Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Kanamycin Kinase: A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Betaretrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gammaretrovirus: A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Harvey murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mason-Pfizer monkey virus: A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Rous sarcoma virus: A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Spumavirus: Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.GuanineTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genes, Intracisternal A-Particle: Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. ("Intracisternal" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Mice, Inbred C57BLMolecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Alpharetrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Simian foamy virus: A species of SPUMAVIRUS causing non-pathogenic infections in chimpanzees and humans.Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.Mice, Inbred BALB CCell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hexadimethrine Bromide: A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).X-Linked Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases: Forms of combined immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene for INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT. Both severe and non-severe subtypes of the disease have been identified.Ribonuclease H: A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Pachyrhizus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).Cytosine Deaminase: An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Spleen Focus-Forming Viruses: Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Moloney murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.Epsilonretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE infecting fish. Species include Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1, and Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 2.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Products, pol: Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Viruses: Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Fusion Proteins, gag-pol: Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Reticuloendotheliosis Viruses, Avian: A group of viruses in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS comprising a few isolates from birds, with no known corresponding endogenous relatives.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type III: A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.IndiaDeoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Glucosylceramidase: A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.PrimatesLeukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.

Clinical and immunological effects of a 6 week immunotherapy cycle with murabutide in HIV-1 patients with unsuccessful long-term antiretroviral treatment. (1/1722)

In an effort to evaluate the potential of non-specific immunotherapy in restoring global immunity, we have examined the clinical tolerance and biological effects of a 6 week administration of the immunomodulator, murabutide, in chronically infected HIV-1 patients. Forty-two subjects, presenting weak immune reconstitution and ineffective virus suppression following long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were randomized to receive, or not, murabutide 7 mg/day on five consecutive days/week. Clinical and immunological parameters were monitored before and after the immunotherapy period. Administration of murabutide was generally well tolerated, although some grade III adverse events, reversible on treatment cessation, were observed. Interestingly, in comparison with pre-inclusion levels, at 1 week after the immunotherapy cycle, only murabutide recipients presented a significant increase in CD4 cells, platelet counts, and in the percentage of patients with undetectable viral loads (<50 copies/mL). Statistical significance between the two groups was only evident with the latter parameter. Some of these clinical changes were maintained even up to 12 weeks after murabutide administration, and were accompanied by an increased ability to mount cellular responses to active immunization with a recall antigen, and by a significant increase in the percentage of patients presenting positive lymphoproliferative responses to the viral antigen gp160. These results warrant further evaluation of extended periods or cycles of murabutide immunotherapy as adjunct to HAART.  (+info)

Self-reported health-related quality of life in persons with HIV infection: results from a multi-site interview project. (2/1722)

BACKGROUND: To examine demographic and behavioral associations with self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among persons with HIV infection or AIDS. METHODS: Analysis of interviews with persons > or = 18 years of age reported through routine disease surveillance with HIV infection or AIDS to nine state and local health departments from January 1995 through December 1996. Scales were constructed from validated measures of HRQOL, and mean scores were calculated (lower scores signified poorer HRQOL). Measures of HRQOL included Overall Health, Pain, Physical Functioning, Role Functioning, Social Functioning, Mental Health, Energy/Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning. Differences in HRQOL were examined by various demographic and behavioral factors, including taking antiretroviral medication. RESULTS: HRQOL data were available for 3778 persons. Factors associated with lower HRQOL scores included older age, female sex, black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, injection drug use, lower education and income, no private health insurance, and lower CD4 count. In multivariate analysis, lower CD4 count was the factor most consistently associated with lower HRQOL. Taking antiretroviral medication was not associated with differences in HRQOL regardless of CD4 count. CONCLUSIONS: Perception of HRQOL varied in a population with HIV infection or AIDS. On most HRQOL measures, lower CD4 count was associated with lower HRQOL. Measurement of HRQOL can assist in understanding the long-term effects of disease and treatment on persons with HIV.  (+info)

HIVAN and medication use in chronic dialysis patients in the United States: analysis of the USRDS DMMS Wave 2 study. (3/1722)

BACKGROUND: The use and possible effects of factors known to improve outcomes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy (HIVAN), namely of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) and antiretroviral therapy, has not been reported for a national sample of dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a historical cohort study of the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study (DMMS) Wave 2 to identify risk factors associated with increased mortality in these patients. Data were available for 3374 patients who started dialysis and were followed until March 2000. Cox Regression analysis was used to model adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) with HIVAN as a cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and its impact on mortality during the study period, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 3374 patients who started dialysis, 36 (1.1%) had ESRD as a result of HIVAN. Only 22 (61%) of patients with HIVAN received antiretroviral agents, and only nine patients (25%) received combination antiretroviral therapy, and only 14% received ACE inhibitors. Neither the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs (AHR, 0.62, 95% CI, 0.10, 3.86, p = 0.60), or ACE inhibitors were associated with a survival advantage. Patients with HIVAN had an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.74, 95% Confidence Interval, 3.12, 7.32, p < 0.01) compared to patients with other causes of ESRD. CONCLUSIONS: Medications known to improve outcomes in HIV infected patients were underutilized in patients with HIVAN. Adjusted for other factors, a primary diagnosis of HIVAN was associated with increased mortality compared with other causes of ESRD.  (+info)

Polymyositis masquerading as mitochondrial toxicity. (4/1722)

A 66 year old HIV infected male heavy smoker presented with arthralgia, myalgia, and weight loss which was originally ascribed to nucleoside induced mitochondrial toxicity. Despite withdrawal of antiretroviral therapy a proximal myopathy developed. Further investigation excluded malignancy. Polymyositis was diagnosed on muscle biopsy. The patient recovered completely with oral prednisolone. This case highlights the importance of muscle biopsy in HIV infected patients whose myopathy persists despite withdrawal of antiretroviral therapy and the need for thorough investigation of non-specific symptoms in HIV infected patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

Decline in mortality, AIDS, and hospital admissions in perinatally HIV-1 infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland. (5/1722)

OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in demographic factors, disease progression, hospital admissions, and use of antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV. DESIGN: Active surveillance through the national study of HIV in pregnancy and childhood (NSHPC) and additional data from a subset of children in the collaborative HIV paediatric study (CHIPS). SETTING: United Kingdom and Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 944 children with perinatally acquired HIV-1 under clinical care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes over time in progression to AIDS and death, hospital admission rates, and use of antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: 944 children with perinatally acquired HIV were reported in the United Kingdom and Ireland by October 2002; 628 (67%) were black African, 205 (22%) were aged > or = 10 years at last follow up, 193 (20%) are known to have died. The proportion of children presenting who were born abroad increased from 20% in 1994-5 to 60% during 2000-2. Mortality was stable before 1997 at 9.3 per 100 child years at risk but fell to 2.0 in 2001-2 (trend P < 0.001). Progression to AIDS also declined (P < 0.001). From 1997 onwards the proportion of children on three or four drug antiretroviral therapy increased. Hospital admission rates declined by 80%, but with more children in follow up the absolute number of admissions fell by only 26%. CONCLUSION: In children with HIV infection, mortality, AIDS, and hospital admission rates have declined substantially since the introduction of three or four drug antiretroviral therapy in 1997. As infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland are living longer, there is an increasing need to address their medical, social, and psychological needs as they enter adolescence and adult life.  (+info)

Abnormal contingent negative variation in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. (6/1722)

The contingent negative variation, an event-related potential related to neural activity in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia, neuropsychological tests and structural MRI were used to examine CNS function and structure in HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Relative to controls, HIV patients had smaller thalamic volume and reduced late contingent negative variation amplitude that correlated with caudal atrophy. Behaviorally, viremic patients were more impaired than virally suppressed patients and controls on neuropsychological measures of psychomotor speed, selective attention and mental flexibility. These results suggest that antiretroviral therapy may not be effective in protecting cortical and subcortical structures against HIV-related neuropathology, regardless of immune function. However, the benefits of antiretroviral therapy on immune function appear to facilitate neurocognitive performance.  (+info)

The cardiovascular consequences of HIV and antiretroviral therapy. (7/1722)

Antiretroviral therapy has changed the face of the treatment of HIV throughout the world, converting a fatal into a chronic disease. HIV has reached disastrous levels of infection in southern Africa, and increased use of life-saving therapy is being implemented. The antiretrovirals have a variety of metabolic side effects that have been implicated in cardiovascular disease in other populations. This article discusses the impact of HIV on southern Africa, the metabolic and cardiac complications of both HIV and antiretrovirals, and strategies for dealing with drug side effects.  (+info)

