Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Thyroid Function Tests: Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)ThyroglobulinIodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.Goiter: Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Thyroiditis, Autoimmune: Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Goiter, Nodular: An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Thyroid Crisis: A dangerous life-threatening hypermetabolic condition characterized by high FEVER and dysfunction of the cardiovascular, the nervous, and the gastrointestinal systems.Thyroiditis: Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.Antithyroid Agents: Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Receptors, Thyrotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome: An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hashimoto Disease: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.Methimazole: A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.Triiodothyronine, Reverse: A metabolite of THYROXINE, formed by the peripheral enzymatic monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the inner ring of the iodothyronine nucleus.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Thyrotoxicosis: A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Congenital Hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret: Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Long-Acting Thyroid Stimulator: An immunoglobulin G, often found in the blood of hyperthyroid individuals. It stimulates the thyroid for a longer duration than does thyrotoxin and may cause hyperthyroidism in newborns due to placental transmission.Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating: Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Thyroid (USP): A dehydrated extract of thyroid glands from domesticated animals. After the removal of fat and connective tissue, the extract is dried or lyophilized to yield a yellowish to buff-colored amorphous powder containing 0.17-0.23% of iodine.UkraineSodium Iodide: A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Republic of BelarusNucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Thyronines: A group of metabolites derived from THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE via the peripheral enzymatic removal of iodines from the thyroxine nucleus. Thyronine is the thyroxine nucleus devoid of its four iodine atoms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Methylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent that inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormone. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf: A raf kinase subclass found at high levels in neuronal tissue. The B-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Thyrotropin, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.Potassium Iodide: An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lingual Thyroid: A condition characterized by the presence of rudimentary THYROID tissue at the base of the TONGUE. It is due to failed embryonic development and migration of thyroid tissue to its normal location. The lingual thyroid usually cannot maintain adequate hormone production thereby resulting in HYPOTHYROIDISM.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Thyroiditis, Subacute: Spontaneously remitting inflammatory condition of the THYROID GLAND, characterized by FEVER; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; SORE THROAT; severe thyroid PAIN; and an enlarged damaged gland containing GIANT CELLS. The disease frequently follows a viral infection.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Goiter, Endemic: A form of IODINE deficiency disorders characterized by an enlargement of the THYROID GLAND in a significantly large fraction of a POPULATION GROUP. Endemic goiter is common in mountainous and iodine-deficient areas of the world where the DIET contains insufficient amount of iodine.Euthyroid Sick Syndromes: Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.Diiodothyronines: These metabolites of THYROXINE are formed by the deiodination of T3 or reverse T3.Thyroxine-Binding Proteins: Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.GuanineReverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Myxedema: A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Pachyrhizus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).Graves Ophthalmopathy: An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Carbimazole: An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to METHIMAZOLE, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia characterized by the presence of medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of the THYROID GLAND, and usually with the co-occurrence of PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA, producing CALCITONIN and ADRENALINE, respectively. Less frequently, it can occur with hyperplasia or adenoma of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. This disease is due to gain-of-function mutations of the MEN2 gene on CHROMOSOME 10 (Locus: 10q11.2), also known as the RET proto-oncogene that encodes a RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Monoiodotyrosine: A product from the iodination of tyrosine. In the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE), tyrosine is first iodized to monoiodotyrosine.Diiodotyrosine: A product from the iodination of MONOIODOTYROSINE. In the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, diiodotyrosine residues are coupled with other monoiodotyrosine or diiodotyrosine residues to form T4 or T3 thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE).Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)IodoproteinsTranscription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.IndiaKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.Thiouracil: Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Oxyphil Cells: Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Genes, erbA: Genes related to the erbA DNA sequence that was first isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN), v-erbA. In cells, erbA genes encode thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA genes have been identified: erbA-alpha located at 17q21; and erbA-beta located at 3p24. Truncations at the N- and C-terminals of erbA result in products resembling v-erbA. Truncations affect hormone responsiveness but not DNA binding capacity.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Galectin 3: A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Parathyroid Diseases: Pathological processes of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. They usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Thyroxine-Binding Globulin: A thyroid hormone transport protein found in serum. It binds about 75% of circulating THYROXINE and 70% of circulating TRIIODOTHYRONINE.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Ablation Techniques: Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thyroglossal Cyst: A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Neck Dissection: Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Oncogene Proteins v-erbA: Transforming proteins encoded by erbA oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. They are truncated versions of c-erbA, the thyroid hormone receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE) that have retained both the DNA-binding and hormone-binding domains. Mutations in the hormone-binding domains abolish the transcriptional activation function. v-erbA acts as a dominant repressor of c-erbA, inducing transformation by disinhibiting proliferation.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia: A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Iodine Isotopes: Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1: A nuclear protein that regulates the expression of genes involved in a diverse array of processes related to metabolism and reproduction. The protein contains three nuclear receptor interaction domains and three repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 2.Amiodarone: An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Whole-Body Counting: Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Ultimobranchial Body: A diverticulum from the fourth pharyngeal pouch of an embryo, regarded by some as a rudimentary fifth pharyngeal pouch and by others as a lateral thyroid primordium. The ultimobranchial bodies of lower vertebrates contain large amounts of calcitonin. In mammals the bodies fuse with the thyroid gland and are thought to develop into the parafollicular cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Thyroid hormones and antithyroid medicines[edit]. *Levothyroxine. *Potassium iodide. *Methimazole[note 75] ... Anti-infective medicines[edit]. Anthelminthics[edit]. Intestinal anthelminthics[edit]. A skeletal model of the chemical ... Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)[edit]. *Bevacizumabα. Medicines for reproductive health and perinatal care[edit] ... Non-opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs)[edit]. A skeletal model of the chemical structure of aspirin ...
Treatment of Graves' disease includes antithyroid drugs which reduce the production of thyroid hormone; radioiodine ( ... "Treatment of an Over-active or Enlarged Thyroid Gland with Radioactive Iodine - British Thyroid Foundation". Btf-thyroid.org. ... Antithyroid drugs[edit]. The main antithyroid drugs are carbimazole (in the UK), methimazole (in the US), and propylthiouracil/ ... Another sign of Graves' disease is hyperthyroidism, i.e., overproduction of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Normal thyroid ...
Antithyroid preparations. Thyroid peroxidase. inhibitors (thioamide). *Thiouracils *Propylthiouracil#. *Methylthiouracil. * ... While a minimal amount of thyroid hormones are found in breast milk, the amount does not influence infant plasma thyroid levels ... is also used as interventional therapy in people with nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer to suppress thyroid-stimulating ... who often require lifelong thyroid hormone therapy.[11] It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid- ...
Antithyroid drugsEdit. Thyrostatics (antithyroid drugs) are drugs that inhibit the production of thyroid hormones, such as ... Thyroid stormEdit. Main article: Thyroid storm. Thyroid storm is a severe form of thyrotoxicosis characterized by rapid and ... Measuring specific antibodies, such as anti-TSH-receptor antibodies in Graves' disease, or anti-thyroid peroxidase in ... Thyroid stormEdit. Thyroid storm presents with extreme symptoms of hyperthyroidism. It is treated aggressively with ...
... is in the antithyroid family of medications. It works by decreasing the amount of thyroid hormone produced by ... report of a meeting jointly sponsored by the American Thyroid Association and the Food and Drug Administration". Thyroid. 19 (7 ... The plasma half-life is one hour and is not altered appreciably by the thyroid status of the patient. Due to the concentration ... X. Antithyroid Compounds. Synthesis of 5- and 6- Substituted 2-Thiouracils from β-Oxoesters and Thiourea". Journal of the ...
MacGregor, A. G.; Somner, A. R. (1954). "The anti-thyroid action of para-aminosalicylic acid". Lancet. 267 (6845): 931-936. doi ... Thyroid goitre is also a side-effect because aminosalicylic acid inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Drug interactions ... PAS is always used in combination with other anti-TB drugs. The dose when treating tuberculosis is 150 mg/kg/day divided into ...
