Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. ("Intracisternal" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
A species of SPUMAVIRUS causing non-pathogenic infections in chimpanzees and humans.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Forms of combined immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene for INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT. Both severe and non-severe subtypes of the disease have been identified.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).
An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE infecting fish. Species include Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1, and Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 2.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A group of viruses in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS comprising a few isolates from birds, with no known corresponding endogenous relatives.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.

Clinical and immunological effects of a 6 week immunotherapy cycle with murabutide in HIV-1 patients with unsuccessful long-term antiretroviral treatment. (1/1722)

In an effort to evaluate the potential of non-specific immunotherapy in restoring global immunity, we have examined the clinical tolerance and biological effects of a 6 week administration of the immunomodulator, murabutide, in chronically infected HIV-1 patients. Forty-two subjects, presenting weak immune reconstitution and ineffective virus suppression following long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were randomized to receive, or not, murabutide 7 mg/day on five consecutive days/week. Clinical and immunological parameters were monitored before and after the immunotherapy period. Administration of murabutide was generally well tolerated, although some grade III adverse events, reversible on treatment cessation, were observed. Interestingly, in comparison with pre-inclusion levels, at 1 week after the immunotherapy cycle, only murabutide recipients presented a significant increase in CD4 cells, platelet counts, and in the percentage of patients with undetectable viral loads (<50 copies/mL). Statistical significance between the two groups was only evident with the latter parameter. Some of these clinical changes were maintained even up to 12 weeks after murabutide administration, and were accompanied by an increased ability to mount cellular responses to active immunization with a recall antigen, and by a significant increase in the percentage of patients presenting positive lymphoproliferative responses to the viral antigen gp160. These results warrant further evaluation of extended periods or cycles of murabutide immunotherapy as adjunct to HAART.  (+info)

Self-reported health-related quality of life in persons with HIV infection: results from a multi-site interview project. (2/1722)

BACKGROUND: To examine demographic and behavioral associations with self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among persons with HIV infection or AIDS. METHODS: Analysis of interviews with persons > or = 18 years of age reported through routine disease surveillance with HIV infection or AIDS to nine state and local health departments from January 1995 through December 1996. Scales were constructed from validated measures of HRQOL, and mean scores were calculated (lower scores signified poorer HRQOL). Measures of HRQOL included Overall Health, Pain, Physical Functioning, Role Functioning, Social Functioning, Mental Health, Energy/Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning. Differences in HRQOL were examined by various demographic and behavioral factors, including taking antiretroviral medication. RESULTS: HRQOL data were available for 3778 persons. Factors associated with lower HRQOL scores included older age, female sex, black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, injection drug use, lower education and income, no private health insurance, and lower CD4 count. In multivariate analysis, lower CD4 count was the factor most consistently associated with lower HRQOL. Taking antiretroviral medication was not associated with differences in HRQOL regardless of CD4 count. CONCLUSIONS: Perception of HRQOL varied in a population with HIV infection or AIDS. On most HRQOL measures, lower CD4 count was associated with lower HRQOL. Measurement of HRQOL can assist in understanding the long-term effects of disease and treatment on persons with HIV.  (+info)

HIVAN and medication use in chronic dialysis patients in the United States: analysis of the USRDS DMMS Wave 2 study. (3/1722)

BACKGROUND: The use and possible effects of factors known to improve outcomes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy (HIVAN), namely of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) and antiretroviral therapy, has not been reported for a national sample of dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a historical cohort study of the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study (DMMS) Wave 2 to identify risk factors associated with increased mortality in these patients. Data were available for 3374 patients who started dialysis and were followed until March 2000. Cox Regression analysis was used to model adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) with HIVAN as a cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and its impact on mortality during the study period, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 3374 patients who started dialysis, 36 (1.1%) had ESRD as a result of HIVAN. Only 22 (61%) of patients with HIVAN received antiretroviral agents, and only nine patients (25%) received combination antiretroviral therapy, and only 14% received ACE inhibitors. Neither the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs (AHR, 0.62, 95% CI, 0.10, 3.86, p = 0.60), or ACE inhibitors were associated with a survival advantage. Patients with HIVAN had an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.74, 95% Confidence Interval, 3.12, 7.32, p < 0.01) compared to patients with other causes of ESRD. CONCLUSIONS: Medications known to improve outcomes in HIV infected patients were underutilized in patients with HIVAN. Adjusted for other factors, a primary diagnosis of HIVAN was associated with increased mortality compared with other causes of ESRD.  (+info)

Polymyositis masquerading as mitochondrial toxicity. (4/1722)

A 66 year old HIV infected male heavy smoker presented with arthralgia, myalgia, and weight loss which was originally ascribed to nucleoside induced mitochondrial toxicity. Despite withdrawal of antiretroviral therapy a proximal myopathy developed. Further investigation excluded malignancy. Polymyositis was diagnosed on muscle biopsy. The patient recovered completely with oral prednisolone. This case highlights the importance of muscle biopsy in HIV infected patients whose myopathy persists despite withdrawal of antiretroviral therapy and the need for thorough investigation of non-specific symptoms in HIV infected patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

Decline in mortality, AIDS, and hospital admissions in perinatally HIV-1 infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland. (5/1722)

OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in demographic factors, disease progression, hospital admissions, and use of antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV. DESIGN: Active surveillance through the national study of HIV in pregnancy and childhood (NSHPC) and additional data from a subset of children in the collaborative HIV paediatric study (CHIPS). SETTING: United Kingdom and Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 944 children with perinatally acquired HIV-1 under clinical care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes over time in progression to AIDS and death, hospital admission rates, and use of antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: 944 children with perinatally acquired HIV were reported in the United Kingdom and Ireland by October 2002; 628 (67%) were black African, 205 (22%) were aged > or = 10 years at last follow up, 193 (20%) are known to have died. The proportion of children presenting who were born abroad increased from 20% in 1994-5 to 60% during 2000-2. Mortality was stable before 1997 at 9.3 per 100 child years at risk but fell to 2.0 in 2001-2 (trend P < 0.001). Progression to AIDS also declined (P < 0.001). From 1997 onwards the proportion of children on three or four drug antiretroviral therapy increased. Hospital admission rates declined by 80%, but with more children in follow up the absolute number of admissions fell by only 26%. CONCLUSION: In children with HIV infection, mortality, AIDS, and hospital admission rates have declined substantially since the introduction of three or four drug antiretroviral therapy in 1997. As infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland are living longer, there is an increasing need to address their medical, social, and psychological needs as they enter adolescence and adult life.  (+info)

Abnormal contingent negative variation in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. (6/1722)

The contingent negative variation, an event-related potential related to neural activity in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia, neuropsychological tests and structural MRI were used to examine CNS function and structure in HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Relative to controls, HIV patients had smaller thalamic volume and reduced late contingent negative variation amplitude that correlated with caudal atrophy. Behaviorally, viremic patients were more impaired than virally suppressed patients and controls on neuropsychological measures of psychomotor speed, selective attention and mental flexibility. These results suggest that antiretroviral therapy may not be effective in protecting cortical and subcortical structures against HIV-related neuropathology, regardless of immune function. However, the benefits of antiretroviral therapy on immune function appear to facilitate neurocognitive performance.  (+info)

The cardiovascular consequences of HIV and antiretroviral therapy. (7/1722)