Use of a small molecule CCR5 inhibitor in macaques to treat simian immunodeficiency virus infection or prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection. (8/1722)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fuses with cells after sequential interactions between its envelope glycoproteins, CD4 and a coreceptor, usually CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4). CMPD 167 is a CCR5-specific small molecule with potent antiviral activity in vitro. We show that CMPD 167 caused a rapid and substantial (4-200-fold) decrease in plasma viremia in six rhesus macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains SIVmac251 or SIVB670, but not in an animal infected with the X4 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), SHIV-89.6P. In three of the SIV-infected animals, viremia reduction was sustained. In one, there was a rapid, but partial, rebound and in another, there was a rapid and complete rebound. There was a substantial delay (>21 d) between the end of therapy and the onset of full viremia rebound in two animals. We also evaluated whether vaginal administration of gel-formulated CMPD 167 could prevent vaginal transmission of the R5 virus, SHIV-162P4. Complete protection occurred in only 2 of 11 animals, but early viral replication was significantly less in the 11 CMPD 167-recipients than in 9 controls receiving carrier gel. These findings support the development of small molecule CCR5 inhibitors as antiviral therapies, and possibly as components of a topical microbicide to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission.  (+info)

*HIV/AIDS

Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J. ... Even with anti-retroviral treatment, over the long term HIV-infected people may experience neurocognitive disorders, ... Adults and adolescents who are living with HIV (even on anti-retroviral therapy) with no evidence of active tuberculosis in ... If the pregnant or lactating mother has been advised to take anti-retroviral medication to prevent mother-to-child HIV ...

*Microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases

... the antiretroviral (ARV) agents. ARVs work either by preventing the HIV virus from entering a human host cell, or by preventing ... Combined Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Microbicides. ... One such agent is BufferGel, a spermicidal and microbicidal gel ... they are less desirable than other agents. Additionally, clinical trials have not demonstrated these agents to be effective at ... Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) "Trial Shows Anti-HIV Microbicide Is Safe, but does Not Prove it Effective". ...

*Daryl L. Thompson

6,090,602 Levo-monosaccharide in a nucleoside analog for use as an anti-retroviral agent • A non-invasive blood glucose ... Thompson has successfully developed, patented, and marketed: • A retroviral agent, Patent # 6,319,711 Composition and method ...

*Stampidine

... and promising prophylactic in vivo antiretroviral activity in Hu-PBL-SCID mice as well as therapeutic anti-retroviral activity ... Unlike available antiretroviral agents that disrupt a specific step in the life cycle of HIV, stampidine has the potential to ... Uckun FM, Cahn P, Qazi S, D'Cruz O (April 2012). "Stampidine as a promising antiretroviral drug candidate for pre-exposure ... Stampidine is an experimental nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with anti-HIV activity. It is a derivative of ...

*Integrase inhibitor

... the first Integrase Inhibitor for HIV HIV Antiretroviral Agents in Development GS 9137 (elvitegravir) factsheet from NIH ... Since integration is a vital step in retroviral replication, blocking it can halt further spread of the virus. Integrase ... Integrase inhibitors (INIs) are a class of antiretroviral drug designed to block the action of integrase, a viral enzyme that ... Since integrase inhibitors target a distinct step in the retroviral life cycle, they may be taken in combination with other ...

*Joep Lange

He argued that it is an "illusion to think that monotherapy with any antiretroviral agent will have a major and lasting impact ... He found that a baby's chance of contracting HIV falls to less than 1% if they receive anti-retroviral drugs while being nursed ... "Combination Antiretroviral Therapy". Drugs. 49 (Supplement 1): 32-37. doi:10.2165/00003495-199500491-00008. Waldholz, Michael ( ...

*Index of oncology articles

... antimitotic agent - antineoplastic - antineoplastic antibiotic - antioxidant - antiparasitic - antiretroviral therapy - ... retroviral vector - retrovirus - RevM10 gene - rhabdoid tumor - rhabdomyosarcoma - rhizoxin - ribavirin - ribonucleotide ... anti-CEA antibody - anti-idiotype vaccine - anti-inflammatory - antiandrogen - antiandrogen therapy - anti-angiogenesis - ... alkylating agent - ALL - all-trans retinoic acid - allogeneic - allogeneic bone marrow transplantation - allogeneic stem cell ...

*Decoy cells

... immunologic function can be restored by treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. In kidney transplant recipients ... Other agents that have been proposed to target polyomavirus BK, such as cidofovir, fluoroquinolones, leflunomide, and statins ... Also, some of these agents may cause severe long-lasting side effects.[citation needed] Huang, Gang; Chen, Li-Zhong; Qiu, Jiang ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 41 (3): 587-93. PMC 163756 . PMID 9055998. Gabardi, S.; Waikar, S. S.; Martin, S.; ...

*Discovery and development of HIV-protease inhibitors

They are highly effective against HIV and have, since the 1990s, been a key component of anti-retroviral therapies for HIV/AIDS ... In 1985, HIV was identified as the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its complete genome was ... Antiretroviral drug Reverse transcriptase inhibitor Integrase inhibitor Entry inhibitor Discovery and development of non- ... De Clercq, E. (2009) Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV. International Journal of ...

*Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors

This compound had been prepared in 1964 as a potential anti-cancer agent but was shown to be ineffective. In 1974 zidovudine ... "Retroviral reverse transcriptases (other than those of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus): A comparison of their molecular and ... Six NRTI agents and one NtRTI have followed. The NRTIs and the NtRTI are analogues of endogenous 2´-deoxy-nucleoside and ... The 3' carbon of the ribose ring of 2'-deoxycytidine has been replaced by a sulfur atom because it had greater anti-HIV ...

*Aciclovir

... but it can help slow HIV disease progression in people not taking anti-retroviral therapy (ART). This finding emphasizes the ... Aciclovir trials show that this agent has no role in preventing HIV transmission, ...

*Zinc finger inhibitor

"Anti-HIV Agents That Selectively Target Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers without Affecting Cellular Zinc Finger ... 2-Diamine That Chelates Zinc Ions from Retroviral Nucleocapsid Zinc Fingers". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 54 (4): ... Musah, Rabi Ann (2004). "The HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Zinc Finger Protein as a Target of Antiretroviral Therapy" (PDF). Current ... "Biophysical Characterization of Zinc Ejection from HIV Nucleocapsid Protein by Anti-HIV 2,2'-Dithiobis[benzamides] and ...

*Bengal Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals

Negotiation is going on to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing Anti Retroviral Products for which the nation is dependent ... It has opened various sales depots and C&F agents in the year 2014 and is now having a Pan India distribution Network.The ... Already manufacturing anti snake venom serum (ASVS), steps are being taken to manufacture anti rabies vaccine (ARV), Anti ... Topical Anti-infective & Antifungals, Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Muscle Relaxants, Antibiotics & Antibacterials, ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ... anti-inflammatory agents MeSH D27.505.954.158.030 --- anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroidal MeSH D27.505.954.158.030.500 --- ...

*Opportunistic infection

In patients with HIV, starting antiretroviral therapy is especially important for restoration of the immune system and reduces ... Opportunistic infections caused by Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated ... Immunodeficiency or immunosuppression can be caused by: Malnutrition Fatigue Recurrent infections Immunosuppressing agents for ... "Clinical practice guideline for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer: 2010 update by the ...

*Entry inhibitor

Pugach P, Ketas TJ, Michael E, Moore JP (August 2008). "Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 ... Aplaviroc, an agent similar to maraviroc and vicriroc. Clinical trials were halted in 2005 over concerns about the drug's ... Agents Chemother. 51 (5): 1780-6. doi:10.1128/AAC.01001-06. PMC 1855571 . PMID 17307982. Schweizer, A; Rusert, P; Berlinger, L ... It is also referred to as a "fusion inhibitor." Other agents are under investigation for their ability to interact with the ...

*Polyoxometalate

Pope, Michael Thor; Müller, Achim (1994). Polyoxometalates: From Platonic Solids to Anti-Retroviral Activity. Springer. ISBN 0- ... "Transition-metal-substituted polyoxometalate derivatives as functional anti-amyloid agents for Alzheimer's disease". Nature ... Polyoxometalates: From Platonic Solids to Anti-Retroviral Activity - Springer. pp. 337-342. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-0920-8. Gao ...

*Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS

Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in many cases allows the stabilization of the patient's symptoms, partial ... Most infectious agents have been associated with the disease they cause long before their pathogenic mechanisms have been ... Use of potent anti-HIV combination therapies has contributed to dramatic reductions in the incidence of AIDS and AIDS-related ... Antiretroviral treatment known as post-exposure prophylaxis reduces the chance of acquiring an HIV infection when administered ...

*Primary central nervous system lymphoma

In AIDS patients, perhaps the most important factor with respect to treatment is the use of highly active anti-retroviral ... The most studied chemotheraputic agent in PCNSL is methotrexate (a folate analogue that interferes with DNA repair). ... Of course, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is critical for prolonged survival in any AIDS patient, so compliance ... probably due to poor penetration of the agents through the blood brain barrier. Newer treatments, such as high dose ...

*Hepatitis

... and highly active anti-retroviral therapy used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Of these, amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most ... These agents are poorly tolerated but are still used in some resource-poor areas. In high-resource countries, they have been ... anti-viral antibodies (such as the anti-hepatitis B surface antibody or anti-hepatitis A antibody), or viral DNA/RNA. In early ... Screening consists of a blood test that detects anti-hepatitis C virus antibody. If anti-hepatitis C virus antibody is present ...

*Apricitabine

June 2006). "Efficacy and tolerability of 10-day monotherapy with apricitabine in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected patients ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 53 (4): 1683-1685. doi:10.1128/AAC.01168-08. PMC 2663123 . PMID 19223637. ... and difficulty confirming the effectiveness of the drug in patients where other retroviral drugs masked key indicators. In ...

*Makerere University Walter Reed Project

A key component of these activities has been provision of HIV care including anti-retroviral treatment (ARV) through funding ... understanding of the pathogenesis and related host-mediated pathways associated with common and/or dangerous infectious agents ...

*CCR5

Heterozygosity for this mutant allele also has shown to improve one's virological response to anti-retroviral treatment. CCR5 ... Hence, other pathogens have been suggested agents of positive selection for CCR5 Δ32. The first major one being bubonic plague ... Seibert C, Sakmar TP (2004). "Small-molecule antagonists of CCR5 and CXCR4: a promising new class of anti-HIV-1 drugs". Current ... Esté JA (Sep 2003). "Virus entry as a target for anti-HIV intervention". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 10 (17): 1617-32. doi: ...

*Infection

... of molecular diagnostic tools have enabled physicians and researchers to monitor the efficacy of treatment with anti-retroviral ... First, the catalog of infectious agents has grown to the point that virtually all of the significant infectious agents of the ... When infection attacks the body, anti-infective drugs can suppress the infection. Several broad types of anti-infective drugs ... Second, an infectious agent must grow within the human body to cause disease; essentially it must amplify its own nucleic acids ...

*Lamivudine

As a result, lamivudine was identified as a less toxic agent to mitochondria DNA than other retroviral drugs. Lamivudine was ... A better explanation of the data is that lamivudine continues to have a partial anti-viral effect even in the presence of the ... Lamivudine, commonly called 3TC, is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. It is also used to treat ... It is effective against both HIV-1 and HIV-2. It is typically used in combination with other antiretrovirals such as zidovudine ...

