Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Puerperal Infection: An infection occurring in PUERPERIUM, the period of 6-8 weeks after giving birth.Floxacillin: Antibiotic analog of CLOXACILLIN.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE;), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71)Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Post-Exposure Prophylaxis: The prevention of infection or disease following exposure to a pathogen.Gastrostomy: Creation of an artificial external opening into the stomach for nutritional support or gastrointestinal compression.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Cephradine: A semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Patient Isolators: Equipment used to prevent contamination of and by patients, especially those with bacterial infections. This includes plastic surgical isolators and isolators used to protect immunocompromised patients.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cefotetan: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Cefonicid: A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary: Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.New Caledonia: A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Antisepsis: The destruction of germs causing disease.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Appendectomy: Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Viridans Streptococci: A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Transurethral Resection of Prostate: Removal of all or part of the PROSTATE, often using a cystoscope and/or resectoscope passed through the URETHRA.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Surgical Mesh: Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.MycosesKnee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.

Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. (1/1047)

New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.  (+info)

Infections associated with dental procedures in total hip arthroplasty. (2/1047)

Dental procedures may lead to a transient bacteraemia lasting for up to 30 minutes. Of the numerous cases of total hip arthroplasty (THA) reported which have been infected from haematogenous sources, dental procedures have been involved only infrequently. We reviewed the records of 2973 patients after THA. Of the late infections identified in 52 patients, three (6%) were strongly associated with a dental procedure. Infection was diagnosed by culture from the affected joint; Streptococcus viridans was identified in two cases and Peptostreptococcus in one. One patient had diabetes mellitus and another rheumatoid arthritis, both conditions predisposing to infection. The dental operations all lasted for more than 45 minutes and no patient received perioperative antibiotics. Infection of a THA after dental procedures is more common than has been previously suspected. Patients with systemic disease, or who are undergoing extensive procedures, should be considered for prophylactic antibiotic treatment.  (+info)

Liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. (3/1047)

BACKGROUND: In patients with persistent fever and neutropenia, amphotericin B is administered empirically for the early treatment and prevention of clinically occult invasive fungal infections. However, breakthrough fungal infections can develop despite treatment, and amphotericin B has substantial toxicity. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing liposomal amphotericin B with conventional amphotericin B as empirical antifungal therapy. RESULTS: The mean duration of therapy was 10.8 days for liposomal amphotericin B (343 patients) and 10.3 days for conventional amphotericin B (344 patients). The composite rates of successful treatment were similar (50 percent for liposomal amphotericin B and 49 percent for conventional amphotericin B) and were independent of the use of antifungal prophylaxis or colony-stimulating factors. The outcomes were similar with liposomal amphotericin B and conventional amphotericin B with respect to survival (93 percent and 90 percent, respectively), resolution of fever (58 percent and 58 percent), and discontinuation of the study drug because of toxic effects or lack of efficacy (14 percent and 19 percent). There were fewer proved breakthrough fungal infections among patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (11 patients [3.2 percent]) than among those treated with conventional amphotericin B (27 patients [7.8 percent], P=0.009). With the liposomal preparation significantly fewer patients had infusion-related fever (17 percent vs. 44 percent), chills or rigors (18 percent vs. 54 percent), and other reactions, including hypotension, hypertension, and hypoxia. Nephrotoxic effects (defined by a serum creatinine level two times the upper limit of normal) were significantly less frequent among patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (19 percent) than among those treated with conventional amphotericin B (34 percent, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Liposomal amphotericin B is as effective as conventional amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with fever and neutropenia, and it is associated with fewer breakthrough fungal infections, less infusion-related toxicity, and less nephrotoxicity.  (+info)

Infective endocarditis and dentistry: outcome-based research. (4/1047)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of infective endocarditis has long been recommended for patients receiving dental care. Two studies of patients with endocarditis found limited risk associated with dental treatment. It is imperative that guidelines for therapy be based on outcome studies and on evidence of safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness.  (+info)

Review article: antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). (5/1047)

This review examines the evidence for antibiotic prophylaxis in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopan-creatography (ERCP), and provides detailed advice about suitable antibiotic regimens in appropriate high-risk patients. Ascending cholangitis and infective endocarditis are potential complications of endoscopic ERCP. The pathophysiology of these two complications is quite separate and different sub-groups of patients require prophylaxis with appropriate antibiotic regimens. Ascending cholangitis results from bacterial infection of an obstructed biliary system, usually from enteric Gram-negative microorganisms, resulting in bacteraemia. There is incomplete drainage of the biliary system after ERCP in up to 10% of patients who require stenting. Antibiotics started in these patients will probably reduce the frequency of cholangitis by 80%. If antibiotics are restricted to this group, approximately 90% of all patients having an ERCP will avoid antibiotics, but 80% of cholangitic episodes will be prevented. Infective endocarditis may result from the bacteraemia caused at the time of the ERCP in patients with an abnormal heart valve. Antibiotic prophylaxis, in particular covering alpha-haemolytic streptococci, should be started before the procedure in this defined high-risk group.  (+info)

Implementing a policy for pneumococcal prophylaxis in a haematology unit after splenectomy. (6/1047)

People who have had a splenectomy for any reason are 40 times more likely to have an overwhelming infection, especially pneumococcal infection, and 17 times more likely to suffer fatal sepsis. The incidence of such life threatening infections is reduced by prophylactic immunisation with polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine and long term antibiotic prophylaxis or instituting prompt antibiotic treatment in the event of fever. This haematology unit agreed a policy of immunisation and antibiotic prophylaxis in June 1988 for all patients undergoing elective splenectomy. The success of this policy was audited in July 1993 by a retrospective analysis of patients' case notes. Seventy four patients were identified as having had a splenectomy, 54 (73%) before June 1988, of whom only 13 (24%) had received both pneumococcal immunisation and antibiotic prophylaxis before implementation of the agreed policy. At the time of audit, 46/74 (62%) patients were recorded as having received immunisation and 64/74 (86%) as receiving antibiotic prophylaxis or a supply of antibiotics to take in the event of a fever. All but one of the 20 patients who had a splenectomy after June 1988, since implementation of the agreed policy, received immunisation and antibiotic prophylaxis. The authors conclude that establishment of a formal agreed policy for pneumococcal prophylaxis for patients undergoing splenectomy has improved the quality of care.  (+info)

Neutropenic infections in 100 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or Hodgkin's disease treated with high-dose BEAM chemotherapy and peripheral blood progenitor cell transplant: out-patient treatment is a viable option. (7/1047)

A retrospective analysis was performed on 100 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, n = 75) or Hodgkin's disease (HD, n = 25) who underwent peripheral blood progenitor cell transplant (PBPCT) following high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (BEAM) between March 1994 and June 1997. Following PBPCT and until engraftment all patients received oral ciprofloxacin and fluconazole, patients with positive Herpes simplex virus serology received acyclovir and 91 patients received filgrastim. The median days of neutropenia and days to an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >500/mm3 were 6 and 9, respectively. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 68 patients. Gram-positive bacteremia occurred in 14 patients. No gram-negative infections, invasive fungal infections, intensive care visits or deaths occurred during the period of neutropenia or in the first 30 days following transplant. In multivariate logistic regression the risk of development of any infection was associated only with the duration of neutropenia (P = 0.02) and the risk of bacteremia was associated only with the number of CD34+ cells infused (P = 0.046). Among 49 patients treated in the outpatient setting, 14 (28%) were never admitted. High-dose chemotherapy with BEAM supported by PBPCT, prophylactic antibiotics and filgrastim resulted in a low incidence of infections and no acute mortality. WBC engraftment occurred rapidly allowing for a predictable course during which lengthy hospital stays and amphotericin therapy could be avoided.  (+info)

Infective endocarditis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: prevalence, incidence, and indications for antibiotic prophylaxis. (8/1047)

BACKGROUND: The literature on infective endocarditis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is virtually confined to case reports. Consequently, the risk of endocarditis in HCM remains undefined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the occurrence of endocarditis in 810 HCM patients evaluated between 1970 and 1997. Endocarditis was diagnosed in 10 patients, 2 of whom were excluded from analysis of prevalence and incidence because they were referred for acute endocarditis. At first evaluation, echocardiographic features consistent with prior endocarditis were identified in 3 of 808 patients, a prevalence of 3.7 per 1000 patients (95% CI, 0.8 to 11). Of 681 patients who were followed, 5 developed endocarditis, an incidence of 1.4 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 0.5 to 3.2); outflow obstruction was present in each of these 5 patients and was associated with the risk of endocarditis (P=0.006). In the 224 obstructive patients, incidence of endocarditis was 3.8 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1.6 to 8.9) and probability of endocarditis 4. 3% at 10 years. Left atrial size was also associated with the risk of endocarditis (P=0.007). In patients with both obstruction and atrial dilatation (>/=50 mm), incidence of endocarditis increased to 9.2 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 2.5 to 23.5). Analysis of all 10 patients with endocarditis identified outflow obstruction in each and atrial dilatation in 7. CONCLUSIONS: Endocarditis in HCM is virtually confined to patients with outflow obstruction and is more common in those with both obstruction and atrial dilatation. These results indicate that antibiotic prophylaxis is required only in patients with obstructive HCM.  (+info)

*Clindamycin

Other antibiotics may be recommended instead due to this reason. It appears to be generally safe in pregnancy. It is of the ... more than just effective prophylaxis for endocarditis? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005 ;100:550-8 " ... Clindamycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes middle ear infections ... Lamont RF (2005). "Can antibiotics prevent preterm birth-the pro and con debate". BJOG. 112 (Suppl 1): 67-73. doi:10.1111/j. ...

*Group A streptococcal infection

Antibiotic therapy (using injected penicillin) has been shown to reduce the risk of acute rheumatic fever. In individuals with ... HOUSER HB, WANNAMAKER LW, RAMMELKAMP CH, DENNY FW, BRINK WR, HAHN EO, DINGLE JH (1950). "Prophylaxis of acute rheumatic fever ... Despite the emergence of antibiotics as a treatment for group A β-hemolytic streptococcus, infection of GAS is an increasing ... These may be effectively treated with antibiotics. Scarlet fever is also a non-invasive infection caused by GAS, although much ...

*Historical mortality rates of puerperal fever

Concept and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever. Translated by Carter, K. Codell. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-09364-6 ... and the few infections that do occur are usually treatable with antibiotics. Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis worked at the Vienna General ...