Antiretroviral therapy has changed the face of the treatment of HIV throughout the world, converting a fatal into a chronic disease. HIV has reached disastrous levels of infection in southern Africa, and increased use of life-saving therapy is being implemented. The antiretrovirals have a variety of metabolic side effects that have been implicated in cardiovascular disease in other populations. This article discusses the impact of HIV on southern Africa, the metabolic and cardiac complications of both HIV and antiretrovirals, and strategies for dealing with drug side effects.  (+info)

Use of a small molecule CCR5 inhibitor in macaques to treat simian immunodeficiency virus infection or prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection. (8/1722)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fuses with cells after sequential interactions between its envelope glycoproteins, CD4 and a coreceptor, usually CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4). CMPD 167 is a CCR5-specific small molecule with potent antiviral activity in vitro. We show that CMPD 167 caused a rapid and substantial (4-200-fold) decrease in plasma viremia in six rhesus macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains SIVmac251 or SIVB670, but not in an animal infected with the X4 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), SHIV-89.6P. In three of the SIV-infected animals, viremia reduction was sustained. In one, there was a rapid, but partial, rebound and in another, there was a rapid and complete rebound. There was a substantial delay (>21 d) between the end of therapy and the onset of full viremia rebound in two animals. We also evaluated whether vaginal administration of gel-formulated CMPD 167 could prevent vaginal transmission of the R5 virus, SHIV-162P4. Complete protection occurred in only 2 of 11 animals, but early viral replication was significantly less in the 11 CMPD 167-recipients than in 9 controls receiving carrier gel. These findings support the development of small molecule CCR5 inhibitors as antiviral therapies, and possibly as components of a topical microbicide to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission.  (+info)