*DNA vaccination

... technology and application as anti-parasite and anti-microbial agents". Adv. Parasitol. Advances in Parasitology. 42: 343-410. ... 1997). "Characterization of humoral and CD4+ cellular responses after genetic immunization with retroviral vectors expressing ... 1997). "Potent, protective anti-HIV immune responses generated by bimodal HIV envelope DNA plus protein vaccination". ... whereas pro-inflammatory agents and TH1-inducing cytokines decrease humoral responses and increase cytotoxic responses (more ...
This is an observational cohort in pediatric HIV patients in China. Children who receive antiretroviral drugs will be recruited in this study. The main objectives are as follows: 1. To establish simpler and smarter pediatric antiretroviral therapy in China including both first-line and second-line regimens. 2. To study the nature, characteristics and mechanisms of immunoreconstitution in HIV-infected children using the data and samples from the pediatric antiretroviral therapy cohort. 3. To establish a basic science and clinical research network based on the pediatric antiretroviral cohort ...
For national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs, one of the most important goals in reducing morbidity and mortality is to achieve the highest possible long-term retention of patients on ART. In South Africa, cohort data have consistently found high attrition among ART patients, with the combined cumulative outcomes of death and loss to follow up averaging 25-40% over the first five years after ART initiation. Like many other middle income countries, South Africa also faces very high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and NCD risks. Despite this, there are few studies that have looked at interactions between ART and NCDs or considered the effect of NCDs and NCD risk factors on achieving long-term retention on ART.. In this study, which is a supplemental study to the RapIT trial, CGHD and HE2RO are evaluating the role of NCDs and NCD risk factors on long-term retention on ART, with outcomes including mortality, loss to follow up, viral suppression and immunologic improvement, and ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Pathophysiology of HIV-Associated Neurodegeneration in Aging Populations on Long-Term Anti-Retroviral Therapy (R21) RFA-MH-12-071. NIMH
ar EVALUATION TECHNOLOGIES INCORPORATED AN EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE DESIGN COMPETITION SUBCATEGORY OF THE DESIGN ARTS PROGRAM Submitted to: Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts Submitted by: Evaluation Technologies Incorporated 2020 North 14th Street, Sixth Floor Arlington, Virginia 22201 (703) 525-5818 Revised January 7, 1986 October 25, 1985 Mr. Peter Smith Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W. Washington, D.C. 20506 Reference: Contract Number NEA DC 85-5 Dear Mr. Smith: Enclosed please find the final report of the evaluation conducted for the Design Competition Subcategory. This evaluation was implemented along the basic framework of the evaluation design, which included two principle objectives. These were: (1) Determine the extent to which the design competitions funded by the Endowment have a high likelihood of being carried out; and (2) Determine the extent to which the design competitions funded by the Endowment enable the ...
Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa ...
Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa ...
Find A PhD. Search Funded Arts Programmes in Pharmacology / Toxicology. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
Find A PhD. Search Funded Arts Programmes in Macromolecular Chemistry in Southampton. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
Were just two days away from the official deadline to apply for Engadgets unreal arts program for unreal times. But what is time, really? In the spirit of br...
No ab wheel? No problem. Just use a stability ball. Also works great as a regressive exercise if the standard ab rollout is too tough for you.
For the first ten of our expansive 34 year history at Ampronix, we were an electronic equipment repair company. Today, we have expanded to become a service, manufacturing, and distributing trifecta with the mission of providing superior, customized care s
Nice.. How many of the pages are new this time around? I feel like Im seeing new things, but maybe Ive just had the early art blasted out of my mind by the stunning conclusion.. ...
The investigators will study use a novel method of real-time wireless adherence monitoring in one of the best established multi-disciplinary HIV antiretroviral treatment cohorts in rural Africa. The investigators will advance our theoretical understanding of HIV antiretroviral adherence behavior, HIV pathogenesis, and to address the monitoring and prevention of HIV antiretroviral treatment failure. Based on a successful pilot study in rural Uganda and favorable cost-effective estimates, the investigators will deploy the Wisepill real-time wireless adherence monitoring system to objectively monitor adherence in real time. The investigators will determine to what extent social capital mitigates economic barriers to long-term adherence and determine if the pervasive impact of stigma on adherence operates through social capital (Aim 1). The investigators will determine the relationship between missed doses, low-level viremia (between 1 and 50 copies RNA/mL), inflammation, bacterial translocation, ...
To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports ...
To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports ...
Earlier this year, we learned that the START study had found overwhelming evidence that beginning HIV antiretroviral therapy at any CD4 count was better ...
In keeping with its mandate to support and develop South Africas arts, culture and heritage sector, The National Arts Council (NAC) has awarded 117 bursaries to arts students and tertiary institutions for 2016 through a fund allocation of over R5 million, a 10% increase from the last financial year. The bursaries will support both undergraduate studies at institutions as well as post graduate individuals across disciplines, signaling the NACs holistic approach to funding as a means of development. ...
The more art you see, the better your eye gets and the surer you become about what you like and why. There are lots of excellent opportunities in galleries throughout the west-central Florida region
In a justly scathing critique, Gregg Gonsalves wrote that at the Interim WHO ARV Treatment Working Group in November 2001, it was clear that WHO was ...
Lack / limited availability of skilled process owners and frequent change of participating personnel from local rollout site can also jeopardize the project in many ways. This can lead to delays in the process due to discontinuity at process knowledge or worse can even lead to incorrect understanding of the business process by the rollout team or by rollout site. The effect is cascading and leads to scope creep at later stage of project or definition of a sub-optimal solution, which could endanger the business efficiency for the local market and might also result in resistance/ not-acceptance of the rollout by the local rollout site users.. Ambiguous definition of roles and responsibilities for any stakeholder or between different vendors working on same rollout; is also a major setback to a project of this magnitude, as it can lead to lack of ownership and confusion towards project deliverable.. To circumvent the above risks, it is recommended for a company to have clear roles & responsibility ...
Researchers say that expanding anti-retroviral treatment to all HIV-positive people in couples with one partner who isnt infected is cost-effective even in developing countries with limited budgets.
Earle and Janice OBorn are making history by supporting the NAC and Canadian talent with one of the largest donations ever made towards the performing arts ...
Om 2008.8 was designed to be as empty as possible, for the very purpose of showcasing your ideas. Think of our products as museums. Were building the environment. Each one different from the next. Youll get all the free art supplies you could imagine because we want you to add your own meaning. You choose: consume, create, or both. Either way you create your own meaning. Its about you. ...
begingroup$ Option in the Velocity rollout , Other group , Random is set to 1 on your screenshot. It allows to randomize rotation of the particles but size as well (as it affects starting velocity of the hair) even if random size in Render rollout is set to 0. By default its set to 0. If you really want to make all particles of the same size (icicles on donut wont be) you can set that to 0, open Rotation rollout, set it to Normal or Normal-Tangent and increase Random of the Phase to 2. Then only rotation will be randomized $\endgroup$ - Mr Zak Apr 1 18 at 12:55 ...
How does art free a brain that is hurting? Is there something in the creation that reacts with colors and process and form and texture? CBS 2s Bill Kurtis reports.
Although the risk of developing cancer is decreasing for people living with HIV as antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves, it remains higher for certain cancers - and as ART expands, this burden is expected to grow.. ...
The next generation of faster mobile networks is poised to lower costs for operators and potentially unleash a new price war in the industry in Europe.
Search and use 100s of art animal line clip arts and images all free! Royalty free, no fees, and download now in the size you need.
Yet again, the industry has paid politicians to roll out a harmful technology that has had zero testing but will make them billions of dollars - welcome to 5G
... as the Company Reorganizes to better meet the Growing Global Crisis Associated with Anti-Retroviral Drug Resistance among People with AIDS, as well as the Increasing Need for Patient Friendly Skin Cancer Therapies
Stocks started off in the right direction this morning, buoyed by the White Houses rollout of its auto rescue plan. The Dow rose 67 points, while the S&P and Nasdaq added 0.7% and 1.6% respectively,... Money News Summaries. | Newser
Find Best Ointment For Back Pain Supplier on Alibaba Ointment For Back Pain Supplier Directory. Source Top Quality Ointment For Back Pain Supplier, Ointment For Back Pain Companies, triple antibiotic ointment ,pain relief ointment ,ointment tubes Manufacturers
The Botswana national treatment guidelines for adults recommend two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), zidovudine/lamivudine, and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Typically, the NNRTI is efavirenz or, for women of reproductive age, nevirapine. The regimen consisted of 200 mg of Combivir (lamzid, once available) twice daily. Nevirapine began with a two-week lead-in period of 200 mg once a day followed by a maintenance regimen of 200 mg twice a day. Efavirenz was dosed at 600 mg each day.. Patients experiencing virologic failure on first-line therapy were switched to a protease inhibitor-based regimen (lopinavir/ritonavir) coupled with two NRTIs (didanosine and stavudine or tenofovir or abacavir and lamivudine). When virologic failure occurred with second-line therapy or when there were complicated first-line therapy failures, genotypic resistance testing was undertaken.. At the initial visit, all patients underwent a comprehensive physical examination ...
antiretroviral medications list for sale - 10 - antiretroviral medications list wholesalers & antiretroviral medications list manufacturers from China manufacturers.
The Original Study Several observational studies have reported that the early use of antiretroviral therapy by patients diagnosed with HIV decreases rates of HIV acquisition among their sexual partners. This study evaluates the impact of early antiretroviral therapy on HIV acquisition among serodiscordant couples from nine countries.
The proportion of perinatally HIV (PHIV)-infected youth on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased, leading to decreases in rates of viremia and advanced immunosuppression in recent years.
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment <3 months at ART initiation, we measured the CD4 response at 6 months on ART. Of the 274 patients without TB at ART initiation, 65% were female with median CD4 count of 213 cells/mm3. Among the 14 (5.1%) patients who developed
In this descriptive cross-sectional study conducted to estimate the proportion of patients virologically non-suppressed and to identify the factors associated with virological non-suppression, we found an overall proportion of non-suppression of 11%. Amongst the 3 sub-patient categories, patients on routine monitoring registered the lowest while repeat testers after suspected failure registered the highest proportion of non-suppressed patients. Being a suspected treatment failure, repeat tester after suspected treatment failure, young age, poor adherence and having active TB increased the odds of virological non-suppression. Being on second/third line treatment decreased the odds of virological non-suppression. Repeater testers after suspected failure with active TB registered the highest odds of non-suppression compared to TB patients amongst other sub-categories.. Although our study reveals the overall proportion of non-suppressed patients being relatively low, we observe sub-groups such as ...
All people who need antiretroviral therapy should have access to it. WHO proposed as a target that by 2005, 3 million people should have access, and called for the adoption in resource-limited settings of a public health approach to antiretroviral treatment as a tool to reach this goal. Selection of ARV treatment regimens for programmes and individual patients should consider: potency, frequency of dosage, side effects, maintenance of future treatment options, the anticipated adherence of the patient population to a regimen, need for storage, concurrent conditions, the potential for resistant viral strains, and cost and access. Additional considerations may include access to only a limited number of ARV drugs, limited health service infrastructure, the need to deliver drugs to rural areas, a high incidence of tuberculosis and hepatitis B and/or C, and the presence of varied HIV groups and subtypes. WHO recommends that in ARV treatment programmes in resource-limited settings HIV infected ...
Medscape Medical News , Conference News Jim Kling Sep 20, 2013 DENVER - In patients with HIV, detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is more prevalent in those with major depressive disorder, according to a new study. "We believe that some inherent conditions that are associated with HIV may also be associated with depression," said study author Edward Hammond, MD, a doctoral student at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. "One would be the inflammatory component, and depression, like HIV, is an inflammatory state." The research, presented here at the 53rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, evaluates the association between major depression and viral escape in people on antiretroviral therapy with undetectable plasma viral loads. To assess this association, Dr. Hammonds team conducted a prospective study of the 6-center CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort. The researchers followed 212 patients without CSF viral escape at study ...