Elevated anti-thyroid antibodies act as a marker for females who have T-lymphocyte dysfunction because these levels indicate T ... This does not apply to anti-thyroid antibodies. Elevated levels do not have a toxic effect, but they are indicative of a risk ... Anti-phospholipid antibodies are targeted toward the phospholipids of the cell membrane. Studies have shown that antibodies ... Both the presence of anti-phospholipids antibodies and antinuclear antibodies have toxic effects on the implantation of embryos ...
The drug acts to decrease the formation of stored thyroid hormone, as thyroglobulin in the thyroid gland. The clinical effects ... Methylthiouracil is an antithyroid preparation. It is a thioamide, closely related to propylthiouracil. Methylthiouracil is not ...
The substance is a historically relevant anti-thyroid preparation. Astwood E.B. used it in 1943 as therapy of Graves' disease ... Thiouracil inhibits thyroid activity by blocking the enzyme thyroid peroxidase. Its use in recent times has been replaced by ... "Effect of Antithyroid Agents 6-Propyl-2-Thiouracil and l-Methyl-2-Mercaptoimidazole on Human Thyroid Iodide Peroxidase". ... advent of more potent and safer antithyroid drugs. Gerabek, W. (2005). Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. p. 152. ISBN ...
216-. ISBN 978-1-84184-951-5. Pavel Langer; Monte A. Greer (1977). Antithyroid Substances and Naturally Occurring Goitrogens. S ... and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland. Amphenone B has also been found to produce progesterone-like ... is an inhibitor of steroid hormone and thyroid hormone biosynthesis which was never marketed but has been used as a tool in ... specifically via inhibition of organic binding of iodine and uptake of iodide by the thyroid gland. Amphenone B was first ...
The tyrian purple, which is a dibromoindigo, is representative of the bromides, while the thyroxine secreted from the thyroid ... Prior to 1940, iodides were the predominant antithyroid agents. In large doses, iodides inhibit proteolysis of thyroglobulin, ... a day can be used to treat patients with hyperthyroidism due to its ability to inhibit the organification process in thyroid ...
"Characterization of the thyroid Na+/I− symporter with an anti-COOH terminus antibody". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Follicular cells (also called thyroid epithelial cells or thyrocytes) are cells in the thyroid gland that are responsible for ... extract thyroid hormones from it with the help of proteases and subsequently release thyroid hormones to the blood. These ... Every cell in the body depends upon thyroid hormones for regulation of their metabolism. The normal thyroid gland produces ...
Anti-GAD65 is found in about 80 percent of SPS patients. Anti-thyroid, anti-intrinsic factor, anti-nuclear, anti-RNP, and anti- ... and Anti-GAD-Related CNS Degenerations: Protean Additions to the Autoimmune Central Neuropathies". Journal of Autoimmunity. 37 ... with high intensity conditioning protocol has been performed in a few cases with severe anti-GAD positive SPS, resulting in ...
Anti-GAD65 is found in about 80 percent of SPS patients. Anti-thyroid, anti-intrinsic factor, anti-nuclear, anti-RNP, and anti- ... and Anti-GAD-Related CNS Degenerations: Protean Additions to the Autoimmune Central Neuropathies". Journal of Autoimmunity. 37 ...
Anti-thyroid antibodies are common in all three and the underlying histology is similar. This disorder should not be confused ...
... and the anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO, or TPOAb) and anti-microsomal ... Diagnosis is usually made by detecting elevated levels of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in the serum, but ... The thyroid gland may become firm, large, and lobulated in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but changes in the thyroid can also be ... Severe thyroid atrophy presents often with denser fibrotic bands of collagen that remains within the confines of the thyroid ...
Thyroid problems that lead to thyroxine deficiency in the mother in weeks 8-12 of pregnancy have been postulated to produce ... in utero hypothyroxinemia related to maternal flavonoid ingestion during pregnancy and to other environmental antithyroid ... and by environmental agents that interfere with iodine uptake or act against thyroid hormones. Possible environmental agents ...
