Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. ("Intracisternal" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
A species of SPUMAVIRUS causing non-pathogenic infections in chimpanzees and humans.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Forms of combined immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene for INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT. Both severe and non-severe subtypes of the disease have been identified.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).
An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE infecting fish. Species include Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1, and Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 2.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A group of viruses in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS comprising a few isolates from birds, with no known corresponding endogenous relatives.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.

Clinical and immunological effects of a 6 week immunotherapy cycle with murabutide in HIV-1 patients with unsuccessful long-term antiretroviral treatment. (1/1722)

In an effort to evaluate the potential of non-specific immunotherapy in restoring global immunity, we have examined the clinical tolerance and biological effects of a 6 week administration of the immunomodulator, murabutide, in chronically infected HIV-1 patients. Forty-two subjects, presenting weak immune reconstitution and ineffective virus suppression following long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were randomized to receive, or not, murabutide 7 mg/day on five consecutive days/week. Clinical and immunological parameters were monitored before and after the immunotherapy period. Administration of murabutide was generally well tolerated, although some grade III adverse events, reversible on treatment cessation, were observed. Interestingly, in comparison with pre-inclusion levels, at 1 week after the immunotherapy cycle, only murabutide recipients presented a significant increase in CD4 cells, platelet counts, and in the percentage of patients with undetectable viral loads (<50 copies/mL). Statistical significance between the two groups was only evident with the latter parameter. Some of these clinical changes were maintained even up to 12 weeks after murabutide administration, and were accompanied by an increased ability to mount cellular responses to active immunization with a recall antigen, and by a significant increase in the percentage of patients presenting positive lymphoproliferative responses to the viral antigen gp160. These results warrant further evaluation of extended periods or cycles of murabutide immunotherapy as adjunct to HAART.  (+info)

Self-reported health-related quality of life in persons with HIV infection: results from a multi-site interview project. (2/1722)

BACKGROUND: To examine demographic and behavioral associations with self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among persons with HIV infection or AIDS. METHODS: Analysis of interviews with persons > or = 18 years of age reported through routine disease surveillance with HIV infection or AIDS to nine state and local health departments from January 1995 through December 1996. Scales were constructed from validated measures of HRQOL, and mean scores were calculated (lower scores signified poorer HRQOL). Measures of HRQOL included Overall Health, Pain, Physical Functioning, Role Functioning, Social Functioning, Mental Health, Energy/Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning. Differences in HRQOL were examined by various demographic and behavioral factors, including taking antiretroviral medication. RESULTS: HRQOL data were available for 3778 persons. Factors associated with lower HRQOL scores included older age, female sex, black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, injection drug use, lower education and income, no private health insurance, and lower CD4 count. In multivariate analysis, lower CD4 count was the factor most consistently associated with lower HRQOL. Taking antiretroviral medication was not associated with differences in HRQOL regardless of CD4 count. CONCLUSIONS: Perception of HRQOL varied in a population with HIV infection or AIDS. On most HRQOL measures, lower CD4 count was associated with lower HRQOL. Measurement of HRQOL can assist in understanding the long-term effects of disease and treatment on persons with HIV.  (+info)

HIVAN and medication use in chronic dialysis patients in the United States: analysis of the USRDS DMMS Wave 2 study. (3/1722)

BACKGROUND: The use and possible effects of factors known to improve outcomes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy (HIVAN), namely of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) and antiretroviral therapy, has not been reported for a national sample of dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a historical cohort study of the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study (DMMS) Wave 2 to identify risk factors associated with increased mortality in these patients. Data were available for 3374 patients who started dialysis and were followed until March 2000. Cox Regression analysis was used to model adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) with HIVAN as a cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and its impact on mortality during the study period, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 3374 patients who started dialysis, 36 (1.1%) had ESRD as a result of HIVAN. Only 22 (61%) of patients with HIVAN received antiretroviral agents, and only nine patients (25%) received combination antiretroviral therapy, and only 14% received ACE inhibitors. Neither the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs (AHR, 0.62, 95% CI, 0.10, 3.86, p = 0.60), or ACE inhibitors were associated with a survival advantage. Patients with HIVAN had an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.74, 95% Confidence Interval, 3.12, 7.32, p < 0.01) compared to patients with other causes of ESRD. CONCLUSIONS: Medications known to improve outcomes in HIV infected patients were underutilized in patients with HIVAN. Adjusted for other factors, a primary diagnosis of HIVAN was associated with increased mortality compared with other causes of ESRD.  (+info)

Polymyositis masquerading as mitochondrial toxicity. (4/1722)

A 66 year old HIV infected male heavy smoker presented with arthralgia, myalgia, and weight loss which was originally ascribed to nucleoside induced mitochondrial toxicity. Despite withdrawal of antiretroviral therapy a proximal myopathy developed. Further investigation excluded malignancy. Polymyositis was diagnosed on muscle biopsy. The patient recovered completely with oral prednisolone. This case highlights the importance of muscle biopsy in HIV infected patients whose myopathy persists despite withdrawal of antiretroviral therapy and the need for thorough investigation of non-specific symptoms in HIV infected patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

Decline in mortality, AIDS, and hospital admissions in perinatally HIV-1 infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland. (5/1722)

OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in demographic factors, disease progression, hospital admissions, and use of antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV. DESIGN: Active surveillance through the national study of HIV in pregnancy and childhood (NSHPC) and additional data from a subset of children in the collaborative HIV paediatric study (CHIPS). SETTING: United Kingdom and Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 944 children with perinatally acquired HIV-1 under clinical care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes over time in progression to AIDS and death, hospital admission rates, and use of antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: 944 children with perinatally acquired HIV were reported in the United Kingdom and Ireland by October 2002; 628 (67%) were black African, 205 (22%) were aged > or = 10 years at last follow up, 193 (20%) are known to have died. The proportion of children presenting who were born abroad increased from 20% in 1994-5 to 60% during 2000-2. Mortality was stable before 1997 at 9.3 per 100 child years at risk but fell to 2.0 in 2001-2 (trend P < 0.001). Progression to AIDS also declined (P < 0.001). From 1997 onwards the proportion of children on three or four drug antiretroviral therapy increased. Hospital admission rates declined by 80%, but with more children in follow up the absolute number of admissions fell by only 26%. CONCLUSION: In children with HIV infection, mortality, AIDS, and hospital admission rates have declined substantially since the introduction of three or four drug antiretroviral therapy in 1997. As infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland are living longer, there is an increasing need to address their medical, social, and psychological needs as they enter adolescence and adult life.  (+info)

Abnormal contingent negative variation in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. (6/1722)

The contingent negative variation, an event-related potential related to neural activity in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia, neuropsychological tests and structural MRI were used to examine CNS function and structure in HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Relative to controls, HIV patients had smaller thalamic volume and reduced late contingent negative variation amplitude that correlated with caudal atrophy. Behaviorally, viremic patients were more impaired than virally suppressed patients and controls on neuropsychological measures of psychomotor speed, selective attention and mental flexibility. These results suggest that antiretroviral therapy may not be effective in protecting cortical and subcortical structures against HIV-related neuropathology, regardless of immune function. However, the benefits of antiretroviral therapy on immune function appear to facilitate neurocognitive performance.  (+info)

The cardiovascular consequences of HIV and antiretroviral therapy. (7/1722)

Antiretroviral therapy has changed the face of the treatment of HIV throughout the world, converting a fatal into a chronic disease. HIV has reached disastrous levels of infection in southern Africa, and increased use of life-saving therapy is being implemented. The antiretrovirals have a variety of metabolic side effects that have been implicated in cardiovascular disease in other populations. This article discusses the impact of HIV on southern Africa, the metabolic and cardiac complications of both HIV and antiretrovirals, and strategies for dealing with drug side effects.  (+info)

Use of a small molecule CCR5 inhibitor in macaques to treat simian immunodeficiency virus infection or prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection. (8/1722)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fuses with cells after sequential interactions between its envelope glycoproteins, CD4 and a coreceptor, usually CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4). CMPD 167 is a CCR5-specific small molecule with potent antiviral activity in vitro. We show that CMPD 167 caused a rapid and substantial (4-200-fold) decrease in plasma viremia in six rhesus macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains SIVmac251 or SIVB670, but not in an animal infected with the X4 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), SHIV-89.6P. In three of the SIV-infected animals, viremia reduction was sustained. In one, there was a rapid, but partial, rebound and in another, there was a rapid and complete rebound. There was a substantial delay (>21 d) between the end of therapy and the onset of full viremia rebound in two animals. We also evaluated whether vaginal administration of gel-formulated CMPD 167 could prevent vaginal transmission of the R5 virus, SHIV-162P4. Complete protection occurred in only 2 of 11 animals, but early viral replication was significantly less in the 11 CMPD 167-recipients than in 9 controls receiving carrier gel. These findings support the development of small molecule CCR5 inhibitors as antiviral therapies, and possibly as components of a topical microbicide to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission.  (+info)