It is often said that access to HIV/AIDS medicines is only one part of HIV/AIDS treatment, that other elements such as education of healthcare personnel, infrastructure, healthcare systems are important, too. This is correct but it misses the most important point: Without medicines there is simply no treatment against HIV/AIDS.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lower CSF Aβ is associated with HAND in HIV-infected adults with a family History of Dementia. AU - CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research CHARTER Group. AU - Fazeli, Pariya L.. AU - Moore, David J.. AU - Franklin, Donald R.. AU - Umlauf, Anya. AU - Heaton, Robert K.. AU - Collier, Ann C.. AU - Marra, Christina M.. AU - Clifford, David B.. AU - Gelman, Benjamin. AU - Sacktor, Ned C.. AU - Morgello, Susan. AU - Simpson, David M.. AU - McCutchan, John A.. AU - Grant, Igor. AU - Letendre, Scott L.. AU - Grant, Igor. AU - Letendre, Scott L.. AU - Ellis, Ronald J.. AU - Marcotte, Thomas D.. AU - Franklin, Donald. AU - Ellis, Ronald J.. AU - McCutchan, J. Allen. AU - Letendre, Scott. AU - Smith, Davey M.. AU - Heaton, Robert K.. AU - Hampton Atkinson, J.. AU - Fennema-Notestine, Christine. AU - Taylor, Michael J.. AU - Theilmann, Rebecca. AU - Gamst, Anthony C.. AU - Cushman, Clint. AU - Abramson, Ian. AU - Vaida, Florin. AU - Deutsch, Reena. AU - McArthur, Justin. AU - ...
HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention medical practice guideline documents and related reports and reference materials. Guidelines prepared by expert panels convened by U.S. government and updated continuously. Available for downloading in print and PDA formats for health care providers and consumers.
Objectives Human relationships between nonuse of highly dynamic anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) competition/ethnicity violence medication make use of and other risk elements are investigated using qualitative information of five risk CEP-18770 elements (unsafe sex multiple man companions heavy drinking split cocaine or heroin make use of and contact with assault) and association from the information and competition/ethnicity with nonuse of HAART as time passes. stable as time passes. Being in the best risk condition did not considerably elevate the chances of HAART nonuse (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.6-1.8). Nevertheless being inside a latent condition characterized by raised probabilities of weighty drinking and contact with assault along with minor elevations in three additional risk elements significantly increased probability of HAART nonuse (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Conclusions The study shows that HAART make use of may be improved by interventions targeted at ladies who are weighty drinkers with ...
About half of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy skipped their medications whenever they were drinking alcohol, according to a US study.
The impact of drug side-effects on retention in HIV care is probably being underestimated, according to an interview-based study of people taking antiretroviral treatment and health care workers in six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, published in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.. Although antiretroviral treatment has become easier to tolerate over the past decade as drugs with fewer serious side-effects have become more widely available, many people report some side-effects of treatment.. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tiredness, lack of energy, rash and difficulties in sleeping are common side-effects of many of the drugs now used in antiretroviral drug combinations.. Although these side-effects are usually classified as mild or moderate in clinical studies, health care workers and patients frequently differ in their assessments of the impact of these side-effects on quality of life and on adherence to antiretroviral treatment.. To find out more about the differing ...
The number of HIV-positive people by the end of 2015 was estimated by adding the total estimated number of people living with undiagnosed HIV to the observed number of diagnosed HIV patients living in Amsterdam, based on the first four digits of their most recent home address postal code. The number of undiagnosed people by the end of 2015 was estimated with a back-calculation method based on the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) HIV Modelling Tool, using annual data on new HIV diagnoses stratified by CD4 count at the time of diagnosis or a concurrent AIDS diagnosis. This method reconstructed the number of annual newly acquired HIV infections and the distribution of time between infection and diagnosis, and subsequently determined the proportion still undiagnosed. Retention in care was defined as at least one clinic visit, or a CD4 or RNA measurement in 2015. People were considered to be on antiretroviral treatment whenever they started combination antiretroviral ...
So if you value an opinion, formed as a result of participating in many ME activities, for example being bed bound for years, you have come to the right BLOG. All these activities have allowed me to form an opinion as a Doctor and as a Patient. And that is important as the voice of the latter is discarded by many including NICE ...
Our research into HIV. Recent research includes a study on new patients not on HIV treatment and patients on antiretroviral treatment for at least six months.
President Obama awarded the 2010 National Arts and Humanities Medals. Honorees include producer Quincy Jones and jazz legend Sonny Rollins.
William Powell Whitefriars Iridescent Glass Vase (Item# 18241) FREE Price/Value Guide - William Powell Whitefriars iridescent glass vase, in Art Nouveau style, tapered form with everted trefoil rim and three applied green straws to the lightly moulded iridescent clear ground, 6.5ins. See TODAYs Art Nouveau for SALE, BEST OFFER and Auction; plus Expert Appraisal/Valuation, FREE sales advice and brokerage services, FREE sale prices, values, wish list and more - FIND 150+ Specialist categories | Bath Antiques Online - Buy, Sell & Value!
The use of antiretrovirals (ARVs) in combination for treating patients with HIV has greatly ameliorated morbidity and mortality by reducing viral load to undetectable levels and boosting the bodys immunity. However serious adverse reactions causing long- or short-term effects have been associated with ARV treatment. These reactions have caused major concerns internationally, potentially threatening patient adherence to long-term treatment. The duration of treatment of patients infected with HIV; co-morbid conditions, such as tuberculosis (TB) and malaria; and the complications due to HIV infection or AIDS make it difficult to determine the exact cause of the adverse events (AEs) experienced by patients taking ARV medicines. The prevalence of co-morbid conditions differs across socioeconomic groups and geographical regions, which may contribute to differences in ARV toxicity profiles. Hence, it is recommended that national HIV treatment programs establish population-level ARV toxicity profiles ...
Psychosocial factors such as stress, depression and trauma can have a significant impact on the treatment outcomes of people infected with HIV/AIDS, according to a researcher from
An HIV-positive person can reduce the risk of spreading the virus to uninfected partners by 96% if they are given anti-retroviral drugs immediately, according to US scientists.
New Delhi: The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has instituted 37 more, in addition to the existing 54, to provide free anti-retroviral treatment (ART).
As soon as you test positive for HIV, look for an HIV care and treatment program. These programs can provide you with the resources you need to stay healthy. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) medicines can help your body strengthen its immune system to fight HIV infection, but small amounts of the HIV virus will always remain hidden in the body. Using ART means taking a combination of at least 3 anti-retroviral medicines every day. The medicines available may differ depending on where you live. They might be combined into one pill, or they might come in 3 separate pills. But what is the same everywhere is that once you begin taking ART, the medicines must be taken every day and at the same time. A person taking ART will gain weight, and look and feel healthier. But if he stops taking ART, or misses doses of the medicine, or takes it at the wrong times, then the HIV can become stronger and make him sick again. Women with HIV who are pregnant should also take ART. It will help them be healthier and ...
Learn about Lamar State College Port Arthur art program. Qualifications for vacant positions vary considerably. Learn more about accredited college degree programs, and certificate courses that can lead to a high-paying career.
The increased frequency of drug resistance in isolates of the AIDS vir...Many organisms harbor mobile genetic elements that are non-pathogenic ...The Sandmeyer laboratory which has expertise in genetics and biochemi...,Study,reveals,candidate,targets,for,anti-retroviral,therapeutics,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
IRVINE Calif. Monday April 18 2005 The increased frequency of dru...Many organisms harbor mobile genetic elements that are non-pathogen...The Sandmeyer laboratory which has expertise in genetics and bioch...,Study,reveals,candidate,targets,for,anti-retroviral,therapeutics,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
brain-washing this country, a reactionary plan came together quickly because the seeds of change were already being watered and nourished and were ready to bloom.. And blossom they did! The internet was the fertile ground beneath the virtual commons where everyone who wanted to participate could look, listen and learn.. I discovered I could be in two places at once, morally locating myself with like minds via livestreams, tweets and Facebook groups (like Walking With Our Sisters & The Journey of the Nishiyuu) even if I wasnt able to show support in person.. I felt I had a kind of empowerment that I never had before. I could have a say in what was happening in Canada now and play an active part in envisioning what it can become in the future.. I also felt the grounding that hope gives when you know that there are so many people out there who are willing to be uncomfortable for the sake of protecting the land.. Data collection allows for metrics around keywords and hashtags but what cannot be ...
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in adult mortality have been observed in South Africa since the mid-2000s, but there has been no formal evaluation of how much of this decline is attributable to the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART), as previous models have not been calibrated to vital registration data. We developed a deterministic mathematical model to simulate the mortality trends that would have been expected in the absence of ART, and with earlier introduction of ART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Model estimates of mortality rates in ART patients were obtained from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaboration ...
Thanks to highly effective antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, many HIV-positive people are living healthy and productive lives. This has allowed many of us to pursue long-term goals and ambitions, such as starting and raising a family.
The conference included a strong focus on prevention, including presentations (available online here) on PrEP, microbicides, testing, and risk factors for HIV in highest-risk settings.. "A major focus of the last three meetings of CROI has been sorting out the findings of different randomized clinical trials of PrEP for HIV prevention. In PrEP, an HIV-uninfected person uses an antiretroviral medication ahead of an HIV exposure in order to prevent infection. Multiple trials of PrEP were initiated in the mid-/late 2000s and a steady stream of sometimes-conflicting results has been a challenge for the field.". Read the full report from CROI here. Multiple oral sessions were recorded and are available here.. ...
Om2008.8 was designed to be as empty as possible, for the very purpose of showcasing your ideas. Think of our products as museums. Were building the environment. Each one different from the next. Youll get all the free art supplies you could imagine because we want you to add your own meaning. You choose: consume, create, or both. Either way you create your own meaning. Its about you. Our design is more like non-design. We try to "remove" anything obvious. And focus on whats meaningful. We focus on making products that are open and simple. Only products that are open can grow as you grow. Only something simple can be used by everyone. ...
Babies whose HIV-positive mothers received no anti-retroviral therapy during pregnancy were better protected from intrapartum virus transmission with a two- or three-drug regimen than with zidovudine
Horses Wall Art at AllPosters.com. Choose from over 500000 Wall Art and Wall Decor. Framing & Canvas Transfer Options Available, Fast Delivery, 100% Satisfaction Guarantee.
Whale-Back Cigars Art - at AllPosters.com. Choose from over 500,000 Posters & Art Prints. Value Framing, Fast Delivery, 100% Satisfaction Guarantee.
luisvicenteFlores has conducted research work as part of postgraduate courses. In the University of Edinburgh (1981) he leads a team commissioned to design a plan for a "new town" for a mining development in Carajas, Brazil. In 1983 he takes part in a seminar on the Historical Avant-garde Movement conducted by Eduard Subirats. In 1990 he gets the "young creators grant" of the Mexican Council for the Arts & Culture. During this period he does research on the architecture of museums and scenic spaces. In 2008-2011, he produces a series of concept urban sustainable prototype concept projects sponsored by FONCA (National Arts & Culture Fund ...
Yeah I talked with HTC they said tough crap. Talked to sprint they said buy issuance then. Lol. I was mostly ticked off because when I bought the 10 on the...
Search and use 100s of medicines pill clip arts and images all free! Royalty free, no fees, and download now in the size you need.
Land art is the name given to monumental pieces of art that are created in and part of nature. Usually they are so huge that they could not be placed in a museum or private house. The most famous is the Spiral Jetty, 1970, by Robert Smithson, which is
The Cedar Key Arts Guilds Summer Art Program Coordinators are wondering if there is anyone among you who might be interested in teaching a 2-1/2 hour (9-11:30 a.m.) workshop to children (either elementary or secondary level or both groups at different times) during the weeks of July 16-27. We still have six time slots to fill (three teachers if they will do both groups) and there is a small stipend involved. ...
... - Thus, latent infection of resting CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective anti-retroviral