*Vesicoureteral reflux

Medical treatment entails low dose antibiotic prophylaxis until resolution of VUR occurs. Antibiotics are administered nightly ... The specific antibiotics used differ with the age of the patient and include: Amoxicillin or ampicillin - infants younger than ... A surgical approach is necessary in cases where a breakthrough infection results despite prophylaxis, or there is non- ... Minimizing infections is primarily done by prophylactic antibiotics in newborns and infants who are not potty trained. However ...

*Streptococcus agalactiae

The only reliable way to prevent EOD currently is intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), that is to say administration of ... There are two ways to identifying female candidates to receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis: a risk-based approach or a ... In 2008, after widespread use of antenatal screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), the CDC reported an ... GBS Intrapartum Antibiotic Investigator Group. (2017). "Intrapartum Antibiotic Chemoprophylaxis Policies for the Prevention of ...

*Antibiotic prophylaxis

Parenteral systemic antibiotics seem to be more appropriate than oral or topical antibiotics because the chosen antibiotics ... most commonly antibiotics). Antibiotic prophylaxis is most commonly used prior to surgery, however, may be used in other cases ... For prophylaxis in surgery, only antibiotics with good tolerability should be used. Cephalosporins remain the preferred drugs ... The American Heart Association (AHA) now recommends antibiotic prophylaxis for very few patients since only a small number of ...

*Dental antibiotic prophylaxis

... is the administration of antibiotics to a dental patient for prevention of harmful consequences ... Although there is little evidence to support antibiotic prophylaxis for dental treatment, the current AHA guidelines are highly ... Currently, there are official guidelines for dental antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of infective endocarditis and of ... In addition, there are various medical conditions for which clinicians recommended antibiotic prophylaxis, although there is no ...

*Index of oral health and dental articles

Dental antibiotic prophylaxis • Dental anesthesia • Dental arches • Dental assistant • Dental avulsion • Dental auxiliary • ...

*Leptospirosis

... and use of antibiotics increases antibiotics resistance. Pre-exposure prophylaxis may be beneficial for individuals traveling ... Brett-Major DM, Lipnick RJ (2009). "Antibiotic prophylaxis for leptospirosis". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): ... The antibiotic doxycycline, when used in an effort to prevent infection among travellers, is of unclear benefit. Vaccines for ... Effective antibiotics include penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin and doxycycline. In more severe cases cefotaxime or ...

*Endophthalmitis

A Cochrane Review sought to evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Christy NE, Sommer A (1979). "Antibiotic prophylaxis of postoperative ... Also, the review showed moderate evidence that antibiotic eye drops (levofloxacin or chloramphenicol) with antibiotic ... Even though antibiotics can have negative impacts on the retina in high concentrations, the facts that visual acuity worsens in ...

*Animal bite

"Antibiotic prophylaxis for mammalian bites". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD001738. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001738. PMID ... Debridement and drainage bite wounds was practiced in the pre-antibiotic era, but still had a high infection rate. Antibiotics ... Evidence for antibiotics to prevent infection in bites in other areas is not clear. The first choice is amoxicillin with ... "BestBets: Antibiotics in cat bites". Oehler RL, Velez AP, Mizrachi M, Lamarche J, Gompf S (2009). "Bite-related and septic ...

*Colostrum

Oct 2003). "Antibiotic prophylaxis: problems in paradise". Dent Clin North Am. 47 (4): 665-79. doi:10.1016/S0011-8532(03)00037- ... When antibiotics began to appear, interest in colostrum waned, but, now that antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens have ... Before the development of antibiotics, colostrum was the main source of immunoglobulins used to fight bacteria. In fact, when ... developed, interest is once again returning to natural alternatives to antibiotics, namely, colostrum. Some athletes have used ...

*Fine-needle aspiration

Antibiotic prophylaxis may be instituted. Before the procedure is started, vital signs (pulse, blood pressure, temperature, etc ... But should an infection occur, it will be treated with antibiotics. Bleeding is the most common complication of this procedure ...

*Phalloplasty

Gomelsky, A.; Dmochowski, RR (2003). "Antibiotic prophylaxis in urologic prosthetic surgery". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 9 ... antibiotic irrigation and antibiotic-coated implants. The "No-Touch" technique is unique in that it aims at preventing ... Paired with the antibiotic-coated implant, the "No Touch" Technique decreases infection to a rate of 0.46%, opposing the ... Carson, CC (2004). "Efficacy of antibiotic impregnation of inflatable penile prostheses in decreasing infection in original ...

*Dietmar Wittmann

Antibiotic concentration in tissue fluid during the vulnerable period as rational basis for prophylaxis of post-operative ... 1995: Dynamic Antibiotic Switching Therapy (DAST), a new form of antibiotic treatment: changing the antibiotic regimen every 24 ... Prophylaxis of postoperative infections. Infection, 19;S337-343, 1991. Condon RE, Wittmann DH: The Use of Antibiotics in ... Wittmann, DH, Schein, M: Let us shorten antibiotic prophylaxis and therapy in surgery. American Journal of Surgery. 172(6A):26S ...

*Caesarean section

Smaill, Fiona M.; Grivell, Rosalie M. (2014-10-28). "Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis for preventing infection ... Antibiotic prophylaxis is used before an incision. The uterus is incised, and this incision is extended with blunt pressure ... and routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infections is recommended. Infection can occur in around 8% of women who ... Taking antibiotics before skin incision rather than after cord clamping reduces the risk for the mother, without increasing ...

*Bacteremia

Antibiotic prophylaxis Dental antibiotic prophylaxis Fungemia Viremia Ochei; et al. "Pus Abscess and Wound Drain". Medical ... Treatment for bacteremia is with antibiotics, and prevention with antibiotic prophylaxis can be given in high risk situations. ... and any allergies to antibiotics. Empiric antibiotics should be narrowed, preferably to a single antibiotic, once the blood ... The choice of antibiotic is determined by the most likely source of infection and by the characteristic organisms that ...

*Norfloxacin

"Antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... 1998). "Norfloxacin primary prophylaxis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with ascites: a double-blind randomized ... Norfloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial agent that belongs to the class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. It is used to treat ... Norfloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It functions ...

*Orthognathic surgery

"Bacteremia After Oral Surgery and Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Endocarditis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 29 (1): 1-8. doi: ... Doctors will prescribe pain medication and prophylactic antibiotics to the patient. There is often a large amount of swelling ... and the consumption of antibiotics. Cleaning of the mouth should always be done regardless of surgery to ensure healthy, strong ... and effective way of minimizing threat of a bacterial infection is to prevent it at all costs with pre and post antibiotic ...

*Group B streptococcal infection

Currently, the only reliable way to prevent GBS-EOD is intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) - administration of antibiotics ... antibiotics for prevention and treatment" states: "Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis should be offered if group B ... Sutkin G, Krohn MA, Heine RP, Sweet RL (2005). "Antibiotic prophylaxis and non-group B streptococcal neonatal sepsis". Obstet. ... In 2008, after widespread use of antenatal screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, the Centers for Disease Control ...

*Erysipelas

See eMedicine link Koster JB, Kullberg BJ, van der Meer JW (March 2007). "Recurrent erysipelas despite antibiotic prophylaxis: ... Recurrence of infection: Erysipelas can recur in 18-30% of cases even after antibiotic treatment. A chronic state of recurrent ... Because of the risk of reinfection, prophylactic antibiotics are sometimes used after resolution of the initial condition. ... Depending on the severity, treatment involves either oral or intravenous antibiotics, using penicillins, clindamycin, or ...

*Chemotherapy

"Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy". The Cochrane Database ... The cytotoxic antibiotics are a varied group of drugs that have various mechanisms of action. The common theme that they share ... Although prophylaxis is available and is often initiated in patients with large tumors, this is a dangerous side-effect that ... The risk of illness and death can be reduced by taking common antibiotics such as quinolones or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole ...

*Endocarditis

"Antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Heart (British Cardiac Society). 103 ... Treatment is generally with intravenous antibiotics. The choice of antibiotics is based on the blood cultures. Occasionally ... The usefulness of antibiotics following dental procedures for prevention is unclear. Some recommend them in those at high risk ...

*Meningitis

Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is another method of prevention, particularly of meningococcal meningitis. In cases of ... Ratilal, BO; Costa, J; Pappamikail, L; Sampaio, C (28 April 2015). "Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing meningitis in ... some antibiotics have inadequate penetrance and therefore have little use in meningitis. Most of the antibiotics used in ... For an antibiotic to be effective in meningitis it must not only be active against the pathogenic bacterium but also reach the ...

*Basilar skull fracture

Ratilal, Bernardo O; Costa, João; Pappamikail, Lia; Sampaio, Cristina; Ratilal, Bernardo O (2015). "Antibiotic prophylaxis for ... Preventative antibiotics are of unclear use. It occurs in about 12% of people with a severe head injury. Battle's sign -- ... "Antibiotics in base of skull fractures". BestBets. Retrieved 2014-03-22. Resnick, Daniel K.; Subach, Brian R.; Marion, Donald W ... Evidence does not support the use of preventative antibiotics regardless of the presence of a cerebral spinal fluid leak. Non- ...

*Childbirth

Buppasiri, P; Lumbiganon, P; Thinkhamrop, J; Thinkhamrop, B (Oct 7, 2014). "Antibiotic prophylaxis for third- and fourth-degree ... There is tentative evidence that antibiotics may help prevent wound infections in women with third or fourth degree tears. ...