This is an observational cohort in pediatric HIV patients in China. Children who receive antiretroviral drugs will be recruited in this study. The main objectives are as follows: 1. To establish simpler and smarter pediatric antiretroviral therapy in China including both first-line and second-line regimens. 2. To study the nature, characteristics and mechanisms of immunoreconstitution in HIV-infected children using the data and samples from the pediatric antiretroviral therapy cohort. 3. To establish a basic science and clinical research network based on the pediatric antiretroviral cohort ...
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The National Arts Program® Foundation\101 Church Street\Unit 20\Malvern, PA 19355. [email protected]\Phone: (610) 408-9600\Fax: (610) 379-2799. ...
Hoima, Uganda | URN | More than 600 people enrolled on the life prolonging Anti-Retroviral Treatment-ART at Buseruka health center III in Hoima district
ar EVALUATION TECHNOLOGIES INCORPORATED AN EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE DESIGN COMPETITION SUBCATEGORY OF THE DESIGN ARTS PROGRAM Submitted to: Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts Submitted by: Evaluation Technologies Incorporated 2020 North 14th Street, Sixth Floor Arlington, Virginia 22201 (703) 525-5818 Revised January 7, 1986 October 25, 1985 Mr. Peter Smith Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W. Washington, D.C. 20506 Reference: Contract Number NEA DC 85-5 Dear Mr. Smith: Enclosed please find the final report of the evaluation conducted for the Design Competition Subcategory. This evaluation was implemented along the basic framework of the evaluation design, which included two principle objectives. These were: (1) Determine the extent to which the design competitions funded by the Endowment have a high likelihood of being carried out; and (2) Determine the extent to which the design competitions funded by the Endowment enable the ...
Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa ...
Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa ...
Find A PhD. Search Funded Arts Programmes in Pathology in Bath. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
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Were just two days away from the official deadline to apply for Engadgets unreal arts program for unreal times. But what is time, really? In the spirit of br...
ROLLOUT is a Stretched Canvas from our trendy graphic pop culture collection of custom fandom inspired products. Artist is Betmac and design is: Transformers,movie,tv show,scifi,action,superhero,robots,decepticons,autobots,bumblebee
No ab wheel? No problem. Just use a stability ball. Also works great as a regressive exercise if the standard ab rollout is too tough for you.
For the first ten of our expansive 34 year history at Ampronix, we were an electronic equipment repair company. Today, we have expanded to become a service, manufacturing, and distributing trifecta with the mission of providing superior, customized care s
The CDC put out a central playbook for how to distribute the shots. But how states will address these guidelines is anything but uniform.
Product images used are for illustrative purposes. Since we are constantly developing new updates, and since we still support older editions of our products, the images shown onsite may not be an exact mirror of the latest version currently in release. ...
Nice.. How many of the pages are new this time around? I feel like Im seeing new things, but maybe Ive just had the early art blasted out of my mind by the stunning conclusion.. ...
Background. Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation, intestinal damage, and inflammation in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PLHIV with suppressed plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy and age and demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals participating in the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort and, where appropriate, age-matched blood bank donors (BBD). Results. People living with HIV, HIV-negative individuals, and BBD had comparable percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes. Expression of CD163, CD32, CD64, HLA-DR, CD38, CD40, CD86, CD91, CD11c, and CX3CR1 on monocytes did not differ between PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals, but it differed significantly from ...
PubMed journal article: HIV-1 viral replication below 50 copies/ml in patients on antiretroviral therapy is not associated with CD8+ T-cell activation. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports ...
To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports ...
One of the most serious challenges facing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs for HIV/AIDS in resource-constrained settings is the failure of ART-eligible patients to complete the steps required to initiate treatment. The high rate of loss to care of patients who are treatment-eligible at HIV diagnosis may be due in part to the large number of steps required between receiving an HIV diagnosis and obtaining the first dose of antiretrovirals (ARVs). In South Africa, these steps usually require approximately four clinic visits over a period of 2-8 weeks before a patient can start treatment. One strategy proposed for reducing losses among those eligible for ART is to simplify and condense the steps required for starting treatment. This is now possible because new, point-of-care (POC) tests for CD4 counts and tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis are available. These technologies can be combined with changes to clinic schedules to allow all steps required for ART initiation under South African guidelines ...
Data on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in remote rural African regions is increasing. We assessed prospectively initial cART in HIV-infected adults treated from 2005 to 2008 at St. Francis Designated District Hospital, Ifakara, Tanzania. Adherence was assisted by personal adherence supporters. We estimated risk factors of death or loss to follow-up by Cox regression during the first 12 months of cART. Overall, 1,463 individuals initiated cART, which was nevirapine-based in 84.6%. The median age was 40 years (IQR 34-47), 35.4% were males, 7.6% had proven tuberculosis. Median CD4 cell count was 131 cells/μl and 24.8% had WHO stage 4. Median CD4 cell count increased by 61 and 130 cells/μl after 6 and 12 months, respectively. 215 (14.7%) patients modified their treatment, mostly due to toxicity (56%), in particular polyneuropathy and anemia. Overall, 129 patients died (8.8%) and 189 (12.9%) were lost to follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, low CD4 cells at starting cART were associated with
Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily dependent on global health initiatives (GHIs) for funding antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are indications that global investments for ART scale-up are flattening. It is unclear what new funding channels can bridge the funding gap for ART service delivery. Many previous studies have focused on domestic government spending and international funding especially from GHIs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The immunological response after the initiation of the second line anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients. AU - Pillai, Keerthi. AU - Ramapuram, John T.. AU - Achappa, Basavaprabhu. AU - Madi, Deepak. AU - Chowta, Mukta N.. AU - Satish Rao, B.. AU - Mahalingam, Soundarya. AU - Unnikrishnan, B.. PY - 2012/9/30. Y1 - 2012/9/30. N2 - Introduction: The treatment with the second line ART is initiated when the first line therapy fails. There is less experience with the immunologic response for the second-line ART for adults. Hence, this study was done to find out the immunological response after the initiation of the second line ART by doing an analysis of the CD4 counts. Methods: This retrospective study is conducted in a tertiary level hospital which was attached to a medical college that caters to a large number of HIV positive patients. The study population for this analysis included all the HIV positive individuals who were undergoing the second line ART treatment. The data ...
Earlier this year, we learned that the START study had found overwhelming evidence that beginning HIV antiretroviral therapy at any CD4 count was better ...
With the outbreak of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, it was observed both in developed countries and in developing countries an increase in the number of known cases of Tuberculosis, mainly in HIV infected individuals. As an aggravation in the co-infection cases there is the anti-retroviral resistance, and one of the main reasons is the HIV great genetic variability. The HIV genotyping became an essential tool to guide and maximize the benefits of the anti-retroviral treatment of positive HIV patients. In this study, it was intended to evaluate in a period of 6 months the immunology and viral profiles associated with the frequency of mutations in the HIV-1 pol gene in HIV-Tuberculosis co-infected patients. The study involved 33 individuals of both the sexes and ages between 12 and 63 years. Four groups were studied: Group A (n=19) HIV only under treatment with anti-retroviral drugs; and co-infected: Group B (n=7) under treatment with anti-retroviral drugs; Group C (n=4) ...
In keeping with its mandate to support and develop South Africas arts, culture and heritage sector, The National Arts Council (NAC) has awarded 117 bursaries to arts students and tertiary institutions for 2016 through a fund allocation of over R5 million, a 10% increase from the last financial year. The bursaries will support both undergraduate studies at institutions as well as post graduate individuals across disciplines, signaling the NACs holistic approach to funding as a means of development. ...
Caroline Caluwaerts, Rosa Maendaenda, Fernando Maldonado, Marc Biot, Nathan Ford, Kathryn Chu International Health 2009;1(1):97-101. (doi: 10.1016/j.inhe.2009.03.002) Read more
P3.330 Prevalence and Immunological Correlates of Opportunistic Infections Among HIV Patients Attending at ART Clinic of University of Gondar Hospital ...
Background: Evidence shows that earlier access to Anti-retroviral Therapy helps to increase survival of children by delaying the progression to AIDS. However its long-ter..
The more art you see, the better your eye gets and the surer you become about what you like and why. There are lots of excellent opportunities in galleries throughout the west-central Florida region
In a justly scathing critique, Gregg Gonsalves wrote that at the Interim WHO ARV Treatment Working Group in November 2001, it was clear that WHO was ...
