one of the more promising frontiers in the war on superbugs. ... Physicians are turning to phage therapy as a treatment, ... Strathdee understood the threat of antibiotic-resistant ... "I want phage to work," said Mallorys mother Diane Shader Smith from her daughters bedside in early November. "But even if it ... Phage therapy has some unique benefits over antibiotics. For one, bacteriophages can be found everywhere on earth, even in ...
With the world on the cusp of an antibiotics crisis, should we all follow suit? ... Hundreds of people have caught hellish bacterial infections and turned to Eastern Europe for a century-old viral therapy. ... and took more than two dozen courses of antibiotics. Nothing worked. In 2006, he heard about phage therapy from his cousins ... die each year from antibiotic-resistant infections. By 2050, an estimated 10 million people worldwide will die by superbug. ...
The CDC has identified 18 superbugs that endanger human health, classifying them as either urgent, serious, or concerning ... Superbug is another name for bacteria or fungi that have developed the ability to resist commonly prescribed medications. ... Phage therapy is a potential treatment for bacterial infections. As an alternative to antibiotics, it has some promise, but ... If your symptoms dont respond to treatment, it may be because youve been infected by a drug-resistant superbug. ...
"These alternate therapies, such as phage or anti-virulence drugs or, bacteriocins -- you name it -- just didnt rise to the ... The focus has often been to find some new class of drug that works as well as or better than antibiotics, but so far, nothing ... "You take an antibiotic to go after that thing in your throat, and you end up with gut bacteria that are super-resistant," Brown ... Or you give that resistant E. coli to an elderly relative.". Much too often, superbugs have made their way into hospitals in ...
Developing phage therapy is particularly important because some bacteria, called superbugs, are resistant to most or all ... In addition, a study published by Camilli in 2008 determined that phage therapy works in a mouse model of cholera intestinal ... especially those that are resistant to antibiotic treatment," said Camilli, professor of Molecular Biology & Microbiology at ... The study has dramatic implications for phage therapy, which is the use of phages to treat bacterial diseases. ...
phage synonyms, phage pronunciation, phage translation, English dictionary definition of phage. n. A bacteriophage. n short for ... Biosciences Announces Presentation of Personalized Bacteriophage Therapy Case Study for Life-Threatening Antibiotic-Resistant ... Theres a lot of exciting work that has to be done to look into the efficacy of phage as a replacement of antibiotics.. ... Bacteriophages, Natural Drugs to Combat Superbugs. Most people in the United States have likely never heard of phage therapy.. ...
... book follows a crop of biotech start-ups as they race to turn tiny bacteriophage viruses into a new weapon against antibiotic ... though isolating a new phage can be faster and cheaper than synthesizing a new antibiotic. Finally, some see phage therapy as a ... So-called superbugs, bacteria that are resistant to one or more antibiotics, are on the rise across the United States. These ... Some phages did not work at all. In these areas, the stripe was as cloudy and opaque as it had been the day before. Others had ...
... of bacterial infections are now resistant to the drugs normally used to treat them, a rate predicted to reach 40% ... and investing in alternative therapies like vaccines or phage therapy - using viruses to kill bacteria. ... has already begun to shrink as a result of drug-resistant superbugs due to more deaths and fewer sick people able to work. ... "As soon as you make an antibiotic, everyone uses it, bugs become resistant and its no longer useful," Finlay said. ...
Presently, phage therapy for humans is available only at the Phage Therapy Center in the Republic of Georgia and in Poland. ... Antibiotic-resistant E. coli may also pass on the genes responsible for antibiotic resistance to other species of bacteria, ... The enterobacteria phage T4, a highly studied phage, targets E. coli for infection. Researchers have actively been working to ... Increased concern about the prevalence of this form of "superbug" in the United Kingdom has led to calls for further monitoring ...
... which increasingly is resistant to virtually all antibiotics.. The use of phages is widely considered possible for topical or ... The South Australian scientists have been working with international company AmpliPhi Biosciences to research phage-based ... "In view of the looming crisis of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, all possibilities for the use of phage therapy must be ... as the best way to attack antibiotic-resistant bacterial superbug infections.. Viruses specifically designed to battle ...
Genetically Engineered Phage Therapy Saves Teen From Drug-Resistant Infection. Promising work just published in the journal ... Though recent and alarming headlines are touting a global superbug, it can be hard to discern fact from fiction. Should we be ... Nature Medicine offers hope when antibiotic resistance, in an extremely sick patient, renders limited treatments. ...
Misuse of top antibiotics gives rise to superbugs: WHO report. HIGHLIGHTS. *WHO has published a list of antibiotic-resistant ... Our team of medical specialists work with the Eliava Institute microbiologists to provide effective treatment with ... Eliava Phage Therapy. Media. Uncategorized. Misuse of top antibiotics gives rise to superbugs: WHO report. ... a superbug that makes bacteria resistant to antibiotics. The misuse of high-end antibiotics for treatment of common health ...