*Cefoxitin

Buppasiri, Pranom; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Thinkhamrop, Bandit (2014-10-07). "Antibiotic prophylaxis for ... As with any antibiotic, it should not be given to patients who are allergic to it. Cefoxitin is used to treat: Skin infections ... It was synthesized in order to create an antibiotic with a broader spectrum. It is often grouped with the second-generation ... This PBP has a lower binding affinity for penicillin-based antibiotics such as cefoxitin and will continue to cross-link the ...
BACKGROUND: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis may prevent infection following renal transplantation but it also contributes to development of resistant microorganisms. With refined surgical techniques, improved graft preservation, and immunosuppressive monitoring during recent decades one can question the present use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. We retrospectively evaluated the incidence of infection in our renal transplant centre where antibiotic prophylaxis is not routinely used in renal recipients. Concurrently we performed a survey of perioperative antibiotic use to establish the current world-wide practice. METHODS: Infection episodes were evaluated from records of 448 adult renal transplant recipients (January 1994 to August 1996) at our centre. A questionnaire was mailed to 103 centres addressing the number of kidney transplantations in 1995, donor source (living vs cadaveric) and details on use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. RESULTS: Single-centre study. Renal ...
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common serious complications after surgery and associated with preventable morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. The use of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is an effective measure that helps to protect against SSIs. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of surgical staff towards preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery department at an academic tertiary hospital in Sudan. An observational descriptive study was conducted among doctors in the surgery department at an academic tertiary hospital in Sudan in order to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) towards surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP). A four-section multiple-choice questionnaire was designed and hand-delivered to registered doctors in the surgery department at an academic tertiary hospital in Sudan. The WHO guidelines were used to evaluate the answers of the participants. Out of 56 doctors requested to participate in
Prolapse of the uterus, bladder and rectum is a common condition in multiparous and/or elderly women. The number of operations for vaginal repair is increasing in Denmark, but there is no consensus or evidence found about the efficiency of prophylactic antibiotics intraoperatively concerning postoperative infections.. The objective of this randomized, controlled trial is to investigate the significance of prophylactic antibiotic treatment in vaginal repair operations. ...
Prolapse of the uterus, bladder and rectum is a common condition in multiparous and/or elderly women. The number of operations for vaginal repair is increasing in Denmark, but there is no consensus or evidence found about the efficiency of prophylactic antibiotics intraoperatively concerning postoperative infections.. The objective of this randomized, controlled trial is to investigate the significance of prophylactic antibiotic treatment in vaginal repair operations. ...
Background The incidence of surgical site infection in bariatric patients is significant and the current recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis are sometimes inadequate. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of three prophylactic antibiotic regimens on the incidence of surgical site infection. Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and January 2013 in which 896 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses were performed to treat obesity. The study compared three groups of patients according to the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis administered intravenously and beginning at anesthesia induction: Group I consisting of 194 patients treated with two 3-g doses of ampicillin/sulbactam; Group II with 303 patients treated with a single 1-g dose of ertapenem; and Group III with 399 patients treated with a 2-g dose of cefazolin at anesthesia induction followed by a continuous infusion of cefazolin 1g throughout the surgical procedure. The rate of surgical ...
Synonyms for Antibiotic prophylaxis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Antibiotic prophylaxis. 2 words related to prophylaxis: prevention, bar. What are synonyms for Antibiotic prophylaxis?
Background: Prophylactic antibiotic therapy is given routinely in the peri-operative period to prevent surgical site infection. However, in pediatric cardiac surgery, an optimal schedule has not been defined. Pediatric recommendations follow the guidelines for adults, which might be improper because of the inherent challenges in pediatric research and the heterogeneity of the population. Implementation of an effective prophylaxis protocol is needed for children undergoing cardiac surgery, especially in view of worldwide antibiotic overuse and the development of drug resistance. In this review, we analyze the current knowledge supported by up-to-date publications about antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatric cardiac surgery.. Methods: The PubMed® database was searched for full-text journal articles describing peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatric cardiac surgery published since 2000. Antibiotics used for standard prophylaxis with dosing schema, time of the first dose, additional dosage ...
Antibacterial prophylaxis after chemotherapy for solid tumors and lymphomas BACKGROUND: The role of prophylactic antibacterial agents after chemotherapy remains controversial. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients who were receiving cyclic chemotherapy for solid tumors or lymphoma and who were at risk for temporary, severe neutropenia (fewer than 500 neutrophils per cubic millimeter). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 500 mg of levofloxacin once daily or matching placebo for seven days during the expected neutropenic period. The primary outcome was the incidence of clinically documented febrile episodes (temperature of more than 38 degreesC) attributed to infection. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of all probable infections, severe infections, and hospitalization but did not include a systematic evaluation of antibacterial resistance. RESULTS: A total of 1565 patients underwent randomization (784 to placebo and 781 to ...
PARITY is the first ever multi-centre, international, prospective randomized trial in the field of orthopaedic oncology. The trial will enroll 600 patients and compare the rates of deep infection in endoprosthetic reconstruction of the lower limb between two post-operative prophylactic antibiotic durations (24 hours and 5 days).. The risk for deep infection is at least 10 times higher in sarcoma reconstructive surgery than in non-cancer reconstructive surgery. Deep infection has devastating effects for patients, often resulting in limb amputation. The research question is based on longstanding uncertainty about the prophylactic antibiotic needs of patients undergoing limb salvage of the lower extremity with endoprosthetic reconstruction. A survey of orthopaedic oncologists determined that although the practice of antibiotic prophylaxis varies from surgeon to surgeon, there is overwhelming support for a randomized trial to answer this clinical question.. Hospitals from around the world are ...
Background: Although it has been a popular practice to use preventative antibiotics for the kidney recipients, it could increase the cost, encourage the growth of resistant micro-organism and have adverse effects. There has been no reported concrete evidence about the benefits and risks of using peri-operative prophylactic antibiotics for an immunosuppressed population. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the differences in the incidences of bacterial infection and adverse events after transplant surgery according to using peri-operative prophylactic antibiotics ...
Background: To measure rates of incisional surgical site infection (ISSI) after cesarean section (CS) and to assess risks for infection. Methods: Prospective surveillance for ISSI at a 540-bed hospital in Saudi Arabia by using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions for infection and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system risk index. Results: Seven hundred thirty-five CSs were studied from September 1998 to July 1999; 72% were emergency procedures, despite a 95% rate of antenatal care. The overall ISSI rate was 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%-4.3%). The rate for NNIS risk category 0 was 2.4% (95% CI, 1.3%-4.2%; n = 536) and for category 1 was 4.1% (95% CI, 1.8%-8.6%; n = 170). In the multivariate analysis, the only independent risks for ISSI were duration of surgery (OR = 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P =.02) and no antibiotic prophylaxis (OR = 3.09; 95% CI, 1.10-9.11; P =.04). Antibiotic prophylaxis was inconsistently administered among both emergency ...
A total of 11 randomised controlled trials (2867 participants) were included in the review. No new studies were identified in this update. All studies included breast cancer patients and were based in the hospital setting. Ten studies evaluated preoperative antibiotic compared with no antibiotic or placebo. One study evaluated perioperative antibiotic compared with placebo or no antibiotic. Pooling of the results demonstrated that prophylactic antibiotics administered preoperatively probably reduce the incidence of SSI for patients undergoing breast cancer surgery without reconstruction (pooled risk ratio (RR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0.85; moderate certainty evidence). Anticipated absolute effects were calculated for the outcome incidence of SSI; 105 per 1000 for the none or placebo group and 71 per 1000 (95% CI 56 to 89) for the preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis group. Analysis of the single study comparing perioperative antibiotic with no antibiotic was inconclusive for ...
OBJECTIVES: Misuse of antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis is still quite common. The objectives of this study were to reduce the quantity and improve the quality of surgical prophylaxis and to reduce costs. METHODS: Prospective multi-site study of elective procedures in 13 Dutch hospitals. The quality of prophylaxis was audited before and after an intervention consisting of performance feedback and implementation of national clinical practice guidelines. Process outcome parameters were antibiotic choice, duration, timing, antibiotic volume and costs. Segmented regression analysis was used to estimate the effect size of the intervention. Patient outcome was documented by the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI). RESULTS: Before the intervention, 1763 procedures were recorded and 2050 thereafter. Antimicrobial use decreased from 121 to 79 DDD (defined daily doses)/100 procedures and costs reduced by 25% per procedure. After the intervention, antibiotic choice was inappropriate in only 37.5% ...
During the period of neutropenia due to chemotherapy, patients have high risk of infections. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce neutropenia-related complications in oncologic patients is still disputed. Recent meta-analysis and clinical trials demonstrated that antibiotic prophylaxis with chinolons reduces fever episodes, bacterial infections and mortality in adult oncologic patients with neutropenia due to chemotherapy for acute leukaemia. In paediatric patients, the only randomized, double-blind, prospective study up till now suggested that Amoxicillin clavulanate may represent an effective prophylactic treatment to reduce fever and infections in oncologic children with neutropenia, with an efficacy statistically demonstrated only in patients with acute leukaemia. Considering the risk of resistances, antibiotic-prophylaxis should be used only in selected patients ...
It is common practice among dentists to instruct their patients to take antibiotics before their scheduled dental procedure - from tooth extraction to a root canal treatment. This is often referred to as antibiotic prophylaxis (prophylaxis also means prevention or preventive treatment). Here at our South Florida aesthetic dentistry practice, we get a lot of queries from patients concerning antibiotic prophylaxis. We explain such practice below.. Why Premedicate with Antibiotics?. First of all, your body is actually made up of bacteria, more or less trillions of them. Not all bacteria are bad for you though. As a matter of fact, there are certain types of bacteria which prevents you from getting sick. But that would be another story.. When a dental procedure is done, say a wisdom tooth extraction, you increase the chances of your "bad bacteria" proliferating in your mouth due to certain factors such as age in which your immune system gets weaker. When the bad bacteria in your mouth increases in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An international survey of practice variation in the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in cesarean section. AU - Huskins, W. C.. AU - Ba-Thike, K.. AU - Festin, M. R.. AU - Limpongsanurak, S.. AU - Lumbiganon, P.. AU - Peedicayil, A.. AU - Purwar, M.. AU - Shenoy, S.. AU - Goldmann, D. A.. AU - Tolosa, Jorge. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Objective: To examine the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in cesarean section in different countries and in relation to a reference regimen. Method: Fifty consecutive cesarean sections performed in eight centers in five countries were surveyed. Data from each center were compared to a regimen recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration (one dose of ampicillin or cefazolin administered to all women shortly before the procedure or immediately after cord clamping) using logistic regression with adjustment for procedure type. Result: Prophylaxis was used widely, but only four centers administered prophylaxis to all women. Ampicillin and cefazolin were the ...