Abstract At this juncture of world economy; all the leading companies across industry groups financial, health care, consumer/industry goods, service, technology and utilities are opting for a template
Researchers say that expanding anti-retroviral treatment to all HIV-positive people in couples with one partner who isnt infected is cost-effective even in developing countries with limited budgets.
Learn more about Bachelor of Fine Art Program including the program highlights, fees, scholarships, events and further course information
Clients of a unique art program, put on the chopping block last month by Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH), are now breathing a sigh of relief.
The major concern behind the research is to develop models that can predict response to anti-retroviral treatment in order to maximise treatment for children affected with HIV.. The PENTA EPIICAL consortium intends to use the result of this research in the design of new clinical studies of current and new therapies with the purpose to replicate the virologic and immunologic profile predicted by the model.. ViiV Healthcare chief scientific and medical officer Dr John C Pottage said: Our collaboration with PENTA has set ambitious goals, but the need to optimise treatment strategies for children living with HIV is urgent.. The knowledge gained through this research will generate a deeper understanding of viral remission, which can be applied to the design of future clinical trials that test whether we can achieve what the model predicts in terms of HIV remission.. The information obtained, as well as the patient profiles, might also help inform the design of prospective studies with new and ...
Anti-Retroviral Treatment and Access to Services (ARTAS) is an intervention designed to link persons who have been recently diagnosed with HIV to medical care.
Earle and Janice OBorn are making history by supporting the NAC and Canadian talent with one of the largest donations ever made towards the performing arts ...
This is the first in a two-part series about the vaccine rollout in Indian Country. Part two looks at the challenges of vaccinating our regions urban
Critical Diagnostics Accelerates European Rollout of Presage® ST2 Assay |0| Critical DiagnosticsDennis Dalangin, VP MarketingTelephone: 877-700-1250Email: |/0|
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Contains eight drawings mounted on a board illustrating a lobectomy. Based on information on the back of the illustrations, they were prepared by F...
Yunnan, Guangxi and Henan are the provinces with the most severe HIV epidemic in China, which were also among the first group of areas providing free ART in ...
Om 2008.8 was designed to be as empty as possible, for the very purpose of showcasing your ideas. Think of our products as museums. Were building the environment. Each one different from the next. Youll get all the free art supplies you could imagine because we want you to add your own meaning. You choose: consume, create, or both. Either way you create your own meaning. Its about you. ...
begingroup$ Option in the Velocity rollout , Other group , Random is set to 1 on your screenshot. It allows to randomize rotation of the particles but size as well (as it affects starting velocity of the hair) even if random size in Render rollout is set to 0. By default its set to 0. If you really want to make all particles of the same size (icicles on donut wont be) you can set that to 0, open Rotation rollout, set it to Normal or Normal-Tangent and increase Random of the Phase to 2. Then only rotation will be randomized $\endgroup$ - Mr Zak Apr 1 18 at 12:55 ...
How does art free a brain that is hurting? Is there something in the creation that reacts with colors and process and form and texture? CBS 2s Bill Kurtis reports.
However, research shows theres a tradeoff between stopping the virus and the negative effects of powerful antiretroviral medications on the babys heart.
Although the risk of developing cancer is decreasing for people living with HIV as antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves, it remains higher for certain cancers - and as ART expands, this burden is expected to grow.. ...
Although the risk of developing cancer is decreasing for people living with HIV as antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves, it remains higher for certain cancers - and as ART expands, this burden is expected to grow.. ...
The next generation of faster mobile networks is poised to lower costs for operators and potentially unleash a new price war in the industry in Europe.
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Chorus has today reported earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) of $636m for the year ended 30 June 2019, in line with guidance.
Yet again, the industry has paid politicians to roll out a harmful technology that has had zero testing but will make them billions of dollars - welcome to 5G
CBIS Releases Corporate Operational Guidance for 2013 as the Company Reorganizes to better meet the Growing Global Crisis Associated with Anti-Retroviral Drug Resistance among People with AIDS, as well as the Increasing Need for Patient Friendly Skin Cancer Therapies
The stunning speed of the vaccines development and rollout has helped tame COVID-19 in the U.S., which remains the worst-hit country in the world.
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Stocks started off in the right direction this morning, buoyed by the White Houses rollout of its auto rescue plan. The Dow rose 67 points, while the S&P and Nasdaq added 0.7% and 1.6% respectively,... Money News Summaries. | Newser
"Anti-HIV Agents That Selectively Target Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers without Affecting Cellular Zinc Finger ... 2-Diamine That Chelates Zinc Ions from Retroviral Nucleocapsid Zinc Fingers". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 54 (4): ... Musah, Rabi Ann (2004). "The HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Zinc Finger Protein as a Target of Antiretroviral Therapy" (PDF). Current ... "Biophysical Characterization of Zinc Ejection from HIV Nucleocapsid Protein by Anti-HIV 2,2'-Dithiobis[benzamides] and ...
It is now standard of care in the United States to begin anti-retroviral treatment upon discovery of HIV positive status. HIV ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. May 4, 2006. (available for download ... Due to the nature of the virus the drugs used to treat HIV are called antiretroviral medicines, and the course of treatment is ... PMID 22442319.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents ...
As a result, lamivudine was identified as a less toxic agent to mitochondria DNA than other retroviral drugs. Lamivudine was ... Lamivudine (Epivir) is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV‑1 infection. ... A better explanation of the data is that lamivudine continues to have a partial anti-viral effect even in the presence of the ... Lamivudine, commonly called 3TC, is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. It is also used to treat ...
Has Favorable Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Interactions with Other Antiretrovirals In Vitro". Antimicrobial Agents and ... In the pivotal trial of Leronlimab in combination with standard anti-retroviral therapies in HIV-infected treatment-experienced ... "Antagonists of the human CCR5 receptor as anti-HIV-1 agents. Part 1: discovery and initial structure-activity relationships for ... "Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors". ...
... immunologic function can be restored by treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. In kidney transplant recipients ... Other agents that have been proposed to target polyomavirus BK, such as cidofovir, fluoroquinolones, leflunomide, and statins ... Also, some of these agents may cause severe long-lasting side effects.[citation needed] Huang, Gang; Chen, Li-Zhong; Qiu, Jiang ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 41 (3): 587-93. doi:10.1128/AAC.41.3.587. PMC 163756. PMID 9055998. Gabardi, S.; Waikar ...
Coovadia, H. (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J ... "Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque nuclear ... 2002). "Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (5 Pt 2): ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents" (PDF). Diakses tanggal 2006-01-17.. ...
2002) Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Ann Intern Med 137, 381-433 PMID ... dapat digunakan terapi anti-retroviral.[27]. Ibu ke anak (transmisi perinatal)[sunting , sunting sumber]. Penularan HIV dari ... yang mendapatkan pengobatan obat antiretroviral (ARV).[3] Indonesia adalah negara ketiga di dunia yang memiliki penderita HIV ...
... drugs called anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are available. This treatment is also called high active anti-retroviral therapy ( ... Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J. ... The drug 'Truvada' is a combination of two different anti-viral treatments: tenofovir and emtricitabine.[28] Truvada is very ... "Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents: recommendations for a public health approach" (PDF). World ...
53.0 53.1 Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. ... 2005). "Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque ... 2002). "Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (5 Pt 2): ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents" (PDF). Department of Health and Human ...
Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents (2009-12-01). Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in ... Ang isang limitadong panahon ng terapiya na nagsasama ng mga anti-retroviral sa mga droga na umaasinta ng latentong reservoir ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection" (PDF). The Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and ... Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J. ...
... been a key component of anti-retroviral therapies for HIV/AIDS.[5] ... "Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 49 (9): 3825-32. doi:10.1128/AAC.49.9.3825-3832.2005. PMC 1195399. PMID 16127059.. ... a b c d e McCoy, C. (2007) Darunavir: A nonpeptidic antiretroviral protease inhibitor. Clinical Therapeutics. 29(8); 1559-1576. ... a b De Clercq, E. (2009) The history of antiretrovirals: key discoveries over the past 25 years. Reviews in Medical Virology. ...
Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents (2009-12-01). Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in ... O período inicial que segue ao contaxio do VIH denomínase VIH agudo, VIH primario ou síndrome retroviral aguda.[11][13] Moitos ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection" (PDF). The Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and ... Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J. ...
... drugs called anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are available. This treatment is also called high active anti-retroviral therapy ( ... 8.0 8.1 Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. ... The drug 'Truvada' is a combination of two different anti-viral treatments: tenofovir and emtricitabine.[28] Truvada is very ... 2010). "When to start antiretroviral therapy". Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 7 (2): 60-68. doi:10.1007/s11904-010-0044-6. ...
In the European Union it is indicated, in combination with other anti-retroviral medicinal products, for the treatment of Human ...
... perhaps the most important factor with respect to treatment is the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), which ... The most studied chemotheraputic agent in PCNSL is methotrexate (a folate analogue that interferes with DNA repair). ... probably due to poor penetration of the agents through the blood brain barrier.[11] ...
... of molecular diagnostic tools have enabled physicians and researchers to monitor the efficacy of treatment with anti-retroviral ... First, the catalog of infectious agents has grown to the point that virtually all of the significant infectious agents of the ... When infection attacks the body, anti-infective drugs can suppress the infection. Several broad types of anti-infective drugs ... The top three single agent/disease killers are HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. While the number of deaths due to nearly every disease ...
Baboons and pigs carry myriad transmittable agents that are harmless in their natural host, but extremely toxic and deadly in ... Takeuchi, Y.; Weiss, R. A. (2000). "Xenotransplantation: Reappraising the risk of retroviral zoonosis". Current Opinion in ... Latemple, D. C.; Galili, U. (1998). "Adult and neonatal anti-Gal response in knock-out mice for alpha1,3galactosyltransferase ... Xenozoonosis, also known as zoonosis or xenosis, is the transmission of infectious agents between species via xenograft. Animal ...
... dapat digunakan terapi anti-retroviral.[28]. Ibu ke anak (transmisi perinatal)Sunting. Penularan HIV dari ibu ke anak dapat ... 2002) Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Ann Intern Med 137, 381-433 PMID ...
Obat anti-inflamasi sering digunakan untuk mengontrol pengaruh peradangan. Glukokortikoid merupakan obat anti-inflamasi yang ... Taylor A, Watson C, Bradley J (2005). "Immunosuppressive agents in solid organ transplantation: Mechanisms of action and ... "T helper cell activation and human retroviral pathogenesis". Microbiol Rev. 60 (4): 722-42. PMID 8987361 ... Finlay B, McFadden G (2006). "Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens". Cell. 124 ( ...
It was discovered that gap junction communication could be disrupted by adding anti-connexin antibodies into embryonic cells.[ ... "In vitro evidence that metabolic cooperation is responsible for the bystander effect observed with HSV tk retroviral gene ... Agents. Receptor ligands. *Hormones. *Neurotransmitters/Neuropeptides/Neurohormones. *Cytokines. *Growth factors. *Signaling ...
"Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens". Cell. Vol. 124 no. 4. Feb 2006. str. 767- ... "Immunosuppressive agents in solid organ transplantation: Mechanisms of action and therapeutic efficacy". Critical Reviews in ... "T helper cell activation and human retroviral pathogenesis". Microbiological Reviews. 60 (4): 722-42. PMC 239461. PMID 8987361 ... antibody generators, "tvorci protiteles"), ki so definirani kot snovi, ki po vezavi na specifične imunske receptorje ...
Controlled trials began shortly after the advent of effective anti-retroviral therapies. The trials were abandoned due to poor ... a new broad spectrum antiparasitic agent". Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2 (1): 43-9. doi:10.1586/14787210.2.1.43. PMID 15482170 ... The anti-protozoal activity of nitazoxanide is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase ( ... Agents Chemother. 46 (7): 2116-23. doi:10.1128/aac.46.7.2116-2123.2002. PMC 127316 . PMID 12069963. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a ...
Viral recombination produces genetic variation that likely contributes to the evolution of resistance to anti-retroviral ... A survival strategy for any infectious agent is not to kill its host, but ultimately become a commensal organism. Having ... and anti-retroviral drugs.[116] Other medical research areas include the topics of pre-exposure prophylaxis, post-exposure ... due to anti-retroviral treatment. Previously it was said the chance of transmission was 'very low' or 'negligible' (The 'Swiss ...
"Helminthic Infections Rates and Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Rwanda". PLoS Neglected ... For example, if gene splicing unites two pathogenic agents and the resulting novel organism infects a population. One study ... In coinfected cells, the retroviral DNA of the avian leukosis virus can integrate into the MDV genome, producing altered ... CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response, and the cytokines IL-10 and IL-16. median plasma levels of RANTES, a chemokine that ...
Kong C, Neoh HM, Nathan S (March 2016). "Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Toxins: A Potential form of Anti-Virulence Therapy". ... They can be caused by a variety of factors, including: Malnutrition Fatigue Recurrent infections Immunosuppressing agents for ... Opportunistic infections caused by feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated ... February 2011). "Clinical practice guideline for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer: 2010 ...
He championed the combination anti-retroviral therapy which had earlier been developed by scientists at NIAID and Merck. This ... The most promising neutralizing agent is a bispecific monoclonal antibody that entered a first-in-human clinical trial in 2019 ... In fact, one such agent, cabotegravir, has been advanced into Phase-3 efficacy trials in high-risk populations, in ...
"Non-Enzymatic Functions of Retroviral Integrase: The Next Target for Novel Anti-HIV Drug Development". Frontiers in ... an agent harmless to humans, has an integrase similar to HIV IN and is therefore a model of HIV IN function; a 2010 crystal ... IN is a key component in this and the retroviral pre-integration complex.[clarification needed] All retroviral IN proteins ... Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that integrates-forms covalent links between-its ...
"Anti-CD3+ Stimulation of Lymphoproliferation in Persons Seropositive for HIV-1. 1993. Pacific Oaks Medical Group, Los Angeles, ... 35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Francisco, September 1995, LB6 "Mellors, J., ... 3rd Annual Conference of Retroviral and Opportunistic Infections. Stony Brook, N.Y. " "Jon Cohen AIDS Research Collection." [ ... "A 24 Week Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Anti-Viral Activity and Safety of ...
In the treatment of HIV, the success of anti-retroviral therapies means that many patients will experience this infection as a ... counseling and immunizations against infectious agents. Despite their effectiveness, the utilization of preventive services is ...
... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 - anti-bacterial agents MeSH D27.505 ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.025 - antimanic agents MeSH ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 - anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 - uricosuric agents MeSH ...
March 2007). "Mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus: prospects for novel anti-retroviral therapies in ... Johnson ES (2005). "Assessing the role of transmissible agents in human disease by studying meat workers". Cellscience Reviews ... February 2013). "Deep sequencing reveals abundant noncanonical retroviral microRNAs in B-cell leukemia/lymphoma". Proceedings ... This vaccine would be able to induce a persistent anti-BLV immune response through maintaining a low level of infectivity, ...
... (JSRV) is a betaretrovirus which is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep, ... These observations support the theory that an ancient retroviral infection had important consequences for mammalian evolution. ... anti-self' and selectively removed. Another hypothesis is that tumor cells downregulate their major histocompatibility class-I ...
Agents Chemother. 50 (5): 1731-7. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.5.1731-1737.2006. PMC 1472199. PMID 16641443. Frischknecht F, Martin B, ... In 1876, under pressure from the National Anti-Vivisection Society, the Cruelty to Animals Act was amended to include ... modulating effects of developmental stage and retroviral dose". Acta Neuropathologica. 86 (5): 456-465. doi:10.1007/bf00228580 ...
In 1876, under pressure from the National Anti-Vivisection Society, the Cruelty to Animals Act was amended to include ... December 2018). "Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction in Animal Studies With Biohazardous Agents". ILAR Journal. 59 (2): 177- ... modulating effects of developmental stage and retroviral dose". Acta Neuropathologica. 86 (5): 456-65. doi:10.1007/bf00228580. ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 50 (5): 1731-7. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.5.1731-1737.2006. PMC 1472199. PMID 16641443. ...
Debates on the ethics of provision and cost of anti-retroviral drugs, particularly in poorer countries, have highlighted ... Viruses are the main agents responsible for the rapid destruction of harmful algal blooms, which often kill other marine life, ... the Anti-Vaccination League and the Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League were formed in 1866. Following the anti-vaccination ... Blikstad V, Benachenhou F, Sperber GO, Blomberg J (2008). "Evolution of human endogenous retroviral sequences: a conceptual ...
Early initiation of combination anti-retroviral therapy: does it affect long-term outcome [Abstract LbPeB7051]? Presented at ... The availability of an increasing number of antiretroviral agents and the rapid evolution of new information has introduced ... Guidelines for Using Antiretroviral Agents Among HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Recommendations of the Panel on Clinical ... Considerations for Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Antiretroviral treatment recommendations for HIV- ...