However, it appears ineffective in patients who are already euthyroid on anti-thyroid drugs and levothyroxine. During ... There is "strong scientific evidence" for potassium iodide thyroid protection to help prevent thyroid cancer. Potassium iodide ... Taken by mouth it is used to treat thyrotoxicosis until surgery can be carried out, protect the thyroid gland from radioactive ... Other sources state that pure potassium iodide solution in water (SSKI) was eventually used for most of the thyroid protection ...
Thyroid antibodies - both anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO, anti-thyroid microsomal antibodies, anti-M) and ... A relapsing encephalopathy occurring in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, with high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies. ... stroke-like symptoms and Hashimoto's thyroiditis confirmed by elevated anti-thyroid antibodies. Autoimmune Encephalitis ... Thyroid hormone treatment is also included if required. Failure of some patients to respond to this first line treatment has ...
Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies are present in 1 in 10 normal individuals, and a greater percentage of patients with thyroid ... Tg is used by the thyroid gland to produce the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The active form of ... dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin ... particularly papillary or follicular thyroid cancer). Thyroglobulin is not produced by medullary or anaplastic thyroid ...
Moreover, antibodies anti-NIS have been found in thyroid autoimmune diseases. Using RT-PCR tests, it has been proved that there ... Thus, NIS is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4). Apart from thyroid cells NIS can also be found, ... NIS mediated uptake of iodide into follicular cells of the thyroid gland is the first step in the synthesis of thyroid hormone ... Note that the regulation of NIS expression in thyroid is done by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), whereas in breast is ...
... s or anti-thyroid drugs are also a class of drugs that are used to control thyrotoxicosis. Thioamides are typically ... Thioamides inhibit the enzyme thyroid peroxidase in the thyroid, reducing the synthesis of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine ...
Treatment of Graves' disease includes antithyroid drugs which reduce the production of thyroid hormone; radioiodine ( ... "Treatment of an Over-active or Enlarged Thyroid Gland with Radioactive Iodine - British Thyroid Foundation". Btf-thyroid.org. ... The TSHr is expressed on the follicular cells of the thyroid gland (the cells that produce thyroid hormone), and the result of ... Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), or thyroid eye disease (TED), is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of ...
The drug may also be taken before thyroid surgery to lower thyroid hormone levels and minimize the effects of thyroid ... Thiamazole (INN) or methimazole (USAN) is an antithyroid drug, and part of the thioamide group. Like its counterpart ... a condition that occurs when the thyroid gland begins to produce an excess of thyroid hormone. ... Thiamazole inhibits the enzyme thyroperoxidase, which normally acts in thyroid hormone synthesis by oxidizing the anion iodide ...
In 1964, he returned to Glasgow to study antithyroid drug action and perform metabolic studies. During this time, he pioneered ... "European Thyroid Association - Milestones - Donald Alexander (1928-2007)". Retrieved 7 December 2012. Connel, John. "European ... Donald Alexander (1928 - 9 May 2007) was a Scottish physician and researcher and a major figure in international thyroid ... professor of medicine at the University of Glasgow and he developed an academic interest in thyroid disease. He then moved to ...
T细胞(英語:T cell、T lymphocyte)是淋巴细胞的一种,在免疫反應中扮演着重要的角色。T是胸腺(thymus)而不是甲狀腺(thyroid)的英文缩写。T细胞在骨髓被製造出來之後,在胸腺内進行「新兵訓練」分化成熟為不同亚型的效应T細胞,成 ... Anti-PD-L1 peptide improves survival in sepsis. The Journal of Surgical Research. February 2017,
Treatment usually consists of antithyroid medications, thyroidectomy, and radioiodine. Antithyroid medications must be taken ... Graves disease, the most common type of hyperthyroidism, is a condition wherein the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, ...
Such animal findings are seen with continuous suppression of thyroid function by sufficient doses of a variety of antithyroid ... Antithyroid medicine may or may not make your hyperthyroidism symptoms go away. The medicine is much more effective in people ... Methimazole is a human teratogen and crosses the placenta concentrating in the foetal thyroid gland. There is also a high rate ... Up to 30 out of 100 people in the United States will have their hyperthyroidism go away go into after taking antithyroid ...