Results 37 patients were included in the study, with an average age of 45 years. 20 were female. In the analysis of PAP, compliance was: 76% in clean surgery, 100% in clean/contaminated surgery and 89% in contaminated surgery. The reasons for failure were: unnecessary administration of PAP in clean surgery (83%) and selection of the wrong antibiotic agent (17%). In 4 patients the duration of prophylaxis was not appropriate and exceeded 48 h after surgery but was justified in 2 cases. Moreover, interventions with expected mild to moderate pain (92%) were treated properly, but in 4 patients supplemental rescue analgesics were omitted. In moderate-severe (3%) and severe (5%) pain, an analgesic regimen was always adequate. No VAS records were found. The prescription of an antiemetic regimen was fulfilled in 60.71% of cases. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Infective Endocarditis. AU - Peterson, Gail E.. AU - Crowley, Anna Lisa. PY - 2019/7/16. Y1 - 2019/7/16. KW - antibiotic prophylaxis. KW - Editorials. KW - infective endocarditis. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85069934299&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85069934299&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.041085. DO - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.041085. M3 - Editorial. C2 - 31306069. AN - SCOPUS:85069934299. VL - 140. SP - 181. EP - 183. JO - Circulation. JF - Circulation. SN - 0009-7322. IS - 3. ER - ...
The PRO-IMPLANT Foundation is committed to supporting research, education, global networking and care of patients with bone, joint or implant infection.
For these patients, any dental procedure may cause bleeding, and prophylactic antibiotic administration is recommended as a preventive measure.. Other patients who require prophylactic antibiotics The American Association of Endodontists extends recommendations to patients who have undergone joint replacement surgery within the past two years, suffer from type 1 diabetes, or have immune deficiencies from diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, or HIV; cancer patients whose immune systems are suppressed because of radiation or chemotherapy; people who have had organ transplants; and hemophiliacs.. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry also includes people who suffer from sickle cell anemia, as well as patients who suffer from conditions that require chronic steroid therapy.. Typical endodontic procedures for which antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended include root canal therapy (when it involves going deeper than the root apex), surgical tooth extractions, and any other dental, ...
An epidemiological survey of the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in Italian hospitals was carried out under the auspices of the Journal of Chemotherapy. Out of 500 Italian orthopedic centers requested, 225 have participated in this study. A total of 136,321 surgical procedures were reported in the 166 centers reporting complete answers on type of surgery. They comprised hip and knee prosthesis (13.9\%), spine surgery (4\%), hip endoprosthesis (5.2\%), osteosynthesis (26.9\%), arthroscopy (24.4\%), and others (25.5\%). Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis was used in 75\% of operations (ranging from 57.1\% to 99.4\% in arthroscopy and joint prosthesis, respectively). Short term (, 24 h) antimicrobial prophylaxis was performed in 38.4\% of the 206 Centers answering this question correctly. 61.1\% of Centers employed single agent prophylaxis. 70.8\% of these prescriptions were betalactam antibiotics. Bacteriological analysis of the wound in 86 Centers (total number of isolates 2013) revealed ...
Antibiotics have a well-documented efficacy in the treatment of established infections and as prophylactic agents in medically compromised patients. However, the systematic administration of antibiotics to prevent local infections in fit patients is much more controversial. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the justification for prophylactic usage of antibiotics to prevent wound infection and to reason out the most appropriate antibiotic guidelines taking into account available scientific data and studies by other authors. Numerous clinical trials question the efficacy of antibiotics in preventing wound infection. While some studies establish that antibiotics reduce the incidence of postoperative infections, others compare their efficacy to that of placebo. Thus, scientific literature suggests that every oral surgical intervention is not tributary of systematic antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent local infections. Intrinsic surgical risk factors and the patients individual circumstances must ...
medwireNews: Antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk for urinary tract infection (UTI) after the removal of a urinary catheter, suggest
Pre-clinical animal models and clinical trials have demonstrated the inter-relationships between bacterial infections and onset of graft-versus-host disease (GV...
These recommendations represented a major departure from the traditional practice of IE prophylaxis. The committee wanted to shift emphasis away from a focus on antibiotic prophylaxis prior to a single procedure to recommendations that place a much greater emphasis on improved access to dental care and oral health in patients with underlying cardiac conditions. "High-risk" patients were defined not on the basis of an increased risk for IE, but rather on an increased risk of an adverse outcome should they develop endocarditis.. The new guideline, which generated considerable controversy among physicians, dentists, and patients, represented a paradigm shift from traditional dogma and was based on expert consensus rather than on any compelling new data or evidence. In fact, one might argue that it was really a consensus document-and not an evidence-based guideline.. Health care providers have been reluctant to stop a practice that they had been taught was necessary to prevent a devastating event ...
At Erasmus, our vision is to become the leading Professional Congress Organiser in Greece and one of the top ten Professional Congress Organisers globally, while conducting our business with professionalism, ethics and responsibility towards our people (personnel), our clients and the society ...
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of experimental and clinical pharmacology. Articles focusing on, but not limited to, biochemical pharmacology, drug mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology will be considered.
Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) is considered one of the most effective measures for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). An ECDC commissioned Systematic review and evidence-based guidance on perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was performed to identify effective measures to improve compliance with PAP among healthcare professionals. The ...
Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) is considered one of the most effective measures for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). An ECDC commissioned Systematic review and evidence-based guidance on perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was performed to identify effective measures to improve compliance with PAP among healthcare professionals. The ...
Inappropriate use of prophylactic antibiotics can increase the rates of surgical site wound infections, lead to the development of resistant organisms and to increased health care costs. Despite widespread knowledge of standard antibiotic prophylaxis protocols (SAPs) in implant surgeries, it is thought that many Nigerian surgeons do not comply. The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness of Nigerian orthopaedic surgeons of SAPs in implant surgeries and their compliance. This was an observational study done using a questionnaire to collect data from orthopaedic surgeons at the National Orthopaedic Association annual conference held at Lokoja, Nigeria in November 2013. There were 66 respondents divided into 56 consultants and ten surgical residents. Most respondents were aware of standard guidelines for the use of prophylactic antibiotics (86.36 %). Many of them (63.63 %) did not know the average rate of infection following implant surgery in their institutions. Compliance with SAPs was found
Did you know that getting your teeth cleaned can kill you? Ok, thats really not true (except in extremely rare, freak circumstances), but since todays post is somewhat boring and unimaginative, I had to draw you in with what real journalists call a "hook", and what hack writers like me call "click bait." Looks like it worked. Most of the […] Antibiotic Prophylaxis For Dental Procedures Grant Ritchey ...
In response to Dr. Jacobsons letter, although 27 participants did receive antibiotic prophylaxis, they constituted only 21% of the 127 participants who had dental treatment in the 3-month period. More important, among those with indications for antibiotics (that is, patients with previously known cardiac valve abnormalities undergoing dental work), only 17 of 29 (59%) case-patients with dental treatment received antibiotic prophylaxis, compared with 3 (50%) of 6 controls (P = 1.0). In fact, the unadjusted odds ratio for the association between dental therapy and infective endocarditis was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.01 to 9.6) among those with antibiotic prophylaxis, compared with 0.3 (CI, 0.01 to 4.2) among those without antibiotic prophylaxis. Thus, not only were our results not due to widespread use of prophylaxis, but they also did not suggest a protective effect ...
Compare risks and benefits of common medications used for Surgical Prophylaxis. Find the most popular drugs, view ratings, user reviews, and more...
Researchers are warning against routine antibiotic prophylaxis with intravitreal injection after finding that the practice can increase the antibiotic resistance of ocular surface flora. Full Story →. ...
Smaill, F. and Hofmeyr, G.J. (2010) Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, Article ID CD000933.
Gillespie WJ, Walenkamp GHIM. Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD000244. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000244.pub2. ...
Soares-Weiser K, Brezis M, Tur-Kaspa R, Leibovici L. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(2):CD002907 (latest version 24 Jan 2002). 12076458 (All 2002 articles were reviewed for relevancy, and abstracts were last revised in 2008 ...
Use of preexposure antibiotic prophylaxis for syphilis control has been limited by concerns about acceptability and adverse behavioral effects
To determine the impact that abatacept will make on the incidence of early, severe acute GVHD (aGvHD), when it is added to a standard GvHD prophylaxis regimen during unrelated-donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for patients with hematologic malignancies ...
10-20% for FL per cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Giving oral prophylactic antibiotics to SCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy is the dominant strategy in both GE and NL, demonstrating both cost-savings and superior efficacy. The sensitivity analyses demonstrate that, due to the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics and their low unit cost, cost savings will incur over a broad range of baseline risks for FL. We recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in patients at risk for FL during chemotherapy ...
14 November 2017. Using antibiotics to prevent surgical site infections is the most common indication for antimicrobial use in Australian hospitals. However, there are high rates of inappropriate use.. 40% of prescriptions for surgical prophylaxis were found to be inappropriate in the 2015 National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey. This is problematic because it contributes to overuse of antibiotics, and exposes patients to potential adverse effects.. During World Antibiotic Awareness Week (13-19 November), a special release article from Australian Prescriber urges health professionals to conserve the usefulness of antibiotics by practising appropriate antimicrobial prescribing during surgery.. One of the authors, Professor Karin Thursky, Director of the National Centre for Antimicrobial Stewardship, says a common finding is that patients are continued on oral antibiotics after surgery. There may be several reasons for this, but it may be driven by individual surgeons beliefs that it helps ...
Background: Bacteriuria with gram-negative bacilli and enterococci following kidney transplantation (KT) is common and has been linked to poor outcomes, including graft rejection. In 2012, our KT surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis protocol was changed from cefazolin to ampicillin-sulbactam in an attempt to decrease enterococcal urinary tract infections.. Methods: Urine isolates (ISO) for 1 year after transplant for 1165 KTs from 2007-2011 and 587 KTs from 2013-2015 were reviewed. KTs during 2012 were excluded as a protocol transition period. The first ISO of each organism per KT recipient was included. ISO were stratified by time post-KT. We aimed to compare rates of bacteriuria and organisms isolated as well as graft survival before and after the protocol switch. Results: KT recipients were 62% male with a median age of 51 years (range 18-84) and were similar between the two time periods. There were 555 ISO from 377 patients from 2007-2011 and 300 ISO from 196 patients from 2013-2015. There was ...
In discussing research at the 2014 AUA annual meeting, Anthony J. Schaeffer, MD, called attention to an important paper concerning urinary tract infection in children, as well as another study showing that antimicrobial prophylaxis after surgery is subject to considerable variation.
The increasing prevalence of resistant Gram-positive pathogens, notably methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), has prompted many surgeons to
... is a chapter in the book, Surgery, containing the following 3 pages: Solid Organ Transplant, Nutrition in Wound Healing, Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis.
What are our options for cataract surgical antibiotic prophylaxis and what limits them? How do I know if a compounding pharmacys products are safe?. Category: Press Releases ...
In patients whom prophylaxis is recommended, the type of procedure should be accounted for as not all procedures will require prophylaxis. Invasive procedures which involve oral mucosa and respiratory tissues will require prophylaxis, whereas antibiotics are no longer recommended for gastrointestinal or genitourinary procedures.. Student: Prophylaxis antibiotic in the prevention of IE in patient with valvular heart diseases was previously recommended for all dental, GI and GU procedures. This is base on the risk of bacterimia in these procedures. Dental procedure has high ri…sk of streptococci bacterimia. GI and GU procedures has high risk of enterococci bacterimia. Thus it has been many years that antibiotic prophylaxis was given in these procedures.. The recent guide lines by AHA in year 2007 recommended that antibiotics prophylaxis for any dental procedure was only recommended in patient with highest risk of adverse outcome from IE. These conditions include 1) prosthetic heart valve, ...
