Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. ("Intracisternal" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
A species of SPUMAVIRUS causing non-pathogenic infections in chimpanzees and humans.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Forms of combined immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene for INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT. Both severe and non-severe subtypes of the disease have been identified.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).
An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE infecting fish. Species include Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1, and Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 2.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A group of viruses in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS comprising a few isolates from birds, with no known corresponding endogenous relatives.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.

Clinical and immunological effects of a 6 week immunotherapy cycle with murabutide in HIV-1 patients with unsuccessful long-term antiretroviral treatment. (1/1722)

In an effort to evaluate the potential of non-specific immunotherapy in restoring global immunity, we have examined the clinical tolerance and biological effects of a 6 week administration of the immunomodulator, murabutide, in chronically infected HIV-1 patients. Forty-two subjects, presenting weak immune reconstitution and ineffective virus suppression following long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were randomized to receive, or not, murabutide 7 mg/day on five consecutive days/week. Clinical and immunological parameters were monitored before and after the immunotherapy period. Administration of murabutide was generally well tolerated, although some grade III adverse events, reversible on treatment cessation, were observed. Interestingly, in comparison with pre-inclusion levels, at 1 week after the immunotherapy cycle, only murabutide recipients presented a significant increase in CD4 cells, platelet counts, and in the percentage of patients with undetectable viral loads (<50 copies/mL). Statistical significance between the two groups was only evident with the latter parameter. Some of these clinical changes were maintained even up to 12 weeks after murabutide administration, and were accompanied by an increased ability to mount cellular responses to active immunization with a recall antigen, and by a significant increase in the percentage of patients presenting positive lymphoproliferative responses to the viral antigen gp160. These results warrant further evaluation of extended periods or cycles of murabutide immunotherapy as adjunct to HAART.  (+info)

Self-reported health-related quality of life in persons with HIV infection: results from a multi-site interview project. (2/1722)

BACKGROUND: To examine demographic and behavioral associations with self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among persons with HIV infection or AIDS. METHODS: Analysis of interviews with persons > or = 18 years of age reported through routine disease surveillance with HIV infection or AIDS to nine state and local health departments from January 1995 through December 1996. Scales were constructed from validated measures of HRQOL, and mean scores were calculated (lower scores signified poorer HRQOL). Measures of HRQOL included Overall Health, Pain, Physical Functioning, Role Functioning, Social Functioning, Mental Health, Energy/Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning. Differences in HRQOL were examined by various demographic and behavioral factors, including taking antiretroviral medication. RESULTS: HRQOL data were available for 3778 persons. Factors associated with lower HRQOL scores included older age, female sex, black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, injection drug use, lower education and income, no private health insurance, and lower CD4 count. In multivariate analysis, lower CD4 count was the factor most consistently associated with lower HRQOL. Taking antiretroviral medication was not associated with differences in HRQOL regardless of CD4 count. CONCLUSIONS: Perception of HRQOL varied in a population with HIV infection or AIDS. On most HRQOL measures, lower CD4 count was associated with lower HRQOL. Measurement of HRQOL can assist in understanding the long-term effects of disease and treatment on persons with HIV.  (+info)

HIVAN and medication use in chronic dialysis patients in the United States: analysis of the USRDS DMMS Wave 2 study. (3/1722)

BACKGROUND: The use and possible effects of factors known to improve outcomes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy (HIVAN), namely of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) and antiretroviral therapy, has not been reported for a national sample of dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a historical cohort study of the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study (DMMS) Wave 2 to identify risk factors associated with increased mortality in these patients. Data were available for 3374 patients who started dialysis and were followed until March 2000. Cox Regression analysis was used to model adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) with HIVAN as a cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and its impact on mortality during the study period, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 3374 patients who started dialysis, 36 (1.1%) had ESRD as a result of HIVAN. Only 22 (61%) of patients with HIVAN received antiretroviral agents, and only nine patients (25%) received combination antiretroviral therapy, and only 14% received ACE inhibitors. Neither the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs (AHR, 0.62, 95% CI, 0.10, 3.86, p = 0.60), or ACE inhibitors were associated with a survival advantage. Patients with HIVAN had an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.74, 95% Confidence Interval, 3.12, 7.32, p < 0.01) compared to patients with other causes of ESRD. CONCLUSIONS: Medications known to improve outcomes in HIV infected patients were underutilized in patients with HIVAN. Adjusted for other factors, a primary diagnosis of HIVAN was associated with increased mortality compared with other causes of ESRD.  (+info)

Polymyositis masquerading as mitochondrial toxicity. (4/1722)

A 66 year old HIV infected male heavy smoker presented with arthralgia, myalgia, and weight loss which was originally ascribed to nucleoside induced mitochondrial toxicity. Despite withdrawal of antiretroviral therapy a proximal myopathy developed. Further investigation excluded malignancy. Polymyositis was diagnosed on muscle biopsy. The patient recovered completely with oral prednisolone. This case highlights the importance of muscle biopsy in HIV infected patients whose myopathy persists despite withdrawal of antiretroviral therapy and the need for thorough investigation of non-specific symptoms in HIV infected patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

Decline in mortality, AIDS, and hospital admissions in perinatally HIV-1 infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland. (5/1722)

OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in demographic factors, disease progression, hospital admissions, and use of antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV. DESIGN: Active surveillance through the national study of HIV in pregnancy and childhood (NSHPC) and additional data from a subset of children in the collaborative HIV paediatric study (CHIPS). SETTING: United Kingdom and Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 944 children with perinatally acquired HIV-1 under clinical care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes over time in progression to AIDS and death, hospital admission rates, and use of antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: 944 children with perinatally acquired HIV were reported in the United Kingdom and Ireland by October 2002; 628 (67%) were black African, 205 (22%) were aged > or = 10 years at last follow up, 193 (20%) are known to have died. The proportion of children presenting who were born abroad increased from 20% in 1994-5 to 60% during 2000-2. Mortality was stable before 1997 at 9.3 per 100 child years at risk but fell to 2.0 in 2001-2 (trend P < 0.001). Progression to AIDS also declined (P < 0.001). From 1997 onwards the proportion of children on three or four drug antiretroviral therapy increased. Hospital admission rates declined by 80%, but with more children in follow up the absolute number of admissions fell by only 26%. CONCLUSION: In children with HIV infection, mortality, AIDS, and hospital admission rates have declined substantially since the introduction of three or four drug antiretroviral therapy in 1997. As infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland are living longer, there is an increasing need to address their medical, social, and psychological needs as they enter adolescence and adult life.  (+info)