The University of Windsor has purchased the Tunnel Bar-B-Q site as an alternative location for the arts programs originally planned for the bus depot property.
Should living people be able to donate their own human tissue to art? Now theres a question thats straight forward and clear, but the answers show that society has a big discussion on its hands in answering it.
What the violent suffering in Dostoyevskys The Idiot taught the author Laurie Sheck about finding inspiration in torment and illness by TheAtlantic in Orphan Interests > Epilepsy
An early art deco doily or table centerpiece that seems to have skipped the intervening decades. The web-like center is the perfect place to set a flo
Following Sprints recent rollout of its Sirius-over-Vision option, Cingular has announced that it too will begin offering a streaming music service, to...
The Fujitsu USB SCR 3500A is a folding SmartCard reader dongle about the size of a typical flash drive. It offers SmartCard based security for any computer without a built-in reader. The small size is ideal for rollout of the technology via post to geographically distributed employees.
Background: New WHO guidelines recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers have to decide whether to further expand eligibility for antiretroviral therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage.. Methods: We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), Zambia (generalised epidemic, high antiretroviral therapy coverage), India (concentrated epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), and Vietnam (concentrated epidemic, low antiretroviral therapy coverage)-to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy under ...
We have developed a model to determine whether asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals who have a rapid CD4 cell decline are a subgroup who might benefit from early antiretroviral therapy. Data were obtained from a subgroup of participants in the Concorde and EACG020 trials, two randomized, double-blind, comparative trials of immediate (IMM) versus deferred (DEF) zidovudine therapy in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. The subgroup comprised 297 patients (IMM = 154, DEF = 143) who had at least one CD4 cell count before and after randomization. The median CD4 cell count at randomization was 491 x 10(6)/L, and the median follow-up was 61 months. The rate of CD4 decline before and after randomization was estimated using multi-level linear regression analysis, and patients were stratified into quartiles according to the rate of CD4 cell decline before randomization. Outcome measures were the development of AIDS, a 50% drop in CD4 count from the baseline, and death. A Cox proportional hazards model was
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about immunovirological treatment outcomes and adherence in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) treated using a simplified management approach in rural areas of developing countries, or about the main factors influencing those outcomes in clinical practice. METHODS: Cross-sectional immunovirological, pharmacological, and adherence outcomes were evaluated in all patients alive and on fixed-dose ART combinations for 24 months, and in a random sample of those treated for 12 months. Risk factors for virological failure (,1,000 copies/mL) and subtherapeutic antiretroviral (ARV) concentrations were investigated with multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: At 12 and 24 months of ART, 72% (n=701) and 70% (n=369) of patients, respectively, were alive and in care. About 8% and 38% of patients, respectively, were diagnosed with immunological failure; and 75% and 72% of patients, respectively, had undetectable HIV RNA (,400 copies/mL). Risk factors for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alternative antiretroviral monitoring strategies for HIV-infected patients in east Africa. T2 - Opportunities to save more lives?. AU - Braithwaite, R. Scott. AU - Nucifora, Kimberly A.. AU - Yiannoutsos, Constantin. AU - Musick, Beverly. AU - Kimaiyo, Sylvester. AU - Diero, Lameck. AU - Bacon, Melanie C.. AU - Wools-Kaloustian, Kara. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background: Updated World Health Organization guidelines have amplified debate about how resource constraints should impact monitoring strategies for HIV-infected persons on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We estimated the incremental benefit and cost effectiveness of alternative monitoring strategies for east Africans with known HIV infection. Methods. Using a validated HIV computer simulation based on resource-limited data (USAID and AMPATH) and circumstances (east Africa), we compared alternative monitoring strategies for HIV-infected persons newly started on cART. We evaluated clinical, immunologic and ...
The incidence of AIDS was higher in patients with a current CD4 count of 500-749 cells/µL compared to 750-999 cells/µL, but did not decrease further at higher CD4 levels. Results were similar in those virologically suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy, suggesting immune reconstitution is incomplete until CD4 |750/µL Mocroft, A.; Furrer, H. J.; Miro, J. M.; Reiss, P.; Mussini, C.; Kirk, O.; Abgrall, S.; Ayayi, S.; Bartmeyer, B.; Braun, D.; Castagna, A.; dArminio Monforte, A.; Gazzard, B.; Gutierrez, F.; Hurtado, I.; Jansen, K.; Meyer, L.; Muñoz, P.; Obel, N.; Soler-Palacin, P.; Papadopoulos, A.; Raffi, F.; Ramos, J. T.; Rockstroh, J. K.; Salmon, D.; Torti, C.; Warszawski, J.; de Wit, S.; Zangerle, R.; Fabre-Colin, C.; Kjaer, J.; Chene, G.; Grarup, J.; Lundgren, J. D.; Mocroft, Amanda; Furrer, Hansjakob; Miro, Jose M.; Reiss, Peter; Mussini, Cristina; Kirk, Ole; Abgrall, Sophie; Ayayi, Sylvie; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Braun, Dominique; Castagna, Antonella; dArminio Monforte, Antonella;
The advent in 1996 of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), sometimes called HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) or cART (effective combination antiretroviral therapy), changed the course of the HIV epidemic. These "cocktails" of three or more antiretroviral drugs used in combination gave patients and scientists new hope for fighting the epidemic and have significantly improved life expectancy-to decades rather than months. For many years, scientists believed that treating HIV-infected persons also significantly reduced their risk of transmitting the infection to sexual and drug-using partners who did not have the virus. The circumstantial evidence was substantial, but no one had conducted a randomized clinical trial--the gold standard for proving an intervention works. That changed in 2011 with the publication of findings from_the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 study, a randomized clinical trial designed in part to evaluate whether the early initiation of ART can ...
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral reproduction and stop progression of the disease process. Antiretroviral drug adverse reactions negatively influence antiretroviral treatment outcome. Incidence, type and time antiretroviral drug adverse reactions occur is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate time to major antiretroviral drugs adverse reactions and its predictors among patients receiving ART in Hosanna, Ethiopia.
To determine the association between individual substances of abuse and antiretroviral adherence, analyses require a large sample assessed using electronic data monitoring (EDM). In this analysis, EDM data from 1,636 participants in 12 US adherence-focused studies were analyzed to determine the associations between recent use of various substances and adherence during the preceding 4 weeks. In bivariate analyses comparing adherence among patients who had used a specific substance to those who had not, adherence was significantly lower among those who had recently used cocaine, other stimulants or heroin but not among those who had used cannabis or alcohol. In multivariate analyses controlling for sociodemographics, amount of alcohol use and recent use of any alcohol, cocaine, other stimulants and heroin each was significantly negatively associated with adherence. The significant associations of cocaine, other stimulants, heroin, and alcohol use with adherence suggest that these are important ...
BACKGROUND: HIV infection continues to be endemic worldwide. Although treatments are successful, it remains controversial whether patients receiving optimal therapy have structural, functional, or biochemical cardiac abnormalities that may underlie their increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to characterize myocardial abnormalities in a contemporary group of HIV-infected individuals undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Volunteers with HIV who were undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy and age-matched control subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy for the determination of cardiac function, myocardial fibrosis, and myocardial lipid content. A total of 129 participants were included in this analysis. Compared with age-matched control subjects (n=39; 30.23%), HIV-infected subjects undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy (n=90; 69.77%) had 47% higher
BACKGROUND: HIV infection continues to be endemic worldwide. Although treatments are successful, it remains controversial whether patients receiving optimal therapy have structural, functional, or biochemical cardiac abnormalities that may underlie their increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to characterize myocardial abnormalities in a contemporary group of HIV-infected individuals undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Volunteers with HIV who were undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy and age-matched control subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy for the determination of cardiac function, myocardial fibrosis, and myocardial lipid content. A total of 129 participants were included in this analysis. Compared with age-matched control subjects (n=39; 30.23%), HIV-infected subjects undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy (n=90; 69.77%) had 47% higher
INTRODUCTION:Despite the tremendous improvements in survival, some groups of people living with HIV (PLHIV) continue to have lower survival rates than the overall HIV-positive population. Here, we characterize the evolving pattern of mortality among PLHIV in British Columbia since the beginning of the expansion of antiretroviral treatment in 2003.
Delory T., Ngo-Giang-Huong Nicole, Rangdaeng S., Chotivanich N., Limtrakul A., Putiyanun C., Suriyachai P., Matanasarawut W., Jarupanich T., Liampongsabuddhi P., Heard I., Jourdain Gonzague, Lallemant Marc, Le Coeur S., PapilloV study group (collab.). (2017). Human Papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in HIV-1-infected women on antiretroviral treatment in Thailand. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 20 (Suppl. 5), 92-93. IAS Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2017) , 9., Paris (FRA), 2017/07/23-26. ISSN 1758-2652. ...
There is a lack of structural interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, which represents missed opportunities to reduce HIV health disparities. Economic disadvantage can contribute to poor medication adherence and clinical outcomes through mediators such as limited social resources, repeated cycles of housing instability, high levels of stress caused by financial insecurity, and lack of resources to cope with these demands. Treatment as Prevention is an important method of improving clinical outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and reducing secondary transmissions; however, for this approach to be optimized, rates of ART adherence must be improved and sustained. Client-Centered Representative Payee is a structural intervention that provides financial management support to PLWHA by modifying the implementation of a long-standing policy within the Social Security Administration, in which an organization is authorized to serve as the clients payee.. The central ...
Title: Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Giuseppe Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63,00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, metabolic syndome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk of HIVinfected patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines. ...
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndromes (IRIS) are exaggerated pathological inflammatory reactions occurring after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to exuberant immune responses to occult or apparent opportunistic infections or cancers. In view of paucity of studies from Nigeria, we report 3 cases of IRIS presenting as disseminated infections in HIV-1 infected patients initiating HAART. The first case was a previously healthy female who developed disseminated tuberculosis after 4 weeks of regular HAART. Her HAART regimen was continued and she improved after commencement of anti-tuberculosis drugs, with evidence of progressive increase in CD4 cell count. The second case was a HAART-experienced female who stopped her drugs for 4months. Two months after recommencement of her previous HAART regimen, she developed features of disseminated herpes zoster infection, despite evidence of decrease in viral load by 95%. HAART was continued and she recovered completely after
Title: Reviewing the Cardiovascular Complications of HIV Infection After the Introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):G. Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63, 00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Studies published before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have tracked the incidence and course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in relation to cardiac disease.The introduction of HAART regimens, by preventing opportunistic infections and reducing the incidence of myocarditis, has reduced the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy of about 30% and the prevalence of cardiac involvement of AIDSassociated malignancies of about 50%. However, HAART regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome ...
Objective: To determine whether opportunistic oral infections associated to HIV infection (OOI-HIV) are found in HIV+/AIDS patients with immune reconstitution related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods. From among 1100 HIV+/AIDS patients (Service of Internal Medicine, Carlos Haya Hospital, Malaga, Spain) subjected to review of the oral cavity between January 1996 and May 2007, we identified those examined in 1996 and which were again examined between 1997 and 2007, and were moreover receiving HAART. The following data were collected: age, gender, form of contagion, antiretroviral therapy at the time of review, number of CD4+ lymphocytes/ml, and viral load (from 1997 onwards). We identified those subjects with an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes/ml associated to HAART, and classified them as subjects with quantitative evidence of immune reconstitution (QEIR). Among these individuals with QEIR we moreover identified those with undetectable viral loads (QEIR+VL), and ...