Antibiotic resistance.. It is extremely important to use such antibiotics at the right time. The first dose of a chosen drug should be given before the procedure. Usually, it is recommended to take it within thirty minutes before the operation. Generally, the administration after the surgery is not recommended.. Before you are prescribed with a certain antibiotic for prophylaxis, you should tell your healthcare provider if you use any other medications, which is important to avoid drug interaction.. If you do not have an urgent surgery, you can talk to your healthcare provider and find out all the relevant information on a particular prophylactic antibiotic, such as side effects, warnings, drug interaction, etc.. What Medications Can Be Used for Prophylaxis?. The needed medication is chosen only by your healthcare provider based on a range of factors, but the following are the most commonly used drugs for prophylaxis:. • Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim ...
Infection prophylaxis is the idea of using antibiotics and other infection-fighting medications prior to the infection occurring to help prevent it.
Prophylaxis is the prevention of an occurrence. In surgery this is usually infection or thromboembolism (Occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus that has broken away from a blood clot formed within a blood vessel). Prophylaxis used to prevent the occurrence of bacterial infection is quite different from treating an established infection. Continue reading →. ...
Meet global experts in Antibiotics research at Antibiotics Summit 2018. Network with researchers from pharma, biopharma industries and physicians. This Antibiotics Summit 2018 will discuss all current perspectives relating to antibiotics and antibiotics resistances.
Prophylactic antibiotics significantly reduce the risk of serious bacterial infections in children during the critical first month of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common childhood cancer, according to a US and Canadian study led by investigators from Dana-Farber/Boston Childrens Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. While the overall cure rate for ALL is high, about one to two percent of children with this diagnosis die during the first month of therapy from treatment complications, primarily infection-related.
Bacteremia means that bacteria have entered the bloodstream. These bacteria can cause infection in other parts of the body, but the immune system is usually
Meet leading Antibiotics Experts, Food Safety Experts, Researchers, Doctors, Health Specialists from Netherlands, New York, Spain, Germany, India, Dubai, UK, Chicago, France, China, all over the world at Antibiotics 2018 slated on June 14-15, 2018 Barcelona, Spain
Reviews and ratings for fluzone when used in the treatment of influenza prophylaxis. Share your experience with this medication by writing a review.
Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the use of antibiotics before certain dental and medical procedures to prevent endocarditis, an infection caused by bacteria that enters the bloodstream and settles in the heart lining, a heart valve or a blood vessel. The American Heart Association recommends antibiotic prophylaxis only for patients at the highest risk for endocarditis.. ...
Perio Horizons Dental Health Page discusses important topics for the dental consumer and the health care provider and offer advice on treatment, prevention, and wellness.
SBU, Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärdering, har i uppdrag att utvärdera metoder och insatser som används i hälso- och sjukvården och socialtjänsten.
Comment:The significant rise in symptomatic and asymptomatic STIs in recent years is having a huge impact on clinical practice. Many practices struggle to manage additional presentations to test and treat those with STI symptoms and to organise treat
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The long-term outlook is very good if youre otherwise healthy. If youve had your spleen removed, however, youll always be more susceptible to certain infections and you may need vaccinations and prophylactic antibiotics for the rest of your life.. The rise of antibiotic resistance makes prophylactic antibiotics controversial. However, certain people should be strongly considered for these preventive measures. This includes children who are younger than 5 years old. If youve had a splenectomy less than a year ago or you have an underlying immunodeficiency, you should also be considered for prophylactic antibiotics.. Your doctor will come up with a plan to help you stay healthy after your spleen is removed.. ...
The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze published studies that have evaluated disparities for opportunistic infection (OI) prophylaxis between blacks and whites with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
This article appears in the January/February print issue of Surgical Products.. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that each year more than 2 million hospitalized patients contract a Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI), resulting in approximately 100,000 deaths. In September 2013, the CDC released new evidence of emergent antimicrobial resistance threats and categorized them into categories of urgency. According to the new report, at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections.. It is standard practice for many surgical procedures to administer antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce the risk of a surgical site infection. However, with this routine practice comes potential risk for antimicrobial resistance. Hospitals are notorious over-users of antibiotics, many of which are unnecessary, such as those used to "treat" viral infections or blood ...
Prophylactic and curative use of antibiotics was studied prospectively in 87 consecutive medical and surgical cases of a tertiary care hospital and in 98 cases of a primary care hospital. Based on Kunins criteria, antibiotic prophylaxis was found to be more inappropriate in the primary care hospital 49% than in the tertiary care hospital 34%....
You may have heard that some people should take antibiotics before they visit the dentist for a cleaning or extractions. This is called antibiotic prophylaxis. But the rules have changed in recent years.
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Cancer, Patients, Prostate, Prostate Cancer, Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Biopsies, Biopsy, Cancers, Prostate Cancers, Rectal Cancer, Surgery, Cell, Cell Membrane, Cells, Gleason Score, Kaplan-meier Analysis, Lymphocytes, Membrane, Membrane Protein, Pca
... is the prevention of an occurrence. In surgery this is usually infection or thromboembolism (Occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus that has broken away from a blood clot formed within a blood vessel). Prophylaxis used to prevent the occurrence of bacterial infection is quite different from treating an established infection. Continue reading →. ...
Description of disease Vaginal itching. Treatment Vaginal itching. Symptoms and causes Vaginal itching Prophylaxis Vaginal itching
Description of disease Therapy, family. Treatment Therapy, family. Symptoms and causes Therapy, family Prophylaxis Therapy, family
About one-third to one-half of all antibiotics used in hospitals is for surgical prophylaxis; however, 30 to 90 percent of this use is inappropriate. The Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) recently conducted a study in Jordanian hospitals that provided data on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis practices, including for cesarean section. The study findings indicated that these practices could be improved. In the context of the JFDAs study findings and recommendations, the U.S. Agency for International Development-funded Strengthening Pharmaceutical Systems (SPS) program, and its follow-on Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS), provided technical assistance to help strengthen practices regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean sections at three Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals in Jordan-Prince Hussein Hospital, Prince Faisal Hospital, and Dr. Jameel Al Totanji Hospital.. Files for Download: ...
Infections in orthopedic surgery are large problem in the medicine and are present all around the world.The main objective of the antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopedic surgeries is to prevent infection during the surgical intervention with antimicrobial agent that is safe, effective, and has a spectrum of activity that covers the most common pathogens that may occur during surgical procedures. Rational use of antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopedic surgeries has an important role in the prevention of the surgical infection. Patients who have undergone orthopedic surgery represent a high-risk group for postoperative infection. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A validated measure of adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease. AU - Duncan, Natalie A.. AU - Kronenberger, William. AU - Hampton, Kisha C.. AU - Bloom, Ellen M.. AU - Rampersad, Angeli G.. AU - Roberson, Christopher P.. AU - Shapiro, Amy D.. PY - 2016/6/8. Y1 - 2016/6/8. N2 - Background: Antibiotic prophylaxis is a mainstay in sickle cell disease management. However, adherence is estimated at only 66%. This study aimed to develop and validate a Sickle Cell Antibiotic Adherence Level Evaluation (SCAALE) to promote systematic and detailed adherence evaluation. Methods: A 28-item questionnaire was created, covering seven adherence areas. General Adherence Ratings from the parent and one health care provider and medication possession ratios were obtained as validation measures. Results: Internal consistency was very good to excellent for the total SCAALE (α=0.89) and four of the seven subscales. Correlations between SCAALE scores and validation ...
BRAND, Martin and BIZOS, Damon. Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: A survey of South African endoscopists and review of the literature. S. Afr. j. surg. [online]. 2009, vol.47, n.1, pp.10-13. ISSN 2078-5151.. BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is controversial. We set out to assess the current antibiotic prescribing practice among South African endoscopists who perform ERCPs, and then reviewed international guidelines and relevant studies. METHODS: Our audit of South African endoscopists who perform ERCPs took the form of a questionnaire. For the literature review a Pubmed search was performed from 1978 to March 2008, and these findings were compared with the current practice in South Africa. RESULTS: No specific protocols were being implemented widely in South Africa, and there was a marked difference in the practice between surgical and medical gastroenterologists, ...
PurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate need for antibiotic prophylaxis for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver tumors in patients with no significant co-existing risk factors for infection.Materials and MethodsFrom January 2004 to September 2013, 83 patients underwent 123 percutaneous RFA procedures for total of 152 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions. None of the patients had pre-existing biliary enteric anastomosis (BEA) or any biliary tract abnormality predisposing to ascending biliary infection or uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. No pre- or post-procedure antibiotic prophylaxis was provided for 121 procedures. Data for potential risk factors were reviewed retrospectively and analyzed for the frequency of infectious complications, including abscess formation.ResultsOne patient (1/121 (0.8 %) RFA sessions) developed a large segment 5 liver abscess/infected biloma communicating with the gallbladder 7 weeks after the procedure, successfully treated over 10 weeks with IV and PO ...
New drug regimens are needed for effective prophylaxis and treatment of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in northeastern Papua. Mefloquine and doxycycline, two standard prophylactic drugs, had high prophylactic efficacy in northeastern Papua but they have limited application for two vulnerable groups, young children and pregnant women. Azithromycin, an azalide antibiotic, had a prophylactic efficacy of 83% against P. falciparum in malaria immune Kenyans. If successful in non immunes, it would be a significant addition to the current prophylactic drugs. Chloroquine, the current first line drug in northeastern Papua, is associated with high rates of treatment failure for falciparum and vivax malaria. Cure rates might be improved by combining with chloroquine with doxycycline, two drugs that are inexpensive and widely available. Methods. Two clinical trials were conducted. (1). The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum and P. vivax was ...
ABSTRACT: In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revised its guidelines for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease. Although universal screening at 35-37 weeks of gestation and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis continue to be the basis of the prevention strategy, these new guidelines contain important changes for clinical practice. The Committee on Obstetric Practice endorses the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, and recognizes that even complete implementation of this complex strategy will not eliminate all cases of early-ons... ...
To assess the effects of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing surgical site infections in people undergoing open reduction with or without internal fixation of trauma-induced maxillofacial fractures, and if possible to determine the most effective antibiotic type, dosage and duration.. ...
It is generally well established that dental cares cause bacteremia, and that most are due to streptococcal strains [1,2]. It is, consequently, reasonable to think that prescribing antibiotics before dental cares decreases the incidence of such bacteremia. Globally, the discordant results between the different kinds of studies analyzed in the paper by Cahill et al. [1] are clearly insufficient to conclude that antibiotic prophylaxis prevents bacteremia due to streptococci. In our view, this observation can be explained by the fact that dental care is not the only cause of streptococcal bacteremia. Indeed, such bacteremia are extremely common, and it has been demonstrated that they can occur after chewing and after brushing in patients with periodontitis (cumulatively in 25% and 20% of cases, respectively) [2]. It is, therefore, fairly unlikely that bacteremias due to dental cares are more responsible for endocarditis than other kinds of bacteremias. In practice, this implies that the only ...
SIGN Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 104 Antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery A national clinical guideline July 2008 KEY TO EVIDENCE STATEMENTS AND GRADES OF RECOMMENDATIONS LEVELS OF EVIDENCE
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a common cause of healthcare-associated infection. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed criteria that define surgical site infection as infection related to an operative