You may take antithyroid medicine before you have radioactive iodine treatment or surgery-to bring your to normal, to make you ... Bonfig W, Gartner R, Schmidt H. Selenium supplementation does not decrease thyroid peroxidase antibody concentration in ... This drug may be the treatment of choice when an antithyroid drug is indicated during or just prior to the first trimester of ... There was a dose dependent occurrence of anti-nuclear antibodies. Most of the clinical pathology changes were mild in nature. ...
An antithyroid agent is a hormone antagonist acting upon thyroid hormones. The main antithyroid drugs are carbimazole (in the ... Some scientists believe that anti-thyroids inhibit iodination of tyrosyl residues in thyroglobulin. It is thought that they ... A less common antithyroid agent is potassium perchlorate. In Graves disease, treatment with antithyroid medications must be ... Thyroid. 19 (7): 673-4. doi:10.1089/thy.2009.0169. PMID 19583480. Manna D, Roy G, Mugesh G (2013). "Antithyroid Drugs and their ...
What does it mean if I have elavated Anti-Thyroid Antibodies and have Hypothyroidism? I have been being treated for over a year ... Anti-thyroid antibodies. What does it mean if I have elavated Anti-Thyroid Antibodies and have Hypothyroidism? I have been ... What does it mean if I have elavated Anti-Thyroid Antibodies and have Hypothyroidism? I have been being treated for over a year ... When Your Thyroid Malfunctions Endocrinologist Mark Lupo, MD, answers 10 questions about thyroid disorders and how to treat ...
KudoZ) Spanish to English translation of antimicrosomales/antitiroideo: antimicrosomal / antithyroid [brochure de un ... peroxidase (TPO) antibody (TPOAb) test, thyroid peroxidase autoantibody test, **antimicrosomal antibody test and antithyroid ... peroxidase (TPO) antibody (TPOAb) test, thyroid peroxidase autoantibody test, **antimicrosomal antibody test and antithyroid ... www.medicinenet.com/thyroid_peroxidase_test/article.htm - 38k - 20 Jun 2005 -------------------------------------------------- ...
... , Thyroid Autoantibody, TSH Receptor Antibody, Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin, Antithyroid Microsomal ... Antibody, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibody, Antithyroglobulin Antibody, Thyroglobulin Antibody, TPO Antibody. ... Thyroid peroxidase ab, Thyroid microsomal autoantibody, antibodies peroxidase thyroid, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody, ... Thyroid receptor Ig, Thyroid receptor antibody, Thyroid receptor immunoglob, Thyroid receptor immunoglobulin, Thyroid stim horm ...
... , Thyroid Autoantibody, TSH Receptor Antibody, Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin, Antithyroid Microsomal ... Antibody, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibody, Antithyroglobulin Antibody, Thyroglobulin Antibody, TPO Antibody. ... Antithyroid Antibody. Antithyroid Antibody Aka: Antithyroid Antibody, Thyroid Autoantibody, TSH Receptor Antibody, Thyroid ... Thyroid peroxidase ab, Thyroid microsomal autoantibody, antibodies peroxidase thyroid, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody, ...
anti TG. By the way I have allergy problems. Name Result ALL AHL glucose(AKŞ) 87 74 106 HDL choles... ... How Is the treatment of anti-TPO and anti TG high level?? essp. ... Hi, I want to ask How Is the treatment of anti-TPO and anti TG ... Hi, I want to ask How Is the treatment of anti-TPO and anti TG high level?? essp. anti TG. By the way I have allergy problems ... Anti TPO 25,2 0 35 Anti Tiroglobulin (AntiTg) 468 0 40 other related result -, EOS 0,44 (0-0,4) / MONO% 11,0 (2-10) Thx ...