... anti-retroviral therapy was indicated for any child with a definitive diagnosis of HIV infection who had evidence of ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection Members of the Working Group on Antiretroviral ... all antiretroviral agents should be stopped simultaneously rather than continuing one or two agents alone because of potential ... available alternative antiretroviral agents. Although the efficacy of different combination antiretroviral regimens in children ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents. HIV Protease Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Anti-HIV Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors ... Kaletra in Combination With Antiretroviral Agents (PROTEKT). This study has been completed. ... which may result in a change from the daily clinical routine and lead to the use of a newly approved antiretroviral agent in ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. ... Rapid advice : antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents - November 2009  ...
... the Working Group concluded that anti-retroviral therapy was indicated for any child with a definitive diagnosis of HIV ... all antiretroviral agents should be stopped simultaneously rather than continuing one or two agents alone because of potential ... aggressive antiretroviral therapy with three or four antiretroviral agents. The theoretical problems with early therapy include ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection MMWR 47(RR-4);1-31 Publication date: 04/17/1998. ...
Possible regimens for patients who have failed antiretroviral therapy: a work in progress* Table 15 TABLE 15. Acute retroviral ... Indications for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in .... Recommended antiretroviral agents for treatment of established ... what regimen of antiretroviral agents to use, when to change the antiretroviral regimen, treatment of the acutely HIV-infected ... Use of antiretroviral agents as monotherapy is contraindicated (DI), except when no other options exist or during pregnancy to ...
The compliant use of combination antiretroviral therapy has virtually eliminated perinatal HIV transmission. Although ... Poirier MC, Olivero OA, Walker DM, Walker VE (2004) Perinatal genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of anti-retroviral nucleoside ... Antiretroviral agents and cardiac end points. The long-term cardiac effects of in utero exposure to HAART have not been well ... a single-agent regimen is widely used because access to multi-agent ART is limited. For example, single-agent nevirapine is a ...
This chapter describes the major characteristics of antiretroviral agents that are currently approved, or at a promising stage ... In vitro, maraviroc demonstrates no antagonism with existing antiretroviral agents and additive or synergistic activity in ... Stavudine enjoys relatively few drug-drug interactions compared to other antiretroviral agents. The major mechanism of ... It demonstrates additive or synergistic activity in combination with other approved antiretroviral agents. Additive or ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S ... Feasibility assessment of using antiretroviral therapy to prevent vertical transmission of HIV from mother to child in Cambodia ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents Medicine & Life Sciences 17% * Cardiovascular Abnormalities Medicine & Life Sciences 17% ... N2 - The successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a combination of potent antiretroviral agents ... AB - The successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a combination of potent antiretroviral agents ... The successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a combination of potent antiretroviral agents, ...
... especially anti-retroviral (ARVs), anti-malarial and anti-tuberculosis agents. ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents. * Attitude of Health Personnel. * Clinical Protocols. * Drug Administration Schedule ... Controlling the HIV epidemic with antiretrovirals: IAPAC consensus statement on treatment as prevention and preexposure ... Controlling the HIV epidemic with antiretrovirals: IAPAC consensus statement on treatment as prevention and preexposure ... Controlling the HIV epidemic with antiretrovirals: IAPAC consensus statement on treatment as prevention and preexposure ...
Raltegravir is an anti-retroviral agent that blocks the construction or replication of viruses. It is used to decrease the ... Raltegravir is usually taken two times a day, in combination with other anti-retroviral agents, to achieve a significant ...
Where to get antiretroviral drugs in Lagos, Anti-retroviral drugs cost, Antiretroviral drugs cost in Nigeria, cost of treating ... Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents - Appendix B: Drug characteristics ... Antiretroviral drugs must be sold under strict medical supervision. ART Antiretroviral Therapy ARV Antiretroviral CIF Cost, ... The strategy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) employed in Nigeria is Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) as recommended ...
... with an focus on anti-retroviral and anti-infective agents. Services include business development, alliance management, ...
Low bone mass in behaviorally HIV-infected young men on antiretroviral therapy: Adolescent Trials Network Study 021B.. Clin ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 52(2):631-7.*PubMed. Rudy BJ, Murphy DA, D Harris R, Muenz L, Ellen J. 2009. Patient-related risks ... Safety and Feasibility of Antiretroviral Preexposure Prophylaxis for Adolescent Men Who Have Sex With Men Aged 15 to 17 Years ... Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral regimens containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and atazanavir-ritonavir in adolescents ...
Li is dedicated to a career of clinical and translation HIV research and continues his research in the Section of Retroviral ... and Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. He has served as a member of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) HIV Reservoirs ... including the A5308 trial of antiretroviral treatment for HIV Controllers and the A5345/A5347s study of biomarker predictors of ... HIV rebound timing during an intensively monitored antiretroviral pause. In the spring of 2014, Dr. Li was awarded the John ...
Furthermore, the accumulation of endogenous retroviral products might trigger the production of interferon and anti-DNA ... N2 - Extensive works on experimental animal models demonstrate that infectious agents can break immunological tolerance to self ... Furthermore, the accumulation of endogenous retroviral products might trigger the production of interferon and anti-DNA ... Furthermore, the accumulation of endogenous retroviral products might trigger the production of interferon and anti-DNA ...
The effects of highly active anti- retroviral therapy (HAART) on HPV natural history are unknown. The purpose of this ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central etiologic agent in the development of most cervical neoplasms, including invasive ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents. See all (212) concept(s). _. ×. Media Mentions. This section shows at most 5 media mentions. Click the ... Long L, Fox M, Sanne I, Rosen S. The high cost of second-line antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in South Africa. AIDS. 2010 ... Long LC, Maskew M, Brennan AT, Mongwenyana C, Nyoni C, Malete G, Sanne I, Fox MP, Rosen S. Initiating antiretroviral therapy ... Mortality in the First 3 Months on Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Positive Adults in Low- and Middle-income Countries: A Meta ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents : CK(49) : AC(18). *HIV Protease Inhibitors : CK(31) : AC(19) ... Anti Therapeutic Actions. *Vaccination: Measles : CK(631) : AC(73). *Vaccination: Mumps-Measles-Rubella (MMR) : CK(832) : AC( ... Plant products have historically been consumed and utilized for their anti-microbial and holistic benefits. Here are 38 natural ...
Anti-HIV Agents. R. H. Gray, Li, X., Wawer, M. J., Gange, S. J., Serwadda, D., Sewankambo, N. K., Moore, R., Wabwire-Mangen, F. ... PhD Defence , ANTI-MYCOBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED PLANTS USED IN UGANDA. ... Vitamin-D deficiency impairs CD4+T-cell count recovery rate in HIV-positive adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy: A ... Lutalo, T., and Quinn, T. C., "Stochastic simulation of the impact of antiretroviral therapy and HIV vaccines on HIV ...
PhD Defense , Communication Practices of Children on Antiretroviral Therapy and the Role of Family Situations, Jinja District, ... "Antimicrob Agents Chemother, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 734-7, 2015. ... Quantifying retention during pre-antiretroviral treatment in a ... Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women ...
... but there are Anti-retroviral drugs that can help the victim stay healthy and live longer. AIDS is acquired, because it is ... 4. Physiological Agents oF HIV/AIdS Spread.. 5. Attitudinal Agents Of HIV/AIDS Spread.. 6. Symptoms Of HIV/AIDS. 7. Preventive ... This can be categorized into two viz physiological Agents of HIV/AIDS spread and Attitudinal Agents of HIV/AIDS spread.. ... Physiological Agents Of HIV/AIDS Spread. These Include:. a. Saliva.. b. Tears( Incrymal gland). c. Break milk ( Mammary gland) ...
inhabiting beyond a anti-retroviral place employment, which were the central control of General artifacts actors, is involved a ... starting impact; EU agents in governments of the expectations and principles of currency onewonders they surface, this ... The random patients have anti-retroviral and own, and Putting National and free urbanization on the operations of people, ... s weapons should initiate their able book use to present psychological work agents including, efficient countries. morbidity ...
To make matters worse, anti-retroviral drugs like efavirenz are toxic to the central nervous system. This may be behind the ... "When it comes to getting a good clinical agent, were going to need a combination." ... Even if all HIV particles can be removed from the blood using traditional anti-retroviral therapy or broadly neutralizing ...
As a download, anti-retrovirals of physical illuminations, volumes and horizontally free proxies sent to Ireland, where they ... Jovi cesado; el técnico albaceteño ya no dirigirá el entrenamiento del miércoles ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR agents; FRANCIS LTD ... for retroviral este of cytochrome. From September 1 to October 5, 2017, a future aspect on service of 150 legal independence ...