Azithromycin prevents malaria in animal models and early clinical trials. We determined the prophylactic efficacy of three antibiotic regimens given for 10 weeks (azithromycin, 250 mg daily; azithromycin, 1,000 mg weekly; and doxycycline, 100 mg daily) relative to that of placebo for 232 adult volunteers residing in an area of intense malaria transmission. Any confirmed parasitemia during the study was considered a prophylactic failure. Two hundred thirteen volunteers (92%) completed the study. The prophylactic efficacies were as follows: daily azithromycin, 82.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.5%-91.1%); weekly azithromycin, 64.2% (95% CI, 47.1%-77.1%); and daily doxycycline, 92.6% (95% CI, 79.9%-97.5%). All regimens were well tolerated. We concluded that both 100 mg of doxycycline and 250 mg of azithromycin, given daily, were effective as prophylaxis for malaria in this setting. If studies with nonimmune volunteers confirm these results for semi-immune volunteers, a daily azithromycin ...
CSL Behrings MAA is based on data from the PROLONG-9FP clinical development program, covering patients from the age of 1 to 61 years. Studies in the program were conducted as open-label, multicenter, safety and efficacy studies of rIX-FP in previously treated patients with hemophilia B (FIX ≤ 2%). The Phase II/III pivotal study (patients ages 12 to 61 years) was designed to compare the change in frequency of spontaneous bleeding events between on-demand treatment and a weekly prophylaxis regimen in patients previously receiving only on-demand treatment; and the number of patients developing inhibitors against factor IX as primary outcome measures. The study evaluated multiple prophylaxis regimens, including 7-day and 14-day intervals. A sub-study evaluated the prevention and control of bleeding in patients with hemophilia B undergoing a surgical procedure. The primary outcome measures of the Phase III children study (patients ages 1 to 11 years) are PK parameters of rIX-FP and the number of ...
Ethicon has joined leading wound closure specialists to discuss recommendations to ease the burden of surgical site infections (SSIs) on patients and costs to healthcare systems across Europe, Middle East and Africa.. SSIs can be a serious complication of surgery, and are becoming the most common healthcare-associated infections, increasing morbidity and mortality rates among affected patients.1,2 The meeting was held at the fourth International Consortium for Prevention & Infection Control (ICPIC) conference in Geneva, Switzerland.. Speaking at the event, Professor Leaper, Professor of Clinical Sciences at the University of Huddersfield commented: "There are many reasons why we must act urgently to limit the incidence of surgical site infections. Not only do they have a significant impact on patients in terms of delayed wound healing, increased need for further surgery and longer hospital stays, but prescribing antibiotics to combat surgical site infections contributes to the growing problem of ...
The management and treatment of VUR depends upon many factors and an in depth discussion of VUR and your child should be individualized with your health care provider. Vesicoureteral reflux is frequently initially managed by a primary care provider for lower grades of VUR (1-3) . Higher grades of VUR or complex and complicated cases of VUR are usually jointly managed with a surgical specialist called a Pediatric Urologist. VUR has a spontaneous resolution rate and is usually managed with prophylactic antibiotics (preventative antibiotic) in hope that with growth of the child there will be concomitant growth of the ureteral tunnel. Should the tunnel grow enough then the VUR may resolve without the need for a surgical procedure. Prophylactic antibiotics are given at very low doses daily to reduce possible side effects. Newborns are usually given Amoxicillin or Keflex (Cephalexin). Children older than 2 months can be given Trimethoprim (Primsol) or Bactrim (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole). Waiting ...
References 1. Gibbs KS, Dinsmoor MJ, et al. A randomized trial of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis vs. immediate postpartum treatment of women with intra-amniotic infection. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:823-828. 2. Sperling KS, Ramamurthy KS, Gibbs KS. A comparison of intrapartum vs. immediate postpartum treatment of intra-amniotic infection. Obstet Gynecol 1987;70:861-865. 3. Mecredy RL, Wiswell TF, Hume KF. Outcome of term gestation neonates whose mothers received intrapartum antibiotics for suspected chorioamnionitis. Am J Perinatol 1993; 10:365-8. 4. Escobar GJ, Li DK, et al. Neonatal sepsis workups in infants >/=2000 grams at birth: A population based study. Pediatrics 2000;106(2 Pt 1):256-263. 5. Singhal KK, La Gamma EF. Management of 168 neonates weighing more than 2000 g receiving intrapartum chemoprophylaxis for chorioamnionitis. Evaluation of an early discharge strategy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:158-163. 6. Cararach V, Botet F, et al. Administration of antibiotics to patients with ...
The Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trialwas supposed to provide clear direction for pediatric urologists. To date, it is the largest double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter study examining urinary tract infection and renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Despite the studys strong design and sample size of more than 600 children, its results and recommendations continue to be met with resistance.. "If you go back a decade or so, we used to prescribe prophylaxis routinely in most children with vesicoureteral reflux," says Tej K. Mattoo, MD, a principal investigator on the RIVUR trial and chief of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension at Childrens Hospital of Michigan, Detroit Medical Center. "Then a series of studies and guidelines - based on lower quality evidence - were released and people felt we should not use routine prophylaxis. Its not surprising there is disagreement on the topic.". Next came the RIVUR ...
The management and treatment of VUR depends upon many factors and an in depth discussion of VUR and your child should be individualized with your health care provider. Vesicoureteral reflux is frequently initially managed by a primary care provider for lower grades of VUR (1-3) . Higher grades of VUR or complex and complicated cases of VUR are usually jointly managed with a surgical specialist called a Pediatric Urologist. VUR has a spontaneous resolution rate and is usually managed with prophylactic antibiotics (preventative antibiotic) in hope that with growth of the child there will be concomitant growth of the ureteral tunnel. Should the tunnel grow enough then the VUR may resolve without the need for a surgical procedure. Prophylactic antibiotics are given at very low doses daily to reduce possible side effects. Newborns are usually given Amoxicillin or Keflex (Cephalexin). Children older than 2 months can be given Trimethoprim (Primsol) or Bactrim (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole). Waiting ...
Objective: Review and Grading of Suggestions Evaluation Systematically, Advancement, and Evaluation (Quality) studies in prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy (pNPWT) to avoid surgical site infections (SSIs). of SSI. Meta-analyses had been performed using a arbitrary effect model. Quality Pro software program was utilized to qualify the data. Outcomes: Nineteen content describing 21 research (6 randomized …Read More. ...
[Prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery].: Because of a low risk of infection (around 2-3%), prophylactic use of antibiotics in neurosurgery is a controversia
Controlled transscleral drug delivery formulations to the eye: establishing new concepts and paradigms in ocular anti-inflammatory therapeutics and antibacterial prophylaxis. Paganelli F, Cardillo JA, Dare AR, Melo LA Jr, Lucena DR, Silva AA Jr, Oliveira AG, Pizzolitto AC, Lavinsky D, Skaf M, Souza-Filho AA, Höfling-Lima AL, Nguyen QD, Kuppermann BD, Herrero-Vanrell R, Belfort R Jr; Brazilian Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Technology Research Group.. ...
Group B streptococcus is a leading cause of serious neonatal infection. Most neonatal GBS infections can be prevented through the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis in women who are at increased risk for transmitting the infection to their newborns. However, despite clinical trials that demonstrate the effectiveness of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, prevention strategies have not been implemented widely or consistently, and the incidence of neonatal GBS disease has not declined. To promote a coordinated approach to prevention among obstetric- and pediatric-care practitioners and among supporting clinical microbiology laboratory personnel, CDC has developed prevention guidelines in conjunction with experts from relevant disciplines and with representatives of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and other professional organizations. This report provides the epidemiologic basis for prevention protocols, summarizes results of ...
Group B streptococcal (GBS) infections are the leading bacterial cause of serious neonatal disease in the United States (1). In 1996, in collaboration with the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, CDC issued consensus guidelines for preventing perinatal GBS disease (2--4). These guidelines recommend using either a screening-based or a risk-based strategy to identify women who should receive intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis. To assess adoption of the GBS disease prevention guidelines, the Connecticut and Minnesota state health departments surveyed prenatal-care providers during January--April 1998. This report presents the survey findings, which indicate that most prenatal-care providers in Connecticut and Minnesota have adopted perinatal GBS disease prevention policies and that strategy choice may vary by state and provider type. In Connecticut, surveys were mailed to all (n=576) licensed obstetricians/gynecologists (OBs). Group ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on candidiasis and mortality in premature infants. T2 - A randomized clinical trial. AU - Benjamin, Daniel K.. AU - Hudak, Mark L.. AU - Duara, Shahnaz. AU - Randolph, David A.. AU - Bidegain, Margarita. AU - Mundakel, Gratias T.. AU - Natarajan, Girija. AU - Burchfield, David J.. AU - White, Robert D.. AU - Shattuck, Karen E.. AU - Neu, Natalie. AU - Bendel, Catherine M.. AU - Kim, M. Roger. AU - Finer, Neil N.. AU - Stewart, Dan L.. AU - Arrieta, Antonio C.. AU - Wade, Kelly C.. AU - Kaufman, David A.. AU - Manzoni, Paolo. AU - Prather, Kristi O.. AU - Testoni, Daniela. AU - Berezny, Katherine Y.. AU - Smith, P. Brian. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - IMPORTANCE: Invasive candidiasis in premature infants causes death and neurodevelopmental impairment. Fluconazole prophylaxis reduces candidiasis, but its effect on mortality and the safety of fluconazole are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluconazole in preventing ...
BACKGROUND There are few published data concerning the economic impact of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the setting of biliary obstruction. AIM To perform decision analysis to determine the costs of prophylaxis in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for obstructive jaundice. METHODS A decision analysis model was constructed. The probability of biliary sepsis, death and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography complications was obtained from the medical literature and from a retrospective analysis of our own experience. Costs were obtained from Medicare reimbursement at our institution. The strategies evaluated were endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with and without single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis. We compared the total costs, number of episodes of cholangitis and deaths associated with each strategy. RESULTS Based on published data and the results of our retrospective analysis, the strategy of
TY - JOUR. T1 - The current state of screening and decolonization for the prevention of staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection after total hip and knee arthroplasty. AU - Weiser, Mitchell C.. AU - Moucha, Calin S.. PY - 2014/9/2. Y1 - 2014/9/2. N2 - The most common pathogens in surgical site infections after total hip and knee arthroplasty are methicillinsensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Patients colonized withMSSA or MRSA have an increased risk for a staphylococcal infection at the site of a total hip or knee arthroplasty. Most colonized individuals who develop a staphylococcal infection at the site of a total hip or total knee arthroplasty have molecularly identical S. aureus isolates in their nares and wounds. Screening and nasal decolonization of S. aureus can potentially reduce the rates of staphylococcal surgical site infection after total hip and total knee arthroplasty.. AB - The most common ...
A high dose and continuous infusion of cefoxitin has been associated with clinical success in treating febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) in men...
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulants reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total joint replacement. However, concern remains that pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis can lead to bleeding, which may impact on postoperative complications such as infections and reoperations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From the Global Orthopedic Registry (GLORY), we reviewed 3,755 patients in US who elected for primary total hip or knee arthroplasty, received either warfarin or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as VTE prophylactics, and had up-to-90-day follow-up after discharge. We compared incidence rates of VTE, infections and other complications between LMWH and warfarin groups, and used multivariate analyses with propensity score weighting to generate the odds ratio (OR). Patients receiving LMWH tended to be older and higher in the American Society of Anesthesiologists grade scores. In contrast, warfarin was used more frequently for hip arthroplasty with longer duration among patients with more pre-existing comorbidity
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common and expensive healthcare-acquired infection. The objective of this nurse-driven process improvement project was to implement a cost-effective and practical decolonization protocol to improve outcomes for high-risk veteran populations undergoing surgery at a large veterans hospital in the Pacific Northwest. Prior to the implementation, a decolonization protocol was used for cardiac and orthopedic preoperative patients. The process involved screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization via nasal swab preoperatively and treating positive patients with mupirocin ointment to nares BID and chlorhexidine showers for five days prior to surgery. Adherence to the protocol was problematic and SSI rates increased in these populations. New evidence-based practice recommendations published in 2105 described a 50% reduction of SSI with screening for MRSA in the pre-operative clinic, followed by treating each preoperative patient with