This is an observational cohort in pediatric HIV patients in China. Children who receive antiretroviral drugs will be recruited in this study. The main objectives are as follows: 1. To establish simpler and smarter pediatric antiretroviral therapy in China including both first-line and second-line regimens. 2. To study the nature, characteristics and mechanisms of immunoreconstitution in HIV-infected children using the data and samples from the pediatric antiretroviral therapy cohort. 3. To establish a basic science and clinical research network based on the pediatric antiretroviral cohort ...
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The National Arts Program® Foundation\101 Church Street\Unit 20\Malvern, PA 19355. [email protected]\Phone: (610) 408-9600\Fax: (610) 379-2799. ...
ar EVALUATION TECHNOLOGIES INCORPORATED AN EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE DESIGN COMPETITION SUBCATEGORY OF THE DESIGN ARTS PROGRAM Submitted to: Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts Submitted by: Evaluation Technologies Incorporated 2020 North 14th Street, Sixth Floor Arlington, Virginia 22201 (703) 525-5818 Revised January 7, 1986 October 25, 1985 Mr. Peter Smith Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W. Washington, D.C. 20506 Reference: Contract Number NEA DC 85-5 Dear Mr. Smith: Enclosed please find the final report of the evaluation conducted for the Design Competition Subcategory. This evaluation was implemented along the basic framework of the evaluation design, which included two principle objectives. These were: (1) Determine the extent to which the design competitions funded by the Endowment have a high likelihood of being carried out; and (2) Determine the extent to which the design competitions funded by the Endowment enable the ...
Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa ...
Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa ...
Find A PhD. Search Funded Arts Programmes in Pharmaceutical Chemistry in Guildford. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
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Were just two days away from the official deadline to apply for Engadgets unreal arts program for unreal times. But what is time, really? In the spirit of br...
No ab wheel? No problem. Just use a stability ball. Also works great as a regressive exercise if the standard ab rollout is too tough for you.
For the first ten of our expansive 34 year history at Ampronix, we were an electronic equipment repair company. Today, we have expanded to become a service, manufacturing, and distributing trifecta with the mission of providing superior, customized care s
Nice.. How many of the pages are new this time around? I feel like Im seeing new things, but maybe Ive just had the early art blasted out of my mind by the stunning conclusion.. ...
Background. Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation, intestinal damage, and inflammation in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PLHIV with suppressed plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy and age and demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals participating in the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort and, where appropriate, age-matched blood bank donors (BBD). Results. People living with HIV, HIV-negative individuals, and BBD had comparable percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes. Expression of CD163, CD32, CD64, HLA-DR, CD38, CD40, CD86, CD91, CD11c, and CX3CR1 on monocytes did not differ between PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals, but it differed significantly from ...
To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports ...
To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports ...
One of the most serious challenges facing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs for HIV/AIDS in resource-constrained settings is the failure of ART-eligible patients to complete the steps required to initiate treatment. The high rate of loss to care of patients who are treatment-eligible at HIV diagnosis may be due in part to the large number of steps required between receiving an HIV diagnosis and obtaining the first dose of antiretrovirals (ARVs). In South Africa, these steps usually require approximately four clinic visits over a period of 2-8 weeks before a patient can start treatment. One strategy proposed for reducing losses among those eligible for ART is to simplify and condense the steps required for starting treatment. This is now possible because new, point-of-care (POC) tests for CD4 counts and tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis are available. These technologies can be combined with changes to clinic schedules to allow all steps required for ART initiation under South African guidelines ...
Data on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in remote rural African regions is increasing. We assessed prospectively initial cART in HIV-infected adults treated from 2005 to 2008 at St. Francis Designated District Hospital, Ifakara, Tanzania. Adherence was assisted by personal adherence supporters. We estimated risk factors of death or loss to follow-up by Cox regression during the first 12 months of cART. Overall, 1,463 individuals initiated cART, which was nevirapine-based in 84.6%. The median age was 40 years (IQR 34-47), 35.4% were males, 7.6% had proven tuberculosis. Median CD4 cell count was 131 cells/μl and 24.8% had WHO stage 4. Median CD4 cell count increased by 61 and 130 cells/μl after 6 and 12 months, respectively. 215 (14.7%) patients modified their treatment, mostly due to toxicity (56%), in particular polyneuropathy and anemia. Overall, 129 patients died (8.8%) and 189 (12.9%) were lost to follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, low CD4 cells at starting cART were associated with
Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily dependent on global health initiatives (GHIs) for funding antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are indications that global investments for ART scale-up are flattening. It is unclear what new funding channels can bridge the funding gap for ART service delivery. Many previous studies have focused on domestic government spending and international funding especially from GHIs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The immunological response after the initiation of the second line anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients. AU - Pillai, Keerthi. AU - Ramapuram, John T.. AU - Achappa, Basavaprabhu. AU - Madi, Deepak. AU - Chowta, Mukta N.. AU - Satish Rao, B.. AU - Mahalingam, Soundarya. AU - Unnikrishnan, B.. PY - 2012/9/30. Y1 - 2012/9/30. N2 - Introduction: The treatment with the second line ART is initiated when the first line therapy fails. There is less experience with the immunologic response for the second-line ART for adults. Hence, this study was done to find out the immunological response after the initiation of the second line ART by doing an analysis of the CD4 counts. Methods: This retrospective study is conducted in a tertiary level hospital which was attached to a medical college that caters to a large number of HIV positive patients. The study population for this analysis included all the HIV positive individuals who were undergoing the second line ART treatment. The data ...
Earlier this year, we learned that the START study had found overwhelming evidence that beginning HIV antiretroviral therapy at any CD4 count was better ...
With the outbreak of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, it was observed both in developed countries and in developing countries an increase in the number of known cases of Tuberculosis, mainly in HIV infected individuals. As an aggravation in the co-infection cases there is the anti-retroviral resistance, and one of the main reasons is the HIV great genetic variability. The HIV genotyping became an essential tool to guide and maximize the benefits of the anti-retroviral treatment of positive HIV patients. In this study, it was intended to evaluate in a period of 6 months the immunology and viral profiles associated with the frequency of mutations in the HIV-1 pol gene in HIV-Tuberculosis co-infected patients. The study involved 33 individuals of both the sexes and ages between 12 and 63 years. Four groups were studied: Group A (n=19) HIV only under treatment with anti-retroviral drugs; and co-infected: Group B (n=7) under treatment with anti-retroviral drugs; Group C (n=4) ...
In keeping with its mandate to support and develop South Africas arts, culture and heritage sector, The National Arts Council (NAC) has awarded 117 bursaries to arts students and tertiary institutions for 2016 through a fund allocation of over R5 million, a 10% increase from the last financial year. The bursaries will support both undergraduate studies at institutions as well as post graduate individuals across disciplines, signaling the NACs holistic approach to funding as a means of development. ...
Caroline Caluwaerts, Rosa Maendaenda, Fernando Maldonado, Marc Biot, Nathan Ford, Kathryn Chu International Health 2009;1(1):97-101. (doi: 10.1016/j.inhe.2009.03.002) Read more
P3.330 Prevalence and Immunological Correlates of Opportunistic Infections Among HIV Patients Attending at ART Clinic of University of Gondar Hospital ...
Background: Evidence shows that earlier access to Anti-retroviral Therapy helps to increase survival of children by delaying the progression to AIDS. However its long-ter..
The more art you see, the better your eye gets and the surer you become about what you like and why. There are lots of excellent opportunities in galleries throughout the west-central Florida region
In a justly scathing critique, Gregg Gonsalves wrote that at the Interim WHO ARV Treatment Working Group in November 2001, it was clear that WHO was ...
Lack / limited availability of skilled process owners and frequent change of participating personnel from local rollout site can also jeopardize the project in many ways. This can lead to delays in the process due to discontinuity at process knowledge or worse can even lead to incorrect understanding of the business process by the rollout team or by rollout site. The effect is cascading and leads to scope creep at later stage of project or definition of a sub-optimal solution, which could endanger the business efficiency for the local market and might also result in resistance/ not-acceptance of the rollout by the local rollout site users.. Ambiguous definition of roles and responsibilities for any stakeholder or between different vendors working on same rollout; is also a major setback to a project of this magnitude, as it can lead to lack of ownership and confusion towards project deliverable.. To circumvent the above risks, it is recommended for a company to have clear roles & responsibility ...
Researchers say that expanding anti-retroviral treatment to all HIV-positive people in couples with one partner who isnt infected is cost-effective even in developing countries with limited budgets.
Clients of a unique art program, put on the chopping block last month by Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH), are now breathing a sigh of relief.
The major concern behind the research is to develop models that can predict response to anti-retroviral treatment in order to maximise treatment for children affected with HIV.. The PENTA EPIICAL consortium intends to use the result of this research in the design of new clinical studies of current and new therapies with the purpose to replicate the virologic and immunologic profile predicted by the model.. ViiV Healthcare chief scientific and medical officer Dr John C Pottage said: Our collaboration with PENTA has set ambitious goals, but the need to optimise treatment strategies for children living with HIV is urgent.. The knowledge gained through this research will generate a deeper understanding of viral remission, which can be applied to the design of future clinical trials that test whether we can achieve what the model predicts in terms of HIV remission.. The information obtained, as well as the patient profiles, might also help inform the design of prospective studies with new and ...