Browsing Publications by Subject Anti-Retroviral AgentsBrowsing Publications by Subject "Anti-Retroviral Agents"

... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. ... Rapid advice : antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents - November 2009  ...
more infohttps://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/107132/browse?authority=Anti-Retroviral+Agents&type=mesh

Browsing Publications by Subject Anti-Retroviral AgentsBrowsing Publications by Subject "Anti-Retroviral Agents"

... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. ... Rapid advice : antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents - November 2009  ...
more infohttps://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/107132/browse?locale-attribute=en&type=mesh&authority=Anti-Retroviral+Agents

Guidelines for Using Antiretroviral Agents Among
HIV-Infected Adults and AdolescentsGuidelines for Using Antiretroviral Agents Among HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents

Early initiation of combination anti-retroviral therapy: does it affect long-term outcome [Abstract LbPeB7051]? Presented at ... The availability of an increasing number of antiretroviral agents and the rapid evolution of new information has introduced ... Guidelines for Using Antiretroviral Agents Among HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Recommendations of the Panel on Clinical ... Considerations for Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Antiretroviral treatment recommendations for HIV- ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5107a1.htm

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents
in Pediatric HIV InfectionGuidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

... anti-retroviral therapy was indicated for any child with a definitive diagnosis of HIV infection who had evidence of ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection Members of the Working Group on Antiretroviral ... all antiretroviral agents should be stopped simultaneously rather than continuing one or two agents alone because of potential ... available alternative antiretroviral agents. Although the efficacy of different combination antiretroviral regimens in children ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmWr/preview/mmwrhtml/00053104.htm

Kaletra in Combination With Antiretroviral Agents - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govKaletra in Combination With Antiretroviral Agents - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-Retroviral Agents. HIV Protease Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Anti-HIV Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors ... Kaletra in Combination With Antiretroviral Agents (PROTEKT). This study has been completed. ... which may result in a change from the daily clinical routine and lead to the use of a newly approved antiretroviral agent in ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01076179?order=667

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV InfectionGuidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

... the Working Group concluded that anti-retroviral therapy was indicated for any child with a definitive diagnosis of HIV ... all antiretroviral agents should be stopped simultaneously rather than continuing one or two agents alone because of potential ... aggressive antiretroviral therapy with three or four antiretroviral agents. The theoretical problems with early therapy include ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection MMWR 47(RR-4);1-31 Publication date: 04/17/1998. ...
more infohttps://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/m0053104/m0053104.asp

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-Infected Adults and AdolescentsGuidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents

Possible regimens for patients who have failed antiretroviral therapy: a work in progress* Table 15 TABLE 15. Acute retroviral ... Indications for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in .... Recommended antiretroviral agents for treatment of established ... what regimen of antiretroviral agents to use, when to change the antiretroviral regimen, treatment of the acutely HIV-infected ... Use of antiretroviral agents as monotherapy is contraindicated (DI), except when no other options exist or during pregnancy to ...
more infohttps://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/m0054080/m0054080.asp