What Happens at a Dental Prophylaxis Appointment? | Colgate® Oral CareWhat Happens at a Dental Prophylaxis Appointment? | Colgate® Oral Care

Find out what you can expect during your dental prophylaxis appointment, here. ... Has your doctor or dentist recommended a dental prophylaxis appointment? ... Some patients need antibiotic prophylaxis to help prevent infection before their appointment, explains the ADA. This is ... Some people with prosthetic joints may need antibiotic prophylaxis, too. Your doctor and dentist can let you know if youll ...
more infohttps://www.colgate.com/en-us/oral-health/basics/dental-visits/what-happens-at-a-dental-prophylaxis-appointment-

Мікрофлора транссудату за інфікованого панкреонекрозу собак та її чутливість до протимікробних засобів
							| Ветеринарія,...Мікрофлора транссудату за інфікованого панкреонекрозу собак та її чутливість до протимікробних засобів | Ветеринарія,...

Maravi-Poma, E. (2003). Early antibiotic treatment (prophylaxis) of septic complications in severe acute necrotizing ... The Transmissibility of Antibiotic-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Intensive Care Units. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 66, (4 ...
more infohttp://ojs.hdzva.edu.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/171

Surgical Antibiotic ProphylaxisSurgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis

... , Prophylactic Antibiotics in Surgery, Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Surgery, Surgical Site ... Infection Prevention, Surgical Site Infection, Prosthetic Joint Infection Prophylaxis. ... Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis Aka: Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Prophylactic Antibiotics ... Antibiotics do not prevent infection in clean surgery. *Antibiotic prophylaxis not recommended in:. *Nosocomial Infection ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/surgery/Prevent/SrgclAntbtcPrphylxs.htm

Antibiotic prophylaxis after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy | The BMJAntibiotic prophylaxis after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy | The BMJ

Antibiotic prophylaxis after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. BMJ 2010; 341 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c2898 ( ... conventional practice is to use prophylactic systemic antibiotics. International guidelines recommend the use of intravenous co ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/341/bmj.c2898

Antibiotic Prophylaxis  - University of Rochester Medical CenterAntibiotic Prophylaxis - University of Rochester Medical Center

Antibiotic Prophylaxis In 2011, 100% of Highland Hospitals knee replacement patients had their antibiotics discontinued within ... Prophylactic antibiotics should be discontinued within 24 hours after the surgery end time to prevent patients from developing ... The benefits of selective peri-operative antibiotic use have been repeatedly demonstrated since the 1960s ( Archives of Surgery ... should receive a prophylactic antibiotic within one hour prior to the surgical incision being made. ...
more infohttps://www.urmc.rochester.edu/highland/quality-of-care/knee-replacement/kneeanti.aspx

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in the Management of Vesicoureteral RefluxAntibiotic Prophylaxis in the Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux

... Marc Cendron Department of Pediatric Urology, Childrens ... S. Ragnar Norrby, "Urinary tract infections," Antibiotic and Chemotherapy, pp. 694-701, 2010. View at Publisher · View at ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/au/2008/825475/citations/

WikiGenes - Antibiotic ProphylaxisWikiGenes - Antibiotic Prophylaxis

Associations of Antibiotic Prophylaxis with chemical compounds. *Antibiotic prophylaxis with azithromycin or penicillin for ... Gene context of Antibiotic Prophylaxis. *To better target patients in whom antibiotic prophylaxis could be beneficial, we ... Disease relevance of Antibiotic Prophylaxis. *BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antibiotic prophylaxis in severe pancreatitis has recently ... Antibiotic prophylaxis for ERCP: a comparison of oral ciprofloxacin with intravenous cephazolin in the prophylaxis of high-risk ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/17171.html

Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Early-Onset Neonatal
Sepsis PatternsIntrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis Patterns

Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis Patterns. Rodney K. Edwards,1 Whitney E. Jamie,1 Donald ... Objective: To compare the relative effects of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis regimens on patterns of early-onset neonatal ... The cause of this shift in pathogen prevalence is uncertain and seemingly unrelated to intrapartum antibiotic exposure. ... The drug employed for prophylaxis did not appear to affect the pattern of sepsis cases. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2003/459392/abs/

Notice to Readers: Evaluation of Postexposure Antibiotic Prophylaxis 
to Prevent AnthraxNotice to Readers: Evaluation of Postexposure Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Anthrax

Notice to Readers: Evaluation of Postexposure Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Anthrax. In response to the recent bioterrorist ... postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis was recommended. Interviews are scheduled to begin in late January 2002 and will continue ... were recommended to take at least 60 days of postexposure anti-biotic prophylaxis. Surveillance for adverse events and ... postexposure prophylaxis campaigns and to comply with Food and Drug Administration regulations for monitoring for adverse ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5103a4.htm

Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy | CochraneAntibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy | Cochrane

Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and ... Several classes of antibiotics are effective for prophylaxis in prostate biopsy, with the quinolones the best analysed class. ... Antibiotic prophylaxis is effective in preventing infectious complications following TRPB. There is no definitive data to ... For antibiotic versus antibiotic + enema, only the risk of bacteremia (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.75) was diminished in the ...
more infohttps://www.cochrane.org/CD006576/PROSTATE_antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-transrectal-prostate-biopsy

Antibiotic prophylaxis for elective gallbladder surgery | CochraneAntibiotic prophylaxis for elective gallbladder surgery | Cochrane

To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo or no prophylaxis for patients undergoing ... Randomised clinical trials comparing antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo or no prophylaxis in patients undergoing elective ... We found no statistically significant differences between antibiotic prophylaxis and no prophylaxis in the proportion of ... Antibiotic prophylaxis for elective gallbladder surgery. Elective gallbladder surgery is the most common elective surgical ...
more infohttps://www.cochrane.org/CD005265/LIVER_antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-elective-gallbladder-surgery

Antibiotic Prophylaxis Less Effective for Colorectal SurgeryAntibiotic Prophylaxis Less Effective for Colorectal Surgery