Abnormal contingent negative variation in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. (6/1722)

The contingent negative variation, an event-related potential related to neural activity in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia, neuropsychological tests and structural MRI were used to examine CNS function and structure in HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Relative to controls, HIV patients had smaller thalamic volume and reduced late contingent negative variation amplitude that correlated with caudal atrophy. Behaviorally, viremic patients were more impaired than virally suppressed patients and controls on neuropsychological measures of psychomotor speed, selective attention and mental flexibility. These results suggest that antiretroviral therapy may not be effective in protecting cortical and subcortical structures against HIV-related neuropathology, regardless of immune function. However, the benefits of antiretroviral therapy on immune function appear to facilitate neurocognitive performance.  (+info)

The cardiovascular consequences of HIV and antiretroviral therapy. (7/1722)

Antiretroviral therapy has changed the face of the treatment of HIV throughout the world, converting a fatal into a chronic disease. HIV has reached disastrous levels of infection in southern Africa, and increased use of life-saving therapy is being implemented. The antiretrovirals have a variety of metabolic side effects that have been implicated in cardiovascular disease in other populations. This article discusses the impact of HIV on southern Africa, the metabolic and cardiac complications of both HIV and antiretrovirals, and strategies for dealing with drug side effects.  (+info)

Use of a small molecule CCR5 inhibitor in macaques to treat simian immunodeficiency virus infection or prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection. (8/1722)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fuses with cells after sequential interactions between its envelope glycoproteins, CD4 and a coreceptor, usually CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4). CMPD 167 is a CCR5-specific small molecule with potent antiviral activity in vitro. We show that CMPD 167 caused a rapid and substantial (4-200-fold) decrease in plasma viremia in six rhesus macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains SIVmac251 or SIVB670, but not in an animal infected with the X4 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), SHIV-89.6P. In three of the SIV-infected animals, viremia reduction was sustained. In one, there was a rapid, but partial, rebound and in another, there was a rapid and complete rebound. There was a substantial delay (>21 d) between the end of therapy and the onset of full viremia rebound in two animals. We also evaluated whether vaginal administration of gel-formulated CMPD 167 could prevent vaginal transmission of the R5 virus, SHIV-162P4. Complete protection occurred in only 2 of 11 animals, but early viral replication was significantly less in the 11 CMPD 167-recipients than in 9 controls receiving carrier gel. These findings support the development of small molecule CCR5 inhibitors as antiviral therapies, and possibly as components of a topical microbicide to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission.  (+info)