Earle and Janice OBorn are making history by supporting the NAC and Canadian talent with one of the largest donations ever made towards the performing arts ...
This is the first in a two-part series about the vaccine rollout in Indian Country. Part two looks at the challenges of vaccinating our regions urban
Critical Diagnostics Accelerates European Rollout of Presage® ST2 Assay |0| Critical DiagnosticsDennis Dalangin, VP MarketingTelephone: 877-700-1250Email: |/0|
Yunnan, Guangxi and Henan are the provinces with the most severe HIV epidemic in China, which were also among the first group of areas providing free ART in ...
Om 2008.8 was designed to be as empty as possible, for the very purpose of showcasing your ideas. Think of our products as museums. Were building the environment. Each one different from the next. Youll get all the free art supplies you could imagine because we want you to add your own meaning. You choose: consume, create, or both. Either way you create your own meaning. Its about you. ...
begingroup$ Option in the Velocity rollout , Other group , Random is set to 1 on your screenshot. It allows to randomize rotation of the particles but size as well (as it affects starting velocity of the hair) even if random size in Render rollout is set to 0. By default its set to 0. If you really want to make all particles of the same size (icicles on donut wont be) you can set that to 0, open Rotation rollout, set it to Normal or Normal-Tangent and increase Random of the Phase to 2. Then only rotation will be randomized $\endgroup$ - Mr Zak Apr 1 18 at 12:55 ...
How does art free a brain that is hurting? Is there something in the creation that reacts with colors and process and form and texture? CBS 2s Bill Kurtis reports.
However, research shows theres a tradeoff between stopping the virus and the negative effects of powerful antiretroviral medications on the babys heart.
Although the risk of developing cancer is decreasing for people living with HIV as antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves, it remains higher for certain cancers - and as ART expands, this burden is expected to grow.. ...
Although the risk of developing cancer is decreasing for people living with HIV as antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves, it remains higher for certain cancers - and as ART expands, this burden is expected to grow.. ...
The next generation of faster mobile networks is poised to lower costs for operators and potentially unleash a new price war in the industry in Europe.
Search and use 100s of art animal line clip arts and images all free! Royalty free, no fees, and download now in the size you need.
Chorus has today reported earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) of $636m for the year ended 30 June 2019, in line with guidance.
Yet again, the industry has paid politicians to roll out a harmful technology that has had zero testing but will make them billions of dollars - welcome to 5G
CBIS Releases Corporate Operational Guidance for 2013 as the Company Reorganizes to better meet the Growing Global Crisis Associated with Anti-Retroviral Drug Resistance among People with AIDS, as well as the Increasing Need for Patient Friendly Skin Cancer Therapies
Stocks started off in the right direction this morning, buoyed by the White Houses rollout of its auto rescue plan. The Dow rose 67 points, while the S&P and Nasdaq added 0.7% and 1.6% respectively,... Money News Summaries. | Newser
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BACKGROUND. Most adults infected with HIV achieve viral suppression within a year of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is important to understand the risk of AIDS events or death for patients with a suppressed viral load.. METHODS AND FINDINGS. Using data from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (2010 merger), we assessed the risk of a new AIDS-defining event or death in successfully treated patients. We accumulated episodes of viral suppression for each patient while on cART, each episode beginning with the second of two consecutive plasma viral load measurements ,50 copies/µl and ending with either a measurement ,500 copies/µl, the first of two consecutive measurements between 50-500 copies/µl, cART interruption or administrative censoring. We used stratified multivariate Cox models to estimate the association between time updated CD4 cell count and a new AIDS event or death or death alone. 75,336 patients contributed 104,265 ...
Retention and viral suppression in a cohort of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: Regionally representative estimates using a multistage-sampling-based approach
Browsing by Title Early antiretroviral therapy reduces the incidence of otorrhea in a randomized study of early and deferred antiretroviral therapy : evidence from the Children with HIV Early antiretroviral therapy (CHER) Study ...
The Botswana national treatment guidelines for adults recommend two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), zidovudine/lamivudine, and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Typically, the NNRTI is efavirenz or, for women of reproductive age, nevirapine. The regimen consisted of 200 mg of Combivir (lamzid, once available) twice daily. Nevirapine began with a two-week lead-in period of 200 mg once a day followed by a maintenance regimen of 200 mg twice a day. Efavirenz was dosed at 600 mg each day.. Patients experiencing virologic failure on first-line therapy were switched to a protease inhibitor-based regimen (lopinavir/ritonavir) coupled with two NRTIs (didanosine and stavudine or tenofovir or abacavir and lamivudine). When virologic failure occurred with second-line therapy or when there were complicated first-line therapy failures, genotypic resistance testing was undertaken.. At the initial visit, all patients underwent a comprehensive physical examination ...
antiretroviral medications list for sale - 10 - antiretroviral medications list wholesalers & antiretroviral medications list manufacturers from China manufacturers.
The Original Study Several observational studies have reported that the early use of antiretroviral therapy by patients diagnosed with HIV decreases rates of HIV acquisition among their sexual partners. This study evaluates the impact of early antiretroviral therapy on HIV acquisition among serodiscordant couples from nine countries.
The proportion of perinatally HIV (PHIV)-infected youth on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased, leading to decreases in rates of viremia and advanced immunosuppression in recent years.
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
Optimal strategies to improve food security and nutrition for people living with HIV (PLHIV) may differ in settings where overweight and obesity are prevalent and cardiovascular disease risk is a concern.
While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment
In this descriptive cross-sectional study conducted to estimate the proportion of patients virologically non-suppressed and to identify the factors associated with virological non-suppression, we found an overall proportion of non-suppression of 11%. Amongst the 3 sub-patient categories, patients on routine monitoring registered the lowest while repeat testers after suspected failure registered the highest proportion of non-suppressed patients. Being a suspected treatment failure, repeat tester after suspected treatment failure, young age, poor adherence and having active TB increased the odds of virological non-suppression. Being on second/third line treatment decreased the odds of virological non-suppression. Repeater testers after suspected failure with active TB registered the highest odds of non-suppression compared to TB patients amongst other sub-categories.. Although our study reveals the overall proportion of non-suppressed patients being relatively low, we observe sub-groups such as ...
All people who need antiretroviral therapy should have access to it. WHO proposed as a target that by 2005, 3 million people should have access, and called for the adoption in resource-limited settings of a public health approach to antiretroviral treatment as a tool to reach this goal. Selection of ARV treatment regimens for programmes and individual patients should consider: potency, frequency of dosage, side effects, maintenance of future treatment options, the anticipated adherence of the patient population to a regimen, need for storage, concurrent conditions, the potential for resistant viral strains, and cost and access. Additional considerations may include access to only a limited number of ARV drugs, limited health service infrastructure, the need to deliver drugs to rural areas, a high incidence of tuberculosis and hepatitis B and/or C, and the presence of varied HIV groups and subtypes. WHO recommends that in ARV treatment programmes in resource-limited settings HIV infected ...
Medscape Medical News , Conference News Jim Kling Sep 20, 2013 DENVER - In patients with HIV, detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is more prevalent in those with major depressive disorder, according to a new study. We believe that some inherent conditions that are associated with HIV may also be associated with depression, said study author Edward Hammond, MD, a doctoral student at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. One would be the inflammatory component, and depression, like HIV, is an inflammatory state. The research, presented here at the 53rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, evaluates the association between major depression and viral escape in people on antiretroviral therapy with undetectable plasma viral loads. To assess this association, Dr. Hammonds team conducted a prospective study of the 6-center CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort. The researchers followed 212 patients without CSF viral escape at study ...
It is often said that access to HIV/AIDS medicines is only one part of HIV/AIDS treatment, that other elements such as education of healthcare personnel, infrastructure, healthcare systems are important, too. This is correct but it misses the most important point: Without medicines there is simply no treatment against HIV/AIDS.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lower CSF Aβ is associated with HAND in HIV-infected adults with a family History of Dementia. AU - CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research CHARTER Group. AU - Fazeli, Pariya L.. AU - Moore, David J.. AU - Franklin, Donald R.. AU - Umlauf, Anya. AU - Heaton, Robert K.. AU - Collier, Ann C.. AU - Marra, Christina M.. AU - Clifford, David B.. AU - Gelman, Benjamin. AU - Sacktor, Ned C.. AU - Morgello, Susan. AU - Simpson, David M.. AU - McCutchan, John A.. AU - Grant, Igor. AU - Letendre, Scott L.. AU - Grant, Igor. AU - Letendre, Scott L.. AU - Ellis, Ronald J.. AU - Marcotte, Thomas D.. AU - Franklin, Donald. AU - Ellis, Ronald J.. AU - McCutchan, J. Allen. AU - Letendre, Scott. AU - Smith, Davey M.. AU - Heaton, Robert K.. AU - Hampton Atkinson, J.. AU - Fennema-Notestine, Christine. AU - Taylor, Michael J.. AU - Theilmann, Rebecca. AU - Gamst, Anthony C.. AU - Cushman, Clint. AU - Abramson, Ian. AU - Vaida, Florin. AU - Deutsch, Reena. AU - McArthur, Justin. AU - ...
HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention medical practice guideline documents and related reports and reference materials. Guidelines prepared by expert panels convened by U.S. government and updated continuously. Available for downloading in print and PDA formats for health care providers and consumers.
A collaborative study with members of Pasteur Institute (A. Saez-Cirion, D. Scott-Algara), french perinatal cohort (ANRS CO10; J. Warszawsky) and 10