Radioactive iodine uptake testing is a useful diagnostic tool for assessing thyroid pathologies. The atom is the smallest unit ... Five different scintigrams taken from thyroids with different syndromes: (A) Normal thyroid; (B) Graves disease, diffuse ... practice recommendations of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2011 Apr. 21(4):335-46. [Medline]. ... Technetium-99m pertechnetate uptake and scanning in the evaluation of thyroid function. Semin Nucl Med. 1971 Jul. 1(3):345-55. ...
Antithyroid drugs - such as methimazole and propylthiouracil - are one of the three conventional treatments available for ... How antithyroid drugs work. Antithyroid drugs treat your overactive thyroid by blocking the glands ability to use iodine to ... Thyroid HealthAlternative Treatment. Antithyroid Drugs for Graves Disease and Hyperthyroidism. Mary ShomonPatient Expert. Aug ... Keep in mind that after starting an antithyroid drug, it can take from two to eight weeks to reduce your thyroid levels to ...
... disease who take anti-thyroid medications during the first trimester of their pregnancy may have a higher risk for congenital ... Anti-thyroid Medications Raise Congenital Malformation Risk. Stephanie StephensM.A., Health Writer. Feb 9, 2018. ... Women with Graves disease who take anti-thyroid medications (ATDs) during the first trimester of their pregnancy may have a ... Thyroid levels unknown. In this study, one limitation is that we dont have data on participants thyroid levels to assess the ...
Detailed drug Information for antithyroid agent Oral, Rectal. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side ... Methimazole and propylthiouracil are used to treat conditions in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. ... While you are being treated with antithyroid agents, and after you stop treatment with it, do not have any immunizations ( ... Antithyroid agents may lower your bodys resistance and there is a chance you might get the infection the immunization is meant ...
Thyroid Disorders. 0. 03-24-2010 02:18 PM. Confused about anti-bodies and Graves vs. Hashimoto! mimi1999. Thyroid Disorders. 9 ... Re: Graves and Anti-thyroid meds I wish things were that good. Other than the thyroid, its been a pretty wickedly bad year ... Thyroid Disorders. 2. 05-04-2007 02:28 PM. what are best tests to show graves alana820. Thyroid Disorders. 8. 10-22-2006 05:44 ... Re: Graves and Anti-thyroid meds Hey Helen!. How the heck are ya?? Im doing well and am in the process of weaning off the ...
These antibodies, called thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs), cause the thyroid to grow and make more thyroid hormone ... Antithyroid Medication (ATM): ATMs work by blocking the thyroids use of iodine to produce hormones.5,11 These medications ... for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSIs then trick the thyroid into growing and producing too much thyroid hormone, leading ... the radioiodine goes into the thyroid cells and, over time, overactive thyroid cells are destroyed. The thyroid gland shrinks, ...
ATD treatment is generally well accepted by patients and clinicians due to some advantages including normalizing thyroid ... Current therapeutic options for GD include antithyroid drugs (ATD), radioactive iodine, and thyroidectomy. ... H. Kwon, W. Kim, E. Jang et al., "Usefulness of thyroid stimulating antibody at the time of antithyroid drug withdrawal in ... P. Laurberg, "Remission of Graves disease during anti-thyroid drug therapy. Time to reconsider the mechanism?" European ...
They prevent the thyroid from producing excess amounts of hormone. ... Learn more about antithyroid medications, a common treatment for hyperthyroidism, in this article. ... Antithyroid medications-sometimes written as anti-thyroid medications-are a common treatment for hyperthyroidism, particularly ... Antithyroid Medications for Hyperthyroidism. Halting Thyroid Hormone Production. Written by Kresimira (Mira) Milas MD , ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta antibody [J52] (ab2744) : Recommended IP& WB protocol ...
Anti-thyroid antibodies and miscarriage. Women with anti-thyroid antibodies and a normally functioning thyroid gland may be at ... In other words, the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies did not influence the chances for success and using thyroid hormone did ... The miscarriage rate with IVF was higher in women who had anti-thyroid antibodies. Using thyroid hormone for treatment did not ... In this study, women who were positive for anti-thyroid antibodies were randomly assigned to receive either thyroid hormone or ...