This is an observational cohort in pediatric HIV patients in China. Children who receive antiretroviral drugs will be recruited in this study. The main objectives are as follows: 1. To establish simpler and smarter pediatric antiretroviral therapy in China including both first-line and second-line regimens. 2. To study the nature, characteristics and mechanisms of immunoreconstitution in HIV-infected children using the data and samples from the pediatric antiretroviral therapy cohort. 3. To establish a basic science and clinical research network based on the pediatric antiretroviral cohort ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The National Arts Program® Foundation\101 Church Street\Unit 20\Malvern, PA 19355. [email protected]\Phone: (610) 408-9600\Fax: (610) 379-2799. ...
Hoima, Uganda | URN | More than 600 people enrolled on the life prolonging Anti-Retroviral Treatment-ART at Buseruka health center III in Hoima district
It is going to take more than just the 16 staff members at Free Arts to keep children connected and creating. In a time when many of us are wondering how can we help? we invite you to support these children in the following ways. Support via the Foster Care Tax Credit - This is the easiest, no-cost ...
Guides to Pick the Ideal Strong Chinese Works of Arts Service Provider You should realize that there are various Chinese works of arts service providers out there. It is out of this that you will track down that the picking task of the best is definitely not a fundamental task. Having each of the Chinese works of arts service provider that you run over promising you mind blowing services is an extra inspiration driving why the picking task ids daunting. For the justification picking trustworthy Chinese works of arts service provider, complete assessment will help you with showing up to it. To get the ideal Chinese works of arts service provider, a part of the essential factors that you need to center n to are as discussed below. So that you can discover more about Weisbrod Chinese Art, Weisbrod Chinese Art Ltd, and Michael B. Weisbrod click for more in this homepage.. So that you can land to the best Chinese works of arts service provider, consider mentioning the years that they have been in the ...
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ar EVALUATION TECHNOLOGIES INCORPORATED AN EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE DESIGN COMPETITION SUBCATEGORY OF THE DESIGN ARTS PROGRAM Submitted to: Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts Submitted by: Evaluation Technologies Incorporated 2020 North 14th Street, Sixth Floor Arlington, Virginia 22201 (703) 525-5818 Revised January 7, 1986 October 25, 1985 Mr. Peter Smith Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W. Washington, D.C. 20506 Reference: Contract Number NEA DC 85-5 Dear Mr. Smith: Enclosed please find the final report of the evaluation conducted for the Design Competition Subcategory. This evaluation was implemented along the basic framework of the evaluation design, which included two principle objectives. These were: (1) Determine the extent to which the design competitions funded by the Endowment have a high likelihood of being carried out; and (2) Determine the extent to which the design competitions funded by the Endowment enable the ...
Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa ...
Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa ...
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Find A PhD. Search Funded Arts Programmes in Pharmaceutical Chemistry in Guildford. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
Find A PhD. Search Funded Arts Programmes in Pathology in Bath. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
Were just two days away from the official deadline to apply for Engadgets unreal arts program for unreal times. But what is time, really? In the spirit of br...
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ROLLOUT is a Stretched Canvas from our trendy graphic pop culture collection of custom fandom inspired products. Artist is Betmac and design is: Transformers,movie,tv show,scifi,action,superhero,robots,decepticons,autobots,bumblebee
No ab wheel? No problem. Just use a stability ball. Also works great as a regressive exercise if the standard ab rollout is too tough for you.
For the first ten of our expansive 34 year history at Ampronix, we were an electronic equipment repair company. Today, we have expanded to become a service, manufacturing, and distributing trifecta with the mission of providing superior, customized care s
The CDC put out a central playbook for how to distribute the shots. But how states will address these guidelines is anything but uniform.
Product images used are for illustrative purposes. Since we are constantly developing new updates, and since we still support older editions of our products, the images shown onsite may not be an exact mirror of the latest version currently in release. ...
Nice.. How many of the pages are new this time around? I feel like Im seeing new things, but maybe Ive just had the early art blasted out of my mind by the stunning conclusion.. ...
Background. Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation, intestinal damage, and inflammation in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PLHIV with suppressed plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy and age and demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals participating in the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort and, where appropriate, age-matched blood bank donors (BBD). Results. People living with HIV, HIV-negative individuals, and BBD had comparable percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes. Expression of CD163, CD32, CD64, HLA-DR, CD38, CD40, CD86, CD91, CD11c, and CX3CR1 on monocytes did not differ between PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals, but it differed significantly from ...
PubMed journal article: HIV-1 viral replication below 50 copies/ml in patients on antiretroviral therapy is not associated with CD8+ T-cell activation. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports ...
To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports ...
Free Arts for Abused Children of Arizona creates safe spaces for children to transform their trauma to resilience, and one of our premier events that accomplishes this goal is Creativity […]
One of the most serious challenges facing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs for HIV/AIDS in resource-constrained settings is the failure of ART-eligible patients to complete the steps required to initiate treatment. The high rate of loss to care of patients who are treatment-eligible at HIV diagnosis may be due in part to the large number of steps required between receiving an HIV diagnosis and obtaining the first dose of antiretrovirals (ARVs). In South Africa, these steps usually require approximately four clinic visits over a period of 2-8 weeks before a patient can start treatment. One strategy proposed for reducing losses among those eligible for ART is to simplify and condense the steps required for starting treatment. This is now possible because new, point-of-care (POC) tests for CD4 counts and tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis are available. These technologies can be combined with changes to clinic schedules to allow all steps required for ART initiation under South African guidelines ...
Data on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in remote rural African regions is increasing. We assessed prospectively initial cART in HIV-infected adults treated from 2005 to 2008 at St. Francis Designated District Hospital, Ifakara, Tanzania. Adherence was assisted by personal adherence supporters. We estimated risk factors of death or loss to follow-up by Cox regression during the first 12 months of cART. Overall, 1,463 individuals initiated cART, which was nevirapine-based in 84.6%. The median age was 40 years (IQR 34-47), 35.4% were males, 7.6% had proven tuberculosis. Median CD4 cell count was 131 cells/μl and 24.8% had WHO stage 4. Median CD4 cell count increased by 61 and 130 cells/μl after 6 and 12 months, respectively. 215 (14.7%) patients modified their treatment, mostly due to toxicity (56%), in particular polyneuropathy and anemia. Overall, 129 patients died (8.8%) and 189 (12.9%) were lost to follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, low CD4 cells at starting cART were associated with
Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily dependent on global health initiatives (GHIs) for funding antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are indications that global investments for ART scale-up are flattening. It is unclear what new funding channels can bridge the funding gap for ART service delivery. Many previous studies have focused on domestic government spending and international funding especially from GHIs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The immunological response after the initiation of the second line anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients. AU - Pillai, Keerthi. AU - Ramapuram, John T.. AU - Achappa, Basavaprabhu. AU - Madi, Deepak. AU - Chowta, Mukta N.. AU - Satish Rao, B.. AU - Mahalingam, Soundarya. AU - Unnikrishnan, B.. PY - 2012/9/30. Y1 - 2012/9/30. N2 - Introduction: The treatment with the second line ART is initiated when the first line therapy fails. There is less experience with the immunologic response for the second-line ART for adults. Hence, this study was done to find out the immunological response after the initiation of the second line ART by doing an analysis of the CD4 counts. Methods: This retrospective study is conducted in a tertiary level hospital which was attached to a medical college that caters to a large number of HIV positive patients. The study population for this analysis included all the HIV positive individuals who were undergoing the second line ART treatment. The data ...
Earlier this year, we learned that the START study had found overwhelming evidence that beginning HIV antiretroviral therapy at any CD4 count was better ...
With the outbreak of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, it was observed both in developed countries and in developing countries an increase in the number of known cases of Tuberculosis, mainly in HIV infected individuals. As an aggravation in the co-infection cases there is the anti-retroviral resistance, and one of the main reasons is the HIV great genetic variability. The HIV genotyping became an essential tool to guide and maximize the benefits of the anti-retroviral treatment of positive HIV patients. In this study, it was intended to evaluate in a period of 6 months the immunology and viral profiles associated with the frequency of mutations in the HIV-1 pol gene in HIV-Tuberculosis co-infected patients. The study involved 33 individuals of both the sexes and ages between 12 and 63 years. Four groups were studied: Group A (n=19) HIV only under treatment with anti-retroviral drugs; and co-infected: Group B (n=7) under treatment with anti-retroviral drugs; Group C (n=4) ...
In keeping with its mandate to support and develop South Africas arts, culture and heritage sector, The National Arts Council (NAC) has awarded 117 bursaries to arts students and tertiary institutions for 2016 through a fund allocation of over R5 million, a 10% increase from the last financial year. The bursaries will support both undergraduate studies at institutions as well as post graduate individuals across disciplines, signaling the NACs holistic approach to funding as a means of development. ...
Caroline Caluwaerts, Rosa Maendaenda, Fernando Maldonado, Marc Biot, Nathan Ford, Kathryn Chu International Health 2009;1(1):97-101. (doi: 10.1016/j.inhe.2009.03.002) Read more
P3.330 Prevalence and Immunological Correlates of Opportunistic Infections Among HIV Patients Attending at ART Clinic of University of Gondar Hospital ...
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Background: Evidence shows that earlier access to Anti-retroviral Therapy helps to increase survival of children by delaying the progression to AIDS. However its long-ter..
The more art you see, the better your eye gets and the surer you become about what you like and why. There are lots of excellent opportunities in galleries throughout the west-central Florida region
In a justly scathing critique, Gregg Gonsalves wrote that at the Interim WHO ARV Treatment Working Group in November 2001, it was clear that WHO was ...
Abstract At this juncture of world economy; all the leading companies across industry groups financial, health care, consumer/industry goods, service, technology and utilities are opting for a template
Researchers say that expanding anti-retroviral treatment to all HIV-positive people in couples with one partner who isnt infected is cost-effective even in developing countries with limited budgets.
Learn more about Bachelor of Fine Art Program including the program highlights, fees, scholarships, events and further course information
Clients of a unique art program, put on the chopping block last month by Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH), are now breathing a sigh of relief.
The major concern behind the research is to develop models that can predict response to anti-retroviral treatment in order to maximise treatment for children affected with HIV.. The PENTA EPIICAL consortium intends to use the result of this research in the design of new clinical studies of current and new therapies with the purpose to replicate the virologic and immunologic profile predicted by the model.. ViiV Healthcare chief scientific and medical officer Dr John C Pottage said: Our collaboration with PENTA has set ambitious goals, but the need to optimise treatment strategies for children living with HIV is urgent.. The knowledge gained through this research will generate a deeper understanding of viral remission, which can be applied to the design of future clinical trials that test whether we can achieve what the model predicts in terms of HIV remission.. The information obtained, as well as the patient profiles, might also help inform the design of prospective studies with new and ...
Anti-Retroviral Treatment and Access to Services (ARTAS) is an intervention designed to link persons who have been recently diagnosed with HIV to medical care.
Earle and Janice OBorn are making history by supporting the NAC and Canadian talent with one of the largest donations ever made towards the performing arts ...
This is the first in a two-part series about the vaccine rollout in Indian Country. Part two looks at the challenges of vaccinating our regions urban
Critical Diagnostics Accelerates European Rollout of Presage® ST2 Assay |0| Critical DiagnosticsDennis Dalangin, VP MarketingTelephone: 877-700-1250Email: |/0|
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Contains eight drawings mounted on a board illustrating a lobectomy. Based on information on the back of the illustrations, they were prepared by F...
Yunnan, Guangxi and Henan are the provinces with the most severe HIV epidemic in China, which were also among the first group of areas providing free ART in ...
Welcome to Drawsh, a free art resource! I hope you find the information helpful and check back often for new and updated content. Enjoy ...
Om 2008.8 was designed to be as empty as possible, for the very purpose of showcasing your ideas. Think of our products as museums. Were building the environment. Each one different from the next. Youll get all the free art supplies you could imagine because we want you to add your own meaning. You choose: consume, create, or both. Either way you create your own meaning. Its about you. ...
begingroup$ Option in the Velocity rollout , Other group , Random is set to 1 on your screenshot. It allows to randomize rotation of the particles but size as well (as it affects starting velocity of the hair) even if random size in Render rollout is set to 0. By default its set to 0. If you really want to make all particles of the same size (icicles on donut wont be) you can set that to 0, open Rotation rollout, set it to Normal or Normal-Tangent and increase Random of the Phase to 2. Then only rotation will be randomized $\endgroup$ - Mr Zak Apr 1 18 at 12:55 ...