Objectives Human relationships between nonuse of highly dynamic anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) competition/ethnicity violence medication make use of and other risk elements are investigated using qualitative information of five risk CEP-18770 elements (unsafe sex multiple man companions heavy drinking split cocaine or heroin make use of and contact with assault) and association from the information and competition/ethnicity with nonuse of HAART as time passes. stable as time passes. Being in the best risk condition did not considerably elevate the chances of HAART nonuse (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.6-1.8). Nevertheless being inside a latent condition characterized by raised probabilities of weighty drinking and contact with assault along with minor elevations in three additional risk elements significantly increased probability of HAART nonuse (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Conclusions The study shows that HAART make use of may be improved by interventions targeted at ladies who are weighty drinkers with ...
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has developed documents that address the standard of care for the treatment of HIV, including information about how to treat HIV in adolescents. The documents Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents and Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection are available from the HIV/AIDS Treatment Information Service (see More Information) According to the Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents, adolescents who were exposed to HIV sexually or via injection drug use appear to follow a clinical course that is more similar to HIV disease in adults than in children. At this time, most adolescents with sexually acquired HIV are in a relatively early stage of infection and are ideal candidates for early intervention. Adolescents who were infected at birth or via blood products as young children follow a unique clinical course that may ...
Background: Although generic anti-retroviral drugs are in common use throughout the developing world, studies comparing their clinical effectiveness with that of proprietary formulations are lacking. Methods: We analysed observational data from a large cohort of adults on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to assess potential differences between generic and proprietary zidovudine (ZDV) formulations in post-90-day mortality, programme failure (a composite of death, follow-up losses and withdrawals) and other clinical outcomes. We accounted for drug exposure in three ways: an initial dispensation approach that categorized patients according to the first prescription; time-varying approach that attributed an outcome to the formulation taken at the time of event; and predominant exposure approach that considered only those with >75% exposure to either brand or generic ZDV. Proprietary formulations were used as the reference group in all adjusted Cox proportional hazard regressions. Results: Among ...
While most HIV medication regimens are easy to handle, side effects occur in many people -- and if youre not prepared to deal with them, they can ...
About half of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy skipped their medications whenever they were drinking alcohol, according to a US study.
The impact of drug side-effects on retention in HIV care is probably being underestimated, according to an interview-based study of people taking antiretroviral treatment and health care workers in six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, published in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.. Although antiretroviral treatment has become easier to tolerate over the past decade as drugs with fewer serious side-effects have become more widely available, many people report some side-effects of treatment.. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tiredness, lack of energy, rash and difficulties in sleeping are common side-effects of many of the drugs now used in antiretroviral drug combinations.. Although these side-effects are usually classified as mild or moderate in clinical studies, health care workers and patients frequently differ in their assessments of the impact of these side-effects on quality of life and on adherence to antiretroviral treatment.. To find out more about the differing ...
The number of HIV-positive people by the end of 2015 was estimated by adding the total estimated number of people living with undiagnosed HIV to the observed number of diagnosed HIV patients living in Amsterdam, based on the first four digits of their most recent home address postal code. The number of undiagnosed people by the end of 2015 was estimated with a back-calculation method based on the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) HIV Modelling Tool, using annual data on new HIV diagnoses stratified by CD4 count at the time of diagnosis or a concurrent AIDS diagnosis. This method reconstructed the number of annual newly acquired HIV infections and the distribution of time between infection and diagnosis, and subsequently determined the proportion still undiagnosed. Retention in care was defined as at least one clinic visit, or a CD4 or RNA measurement in 2015. People were considered to be on antiretroviral treatment whenever they started combination antiretroviral ...
So if you value an opinion, formed as a result of participating in many ME activities, for example being bed bound for years, you have come to the right BLOG. All these activities have allowed me to form an opinion as a Doctor and as a Patient. And that is important as the voice of the latter is discarded by many including NICE ...
Our research into HIV. Recent research includes a study on new patients not on HIV treatment and patients on antiretroviral treatment for at least six months.
President Obama awarded the 2010 National Arts and Humanities Medals. Honorees include producer Quincy Jones and jazz legend Sonny Rollins.
A majority of women were interested in and adhered to the use of a dapivirine vaginal ring to reduce their risk of contracting HIV.
In parts of Africa, where the HIV rate is 36 percent, researchers tested out a simple idea: They made access to care easier for people living with a chronic condition.. In a nearly three-year study in South Africa and Uganda, researchers used mobile vans in five communities to dispense care and treatment to 1,315 people living with HIV and not on antiretroviral treatment.. The randomized controlled trial, conducted between May 2016 and March 2019, found that viral suppression was 74 percent, compared to 63 percent for those seen in a clinic.. ...
While her love of art started at a very young age, Emily didnt discover her talent with yarn until her last year in medical school. With the fourth year of medical school being referred to as the
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The use of antiretrovirals (ARVs) in combination for treating patients with HIV has greatly ameliorated morbidity and mortality by reducing viral load to undetectable levels and boosting the bodys immunity. However serious adverse reactions causing long- or short-term effects have been associated with ARV treatment. These reactions have caused major concerns internationally, potentially threatening patient adherence to long-term treatment. The duration of treatment of patients infected with HIV; co-morbid conditions, such as tuberculosis (TB) and malaria; and the complications due to HIV infection or AIDS make it difficult to determine the exact cause of the adverse events (AEs) experienced by patients taking ARV medicines. The prevalence of co-morbid conditions differs across socioeconomic groups and geographical regions, which may contribute to differences in ARV toxicity profiles. Hence, it is recommended that national HIV treatment programs establish population-level ARV toxicity profiles ...
Psychosocial factors such as stress, depression and trauma can have a significant impact on the treatment outcomes of people infected with HIV/AIDS, according to a researcher from
The technique had existed for years, so by using the methods listed above Justin Kerr succeeded in making a camera that captured the first Maya pottery vessel using rollout photography. The rollout technique was perfected through the use of a record turntable, clamps, and various pieces of wood and belts. The end result was a clear and accurate reproduction of a tin can. From there Kerr moved on to Maya vessels. Each vase takes about two minutes to photograph, and is done all in one session. Kerr spends on average 6 hours a day in his studio working on Maya rollouts. Subsequently, Kerr began archiving every container he photographed. To date more than 1400 rollouts have been created. His first successful print was of an Olmec bowl, lent to him from Princeton University. ...
An HIV-positive person can reduce the risk of spreading the virus to uninfected partners by 96% if they are given anti-retroviral drugs immediately, according to US scientists.
New Delhi: The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has instituted 37 more, in addition to the existing 54, to provide free anti-retroviral treatment (ART).
As soon as you test positive for HIV, look for an HIV care and treatment program. These programs can provide you with the resources you need to stay healthy. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) medicines can help your body strengthen its immune system to fight HIV infection, but small amounts of the HIV virus will always remain hidden in the body. Using ART means taking a combination of at least 3 anti-retroviral medicines every day. The medicines available may differ depending on where you live. They might be combined into one pill, or they might come in 3 separate pills. But what is the same everywhere is that once you begin taking ART, the medicines must be taken every day and at the same time. A person taking ART will gain weight, and look and feel healthier. But if he stops taking ART, or misses doses of the medicine, or takes it at the wrong times, then the HIV can become stronger and make him sick again. Women with HIV who are pregnant should also take ART. It will help them be healthier and ...
As a result, lamivudine was identified as a less toxic agent to mitochondria DNA than other retroviral drugs. Lamivudine was ... Lamivudine (Epivir) is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV‑1 infection. ... A better explanation of the data is that lamivudine continues to have a partial anti-viral effect even in the presence of the ... Lamivudine, commonly called 3TC, is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. It is also used to treat ...
... immunologic function can be restored by treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. In kidney transplant recipients ... Other agents that have been proposed to target polyomavirus BK, such as cidofovir, fluoroquinolones, leflunomide, and statins ... Also, some of these agents may cause severe long-lasting side effects.[citation needed] Huang, Gang; Chen, Li-Zhong; Qiu, Jiang ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 41 (3): 587-93. doi:10.1128/AAC.41.3.587. PMC 163756. PMID 9055998. Gabardi, S.; Waikar ...
MK-0518, the First Integrase Inhibitor for HIV, No Blarney HIV Antiretroviral Agents in Development GS 9137 (elvitegravir) fact ... Since integration is a vital step in retroviral replication, blocking it can halt further spread of the virus. Integrase ... USA (2014). "Antiretroviral Therapy: Current Drugs". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 28 (3): 371 ... Integrase inhibitors (INIs) are a class of antiretroviral drug designed to block the action of integrase, a viral enzyme that ...
6,319,711 Levo-monosaccharide in a nucleoside analog for use as an anti-retroviral agent, US Patent #6,090,602 Method and ...