The most clinically relevant anti-thyroid autoantibodies are anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies), ... Anti-thyroid antibodies can be subdivided into groups according to their target antigen. Anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) ... Anti-Na+/I− symporter antibodies are a more recent discovery of possible thyroid autoantibodies and their role in thyroid ... Thyroid microsomal antibodies were a group of anti-thyroid antibodies, they were renamed after the identification of their ...
Taking antithyroid drugs (ATDs) during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for birth defects ... For an interview with the lead author, Jae Hoon Chung, MD, PhD, please email thyroid@skku.edu or [email protected] 2. ... Taking antithyroid drugs (ATDs) during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for birth defects ... First trimester exposure to antithyroid drugs associated with birth defects Embargoed news from Annals of Internal Medicine ...
Rabbit polyclonal Thyroid Hormone Receptor alpha 1+2 antibody. Validated in WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. ... Anti-Thyroid Hormone Receptor alpha 1+2 antibody. See all Thyroid Hormone Receptor alpha 1+2 primary antibodies. ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Thyroid Hormone Receptor alpha 1+2 antibody (ab42565) WB, IHC-P, ELISA, ICC/IF ... Anti-Thyroid Hormone Receptor alpha 1+2 antibody (ab42565) at 0.5 µg/ml + Jurkat cell lysate at 10 µg with 5% skimmed milk in ...
At present, many individuals live with undetected thyroid disease - up to 60% of patients are unaware of their condition. While ... such as the routine evaluation of the thyroid to ensure early detection and diminish the risk of severe comorbidities. ... which aims to spread awareness of the thyroid conditions affecting over 20 million Americans ... which aims to spread awareness of the thyroid conditions affecting over 20 million Americans. ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Thyroid Peroxidase Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 488, Clone: TPO34, ... Thyroid Peroxidase Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 488, Clone: TPO34, Novus Biologicals ... EC 1.11.1, MSA, TDH2A, thyroid microsomal antigen, thyroid peroxidase, thyroperoxidase, TPXEC 1.11.1.8. ... Thyroid Peroxidase Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Antigen in Human samples. It is validated for Enzyme Linked ...
Immunoassays used for thyroid hormone measurement are known to be affected from anti-thyroid hormone antibody interference. ... We report a case of a full-term newborn with presumed anti-thyroid hormone antibody interference present in both cord blood and ... This is the first reported case of interference presumably caused by anti-thyroid hormone antibodies transferred from mother to ... Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism involves the analysis of thyroid hormone and thyrotropin levels using an ...
  • Postoperative TgAb can serve as a biomarker for remnant thyroid tissue, so follow-up measures of TgAb are useful for predicting cancer recurrence in DTC patients. (kjim.org)
  • If you need help with thyroid autoimmunity, click here The Benefits of a Lower Carbohydrate Diet for Those with Hashimoto's The thyroid is one of the metabolism-regulating glands. (drruscio.com)
  • Its anti-inflammatory properties are one reason this tonic is especially beneficial for stiff joints, which are often a challenge for women with hypothyroid and Hashimoto's conditions. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Or maybe you have been dealing with Hashimoto's for a long time and are seeing some changes to your thyroid antibody levels as part of the normal ageing process . (sarapeternell.com)
  • Moreover, according to clinical research , the fluoride dose capable of reducing thyroid function was notably low - just 2 to 5 mg per day over several months. (eidon.com)
  • J. Yang, J. Zhong, X.H. Xiao, L.Z. Zhou, Y.J. Chen, J.H. Liu, R.X. Cao, G.B. Wen, The relationship between bone marrow characteristics and the clinical prognosis of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis. (springermedizin.de)
  • In this article, we summarize the ways that TgAb is being used in a variety of clinical settings in the thyroid cancer field. (kjim.org)
  • Additionally, we investigated the correlation of TPOAb and TGAb with thyroid parameters as well as with putative confounding parameters such as standard deviation scores (SDS) of height, BMI-SDS and CRP. (nih.gov)