How does art free a brain that is hurting? Is there something in the creation that reacts with colors and process and form and texture? CBS 2s Bill Kurtis reports.
However, research shows theres a tradeoff between stopping the virus and the negative effects of powerful antiretroviral medications on the babys heart.
Short overview of Visual and Performing Arts program at Columbia Central University-Yauco: award levels, student stats, admissions.
Although the risk of developing cancer is decreasing for people living with HIV as antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves, it remains higher for certain cancers - and as ART expands, this burden is expected to grow.. ...
Although the risk of developing cancer is decreasing for people living with HIV as antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves, it remains higher for certain cancers - and as ART expands, this burden is expected to grow.. ...
Today Im going to introduce for you my ten favorite things to do in Tokyo. I tried to pick up different activities, some free some not and even put them to order from 10th to 1st. If you have more recommendations, feel free to share them in the comments. 10. The National Art Center…
The next generation of faster mobile networks is poised to lower costs for operators and potentially unleash a new price war in the industry in Europe.
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Chorus has today reported earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) of $636m for the year ended 30 June 2019, in line with guidance.
"Anti-HIV Agents That Selectively Target Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers without Affecting Cellular Zinc Finger ... 2-Diamine That Chelates Zinc Ions from Retroviral Nucleocapsid Zinc Fingers". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 54 (4): ... Musah, Rabi Ann (2004). "The HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Zinc Finger Protein as a Target of Antiretroviral Therapy" (PDF). Current ... "Biophysical Characterization of Zinc Ejection from HIV Nucleocapsid Protein by Anti-HIV 2,2'-Dithiobis[benzamides] and ...
It is now standard of care in the United States to begin anti-retroviral treatment upon discovery of HIV positive status. HIV ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. May 4, 2006. (available for download ... Due to the nature of the virus the drugs used to treat HIV are called antiretroviral medicines, and the course of treatment is ... Complete List of Donor Screening Assays for Infectious Agents and HIV Diagnostic Assays. US Food & Drug Administration. ...
... is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1-infected patients. In ... "Retroviral protease inhibiting compounds", published 1994-07-07, assigned to Abbott Laboratories Vardanyan, Ruben; Hruby, ... Ritonavir, sold under the brand name Norvir, is an antiretroviral drug used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS. ... This combination treatment is known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor and is ...
As a result, lamivudine was identified as a less toxic agent to mitochondria DNA than other retroviral drugs. Lamivudine was ... Lamivudine (Epivir) is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV‑1 infection. ... A better explanation of the data is that lamivudine continues to have a partial anti-viral effect even in the presence of the ... Lamivudine, commonly called 3TC, is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. It is also used to treat ...
Has Favorable Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Interactions with Other Antiretrovirals In Vitro". Antimicrobial Agents and ... In the pivotal trial of leronlimab in combination with standard anti-retroviral therapies in HIV-infected treatment-experienced ... "Antagonists of the human CCR5 receptor as anti-HIV-1 agents. Part 1: discovery and initial structure-activity relationships for ... "Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors". ...
... immunologic function can be restored by treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. In kidney transplant recipients ... Other agents that have been proposed to target polyomavirus BK, such as cidofovir, fluoroquinolones, leflunomide, and statins ... Also, some of these agents may cause severe long-lasting side effects.[citation needed] Huang, Gang; Chen, Li-Zhong; Qiu, Jiang ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 41 (3): 587-93. doi:10.1128/AAC.41.3.587. PMC 163756. PMID 9055998. Gabardi, S.; Waikar ...
He championed the combination anti-retroviral therapy which had earlier been developed by scientists at NIAID and Merck. This ... The most promising neutralizing agent is a bispecific monoclonal antibody that entered a first-in-human clinical trial in 2019 ... His group was the first to demonstrate protective efficacy of a long-acting antiretroviral drug as pre-exposure prophylaxis in ... In fact, one such agent, cabotegravir, has recently completed Phase-3 efficacy trials in high-risk populations, in ...
In a notable event, this actually happened during gene therapy through the use of retroviral vectors at the Necker Hospital in ... Several classes of latency reversing agents (LRAs) are under development for possible use in shock-and-kill strategies in which ... This latent reservoir of HIV may explain the inability of antiretroviral treatment to cure HIV infection. Viruses portal Slow ... November 1997). "Identification of a reservoir for HIV-1 in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy". Science. 278 ( ...
... but it can help slow HIV disease progression in people not taking anti-retroviral therapy (ART). This finding emphasizes the ... Aciclovir trials show that this agent has no role in preventing HIV transmission, ... they risk causing resistance to antiviral agents, and (in 1% to 10% of cases) can cause unpleasant side effects. Aciclovir ...
They are highly effective against HIV and have, since the 1990s, been a key component of anti-retroviral therapies for HIV/AIDS ... In 1985, HIV was identified as the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its complete genome was ... Antiretroviral drug Reverse transcriptase inhibitor Integrase inhibitor Entry inhibitor Discovery and development of non- ... De Clercq, E. (2009) Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV. International Journal of ...
... who spread misinformation about HIV tests and even alleged of anti-retroviral therapy to be the causative agent of AIDS; the ... Some of Null's productions portrayed those patients as the real heroes, who rejected anti-retroviral therapy in favor of his ... Discussing Null's anti-vaccination efforts, Harriet Hall deems Null to have a bad track record for scientific credibility. ... Null holds strong anti-vaccination views and rejects the scientific consensus on topics such as water fluoridation, genetically ...
6,319,711 Levo-monosaccharide in a nucleoside analog for use as an anti-retroviral agent, US Patent #6,090,602 Method and ...
... and promising prophylactic in vivo antiretroviral activity in Hu-PBL-SCID mice as well as therapeutic anti-retroviral activity ... Unlike available antiretroviral agents that disrupt a specific step in the life cycle of HIV, stampidine has the potential to ... Uckun FM, Cahn P, Qazi S, D'Cruz O (April 2012). "Stampidine as a promising antiretroviral drug candidate for pre-exposure ... Stampidine is an experimental nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with anti-HIV activity. It is a derivative of ...
Kong C, Neoh HM, Nathan S (March 2016). "Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Toxins: A Potential form of Anti-Virulence Therapy". ... They can be caused by a variety of factors, including: Malnutrition Fatigue Recurrent infections Immunosuppressing agents for ... Opportunistic infections caused by feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated ... In patients with HIV, starting antiretroviral therapy is especially important for restoration of the immune system and reducing ...