... antimitotic agent - antineoplastic - antineoplastic antibiotic - antioxidant - antiparasitic - antiretroviral therapy - ... retroviral vector - retrovirus - RevM10 gene - rhabdoid tumor - rhabdomyosarcoma - rhizoxin - ribavirin - ribonucleotide ... anti-CEA antibody - anti-idiotype vaccine - anti-inflammatory - antiandrogen - antiandrogen therapy - anti-angiogenesis - ... alkylating agent - ALL - all-trans retinoic acid - allogeneic - allogeneic bone marrow transplantation - allogeneic stem cell ...
... who spread misinformation about HIV tests and even alleged of anti-retroviral therapy to be the causative agent of AIDS; the ... Some of Null's productions portrayed those patients as the real heroes, who rejected anti-retroviral therapy in favor of his ... Discussing Null's anti-vaccination efforts, Harriet Hall deems Null to have a bad track record for scientific credibility. ... Null holds strong anti-vaccination views and rejects the scientific consensus on topics such as water fluoridation, genetically ...
Scientists are testing whether anti-retroviral lubricants or gels can be applied to aid in the prevention of transmission of ... Additionally, a commonly used numbing agent benzocaine can cause an allergic reaction in those with an allergy to PABA (4- ... 2012). "Is Wetter Better? An Evaluation of Over-the-Counter Personal Lubricants for Safety and Anti-HIV-1 Activity". PLoS ONE. ... Some anal lubricants contain numbing agents to relieve discomfort during anal sex, although it is generally inadvisable as a ...
June 2006). "Efficacy and tolerability of 10-day monotherapy with apricitabine in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected patients ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 53 (4): 1683-1685. doi:10.1128/AAC.01168-08. PMC 2663123. PMID 19223637.. ... and difficulty confirming the effectiveness of the drug in patients where other retroviral drugs masked key indicators. In ...
"Anti-HIV Agents That Selectively Target Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers without Affecting Cellular Zinc Finger ... 2-Diamine That Chelates Zinc Ions from Retroviral Nucleocapsid Zinc Fingers". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 54 (4): ... Musah, Rabi Ann (2004). "The HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Zinc Finger Protein as a Target of Antiretroviral Therapy" (PDF). Current ... "Biophysical Characterization of Zinc Ejection from HIV Nucleocapsid Protein by Anti-HIV 2,2'-Dithiobis[benzamides] and ...
Coovadia, H. (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J ... "Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque nuclear ... 2002). "Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (5 Pt 2): ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents" (PDF). Diakses tanggal 2006-01-17.. ...
2002) Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Ann Intern Med 137, 381-433 PMID ... dapat digunakan terapi anti-retroviral.[27]. Ibu ke anak (transmisi perinatal)[sunting , sunting sumber]. Penularan HIV dari ... yang mendapatkan pengobatan obat antiretroviral (ARV).[3] Indonesia adalah negara ketiga di dunia yang memiliki penderita HIV ...
... drugs called anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are available. This treatment is also called high active anti-retroviral therapy ( ... Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J. ... The drug 'Truvada' is a combination of two different anti-viral treatments: tenofovir and emtricitabine.[28] Truvada is very ... "Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents: recommendations for a public health approach" (PDF). World ...
53.0 53.1 Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. ... 2005). "Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque ... 2002). "Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (5 Pt 2): ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents" (PDF). Department of Health and Human ...
Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents (2009-12-01). Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in ... O período inicial que segue ao contaxio do VIH denomínase VIH agudo, VIH primario ou síndrome retroviral aguda.[11][13] Moitos ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection" (PDF). The Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and ... Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J. ...
... drugs called anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are available. This treatment is also called high active anti-retroviral therapy ( ... 8.0 8.1 Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. ... The drug 'Truvada' is a combination of two different anti-viral treatments: tenofovir and emtricitabine.[28] Truvada is very ... 2010). "When to start antiretroviral therapy". Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 7 (2): 60-68. doi:10.1007/s11904-010-0044-6. ...
Controlled trials began shortly after the advent of effective anti-retroviral therapies. The trials were abandoned due to poor ... a new broad spectrum antiparasitic agent". Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2 (1): 43-9. doi:10.1586/14787210.2.1.43. PMID 15482170 ... The anti-protozoal activity of nitazoxanide is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase ( ... Agents Chemother. 46 (7): 2116-23. doi:10.1128/aac.46.7.2116-2123.2002. PMC 127316 . PMID 12069963. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a ...
In the European Union it is indicated, in combination with other anti-retroviral medicinal products, for the treatment of Human ...
... perhaps the most important factor with respect to treatment is the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), which ... The most studied chemotheraputic agent in PCNSL is methotrexate (a folate analogue that interferes with DNA repair). ... probably due to poor penetration of the agents through the blood brain barrier.[11] ...
... of molecular diagnostic tools have enabled physicians and researchers to monitor the efficacy of treatment with anti-retroviral ... First, the catalog of infectious agents has grown to the point that virtually all of the significant infectious agents of the ... When infection attacks the body, anti-infective drugs can suppress the infection. Several broad types of anti-infective drugs ... The top three single agent/disease killers are HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. While the number of deaths due to nearly every disease ...
Baboons and pigs carry myriad transmittable agents that are harmless in their natural host, but extremely toxic and deadly in ... Takeuchi, Y.; Weiss, R. A. (2000). "Xenotransplantation: Reappraising the risk of retroviral zoonosis". Current Opinion in ... Latemple, D. C.; Galili, U. (1998). "Adult and neonatal anti-Gal response in knock-out mice for alpha1,3galactosyltransferase ... Xenozoonosis, also known as zoonosis or xenosis, is the transmission of infectious agents between species via xenograft. Animal ...
... dapat digunakan terapi anti-retroviral.[28]. Ibu ke anak (transmisi perinatal)Sunting. Penularan HIV dari ibu ke anak dapat ... 2002) Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Ann Intern Med 137, 381-433 PMID ...
Obat anti-inflamasi sering digunakan untuk mengontrol pengaruh peradangan. Glukokortikoid merupakan obat anti-inflamasi yang ... Taylor A, Watson C, Bradley J (2005). "Immunosuppressive agents in solid organ transplantation: Mechanisms of action and ... "T helper cell activation and human retroviral pathogenesis". Microbiol Rev. 60 (4): 722-42. PMID 8987361 ... Finlay B, McFadden G (2006). "Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens". Cell. 124 ( ...
It was discovered that gap junction communication could be disrupted by adding anti-connexin antibodies into embryonic cells.[ ... "In vitro evidence that metabolic cooperation is responsible for the bystander effect observed with HSV tk retroviral gene ... Agents. Receptor ligands. *Hormones. *Neurotransmitters/Neuropeptides/Neurohormones. *Cytokines. *Growth factors. *Signaling ...
Viral recombination produces genetic variation that likely contributes to the evolution of resistance to anti-retroviral ... A survival strategy for any infectious agent is not to kill its host, but ultimately become a commensal organism. Having ... and anti-retroviral drugs.[116] Other medical research areas include the topics of pre-exposure prophylaxis, post-exposure ... due to anti-retroviral treatment. Previously it was said the chance of transmission was 'very low' or 'negligible' (The 'Swiss ...
"Helminthic Infections Rates and Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Rwanda". PLoS Neglected ... For example, if gene splicing unites two pathogenic agents and the resulting novel organism infects a population. One study ... In coinfected cells, the retroviral DNA of the avian leukosis virus can integrate into the MDV genome, producing altered ... CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response, and the cytokines IL-10 and IL-16. median plasma levels of RANTES, a chemokine that ...
... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 - anti-bacterial agents MeSH D27.505 ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.025 - antimanic agents MeSH ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 - anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 - uricosuric agents MeSH ...
... (JSRV) is a betaretrovirus which is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep, ... These observations support the theory that an ancient retroviral infection had important consequences for mammalian evolution. ... anti-self' and selectively removed. Another hypothesis is that tumor cells downregulate their major histocompatibility class-I ...
July 1999). "A clinical trial of retroviral-mediated transfer of a rev-responsive element decoy gene into CD34(+) cells from ... In addition to their utility as direct therapeutic agents, RNA aptamers are also being considered for other therapeutic roles. ... Then, the PD-1 targeted sd-rxRNA helped increasing the anti-tumor activity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) against ... Even though In Vitro Translated(IVT) mRNA with delivery agents showed improved resistance against degradation, it needs more ...
Around 36.9 million people are infected with HIV in the world today and 59% of these people receive anti-retroviral treatment. ... for their interest in portable bio/chemical warfare agent detection systems. The added value was not only limited to ...
In March 2017, former Trump aid Monica Crowley registered as a foreign agent for Pinchuk. In November 2014 in Kyiv, Pinchuk was ... Olena Pinchuk runs the ANTIAIDS Foundation, which focuses on prevention and retroviral distribution and AIDS care in Ukraine. ... On March 18, 2015, National Anti-Corruption Bureau opened criminal proceedings on the basis of Kolomoisky's statements. ... Retrieved 18 June 2017 Gramer, Robbie (14 March 2017). "One-Time Trump National Security Pick Registers As Foreign Agent for ...
"Role of RCP006 as an anti-inflammatory agent". Roskamp Institute. Retrieved 2011-09-06. Kolati SR, Kasala ER, Bodduluru LN, ... NF-κB family members share structural homology with the retroviral oncoprotein v-Rel, resulting in their classification as NF- ... Many natural products (including anti-oxidants) that have been promoted to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity have ... or to become more sensitive to the action of anti-tumor agents. Thus, NF-κB is the subject of much active research among ...
The species Dolabrifera dolabrifera has an ink gland but is "incapable of producing ink or its associated anti-predator ... Bonner, T.I.; O'Connell, C.; Cohen, M. (August 1982). "Cloned endogenous retroviral sequences from human DNA". Proceedings of ... a variety of differing agents have been documented and are often defined and classified in various forms (e.g. peripatric, ... ISBN 978-0-679-64288-6. Bowler, Peter J. (1983). The Eclipse of Darwinism: anti-Darwinian evolutionary theories in the decades ...