"An increase in infection rates and a decline in the efficacy of prophylaxis may be a reflection of growing antibiotic ... The effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing infection following appendectomy, cesarean section, and transrectal ... Study authors suggest that rising antibiotic resistance could be reducing the effectiveness of antibiotics in preventing ... A new study in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology found that prophylactic antibiotics are becoming less effective at ...
more infohttps://uspharmacist.com/article/antibiotic-prophylaxis-less-effective-for-colorectal-surgery

Fibreoptic bronchoscopy and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. | The BMJFibreoptic bronchoscopy and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. | The BMJ

Fibreoptic bronchoscopy and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294 :1199 ... Fibreoptic bronchoscopy and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/ ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/294/6581/1199

Antibiotic prophylaxis - WikipediaAntibiotic prophylaxis - Wikipedia

Parenteral systemic antibiotics seem to be more appropriate than oral or topical antibiotics because the chosen antibiotics ... most commonly antibiotics). Antibiotic prophylaxis is most commonly used prior to surgery, however, may be used in other cases ... For prophylaxis in surgery, only antibiotics with good tolerability should be used. Cephalosporins remain the preferred drugs ... The American Heart Association (AHA) now recommends antibiotic prophylaxis for very few patients since only a small number of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotic_prophylaxis

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Orthopaedic Traumatology - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govAntibiotic Prophylaxis in Orthopaedic Traumatology - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Orthopaedic Traumatology. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Orthopaedic Traumatology: A Prospective, Randomized Trial of Duration of Administration. ... However, the optimal duration of antibiotic prophylaxis after orthopaedic trauma surgery is not well-defined. Most studies ... A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial will be conducted to evaluate the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00610987?term=prosthetic+limbs&recr=Open&rank=17

Does postop antibiotic prophylaxis reduce SSI? 5 notesDoes postop antibiotic prophylaxis reduce SSI? 5 notes

Instead, individual physicians decided whether to give patients postop antibiotics. ... based Wesley Medical Center halted use of mandatory postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, according to Renal & Urology News. ... Does postop antibiotic prophylaxis reduce SSI? 5 notes Written by Megan Wood , July 06, 2016 , Print , Email ... 5. Researchers concluded no benefits exist in "continuing antibiotic prophylaxis postoperatively.". More articles on quality & ...
more infohttps://www.beckersasc.com/asc-quality-infection-control/does-postop-antibiotic-prophylaxis-reduce-ssi-5-notes.html?tmpl=component&

Antibiotic prophylaxis in neurosurgery. A randomized controlled trial.Antibiotic prophylaxis in neurosurgery. A randomized controlled trial.

A randomized trial was performed to support the contention that prophylactic antibiotics can reduce the incidence of ... 10401845 - Preoperative antibiotics and steroids in vestibular schwannoma excision.. 3437425 - Septic bursitis: presentation, ... A randomized trial was performed to support the contention that prophylactic antibiotics can reduce the incidence of ... 11063105 - The efficacy and cost of prophylactic and perioprocedural antibiotics in patients with .... ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-neurosurgery-randomized/6368765.html

Dental antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines 2015Dental antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines 2015

the prescribing of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) to dental. Dental Antibiotic Prophylaxis Guidelines 2015. CoP Joint prophylaxsis ... Antibiotic stewardship is the effort to measure antibiotic prescribing. In 2015, ADA released the Antibiotic Prophylaxis Prior ... Most experts no longer recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for dental the guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis. 2015 ESC ... Oral Health Topics Antibiotic Prophylaxis Prior to to review the full 2015 guideline and of prophylactic antibiotics prior to ...
more infohttp://aboutaerobics.com/northern-territory/dental-antibiotic-prophylaxis-guidelines-2015.php

Dental antibiotic prophylaxis - WikipediaDental antibiotic prophylaxis - Wikipedia

Dental antibiotic prophylaxis is the administration of antibiotics to a dental patient for prevention of harmful consequences ... Although there is little evidence to support antibiotic prophylaxis for dental treatment, the current AHA guidelines are highly ... Currently, there are official guidelines for dental antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of infective endocarditis and of ... In addition, there are various medical conditions for which clinicians recommended antibiotic prophylaxis, although there is no ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental_antibiotic_prophylaxis

Browsing Technical documents by Subject Antibiotic ProphylaxisBrowsing Technical documents by Subject "Antibiotic Prophylaxis"

Antibiotic prophylaxis of diphtheria drafted by WHO/EURO/CDC/USAID/BASICS  World Health Organization. Regional Office for ... Browsing Technical documents by Subject "Antibiotic Prophylaxis". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S ... management of close contacts by the use of antibiotics. Whereas the first ... ...
more infohttps://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/107133/browse?authority=Antibiotic+Prophylaxis&type=mesh

Antibiotic prophylaxis in alimentary tract surgery	
	Antibiotic prophylaxis in alimentary tract surgery

Effective antibiotic prophylaxis can reduce the incidence of postoperative infections and be cost-effective. It is essential ... Effective antibiotic prophylaxis can reduce the incidence of postoperative infections and be cost-effective. It is essential ... Chaber A. Antibiotic prophylaxis in alimentary tract surgery. Contemporary Oncology/Współczesna Onkologia. 2003;3(2):86-89.. ... Chaber A. Antibiotic prophylaxis in alimentary tract surgery. Contemporary Oncology/Współczesna Onkologia. 2003;3(2):86-89.. ...
more infohttps://www.termedia.pl/Antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-alimentary-tract-surgery,3,764,0,1.html

Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govAntibiotic Prophylaxis for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... This study is being done to determine if obtaining rectal swab cultures and choosing antibiotics based on these culture results ... Genus and species of rectal swab isolates with their antibiotic susceptibility profiles [ Time Frame: Study day 7 ]. ... The demographics include age and ethnicity and the co-morbidities include reason for biopsy, past exposure to antibiotics ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01659866

Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections in Antenatal Hydronephrosis | Review Articles | PediatricsAntibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections in Antenatal Hydronephrosis | Review Articles | Pediatrics

continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. CI - confidence interval. HN - hydronephrosis. OR - odds ratio. SFU - Society for Fetal ... Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections in Antenatal Hydronephrosis. Luis H. Braga, Hana Mijovic, Forough ... Is antibiotic prophylaxis necessary in infants with obstructive hydronephrosis? J Urol. 2007;177(3):1098-1101, discussion 1101 ... Antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatric urology: an update. Curr Urol Rep. 2011;12(2):126-131pmid:21229337. ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/131/1/e251

The Acceptability and Behavioral Effects of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Syphilis Prevention | RANDThe Acceptability and Behavioral Effects of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Syphilis Prevention | RAND

Use of preexposure antibiotic prophylaxis for syphilis control has been limited by concerns about acceptability and adverse ... CONCLUSION: Antibiotic prophylaxis for syphilis was acceptable and not followed by increases in risky behavior. Larger trials ... GOAL: The goal was to determine whether persons at high risk for syphilis accept antibiotic prophylaxis and if so, whether they ... BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of preexposure antibiotic prophylaxis for syphilis control has been limited by concerns about ...
more infohttps://www.rand.org/pubs/external_publications/EP20031105.html

Efficacy of the Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Acute Gangrenous AppendicitisEfficacy of the Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis

... the effectiveness of providing a single 1-dose therapy of antibiotic prophylaxis versus a 5-day antibiotic therapy in patients ... antibiotic prophylaxis versus a 5-day antibiotic therapy in patients with acute gangrenous appendicitis. ... Efficacy of the Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis. 2014-07-23 21:09:21 , BioPortfolio ... Home » Topics » Clincial Trials » Research » Efficacy of the Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/65404/Efficacy-of-the-Antibiotic-Prophylaxis-for-Acute-Gangrenous-Appendicitis.html
  • Most experts no longer recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures in patients with prosthetic joints. (nps.org.au)
  • Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis is not only unnecessary for patients with indwelling catheters, it is contraindicated, because it promotes the generation of bacteria that are resistant to common antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • two studied pulsed antibiotics given three days per month or five days every eight weeks (1,732 participants), and one trial compared three arms: continuous doxycycline vs. azithromycin (Zithromax) administered three times weekly vs. moxifloxacin (Avelox) for five days every month (99 participants). (aafp.org)
  • The investigators will compare 2 groups: men whose rectal swabs do not show ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria will receive ciprofloxacin prior to biopsy, and men whose swabs do show ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria will receive alternative antibiotics based on their culture results. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In theory, antibiotics provide their benefit by decreasing bacterial growth, potentially limiting the inflammatory effects of the bacteria. (aafp.org)
  • A retrospective chart review of preoperative antibiotics for laparoscopic and hysteroscopic sterilization procedures was performed at a single institution, Banner University Medical Center - Phoenix (BUMCP), from 01/01/2014 to 12/31/2014. (ovid.com)
  • The Medicare Quality Improvement Community (MedQIC) , a national knowledge forum for healthcare and quality improvement professionals, encourages careful selection and use of antibiotics for surgical procedures. (rochester.edu)
  • In 2015, ADA released the Antibiotic Prophylaxis Prior to Dental Procedures. (aboutaerobics.com)
  • Prophylaxis is uniformly recommended for all clean-contaminated, contaminated and dirty procedures. (aafp.org)
  • The scientific rationale for prophylaxis was to eliminate or reduce transient bacteraemia caused by invasive dental procedures. (nps.org.au)
  • Although infective complications after TRPB are well known, there is uncertainty about the necessity and effectiveness of routine prophylactic antibiotics and their adverse effects , as well as a clear lack of standardization. (cochrane.org)
  • Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for women with episiotomy. (who.int)
  • WHO recommendation on routine antibiotic prophylaxis for episiotomy (February 2018). (who.int)
  • The cause of this shift in pathogen prevalence is uncertain and seemingly unrelated to intrapartum antibiotic exposure. (hindawi.com)
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of preexposure antibiotic prophylaxis for syphilis control has been limited by concerns about acceptability and adverse behavioral effects. (rand.org)
  • Larger trials of preexposure antibiotic prophylaxis of core group members to control syphilis outbreaks should be undertaken. (rand.org)
  • If you have had a joint replacement and taken antibiotics before dental work in the past, you may not need to make a trip to the pharmacy before your next procedure. (mouthhealthy.org)
  • the prescribing of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) to dental. (aboutaerobics.com)
  • Always talk with your dentist or physician about whether antibiotic prophylaxis before dental treatment is right for you. (mouthhealthy.org)