In the meantime, phage therapy is also available in Belgium. ... What are we to do when antibiotics are no longer effective? ... Read more: Chicken meat rife with antibiotic-resistant superbugs. Communicating with the Georgian doctors was difficult for ... After antibiotics stopped working for her, her doctor suggested that she take biopharmaceuticals, i.e. genetically engineered ... Read more: Superbugs kill 33,000 in Europe each year, says study. A phage model - phages are viruses, that multiply in bacteria ...
But drug-resistant superbugs are making scientists rethink.. Phages kill bacteria by getting into bacterial cells and ... Precision drug therapy - antibody-antibiotic conjugate. A precision drug therapy that wipes out bugs that hide in the body ... The treatment works by tagging antibiotics onto antibodies which home in on pathogens and deliver a lethal dose of drug ... Phages. Of all the alternatives to antibiotics, phages - viruses that attack bacteria - have been used the longest in the ...
24 patients whod suffered years of chronic antibiotic resistant ear infections, showed dramatic benefit with phage therapy. ... Not very scientific, but it suggests the phage therapy worked.. As well as other patients rescued at deaths door by phages, ... recent reports of successful phage therapy include infected post-surgical wounds, chronic ear infections, antibiotic-resistant ... The rise of antibiotic-resistant superbugs is a global crisis which, according to a 2016 UK government review, is responsible ...
... had driven the evolution of resistant bacteria. Phage therapy might work where antibiotics failed. ... Superbugs for dummies: Explaining the battle between bacteria and antibiotics Chan and Turner began studying OMKO1 and its ... Once antibiotics came to light, however, phage therapy virtually disappeared from most countries. Doctors gained more ... But in the process, they would make themselves vulnerable to antibiotics. It might be possible to follow up phage therapy with ...
... notes emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria stirs new interest in West in alternative therapy developed in former Soviet ... these Siberian workers were suffering from infections that were resistant to antibiotics. The phages worked splendidly. But ... superbugs -- bacteria resistant to even the most potent antibiotics, like vancomycin. ... Phages proved to be a hit-or-miss affair as a therapy. One problem was that there are hundreds of types of phages, and each ...
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria work together to cause infection, research suggests Whats worse than getting exposed to a kind ... Researchers use novel phage therapy to treat patient infected with multidrug-resistant bacterium Scientists and physicians at ... the superbugs that are resistant to all known antibiotics. ... Innovative ways to target antibiotic resistance in short term ... Entasis and GARDP partner to develop oral antibiotic for treatment of drug-resistant gonorrhea Zoliflodacin, a novel first-in- ...
One day we might know enough about phages to use them to groom the microbiome, to weed out not just antibiotic-resistant ... WIRED: In the meantime though, youve been working to more rigorously test phage therapy for serious infections here in the US ... scientists and doctors in the US to take a harder look at phage therapy as a potential solution for the coming era of superbugs ... So Stalin and others embraced phage therapy as a pillar of the Soviet approach to health. And because of that the West really ...
The fight against antibiotic-resistant superbugs has taken a step forward thanks to a new discovery by scientists at The ... Antibiotic-resistant superbugs. * Raw milk, when not properly stored, is a source of antibiotic-resistant microbes: Study. on ... Phage therapy .... * Scientists around the world are already fighting the next pandemic. on June 18, 2020 at 2:02 am This means ... The mechanism through which QS signals work is by activating gene expression upon interaction of a QS signal molecule with a ...
Bacteriophages and the enzymes they produce are being used in Russia to kill bacteria that is resistant to every known type of ... phage therapy may be one of the few technologies preventing deaths from antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. ... With the increasing awareness of the threat posed by antibiotic resistant superbugs -- the proliferation of which the Obama ... Theyd work for a month, and then my body would become resistant and itd stop working." ...
Antibiotics are failing - could phage therapy hold the key to stopping antibiotic resistant superbugs?. 8th September 2020 ... GP? Pharmacist? Researcher? Social Scientist? Whatever field you work in, if youre committed to fighting infection then we ... Antibiotic-resistant infections, which already kill hundreds of thousands of people every year, are on the rise around the ... When we talk about superbugs, much of the focus tends to be on drug-resistant bacterial infections. Yet the drugs we use to ...