PhD Defence , Innate Immune System Recovery After Long-term Antiretroviral therapy in an African Cohort. ... "Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 2600-6, 1999. ...
... is why it is important to get as much people as possible tested and to know their status and also place them on anti-retroviral ... called on faith and traditional leaders in the country to act as change agents because the act is unhealthy and violates the ... The minister while receiving the Amethyst HIV 1 and 2 self-test kits, and 10 Anti-body based HIV rapid Test Kits 2016 ...
45 avian strains 45 diphtheria tetanus pertussis whooping 45 immunization registries 45 Jeffrey Taubenberger 45 anti retroviral ... n# flu 47 vector borne infectious 47 OR HER AGENT 47 pertusis 47 containing LABAs 47 Briggs discusses NCCAM 47 Marc Lipsitch 47 ... anti viral . anti virals . Antiviral : potent antiviral . antiviral drugs Tamiflu . smallpox antiviral * stockpiled antiviral ... 47 WHO UNAIDS 47 diarrheal dehydration 47 injectable influenza 47 CIDRAP 47 bio similars 47 im peramivir 47 anti retroviral ...
I look forward to living longer since my adherence to anti-retroviral therapy and TB drugs is now consistent because of the ... "We came up with the multi-sectoral collaboration among the UN agents and some NGOs after we realised that the Mutasa ...
Antiretroviral Therapy is the mainstay of treatment, which effectively delays and prevents people from developing AIDS. Pre- ... The human body has defense mechanisms to safeguard the body from different kinds of infectious agents. Skin is the most ... This phase of infection is also known as Acute retroviral syndrome. These symptoms may resolve spontaneously, and the patient ...
However, an antiretroviral treatment given immediately after exposure to the virus, which is known as post-exposure prophylaxis ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, is the causative agent of AIDS. HIV infects vital cells in the immune system like CD4 T ... She has a PhD in virology and served as a professor and director of Regulation of Retroviral Infections Unit, Virology ... The treatment available today is the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy or HAART. The only reliable means to escape infection ...
The prime phytonutrient found in Chaga is betulinic acid which has been shown to have potential anti-retroviral, anti-malarial ... potential anti-cancer agent) by the Chaga Mushroom. After the Chaga is died to eliminate excess water, it is then stored in a ... and anti-inflammatory properties as well as recently discovered anti-cancer properties. Other useful phytonutients present in ...
Before HIV infected patients are treated with anti-retroviral drugs their CD4 T cells must be below 350 cells per microlitre ( ... The Antiviral Screening Facility has the capacity to test chemical agents that will inhibit the replication of HIV and herpes ... It was designed as a diagnostic tool for the detection of anti-HEV IgM in patients presenting with symptoms of acute viral ...
Anti-HIV Agents. J. Kagaayi, Dreyfuss, M. L., Kigozi, G., Chen, M. Z., Wabwire-Mangen, F., Serwadda, D., Wawer, M. J., ... PhD Defence , Examining the sustainability of Anti-retroviral Therapy (ART) Programs in health facilities in Uganda. ... PhD Defence , Correlating anti-tuberculosis drug concentrations with clinical outcomes in TB-HIV co-infected patients. ... Quantifying retention during pre-antiretroviral treatment in a large urban clinic in Uganda. ...
... has embarked on a family test and treat HIV and Aids campaign aimed at increasing the number of men and children accessing anti ... on a family test and treat HIV and Aids campaign aimed at increasing the number of men and children accessing anti-retroviral ... Half-naked passengers mystery as horror crash kills CIO agent and CID detective 08/03/2021 0 ... 08/03/2021 ] Half-naked passengers mystery as horror crash kills CIO agent and CID detective Crime & Courts ...
PhD Defence , Examining the sustainability of Anti-retroviral Therapy (ART) Programs in health facilities in Uganda. ... Contraceptive Agents, Female. M. Kiddugavu, Makumbi, F., Wawer, M. J., Serwadda, D., Sewankambo, N. K., Wabwire-Mangen, F., ... PhD Defence , Correlating anti-tuberculosis drug concentrations with clinical outcomes in TB-HIV co-infected patients. ... Vitamin-D deficiency impairs CD4+T-cell count recovery rate in HIV-positive adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy: A ...
  • While antiretroviral drug regimens are not commonly used to treat other types of retroviral infections, there are instances where there is a perceived need for re-evaluation of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. (
  • Several recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of various antiretroviral agents in preventing retroviral infections in animals. (
  • Early antiretroviral therapy reduces AIDS progression/death in individuals with acute opportunistic infections: a multicenter randomized strategy trial. (
  • Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with acute aids-related opportunistic infections: a cost-effectiveness analysis of ACTG A5164. (
  • The purpose of this study is to compare GW433908 and nelfinavir when each is given with abacavir and lamivudine to HIV patients who have not taken antiretroviral drugs. (
  • Some case reports have suggested that antiretrovirals, including lamivudine, might cause hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea in some patients,[14] although this has been disputed. (
  • Although the pathogenesis of HIV infection and the general virologic and immunologic principles underlying the use of antiretroviral therapy are similar for all HIV-infected persons, unique therapeutic and management considerations apply to HIV-infected children. (
  • Report of the NIH Panel To Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection and Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. (
  • Prunella vulgaris has potent anti-Ebola virus activity and may be developed as a novel antiviral approach against EBOV infection. (
  • Guidance for the use of antiretroviral treatment in pediatric HIV infection is not contained in this report. (
  • In 1987, zidovudine became the first approved agent in the United States for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. (
  • With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 infection is now considered a treatable chronic infectious disease. (
  • 1 , 5 , 6 The premature onset of age-associated medical comorbidities is a phenomenon sometimes called "accelerated aging in HIV-infection" and may be due to effects of chronic viral infection, cumulative toxicity of long-term antiretroviral therapy and/or higher frequency of tobacco and other substance use. (
  • HIV-1 integrase inhibitor is useful for anti-HIV, with IC50 value of 0.33 µM, which can target HIV-1 integrase and depress the activity in the treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and other similar diseases characterized by integration of a retroviral genome into a host chromosome. (
  • Background: The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly decreased the morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (
  • Results: A total of 276 subjects with HIV infection were included, 90 (33%) received lipid-lowering agents, and 31 (34%) had SRD. (
  • Here, we discuss FeLV biology and current treatment options, and propose that there is a need for antiretroviral treatment options for FeLV infection. (
  • which demonstrated that infection of susceptible T cells by HIV-bearing dendritic cells could be blocked in vitro by the addition of antiretroviral agents to the culture system ( 4 ). (
  • were among the first to demonstrate efficacy of antiretroviral PEP in an animal system (a mouse model of retroviral infection). (
  • last reviewed May 1, 2014) HIV drug-resistance testing is recommended in persons with HIV infection at entry into care regardless of whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be initiated immediately or deferred (AII). (
  • Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. (
  • Raltegravir is an antiretroviral drug produced by Merck & Co., used to treat HIV infection. (
  • For the treatment of HIV-1 infection in conjunction with other antiretrovirals. (
  • Three- vs four-drug antiretroviral regimens for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomized controlled trial. (
  • Racial differences in response to antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection: an AIDS clinical trials group (ACTG) study analysis. (
  • Transient antiretroviral treatment with tenofovir, ( R )-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine, begun shortly after inoculation of rhesus macaques with the highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate SIVsmE660, facilitated the development of SIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses and sustained effective control of the infection following drug discontinuation. (
  • To evaluate the hypothesis that the dynamics of the virus-host interaction during the early stages of initial infection exert a profound influence on the subsequent immunologic, virologic, and clinical course of infection, we recently conducted a study using transient postinoculation antiretroviral treatment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques to modulate viral replication during the immediate postinoculation period ( 15 ). (
  • Methods: We searched the Pub Med database, reviewed publications, and selected abstracts on the use of antiretroviral agents to prevent HIV transmission and their effects on growth and cardiac endpoints in fetal and postnatal life. (
  • Additive or synergistic in vitro inhibition has been reported with double or triple combinations of numerous antiretroviral agents, except for zidovudine-stavudine, which is an antagonistic combination. (
  • The comparative use and analysis of antiretroviral therapy can provide new insights into the mechanism of antiretroviral drug action. (
  • 7 Relative to HIV-infected patients under 50 years of age, older HIV patients are substantially more likely to be receiving additional medications, including cardiovascular drugs, antacids or acid-suppressing agents, lipid-lowering agents, antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants, oral hypoglycemic agents and erectile dysfunction drugs. (
  • The primary outcome was the use of lipid-lowering agents including statins, fibrates and fish oil. (
  • The major classes of anti-HIV drugs include reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, and entry/fusion inhibitors. (
  • Purpose: The compliant use of combination antiretroviral therapy has virtually eliminated perinatal HIV transmission. (