HIV Antiretroviral Agents in Development IntegraseBookFull (PDF) integrase+inhibitors at the US National Library of Medicine ... Since integration is a vital step in retroviral replication, blocking it can halt further spread of the virus. Integrase ... USA (2014). "Antiretroviral Therapy: Current Drugs". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 28 (3): 371 ... Integrase inhibitors (INIs) are a class of antiretroviral drug designed to block the action of integrase, a viral enzyme that ...
... antimitotic agent - antineoplastic - antineoplastic antibiotic - antioxidant - antiparasitic - antiretroviral therapy - ... retroviral vector - retrovirus - RevM10 gene - rhabdoid tumor - rhabdomyosarcoma - rhizoxin - ribavirin - ribonucleotide ... anti-CEA antibody - anti-idiotype vaccine - anti-inflammatory - antiandrogen - antiandrogen therapy - anti-angiogenesis - ... alkylating agent - ALL - all-trans retinoic acid - allogeneic - allogeneic bone marrow transplantation - allogeneic stem cell ...
This compound had been prepared in 1964 as a potential anti-cancer agent but was shown to be ineffective. In 1974 zidovudine ... "Retroviral reverse transcriptases (other than those of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus): A comparison of their molecular and ... Six NRTI agents and one NtRTI have followed. The NRTIs and the NtRTI are analogues of endogenous 2´-deoxy-nucleoside and ... The 3' carbon of the ribose ring of 2'-deoxycytidine has been replaced by a sulfur atom because it had greater anti-HIV ...
He argued that it is an "illusion to think that monotherapy with any antiretroviral agent will have a major and lasting impact ... He found that a baby's chance of contracting HIV falls to less than 1% if they receive anti-retroviral drugs while being nursed ... Lange, Joep (1995). "Combination Antiretroviral Therapy". Drugs. 49 (Supplement 1): 32-37. doi:10.2165/00003495-199500491-00008 ...
Pope, Michael Thor; Müller, Achim (1994). Polyoxometalates: From Platonic Solids to Anti-Retroviral Activity. Springer. ISBN ... "Transition-metal-substituted polyoxometalate derivatives as functional anti-amyloid agents for Alzheimer's disease". Nature ... Pope, Michael; Müller, Achim (1994). Polyoxometalates: From Platonic Solids to Anti-Retroviral Activity - Springer. Topics in ...
In AIDS patients, perhaps the most important factor with respect to treatment is the use of highly active anti-retroviral ... The most studied chemotherapeutic agent in PCNSL is methotrexate (a folate analogue that interferes with DNA repair). ... Of course, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is critical for prolonged survival in any AIDS patient, so compliance ... probably due to poor penetration of the agents through the blood brain barrier. Newer treatments, such as high dose ...
Scientists are testing whether anti-retroviral lubricants or gels can be applied to aid in the prevention of transmission of ... Additionally, a commonly used numbing agent benzocaine can cause an allergic reaction in those with an allergy to PABA (4- ... 2012). "Is Wetter Better? An Evaluation of Over-the-Counter Personal Lubricants for Safety and Anti-HIV-1 Activity". PLOS ONE. ... Some anal lubricants contain numbing agents to relieve discomfort during anal sex, although it is generally inadvisable as a ...
The many dissemination mechanisms available to HIV contribute to the virus's ongoing replication in spite of anti-retroviral ... A survival strategy for any infectious agent is not to kill its host, but ultimately become a commensal organism. Having ... Viral recombination produces genetic variation that likely contributes to the evolution of resistance to anti-retroviral ... and anti-retroviral drugs. Other medical research areas include the topics of pre-exposure prophylaxis, post-exposure ...
"Capravirine - Anti-Retroviral Drug". Drug Development Technology. Retrieved 2019-06-02. "Capravirine - Anti-Retroviral Drug". ... Antiinfective agent stubs). ... Inhibitors in HIV-Infected Patients Who Failed Previous Anti- ...
... and highly active anti-retroviral therapy used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Of these, amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most ... These agents are poorly tolerated but are still used in some resource-poor areas. In high-resource countries, they have been ... anti-viral antibodies (such as the anti-hepatitis B surface antibody or anti-hepatitis A antibody), or viral DNA/RNA. In early ... Screening consists of a blood test that detects the anti-hepitits D virus antibbody. If anti-hepitits D virus antibody is ...
June 2006). "Efficacy and tolerability of 10-day monotherapy with apricitabine in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected patients ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 53 (4): 1683-1685. doi:10.1128/AAC.01168-08. PMC 2663123. PMID 19223637. (Webarchive ... and difficulty confirming the effectiveness of the drug in patients where other retroviral drugs masked key indicators. In ...
This virus would later be known as HIV-1, the causative agent behind the outbreak. This discovery allowed for the development ... Professor Barré-Sinoussi believes that scientists have made steady progress given the development of antiretroviral treatment ... Unité de Régulation des Infections Rétrovirales) and Professor at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France. Born in Paris, France ... they concluded the agent causing this new disease may be a retrovirus but it was not HTLV, the only known retrovirus at the ...
Pugach P, Ketas TJ, Michael E, Moore JP (August 2008). "Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 ... Other agents are under investigation for their ability to interact with the proteins involved in HIV entry and the possibility ... Aplaviroc, an agent similar to maraviroc and vicriroc. Clinical trials were halted in 2005 over concerns about the drug's ... By blocking this step in HIV's replication cycle, such agents slow the progression from HIV infection to AIDS. There are ...
A key component of these activities has been provision of HIV care including anti-retroviral treatment (ARV) through funding ... understanding of the pathogenesis and related host-mediated pathways associated with common and/or dangerous infectious agents ...
Scott nearly died of Stage IV AIDS in 1995 and credited marijuana with his survival until effective anti-retroviral therapies ... Scott had completed all but a few weeks of the two-year training program when, as he recalls, an agent from the Naval ... Queer Nation organized the action to protest the anti-abortion and anti-gay teachings of O'Connor and the Roman Catholic Church ... Scott credited his use of medical cannabis among the reasons he survived long enough to receive the new anti-retrovirals that ...
... of molecular diagnostic tools have enabled physicians and researchers to monitor the efficacy of treatment with anti-retroviral ... First, the catalog of infectious agents has grown to the point that virtually all of the significant infectious agents of the ... When infection attacks the body, anti-infective drugs can suppress the infection. Several broad types of anti-infective drugs ... Second, an infectious agent must grow within the human body to cause disease; essentially it must amplify its own nucleic acids ...
Areas where retroviral integration into the human genome is favored such as EVI1 have very important implications for the ... Hu J, Fang J, Dong Y, Chen SJ, Chen Z (Feb 2005). "Arsenic in cancer therapy". Anti-Cancer Drugs. 16 (2): 119-27. doi:10.1097/ ... Arsenic is a fairly ancient human therapeutic agent, however it has only recently returned to the forefront of cancer treatment ... It has been observed that it not only induces apoptosis but can also inhibit the cell cycle, and has marked anti-angiogenesis ...