  • Indeed, the scope of the threat posed by superbugs remains poorly understood by the general population, despite the fact that the World Health Organization calls superbugs an imminent threat to human health. (time.com)
  • According to a new report from the World Health Organization (WHO) released yesterday, antibiotics development at present is not at par with the rising antimicrobial resistance worldwide and soon the demand may outgrow the supply. (news-medical.net)
  • Earlier this year, the World Health Organization highlighted the urgent threat posed by these superbugs by releasing a list of the 12 most dangerous bacteria in terms of antibiotic resistance. (cnet.com)
  • Last year, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a list of 12 of the world's most dangerous superbugs - a move intended to underline them as the highest priorities for antibiotic research. (a-star.edu.sg)
  • The World Health Organization says antibiotic resistance is one of the leading public health threats on the planet. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The key are viruses known as phages - there are millions of different types of phages all around us which infect and destroy disease-causing bacteria. (loisrogers.com)
  • The downside is, if a doctor doesn't know exactly which species of bacteria is infecting a patient, he or she must create a cocktail of many different types of phages to ensure effectiveness. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Steffanie Strathdee, PhD, associate dean of global health sciences, Harold Simon Professor in the Department of Medicine and co-director of IPATH, said the planned trial is a natural progression from the first phage treatment at UC San Diego in 2017. (ucsd.edu)
  • The Food and Drug Administration in 2017 banned the use of antibiotics in food animal farming for growth promotion, but still allows its use for disease prevention, as long as the use is overseen by a veterinarian. (healthjournalism.org)
  • EDITOR'S NOTE: The figure showing the effect of phage therapy on mice was added on July 18, 2017. (gatech.edu)
  • Encouraged by the progress, UC San Diego Chancellor Pradeep Khosla last year awarded a three-year, $1.2 million grant to launch the Center for Innovative Phage Applications and Therapeutics (IPATH) in the UC San Diego School of Medicine, the first such center in North America. (ucsd.edu)
  • d'Herelle would later manufacture several commercial phage therapeutics , as would others in the United States such as the Eli Lilly Company, which in the 1940s developed phage products targeting staphylococci and E. coli, among others, though the effectiveness was cast in doubt. (folio.ca)
  • Shortly after in February 1961 the British Medical Journal cited Professor Jevons observation of the resistant pathogen that we now know as MRSA. (slideshare.net)
  • This trial represents a major step toward proving that CRISPR recombinant phage can reach into the human body and precisely remove a specific pathogen," said Paul Garofolo , Chief Executive Officer of Locus. (synbiobeta.com)
  • In 1923, a Georgian doctor named George Eliava set up the first phage therapy clinic, the Eliava Institute, in Tbilisi. (buzzfeed.com)
  • The world's oldest institute dedicated to the study and practice of phage therapy is in Tbilisi, the capital of the former Soviet Republic of Georgia. (scientificamerican.com)
  • She contacted Betty Kutter, a phage biologist at Seattle's Evergreen University who maintains close ties with Tbilisi. (scientificamerican.com)
  • When Motherboard met Guillonneau earlier this year, he had traveled from France to the Eliava Institute in Tbilisi, Georgia to try an alternative to antibiotic drugs called phage therapy. (cnet.com)
  • The fruits of his efforts survive to this day in Tbilisi, Georgia at the Phage Therapy Center , which welcomes patients from all over the world. (blogspot.com)
  • We've known how effective phages are for decades", explains Zemphira Alavidze, head of the phage morphology and biology laboratory at the Eliava Institute in Tbilisi , and one of the team that treated the woodsmen. (synthasite.com)
  • the pair later worked together in Tbilisi , where the Eliava Institute was founded in 1923. (synthasite.com)
  • Now, international grants are trickling in and employees at the sprawling institute on the edge of Tbilisi are beginning to strike up partnerships with commercial companies keen to push the potential of phages abroad. (synthasite.com)
  • The adaptive potential of the microbial world is such that for each new antibiotic that is introduced, several escape mechanisms are soon devised. (nytimes.com)
  • This prevalence of resistance, well before the use of antibiotics, denotes the importance of taking microbial chemical ecology and deep metagenomic profiling into account in the development and use of antibiotics. (jove.com)
  • Alongside a flurry of discoveries in the field of microbial antibiotics, the pharmacological industry achieved development of synthetic compounds that selectively block bacterial replication, thereby expanding the register of chemicals that can function as magic bullets. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The potential objections to the IV use of phages must be viewed in the context of the high mortality associated with certain severe infectious diseases such as typhoid and SA bacteraemia, both of which are reportedly treatable though IV phage therapy. (edu.au)
  • All of the patients tolerated phage therapy well without adverse effects," said Saima Aslam, MD, associate professor of medicine and medical director of the solid organ transplant infectious diseases service at UC San Diego Health. (newswise.com)
  • In March, the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases listed phage therapy as one of seven prongs in its plan to combat antibiotic resistance. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Antibiotics are without doubt one of the major medical discoveries of the 20 th century and have significantly contributed to the control of infectious diseases around the world. (the-gist.org)
  • In this episode: the rise of superbugs, why we ignored the warnings about them, how some are enlisting an old therapy to fight back, and whether we'll heed history's lessons in the face of a future pandemic. (bigpicturescience.org)
  • Recent studies predict that in 30 years, a death toll of 2.4 million people across Europe, North America, and Australia combined, will be due to antibiotic resistance and the rise of superbugs. (innakay.blog)
  • By 2050, an estimated 10 million people worldwide will die by superbug. (buzzfeed.com)
  • World health authorities are forecasting that antibiotic resistance will cause more deaths per year than cancer by 2050, with one estimate at 10 million by 2050 compared to eight million for cancer. (edu.au)
  • It is estimated that antibiotic resistant strains of micro-organisms will result in the death of at least 50 million people every year by 2050. (medindia.net)
  • We are still coming to terms with the problem but by 2050 the number of deaths due to superbugs is predicted to exceed cancer - and this is expected to be highest per capita in Asia," she said. (nzherald.co.nz)