Its ligand is retroviral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which activates the TRIF dependent signalling pathway. To explore the ... Other non-mammalian species may have TLRs distinct from mammals, as demonstrated by the anti-cell-wall TLR14, which is found in ... Recently, resiquimod has been explored as an agent for cancer immunotherapy, acting through stimulation of tumor-associated ... This retroviral expression of four transcriptional factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc; OSKM) induces pluripotency in somatic ...
Lown JW (1988). "Lexitropsins: rational design of DNA sequence reading agents as novel anti-cancer agents and potential ... "Chimeric retroviral helper virus and picornavirus IRES sequence to eliminate DNA methylation for improved retroviral packaging ... However, modifying agents can be bound to the tail ends of the hairpin structure. The specific binding of the SPA to DNA allows ... Chlorambucil, a chemotherapeutic agent, was more effective when conjugated to an SPA than without. In 2012, SPAs were ...
Each zinc finger is made up of anti-parallel beta sheets and an alpha helix, held together by a zinc ion and hydrophobic ... Further support for this approach resides in the fact that, the human genome comprises in large part remnants of retroviral ... Carroll, D (2008). "Progress and prospects: zinc-finger nucleases as gene therapy agents". Gene Therapy. 15 (22): 1463-1468. ...
Early initiation of combination anti-retroviral therapy: does it affect long-term outcome [Abstract LbPeB7051]? Presented at ... The availability of an increasing number of antiretroviral agents and the rapid evolution of new information has introduced ... Guidelines for Using Antiretroviral Agents Among HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Recommendations of the Panel on Clinical ... Considerations for Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Antiretroviral treatment recommendations for HIV- ...
... anti-retroviral therapy was indicated for any child with a definitive diagnosis of HIV infection who had evidence of ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection Members of the Working Group on Antiretroviral ... all antiretroviral agents should be stopped simultaneously rather than continuing one or two agents alone because of potential ... available alternative antiretroviral agents. Although the efficacy of different combination antiretroviral regimens in children ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents. HIV Protease Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Anti-HIV Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors ... Kaletra in Combination With Antiretroviral Agents (PROTEKT). This study has been completed. ... which may result in a change from the daily clinical routine and lead to the use of a newly approved antiretroviral agent in ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. ... Rapid advice : antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents - November 2009  ...
... the Working Group concluded that anti-retroviral therapy was indicated for any child with a definitive diagnosis of HIV ... all antiretroviral agents should be stopped simultaneously rather than continuing one or two agents alone because of potential ... aggressive antiretroviral therapy with three or four antiretroviral agents. The theoretical problems with early therapy include ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection MMWR 47(RR-4);1-31 Publication date: 04/17/1998. ...
Possible regimens for patients who have failed antiretroviral therapy: a work in progress* Table 15 TABLE 15. Acute retroviral ... Indications for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in .... Recommended antiretroviral agents for treatment of established ... what regimen of antiretroviral agents to use, when to change the antiretroviral regimen, treatment of the acutely HIV-infected ... Use of antiretroviral agents as monotherapy is contraindicated (DI), except when no other options exist or during pregnancy to ...
The compliant use of combination antiretroviral therapy has virtually eliminated perinatal HIV transmission. Although ... Poirier MC, Olivero OA, Walker DM, Walker VE (2004) Perinatal genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of anti-retroviral nucleoside ... Antiretroviral agents and cardiac end points. The long-term cardiac effects of in utero exposure to HAART have not been well ... a single-agent regimen is widely used because access to multi-agent ART is limited. For example, single-agent nevirapine is a ...
This chapter describes the major characteristics of antiretroviral agents that are currently approved, or at a promising stage ... In vitro, maraviroc demonstrates no antagonism with existing antiretroviral agents and additive or synergistic activity in ... Stavudine enjoys relatively few drug-drug interactions compared to other antiretroviral agents. The major mechanism of ... It demonstrates additive or synergistic activity in combination with other approved antiretroviral agents. Additive or ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
Anti-hiv agents/therapeutic use (12). *Anti-retroviral agents/therapeutic use (12) ... ADME pharmacogenetics: investigation of the pharmacokinetics of the antiretroviral agent lopinavir coformulated with ritonavir ... A new era of antiretroviral drug toxicity Calmy, Alexandra; Hirschel, Bernard; Cooper, D. A.; Carr, Andrew 2009 ... Clinical update: adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy Calmy, Alexandra; Hirschel, Bernard; Cooper, David; Carr, Andrew ...
Anti-retroviral Agents. Abacavir, amprenavir, efavirenz, nelfinavir, nevirapine, ritonavir, lopinavir+ritonavir combination - ... Coadministration of these anti-retroviral agents resulted in increased clearance or decreased plasma levels of methadone. ... Potentially Arrhythmogenic Agents. Extreme caution is necessary when any drug known to have the potential to prolong the QT ... Although antiretroviral drugs such as efavirenz, nelfinavir, nevirapine, ritonavir, lopinavir+ritonavir combination are known ...
... which are used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 ... inhibitors inhibit HIV integrase by binding to the integrase active site and blocking the strand transfer step of retroviral ... indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults (treatment-naïve or - ... an integrase strand transfer inhibitor for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV. ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents Medicine & Life Sciences View full fingerprint Cite this. * APA ... Trials should also examine appropriate dose adjustments that may be warranted when anticonvulsants and antiretrovirals agents ... Trials should also examine appropriate dose adjustments that may be warranted when anticonvulsants and antiretrovirals agents ... Trials should also examine appropriate dose adjustments that may be warranted when anticonvulsants and antiretrovirals agents ...
22 no association was observed between specific antiretroviral agents and basal levels of 25(OH)D, as there was no association ... Deficiência de vitamina D entre indivíduos infectados pelo HIV tipo 1 na Holanda: efeitos da terapia anti-retroviral. Pesquisa ... pacientes infectados que iniciam a terapia anti-retroviral na África Subsaariana: comparação com mortalidade não relacionada ao ... between antiretroviral agents and the success or failure to reach levels higher than 30 ng/mL of 25(OH)D after 12 weeks, which ...
6. Durghe N, Parida K, Roy H. Formulation development and characterization of antiretroviral agents. Int J Pharma Res Health ... OPTIMIZATION OF ROLL COMPACTOR VARIABLES AND FORMULATION OF ANTI-RETROVIRAL TABLET BY ROLL COMPACTION METHOD * SUHAS H. LAHANE ... Methods: In this present work we aimed to develop a stable pharmaceutical dosage form with anti-retroviral drug tenofovir ... LAHANE, S. H. "OPTIMIZATION OF ROLL COMPACTOR VARIABLES AND FORMULATION OF ANTI-RETROVIRAL TABLET BY ROLL COMPACTION METHOD". ...
Acoustic characterization and pharmacokinetic analyses of new nanobubble ultrasound contrast agents. Wu, H., Rognin, N. G., ... A Combined impedance and alphaLISA-based approach to identify anti-inflammatory and barrier-protective compounds in human ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A Complete Guide on Crushing Tablets and/or Opening Capsules of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Medications. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents;Lymphocyte Activation;Lymphocyte Count;T-Lymphocytes;CD4 Lymphocyte Count;CD8-Positive... ... HIV-1;Anti-HIV Agents;HIV Infections;Drug Resistance, Microbial;Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active;Genotype;Mutation;Child; ... Anti-Retroviral Agents;Lymphocyte Activation;Lymphocyte Count;T-Lymphocytes;CD4 Lymphocyte Count;CD8-Positive... ... Child;Infant;Anti-HIV Agents;HIV Infections;HIV-1;Nevirapine;Ritonavir;Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors;Nelfinavir;Stavudine; ...
RDEA806. This antiretroviral agent is a novel NNRTI structure and is active against a wide range of single- and double-mutant ... the Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (SMART) investigators evaluated abacavir, didanosine, and the other ... Further, the data on the newer approved antiretrovirals, and the new antiretrovirals in development, indicate that patients ... are reassuring about what can be achieved with the targeted use of 3 of the newest and most active oral antiretroviral agents. ...
Anti-Retroviral Therapy - Virology Congress 2021 (USA). *Anti-Retroviral Therapy - Euro Virology 2021 (UK) ... Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - applied-micro-2021 (Japan). *Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Euro Clinical ... Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Applied Microbiology 2021 (Switzerland). *Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Asian ... Antimicrobial Agents & Resistance - Microbial Interactions 2021 (Spain). *Antimicrobial Agents & Resistance - Microbiology ...
Anti-Retroviral Therapy - Virology Congress 2021 (USA). *Anti-Retroviral Therapy - Euro Virology 2021 (UK) ... Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - applied-micro-2021 (Japan). *Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Applied Microbiology ... Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Euro Clinical Microbiology 2021 (France). *Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Asian ... Antimicrobial Agents & Resistance - Microbiology Summit 2021 (Singapore). *Antimicrobial Agents & Resistance - Microbial ...
Anti-Retroviral Therapy - Virology Congress 2021 (USA). *Anti-Retroviral Therapy - Euro Virology 2021 (UK) ... Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - applied-micro-2021 (Japan). *Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Euro Clinical ... Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Applied Microbiology 2021 (Switzerland). *Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Asian ... Antimicrobial Agents & Resistance - Microbial Interactions 2021 (Spain). *Antimicrobial Agents & Resistance - Microbiology ...
Anti-Retroviral Therapy - Virology Congress 2021 (USA). *Anti-Retroviral Therapy - Euro Virology 2021 (UK) ... Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Asian Applied Microbiology 2021 (Japan). *Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - applied- ... Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Euro Clinical Microbiology 2021 (France). *Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance - Applied ... Antimicrobial Agents & Resistance - Microbiology Summit 2021 (Singapore). *Antimicrobial Agents & Resistance - Microbial ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic InfectionsAcquired Immunodeficiency SyndromeAnti-Retroviral AgentsAntiretroviral Therapy, Highly ... The aim of this study was to describe the effects of anti-HIV therapy on the incidence of oral lesions during 17 years of AIDS ... The aim of this study was to describe the effects of anti-HIV therapy on the incidence of oral lesions during 17 years of AIDS ... We compared the effect of PI- and NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) on the annual incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), ...