The Effects of Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Antiretroviral Agents | OMICS InternationalThe Effects of Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Antiretroviral Agents | OMICS International

The compliant use of combination antiretroviral therapy has virtually eliminated perinatal HIV transmission. Although ... Poirier MC, Olivero OA, Walker DM, Walker VE (2004) Perinatal genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of anti-retroviral nucleoside ... Antiretroviral agents and cardiac end points. The long-term cardiac effects of in utero exposure to HAART have not been well ... a single-agent regimen is widely used because access to multi-agent ART is limited. For example, single-agent nevirapine is a ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/the-effects-of-fetal-and-childhood-exposure-to-antiretroviral-agents-2155-6113.S2-001.php?aid=2188&view=mobile

ASMscience | Antiretroviral AgentsASMscience | Antiretroviral Agents

This chapter describes the major characteristics of antiretroviral agents that are currently approved, or at a promising stage ... In vitro, maraviroc demonstrates no antagonism with existing antiretroviral agents and additive or synergistic activity in ... Stavudine enjoys relatively few drug-drug interactions compared to other antiretroviral agents. The major mechanism of ... It demonstrates additive or synergistic activity in combination with other approved antiretroviral agents. Additive or ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555815981.ch11

JCDR -
        Activated partial thromboplastin time, Anti-retroviral agents, Blood coagulation, Prothrombin timeJCDR - Activated partial thromboplastin time, Anti-retroviral agents, Blood coagulation, Prothrombin time

Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
more infohttp://www.jcdr.net/article_fulltext.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2016&volume=10&issue=5&page=EC04&issn=0973-709x&id=7718

Browsing Information products by Subject Anti-Retroviral AgentsBrowsing Information products by Subject "Anti-Retroviral Agents"

... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S ... Feasibility assessment of using antiretroviral therapy to prevent vertical transmission of HIV from mother to child in Cambodia ...
more infohttps://iris.wpro.who.int/handle/10665.1/1280/browse?authority=Anti-Retroviral+Agents&type=mesh

Browsing Information products by Subject Anti-Retroviral AgentsBrowsing Information products by Subject "Anti-Retroviral Agents"

... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S ... Feasibility assessment of using antiretroviral therapy to prevent vertical transmission of HIV from mother to child in Cambodia ...
more infohttps://iris.wpro.who.int/handle/10665.1/1280/browse?authority=Anti-Retroviral+Agents&type=mesh&locale-attribute=fr

Anti-Retroviral Agents | Autophagy, Inflammation and Metabolism Center of Biomedical Research ExcellenceAnti-Retroviral Agents | Autophagy, Inflammation and Metabolism Center of Biomedical Research Excellence

The AIM Center is funded by NIH grant P20GM121176, and it endows the state of New Mexico and the surrounding region with a state-of-the-art biomedical center and an intellectual and technological hub for cutting-edge research. On a larger scale, the AIM Center promises to be a nationally important center for the advancement of research on autophagy. ...
more infohttps://www.autophagy.center/taxonomy/term/56

The relationship between daily organization and adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a qualitative perspective.  - PubMed - NCBIThe relationship between daily organization and adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a qualitative perspective. - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-Retroviral Agents. Grant support. *F32MH086323/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States ... The relationship between daily organization and adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a qualitative perspective.. Saberi P, ... The Relationship between Daily Organization and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Qualitative Perspective ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22918127

Statistical considerations for the HPTN 052 Study to evaluate the effectiveness of early versus delayed antiretroviral...Statistical considerations for the HPTN 052 Study to evaluate the effectiveness of early versus delayed antiretroviral...

Anti-Retroviral Agents. Grant support. *U01-AI068617/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ... Statistical considerations for the HPTN 052 Study to evaluate the effectiveness of early versus delayed antiretroviral ... randomized clinical trial designed to determine whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART) can prevent the sexual transmission ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22813645?dopt=Abstract

APExBIO -  Maraviroc|Selective CCR5 antagonist,antiretroviral agent|CAS# 376348-65-1APExBIO - Maraviroc|Selective CCR5 antagonist,antiretroviral agent|CAS# 376348-65-1

... and other similar diseases characterized by integration of a retroviral genome into a host chromosome. ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2005, 49(11): 4721-4732.. [2]. Symons J, van Lelyveld SF, Hoepelman AI, et al. Maraviroc is able ... HIV-1 integrase inhibitor is useful for anti-HIV, with IC50 value of 0.33 µM, which can target HIV-1 integrase and depress the ... Maraviroc is a potent and selective inhibitor of CCR5 with potent anti-HIV-1 activity. Maraviroc exhibited antiviral activity ...
more infohttp://www.apexbt.com/maraviroc.html

Raltegravir And Darunavir Antiretroviral in Antiretroviral Naive Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govRaltegravir And Darunavir Antiretroviral in Antiretroviral Naive Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... Raltegravir And Darunavir Antiretroviral in Antiretroviral Naive Patients (RADAR). The safety and scientific validity of this ... Antiretroviral naive, defined as 7 days or less of ARV treatment at any time prior to study entry. HIV viral load greater than ... Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of Raltegravir/Darunavir Combination in Antiretroviral-Naive Patients. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00677300?order=177

Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govStrategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... Drug: All licensed antiretroviral medications In both arms, participants may be prescribed any licensed antiretroviral ... Drug: All licensed antiretroviral medications In both arms, participants may be prescribed any licensed antiretroviral ... Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00867048?term=START+trial&cond=HIV&fund=0&rank=1

HERV-K Suppression Using Antiretroviral Therapy in Volunteers With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) - Full Text View -...HERV-K Suppression Using Antiretroviral Therapy in Volunteers With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) - Full Text View -...

Anti-Retroviral Agents. HIV Protease Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Anti-HIV Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors ... and after treatment with an antiretroviral regimen. We will evaluate the safety of the antiretroviral regimen for participants ... HERV-K Suppression Using Antiretroviral Therapy in Volunteers With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The safety and ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02437110?cond=ALS+%28Amyotrophic+Lateral+Sclerosis%29&rank=33

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents - PDFGuidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents - PDF

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents Visit the AIDSinfo website to access ... Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy (CART) - Rationale and Recommendation. M Dinaker. Fig.1: Effect of CART on CD4 and viral ... Antiretroviral Drugs in the Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection Noga Shalev, MD Uses of Antiretroviral Agents Treatment ... Antiretroviral Therapy Scott M. Hammer Antiretroviral Therapy I. Introduction The field of antiretroviral therapy has been ...
more infohttp://docplayer.net/17970783-Guidelines-for-the-use-of-antiretroviral-agents-in-hiv-1-infected-adults-and-adolescents.html

Combination antiretroviral therapy and th... & related info | MendeleyCombination antiretroviral therapy and th... & related info | Mendeley

BACKGROUND: It remains controversial whether exposure to combination antiretroviral treatment increases the risk of myocardial ... Anti-Retroviral Agents/*adverse effects/therapeuti. *CD4 Lymphocyte Count. *Combination. *Drug Therapy ... Combination antiretroviral therapy was defined as any combination regimen of antiretroviral drugs that included a protease ... Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. *Friis-Moller N ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-risk-myocardial-infarction-43/

Antiretroviral Drug Resistance: Mechanisms, Pathogenesis, Clinical Significance | Springer for Research & DevelopmentAntiretroviral Drug Resistance: Mechanisms, Pathogenesis, Clinical Significance | Springer for Research & Development

Resistance of clinical isolates of HIV to antiretroviral agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993; 37: 1207-13.PubMedCrossRef ... application to acute retroviral infection. J Clin Microbiol 1994; 32: 292-300.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... 34th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1994; Orlando, FL:October 4-7 (Abstract)Google Scholar ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Resistance Mutation Antimicrob Agent Drug Resistance Mutation ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9209-6_35
  • These guidelines were developed by the Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children convened by the National Pediatric and Family HIV Resource Center (NPHRC), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (cdc.gov)
  • In recognition of these differences, a separate set of guidelines will address pediatric-specific issues related to antiretroviral therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • Once the decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy has been made, treatment should be aggressive with the goal of maximal viral suppression. (cdc.gov)