  • In vitro, maraviroc demonstrates no antagonism with existing antiretroviral agents and additive or synergistic activity in combination with enfuvirtide. (
  • It demonstrates additive or synergistic activity in combination with other approved antiretroviral agents. (
  • Modern combination antiretroviral therapy consists of at least three antiretroviral agents and leads to virologic suppression in most patients who are able to take their medication regularly. (
  • Combination antiretroviral therapy and th. (
  • BACKGROUND: It remains controversial whether exposure to combination antiretroviral treatment increases the risk of myocardial infarction. (
  • Combination antiretroviral therapy was defined as any combination regimen of antiretroviral drugs that included a protease inhibitor or a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. (
  • Maraviroc is a potent and selective inhibitor of CCR5 with potent anti-HIV-1 activity. (
  • Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a potent, orally bioavailable, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor CCR5 with broad-spectrum anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity. (
  • BDM2 is a very potent ARV, equivalent to the best anti-HIV drugs currently on the market, with full activity against viruses resistant to all current drugs. (
  • However the AIDS pandemic remains a major public-health threat and with transmission of drug-resistant viruses that is increasing, it is essential that new antiretroviral (ARV) agents become available. (
  • The guidelines contain recommendations for the clinical use of antiretroviral agents in the treatment of adults and adolescents (defined in Considerations for Antiretroviral Therapy in the HIV-Infected Adolescent) who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • These guidelines are intended for use by physicians and other health-care providers who use antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV-infected adults and adolescents. (
  • 1 Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents Visit the AIDSinfo website to access the most up-to-date guideline. (
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Anti-retroviral agents. (
  • Have taken drugs that affect the immune system (such as corticosteroids, interleukins, interferons) or that have anti-HIV activity (such as hydroxyurea or foscarnet) within 28 days before the study drug will be taken. (
  • Results: The link between nucleoside analogs and mitochondrial dysfunction is controversial, and the association between in utero antiretroviral exposure and mitochondrial dysfunction in children is unclear. (
  • Preterm delivery and impaired somatic growth have been reported in infants exposed to antiretrovirals, but results are inconsistent. (
  • Antiretroviral activity of two polyisoprenylated acylphloroglucinols, 7-epi-nemorosone and plukenetione A, isolated from Caribbean propolis. (
  • Elucidation of the first crystallographic 3D structure of the Transportin-SR2 protein and of the structural basis for retroviral integration into nucleosomes by Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. (
  • Low-dose ritonavir and cobicistat are not prescribed as active antiretroviral agents but are used to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of other antiretrovirals. (
  • Recommendations for offering antiretroviral therapy among asymptomatic patients require analysis of real and potential risks and benefits. (
  • All patients who have advanced or symptomatic HIV disease should receive aggressive antiretroviral therapy. (
  • As the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV becomes a reality, more patients are becoming exposed to antiretrovirals in utero , while long-term effects of these exposures remain unknown. (
  • 4 It is also now increasingly recognized that despite effective antiretroviral treatment, the incidence of cardiovascular disease, non-HIV-related cancer, and renal and hepatic impairment is greater among HIV-infected patients 50 years of age and older than among uninfected individuals of the same age. (
  • Patients 18 years of age and older who are infected with HIV, have CD4+ cell counts of greater than 500 cells/mm3, and who have never had antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV. (
  • Adverse drug reactions are a significant problem in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). (
  • One fifth of patients experienced mild hepatotoxicity, attributed to antituberculous agents and sulfonamides. (
  • 1 However, hepatotoxicity is a significant problem in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (
  • Genotypic testing is recommended as the preferred resistance testing to guide therapy in antiretroviral (ARV)-naive patients (AIII). (
  • Cost-effectiveness of adding an agent that improves immune responses to initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients: guidance for drug development. (
  • Antiretroviral regimens are complex, have serious side effects, pose difficulty with adherence, and carry serious potential consequences from the development of viral resistance because of nonadherence to the drug regimen or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents. (
  • This report includes the guidelines developed by the Panel regarding the use of laboratory testing in initiating and managing antiretroviral therapy, considerations for initiating therapy, whom to treat, what regimen of antiretroviral agents to use, when to change the antiretroviral regimen, treatment of the acutely HIV-infected person, special considerations in adolescents, and special considerations in pregnant women. (
  • Viral load and CD4+ T cell testing should ideally be performed twice before initiating or changing an antiretroviral treatment regimen. (
  • Prior studies had established that certain regimens of short-term postinoculation (p.i.) antiretroviral treatment could prevent the emergence of measurable plasma viremia following cessation of drug administration ( 39 , 40 ), but the detailed viral dynamics and host immune responses, particularly cellular immune responses, underlying this protection remained unexplored. (
  • Although antiretroviral drug toxicities in adults have been well documented, the effects of fetal and early childhood exposure to antiretroviral drugs on children of HIV-positive mothers are not well known. (
  • Two decades later, 24 additional agents in six drug classes had been approved. (
  • Stavudine enjoys relatively few drug-drug interactions compared to other antiretroviral agents. (
  • Pre-existing minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants, adherence, and risk of antiretroviral treatment failure. (
  • The availability of an increasing number of antiretroviral agents and the rapid evolution of new information has introduced substantial complexity into treatment regimens for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • Once the decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy has been made, treatment should be aggressive with the goal of maximal viral suppression. (
  • Burden of tuberculosis in an antiretroviral treatment programme in sub-Saharan Africa: impact on treatment outcomes and implications for tuberculos. (
  • To determine burden and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) in an antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme and its impact on ART outcomes. (
  • Antiretroviral naive, defined as 7 days or less of ARV treatment at any time prior to study entry. (
  • Failure of therapy at 4--6 months might be ascribed to nonadherence, inadequate potency of drugs or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents, viral resistance, and other factors that are poorly understood. (
  • Currently, more than 20 approved antiretroviral drugs are available in Canada, belonging to six medication classes ( Box 1 ). (
  • As primary care physicians and other specialists become increasingly involved in the care of HIV-infected individuals, it is essential for them to recognize, prevent and manage clinically important interactions between commonly prescribed drugs and antiretroviral therapy. (
  • Antiretroviral drugs have saved and extended the lives of millions of individuals infected with HIV. (
  • These guidelines were developed by the Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children convened by the National Pediatric and Family HIV Resource Center (NPHRC), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (
  • In recognition of these differences, a separate set of guidelines will address pediatric-specific issues related to antiretroviral therapy. (
  • In utero exposure to antiretroviral therapy has effects on the heart, regardless of HIV status, including improved cardiac function but also reduced cardiac mass of unclear future clinical significance. (
  • Conclusion: Antiretroviral therapy is effective in preventing perinatal HIV transmission but may be associated with adverse long-term side effects in exposed infants. (
  • With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the incidence of perinatal HIV-1 transmission has decreased from 20-25% to less than 2% [ 1 ]. (
  • Replication cycle of HIV-1 with current targets for antiretroviral therapy. (
  • The HIV Prevention Trial Network (HPTN) 052 Study is a Phase III, two-arm, controlled, open-labeled, randomized clinical trial designed to determine whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART) can prevent the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (
  • For FeLV-infected felines and their human companions, antiretroviral therapy would be desirable and of practical importance if good options were available. (
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has had an effect on the lives of HIV-infected children and adults. (
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy has reduced HIV-associated mortality and morbidity. (
  • last reviewed May 1, 2014) Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all HIV-infected individuals to reduce the risk of disease progression. (
  • This chapter describes the major characteristics of antiretroviral agents that are currently approved, or at a promising stage of development, and is organized according to the virus replication cycle. (
  • However, recent studies suggest that exposure to antiretroviral medications may have marked adverse effects, independent of HIV status [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Another important piece of evidence underscoring both the role of the dendritic cell and the potential benefit of antiretroviral PEP comes from the studies of Pope et al. (