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Retroviral Agents, Antiviral Agents. Problem Substances : Mouse Mammary Tumour Viruses (MMTV) ... Antiretroviral activity of two polyisoprenylated acylphloroglucinols, 7-epi-nemorosone and plukenetione A, isolated from ... New molecular mechanisms of virus-mediated carcinogenesis: oncogenic transformation of cells by retroviral structural protein ...
ART (Anti-Retroviral Therapy) is the only control measure that uses a combination … ... The causative agent of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is HIV that stands for Human Immuno Deficiency Virus. AIDs is a ...
2002) Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Ann Intern Med 137, 381-433 PMID ... dapat digunakan terapi anti-retroviral.[28]. Ibu ke anak (transmisi perinatal)Sunting. Penularan HIV dari ibu ke anak dapat ... yang mendapatkan pengobatan obat antiretroviral (ARV).[3] Indonesia adalah negara ketiga di dunia yang memiliki penderita HIV ...
Fostemsavir, the drug is being developed for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents ... ... Retroviral Silencing To Generate iPSCs (Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells). *Researchers From University Of California Discover ... COVID-19 And Cancer: Study Shows That SARS-CoV-2 And Usage Of Anti-COVID-19 Drugs Can Reactivate Oncogenic Viruses And Increase ... Thailand Medical News Issues Warnings About Usage Of Ivermectin As A Prophylaxis and Therapeutic Agent For Treating COVID-19 ...
Coovadia, H. (2004): Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS, in: N. Engl. ... Anti-retroviral treatment of infected patients also significantly reduces their ability to transmit HIV to others, by reducing ... "Male circumcision was found to have considerably lower impact than condom use or anti-retroviral therapy on HIV infection rates ... Smith, D.K. / L.A. Grohskopf / R.J. Black, et al. (2005): Antiretroviral Postexposure Prophylaxis After Sexual, Injection-Drug ...
Low bone mass in behaviorally HIV-infected young men on antiretroviral therapy: Adolescent Trials Network Study 021B.. Clin ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 52(2):631-7.*PubMed. 2009. Rudy BJ, Murphy DA, D Harris R, Muenz L, Ellen J. 2009. Patient-related ... Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral regimens containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and atazanavir-ritonavir in adolescents ... Prevalence and interactions of patient-related risks for nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy among perinatally infected ...
Safety and Feasibility of Antiretroviral Preexposure Prophylaxis for Adolescent Men Who Have Sex With Men Aged 15 to 17 Years ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 57(11):5619-28.*PubMed ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, CD4-CD8 Ratio, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, HIV Infections, HIV-1 ...
Anti-retroviral agents/adverse effects/therapeutic use (1). *Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases (1) ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents Articles Cholera Earthquakes Elephantiasis, Filarial Epidemics HIV Infections Humans Immunization ... Antiretroviral medications can reduce rates of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to less than ...
... including anti-retroviral treatment, childhood vaccines and antibiotics for common pediatric infections. ... the causative agent of Lyme disease. He has been the principal investigator for a variety of NIH and pharmaceutical industry ...
... used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and antibacterial agents used in Tuberculus Bacilli (TB) therapy. Due to ... MRPs are known to regulate the efficacy of a broad range of anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) ... MRPs are known to regulate the efficacy of a broad range of anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) used in highly active antiretroviral ... therapy (HAART) and antibacterial agents used in Tuberculus Bacilli (TB) therapy. Due to their role in efflux of glutathione ( ...
Anti Viral capability… the ability to screen a pharmaceutical agent.. Anti Retro-Viral capability… includes the ability to ... This entry was posted in Introduction and tagged anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-tumoral, anti-viral, H.I.V. ... anti-viral and anti-retroviral. In fact, our company was awarded a U.S. patent #5,895,758 for its extraordinary abilities! (Go ... Anti Microbial… proteolytic ability extends to all microbes.. Anti Fungal…proteolytic ability extends to a very wide range of ...
Two randomised studies (one unpublished) of the timing of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in cryptococcal meningitis have ... of patients with detectable HIV RNA in CSF have all led to an interest in the ability of different antiretroviral agents to ... Finally, there is evidence that antiretroviral drugs themselves may be neurotoxic.31 Concerns that antiretroviral toxicity ... Kendall M, Ive P, et al. Timing of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection and tuberculosis. New Engl J Med 2011;365:1482-91 ...
... and human immunodeficiency virus treatment guidelines adherence among nurses initiating and managing anti-retroviral therapy in ... Three new agents (bedaquiline, linezolid and clofazimine) have been introduced into the regular regimen. Traditionally, nurses ... Antiretroviral switching and bedaquiline treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis HIV co-infection. Lancet HIV. 2019;6(3):e201- ... Further, due to a potent drug-drug interaction with efavirenz and bedaquiline, the standard antiretroviral (ART) regimen of ...
  • Report of the NIH Panel To Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection and Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. (
  • Guidance for the use of antiretroviral treatment in pediatric HIV infection is not contained in this report. (
  • Although the pathogenesis of HIV infection and the general virologic and immunologic principles underlying the use of antiretroviral therapy are similar for all HIV-infected persons, unique therapeutic and management considerations apply to HIV-infected children. (
  • In 1987, zidovudine became the first approved agent in the United States for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. (
  • Here, we discuss FeLV biology and current treatment options, and propose that there is a need for antiretroviral treatment options for FeLV infection. (
  • With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 infection is now considered a treatable chronic infectious disease. (
  • 1 , 5 , 6 The premature onset of age-associated medical comorbidities is a phenomenon sometimes called "accelerated aging in HIV-infection" and may be due to effects of chronic viral infection, cumulative toxicity of long-term antiretroviral therapy and/or higher frequency of tobacco and other substance use. (
  • Transient antiretroviral treatment with tenofovir, ( R )-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine, begun shortly after inoculation of rhesus macaques with the highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate SIVsmE660, facilitated the development of SIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses and sustained effective control of the infection following drug discontinuation. (
  • To evaluate the hypothesis that the dynamics of the virus-host interaction during the early stages of initial infection exert a profound influence on the subsequent immunologic, virologic, and clinical course of infection, we recently conducted a study using transient postinoculation antiretroviral treatment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques to modulate viral replication during the immediate postinoculation period ( 15 ). (
  • HIV-1 integrase inhibitor is useful for anti-HIV, with IC50 value of 0.33 µM, which can target HIV-1 integrase and depress the activity in the treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and other similar diseases characterized by integration of a retroviral genome into a host chromosome. (
  • Background: The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly decreased the morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (
  • Results: A total of 276 subjects with HIV infection were included, 90 (33%) received lipid-lowering agents, and 31 (34%) had SRD. (
  • which demonstrated that infection of susceptible T cells by HIV-bearing dendritic cells could be blocked in vitro by the addition of antiretroviral agents to the culture system ( 4 ). (
  • were among the first to demonstrate efficacy of antiretroviral PEP in an animal system (a mouse model of retroviral infection). (
  • In order to effectively manage HIV infection and AIDS, it is recommended that antiretroviral treatment regimens should consist of a three-drug combination consisting of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with either one protease inhibitor (PI) or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) depending on the age of the patient and other co-morbidities [ 4 ]. (
  • Why, then, are anti-HIV drugs needed to treat an infection that the immune system has already eliminated? (
  • 13] In both animal and human studies, infection is followed within days to weeks by high levels of viremia, widespread viral dissemination, and often the development of the acute retroviral syndrome. (
  • last reviewed May 1, 2014) HIV drug-resistance testing is recommended in persons with HIV infection at entry into care regardless of whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be initiated immediately or deferred (AII). (
  • Therefore, higher priority should be given to HIV-infected children with tuberculosis co-infection further intervention like isoniazid preventive therapy and co-trimoxazole preventive therapy as well close follow should be given to all children after start of anti-retroviral therapy. (
  • The purpose of this study is to compare GW433908 and nelfinavir when each is given with abacavir and lamivudine to HIV patients who have not taken antiretroviral drugs. (
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy has reduced HIV-associated mortality and morbidity. (
  • To assess incidence and predictors of mortality among Children on Anti-retroviral Therapy in Public Health Facilities of Arba-Minch Town, Gamo Gofa zone, Southern, Ethiopia. (
  • Mortality was high especially during the first sixth months following anti-retroviral therapy initiation. (
  • Additive or synergistic in vitro inhibition has been reported with double or triple combinations of numerous antiretroviral agents, except for zidovudine-stavudine, which is an antagonistic combination. (
  • While antiretroviral drug regimens are not commonly used to treat other types of retroviral infections, there are instances where there is a perceived need for re-evaluation of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. (
  • Several recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of various antiretroviral agents in preventing retroviral infections in animals. (
  • Recommendations for offering antiretroviral therapy among asymptomatic patients require analysis of real and potential risks and benefits. (
  • Failure of therapy at 4--6 months might be ascribed to nonadherence, inadequate potency of drugs or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents, viral resistance, and other factors that are poorly understood. (
  • These guidelines were developed by the Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children convened by the National Pediatric and Family HIV Resource Center (NPHRC), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (
  • This report includes the guidelines developed by the Panel regarding the use of laboratory testing in initiating and managing antiretroviral therapy, considerations for initiating therapy, whom to treat, what regimen of antiretroviral agents to use, when to change the antiretroviral regimen, treatment of the acutely HIV-infected person, special considerations in adolescents, and special considerations in pregnant women. (
  • All patients who have advanced or symptomatic HIV disease should receive aggressive antiretroviral therapy. (
  • Once the decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy has been made, treatment should be aggressive with the goal of maximal viral suppression. (
  • The guidelines contain recommendations for the clinical use of antiretroviral agents in the treatment of adults and adolescents (defined in Considerations for Antiretroviral Therapy in the HIV-Infected Adolescent) who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • In recognition of these differences, a separate set of guidelines will address pediatric-specific issues related to antiretroviral therapy. (
  • These guidelines are intended for use by physicians and other health-care providers who use antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV-infected adults and adolescents. (
  • Purpose: The compliant use of combination antiretroviral therapy has virtually eliminated perinatal HIV transmission. (
  • In utero exposure to antiretroviral therapy has effects on the heart, regardless of HIV status, including improved cardiac function but also reduced cardiac mass of unclear future clinical significance. (
  • Conclusion: Antiretroviral therapy is effective in preventing perinatal HIV transmission but may be associated with adverse long-term side effects in exposed infants. (
  • With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the incidence of perinatal HIV-1 transmission has decreased from 20-25% to less than 2% [ 1 ]. (
  • Replication cycle of HIV-1 with current targets for antiretroviral therapy. (
  • The HIV Prevention Trial Network (HPTN) 052 Study is a Phase III, two-arm, controlled, open-labeled, randomized clinical trial designed to determine whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART) can prevent the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (
  • Patients 18 years of age and older who are infected with HIV, have CD4+ cell counts of greater than 500 cells/mm3, and who have never had antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV. (
  • Combination antiretroviral therapy and th. (
  • Combination antiretroviral therapy was defined as any combination regimen of antiretroviral drugs that included a protease inhibitor or a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. (
  • For FeLV-infected felines and their human companions, antiretroviral therapy would be desirable and of practical importance if good options were available. (
  • The comparative use and analysis of antiretroviral therapy can provide new insights into the mechanism of antiretroviral drug action. (
  • Adverse drug reactions are a significant problem in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). (
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has had an effect on the lives of HIV-infected children and adults. (
  • 1 However, hepatotoxicity is a significant problem in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (
  • Modern combination antiretroviral therapy consists of at least three antiretroviral agents and leads to virologic suppression in most patients who are able to take their medication regularly. (
  • As primary care physicians and other specialists become increasingly involved in the care of HIV-infected individuals, it is essential for them to recognize, prevent and manage clinically important interactions between commonly prescribed drugs and antiretroviral therapy. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance testing evaluates the likelihood that the HIV strain infecting an individual is resistant or has developed resistance to one or more antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs. (
  • Available evidence showed little or no difference between abacavir-containing regimen and other NRTIs regarding efficacy and safety when given to children and adolescents as a first-line antiretroviral therapy. (
  • In addition, recent investigation suggests that the initiation of antiretroviral therapy during this stage of disease may have a profound influence on long-term virologic control. (
  • Genotypic testing is recommended as the preferred resistance testing to guide therapy in antiretroviral (ARV)-naive patients (AIII). (
  • last reviewed May 1, 2014) Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all HIV-infected individuals to reduce the risk of disease progression. (
  • Evidence shows that earlier access to Anti-retroviral Therapy helps to increase survival of children by delaying the progression to AIDS. (
  • Institution based retrospective cohort study was employed among 421 HIV-positive children enrolled on anti-retroviral therapy from January 1st 2009 to December 30th 2016. (
  • 7 Relative to HIV-infected patients under 50 years of age, older HIV patients are substantially more likely to be receiving additional medications, including cardiovascular drugs, antacids or acid-suppressing agents, lipid-lowering agents, antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants, oral hypoglycemic agents and erectile dysfunction drugs. (
  • The primary outcome was the use of lipid-lowering agents including statins, fibrates and fish oil. (
  • However the AIDS pandemic remains a major public-health threat and with transmission of drug-resistant viruses that is increasing, it is essential that new antiretroviral (ARV) agents become available. (
  • In vitro, maraviroc demonstrates no antagonism with existing antiretroviral agents and additive or synergistic activity in combination with enfuvirtide. (
  • It demonstrates additive or synergistic activity in combination with other approved antiretroviral agents. (
  • BACKGROUND: It remains controversial whether exposure to combination antiretroviral treatment increases the risk of myocardial infarction. (
  • To avoid the development of ART resistance, it is recommended that individuals with HIV be treated with a combination of drugs that are from two different classes of antiretroviral drugs. (
  • 1 Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents Visit the AIDSinfo website to access the most up-to-date guideline. (
  • Have taken drugs that affect the immune system (such as corticosteroids, interleukins, interferons) or that have anti-HIV activity (such as hydroxyurea or foscarnet) within 28 days before the study drug will be taken. (
  • Results: The link between nucleoside analogs and mitochondrial dysfunction is controversial, and the association between in utero antiretroviral exposure and mitochondrial dysfunction in children is unclear. (
  • Preterm delivery and impaired somatic growth have been reported in infants exposed to antiretrovirals, but results are inconsistent. (
  • Maraviroc is a potent and selective inhibitor of CCR5 with potent anti-HIV-1 activity. (
  • Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a potent, orally bioavailable, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor CCR5 with broad-spectrum anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity. (
  • BDM2 is a very potent ARV, equivalent to the best anti-HIV drugs currently on the market, with full activity against viruses resistant to all current drugs. (
  • Elucidation of the first crystallographic 3D structure of the Transportin-SR2 protein and of the structural basis for retroviral integration into nucleosomes by Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. (
  • Low-dose ritonavir and cobicistat are not prescribed as active antiretroviral agents but are used to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of other antiretrovirals. (
  • As the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV becomes a reality, more patients are becoming exposed to antiretrovirals in utero , while long-term effects of these exposures remain unknown. (
  • One fifth of patients experienced mild hepatotoxicity, attributed to antituberculous agents and sulfonamides. (
  • 4 It is also now increasingly recognized that despite effective antiretroviral treatment, the incidence of cardiovascular disease, non-HIV-related cancer, and renal and hepatic impairment is greater among HIV-infected patients 50 years of age and older than among uninfected individuals of the same age. (
  • Although antiretroviral drug toxicities in adults have been well documented, the effects of fetal and early childhood exposure to antiretroviral drugs on children of HIV-positive mothers are not well known. (
  • In HIV-infected children, cumulative postnatal exposure to antiretroviral agents is associated with metabolic disturbances and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Antiretroviral regimens are complex, have serious side effects, pose difficulty with adherence, and carry serious potential consequences from the development of viral resistance because of nonadherence to the drug regimen or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents. (
  • Viral load and CD4+ T cell testing should ideally be performed twice before initiating or changing an antiretroviral treatment regimen. (
  • The two NRTIs in a three-drug antiretroviral regimen are referred to as the NRTI backbones of the regimen. (
  • Methods: We searched the Pub Med database, reviewed publications, and selected abstracts on the use of antiretroviral agents to prevent HIV transmission and their effects on growth and cardiac endpoints in fetal and postnatal life. (
  • The availability of an increasing number of antiretroviral agents and the rapid evolution of new information has introduced substantial complexity into treatment regimens for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • Burden of tuberculosis in an antiretroviral treatment programme in sub-Saharan Africa: impact on treatment outcomes and implications for tuberculos. (
  • To determine burden and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) in an antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme and its impact on ART outcomes. (
  • Antiretroviral naive, defined as 7 days or less of ARV treatment at any time prior to study entry. (
  • Prior studies had established that certain regimens of short-term postinoculation (p.i.) antiretroviral treatment could prevent the emergence of measurable plasma viremia following cessation of drug administration ( 39 , 40 ), but the detailed viral dynamics and host immune responses, particularly cellular immune responses, underlying this protection remained unexplored. (
  • The present invention relates to anti-neoplastic and anti-psoriasis pharmaceutical compositions and methods of treatment and to insecticidal compositions and methods of controlling the growth of insects. (
  • HIV mutates frequently - even in the absence of drug treatment - but not every mutation causes resistance to antiretroviral drugs. (
  • Two decades later, 24 additional agents in six drug classes had been approved. (
  • This chapter describes the major characteristics of antiretroviral agents that are currently approved, or at a promising stage of development, and is organized according to the virus replication cycle. (
  • However, recent studies suggest that exposure to antiretroviral medications may have marked adverse effects, independent of HIV status [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Another important piece of evidence underscoring both the role of the dendritic cell and the potential benefit of antiretroviral PEP comes from the studies of Pope et al. (