Masuda T (2011). "Non-Enzymatic Functions of Retroviral Integrase: The Next Target for Novel Anti-HIV Drug Development". ... Human foamy virus (HFV), an agent harmless to humans, has an integrase similar to HIV IN and is therefore a model of HIV IN ... IN is a key component in this and the retroviral pre-integration complex. All retroviral IN proteins contain three canonical ... Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that integrates-forms covalent links between-its ...
People who have both gonorrhea and HIV (untreated by anti-retroviral therapy) are able to pass both diseases more readily to ... Resistance to cefixime has reached a level such that it is no longer recommended as a first-line agent in the United States, ... and gonococci and commensal Neisseria species can coexist for long time periods in the pharynx and share anti-microbial ...
In the treatment of HIV, the success of anti-retroviral therapies means that many patients will experience this infection as a ... counseling and immunizations against infectious agents. Despite their effectiveness, the utilization of preventive services is ...
... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 - anti-bacterial agents MeSH D27.505 ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.025 - antimanic agents MeSH ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 - anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 - uricosuric agents MeSH ...
March 2007). "Mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus: prospects for novel anti-retroviral therapies in ... Johnson ES (2005). "Assessing the role of transmissible agents in human disease by studying meat workers". Cellscience Reviews ... February 2013). "Deep sequencing reveals abundant noncanonical retroviral microRNAs in B-cell leukemia/lymphoma". Proceedings ... This vaccine would be able to induce a persistent anti-BLV immune response through maintaining a low level of infectivity, ...
Gene therapy is the delivery of a nucleic acid (usually DNA or RNA) into a cell as a pharmaceutical agent to treat disease. ... Barquinero J, Eixarch H, Pérez-Melgosa M (October 2004). "Retroviral vectors: new applications for an old tool". Gene Therapy. ... and Anti-CRISPR Proteins. For biased off-target effects detection, there are several tools to predict the locations where off- ... Bushman FD (August 2007). "Retroviral integration and human gene therapy". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 117 (8): 2083 ...
... (JSRV) is a betaretrovirus which is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep, ... These observations support the theory that an ancient retroviral infection had important consequences for mammalian evolution. ... anti-self' and selectively removed. Another hypothesis is that tumor cells downregulate their major histocompatibility class-I ...
Agents Chemother. 50 (5): 1731-7. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.5.1731-1737.2006. PMC 1472199. PMID 16641443. Frischknecht F, Martin B, ... In 1876, under pressure from the National Anti-Vivisection Society, the Cruelty to Animals Act was amended to include ... modulating effects of developmental stage and retroviral dose". Acta Neuropathologica. 86 (5): 456-465. doi:10.1007/bf00228580 ...
In 1876, under pressure from the National Anti-Vivisection Society, the Cruelty to Animals Act was amended to include ... December 2018). "Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction in Animal Studies With Biohazardous Agents". ILAR Journal. 59 (2): 177- ... modulating effects of developmental stage and retroviral dose". Acta Neuropathologica. 86 (5): 456-65. doi:10.1007/bf00228580. ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 50 (5): 1731-7. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.5.1731-1737.2006. PMC 1472199. PMID 16641443. ...
Debates on the ethics of provision and cost of anti-retroviral drugs, particularly in poorer countries, have highlighted ... Viruses are the main agents responsible for the rapid destruction of harmful algal blooms, which often kill other marine life, ... the Anti-Vaccination League and the Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League were formed in 1866. Following the anti-vaccination ... Blikstad V, Benachenhou F, Sperber GO, Blomberg J (2008). "Evolution of human endogenous retroviral sequences: a conceptual ...
Global Fund and UNDP are also providing access to condoms, subsidized referrals, testing, anti-retroviral drugs free of cost at ... The members of the culture are agents of change as opposed to the outsiders who may provide any necessary tools. Technology ... Without the proposed spending, potential education, health, training and anti-poverty programs will cease. In Latin America, ...
... another cationic agent that was the original heparin reversal agent in the early days of heart surgery, until studies in the ... Kenneth Cornetta; W.French Anderson (1989). "Protamine sulfate as an effective alternative to polybrene in retroviral-mediated ... especially heart surgery where anti-coagulation is necessary to prevent clot formation within the cardiopulmonary bypass pump ...
It is at this moment in 1994 that a new family of anti-HIV drugs emerges: the anti-proteases. Having observed in vitro the ... According to the ICCARRE regime: following an early initial period in which control of retro-viral levels requires 7-day-a-week ... from the very moment when the investigation on its causative agent was launched. When the first series of AIDS cases in the ... He is the father in Europe of the first anti-HIV treatments combining three anti-viral molecules (tri-therapy treatment) for ...
Ki-67 predicts outcome in advanced-stage mantle cell lymphoma patients treated with anti-CD20 immunochemotherapy: results from ... Since nucleic acid synthesis is an important target for chemotherapeutic agents, he subsequently investigated in his team ... Efficient serum-free retroviral gene transfer into primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cells by a defined, high-titer, ...
Anti-government groups such as sovereign citizens and freemen on the land also took part in the anti-vaccine movement. During ... In August 2021 US Customs and Border Prevention agents seized 121 packages with more than 3,000 fake vaccination cards that had ... Skalka AM (December 2014). "Retroviral DNA Transposition: Themes and Variations". Microbiology Spectrum. 2 (5): MDNA300052014. ... "Anti-vaxxers, anti-maskers and the sovereign citizen movement", New York Daily News, 14 August 2021, retrieved 13 January 2022 ...
In World War I, German agents infected sheep bound for Russia with anthrax, and inoculated mules and horses of the French ... For example, although such models are now widely used to study Parkinson's disease, the British anti-vivisection interest group ... Chan AW, Chong KY, Martinovich C, Simerly C, Schatten G (2001). "Transgenic monkeys produced by retroviral gene transfer into ... Dr Hadwen Trust (2009-09-21) Toxicity Testing for Assessment of Environmental Agents" National Academies Press, (2006), p. 21. ...
"Antimicrobial Agents in the Treatment of Infectious Disease". Archived from the original on 2013-10-08. Retrieved 2013-08-27. ... "Rapid generation of a tetracycline-inducible BCR-ABL defective retrovirus using a single autoregulatory retroviral cassette". ... Anti-acne preparations, Biomarkers, Cancer research, Carboxamides, Hepatotoxins, Otologicals, Tetracycline antibiotics, ... Agents Chemother. 47 (12): 3675-3681. doi:10.1128/AAC.47.12.3675-3681.2003. PMC 296194. PMID 14638464. Klajn, Rafal, Chemistry ...
SLR14 improved antitumor efficacy of anti-PD1 antibody over single-agent treatment. SLR14 was absorbed by CD11b+ myeloid cells ... July 1999). "A clinical trial of retroviral-mediated transfer of a rev-responsive element decoy gene into CD34(+) cells from ... In addition to their utility as direct therapeutic agents, RNA aptamers are also being considered for other therapeutic roles. ... Then, the PD-1 targeted sd-rxRNA helped increasing the anti-tumor activity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) against ...
Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy). AZT is a thymidine analogue. AZT works by selectively inhibiting HIV's reverse ... and anticancer agents, the leading work being done at the laboratory of Nobel laureates George Hitchings and Gertrude Elion, ... The Anti-Infective Advisory Committee to United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) voted ten to one to recommend the ... This assay could simultaneously test both the anti-HIV effect of the compounds and their toxicity against infected T cells. In ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X ... Manufacture of antiretrovirals in developing countries and challenges for the future: report by the Secretariat  ...
Early initiation of combination anti-retroviral therapy: does it affect long-term outcome [Abstract LbPeB7051]? Presented at ... The availability of an increasing number of antiretroviral agents and the rapid evolution of new information has introduced ... Guidelines for Using Antiretroviral Agents Among HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Recommendations of the Panel on Clinical ... Considerations for Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Antiretroviral treatment recommendations for HIV- ...
... the Working Group concluded that anti-retroviral therapy was indicated for any child with a definitive diagnosis of HIV ... all antiretroviral agents should be stopped simultaneously rather than continuing one or two agents alone because of potential ... aggressive antiretroviral therapy with three or four antiretroviral agents. The theoretical problems with early therapy include ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection MMWR 47(RR-4);1-31 Publication date: 04/17/1998. ...
"Anti-Retroviral Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Anti-Retroviral Agents" was a major or minor topic of ... "Anti-Retroviral Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Anti-Retroviral Agents*Anti-Retroviral Agents. *Agents, Anti-Retroviral. *Anti Retroviral Agents ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Anti-Retroviral Agents" by people in Profiles. ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular ... Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors. Cytochrome P- ... Drug: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) Antiretroviral therapy up to 96 weeks. Other Name: standard antiretroviral therapy of two ... Drug: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) Antiretroviral therapy up to 96 weeks. Other Name: standard antiretroviral therapy of two ...
Scaling up antiretroviral therapy : experience in Uganda : case study / F. Amolo Okero ... [et al]. by Amolo Okero, F , Aceng, ... Text; Format: print Publication details: Geneva : UNAIDS, 2003Other title: The pursuit of antiretroviral therapy in Botswana, ... Series: Perspectives and practice in antiretroviral treatmentMaterial type: Text; Format: print Publication details: Geneva : ... Series: Perspectives and practice in antiretroviral treatmentMaterial type: Text; Format: print Publication details: Geneva : ...
Anti-HIV Agents [‎3]‎. Anti-Retroviral Agents [‎3]‎. * * Browsing Publications by Subject * IRIS Home ...
Anti-Allergic Agents. 1. 5. Anti-Fibrotic. 1. 5. Anti-Retroviral Agents. 1. 5. ... Anti-Bacterial Agents, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antihypertensive Agents, Antioxidants, Antiviral Agents, Immunomodulatory ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Fibrotic, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antioxidants, NF-kappaB Inhibitor, Renoprotective ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Anticholesteremic Agents, Hypolipidemic, NF-kappaB Inhibitor, Tumor ...
Anti-retroviral agent. *Entry Inhibitor. *Mechanism. *Blocks HIV to Chemokine (CCR5 - R5) receptor binding on CD4+ Cells ...
Categories: Anti-Retroviral Agents Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Coadministration of these anti-retroviral agents resulted in increased clearance or decreased plasma levels of methadone [see ... Paradoxical Effects of Antiretroviral Agents on Methadose. Concurrent use of certain protease inhibitors with CYP3A4 inhibitory ... Effects of Methadose on Antiretroviral Agents. Didanosine and Stavudine: Experimental evidence demonstrated that methadone ... Antiretroviral Drugs. Although antiretroviral drugs such as efavirenz, nelfinavir, nevirapine, ritonavir, telaprevir, lopinavir ...
... antiretroviral therapy has raged since the introduction of zidovudine in 1987. Based on the entry criteria for the original ... Some cohort studies have demonstrated the clear benefit of antiretroviral therapy at any CD4 count and no cohort studies have ... The Strategic Timing of Anti-Retroviral Treatment (START) trial has been in enrollment phase and is expected to provide the ... US Department of Health and Human Services: Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and ...
Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1- ... before we reinstituted highly active retroviral therapy. It should be noted that we were unable to determine the patients ... With antiretroviral treatment suspended, the patients HIV viral load rose rapidly, and in the setting of a suppressed ACTH, ... The patients new antiretroviral regimen was put on hold, and genetic testing for a predisposition to abacavir hypersensitivity ...
The study was conducted using secondary data from antiretroviral unit at Felege Hiwot Teaching and Specialized Hospital. A ... Non-adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is one of the factors for treatment failure in human ... Info, A., Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. AIDS Info website, 2010. ... Highly Active Ant-Retroviral Therapy. HIV:. Human Immune Deficiency Virus. PLWHA:. Patients Living with HIV/AIDS ...
Strategies (And New Agents) For Antiretroviral Therapy Of HIV-1 Disease. The initiation and management of antiretroviral ... Dont miss this engaging review of the recent Conference on Retroviral and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2016) spotlighting ... Strategies (And New Agents) For Antiretroviral Therapy Of HIV-1 Disease. *Clinical Management Of Hepatitis C In Patients With ... Surviving Antiretroviral Drug Resistance: Strategies for Optimal Use of Therapeutic Agents. *Advances in Immune-Based Therapies ...
Guideline] Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in ... HIV contains three species-defining retroviral genes: gag, pol, and env. The gag gene encodes group-specific antigen; the inner ... Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and adolescents, January 28, 2000 by the Panel on ... With the appearance of anti-HIV antibodies and CD8+ T-cell responses, the viral load drops to a steady state and the CD4+ T- ...
Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Blood Pressure / HIV Seropositivity / Anti-Retroviral Agents / Ambulatory Care Language: ... Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Blood Pressure / HIV Seropositivity / Anti-Retroviral Agents / Ambulatory Care Language: ... Ambulatory Blood Pressure Profiles in a Subset of HIV-Positive Patients Pre and Post Antiretroviral Therapy : Cardiovascular ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, HIV Infections/drug therapy, Clinical Protocols ... Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage, HIV Infections/drug therapy, HIV Infections/prevention & control, Post-Exposure ... Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage, HIV Infections/drug therapy, HIV Infections/prevention & control, Infectious ... HIV Infections/diagnosis, Adolescent Health, HIV Infections/drug therapy, Comprehensive Health Care, Anti-Retroviral Agents/ ...
Anti-Retroviral Agents Entry term(s). Agents, Anti-Retroviral Agents, Antiretroviral Anti Retroviral Agents Antiretroviral ... Agents, Anti-Retroviral. Agents, Antiretroviral. Anti Retroviral Agents. Antiretroviral Agent. Antiretroviral Agents. ... Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.. Allowable Qualifiers:. AD administration & dosage. AE adverse effects. AG ... Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS. Preferred term. ... Anti-Retroviral Agents - Preferred Concept UI. M0446823. Scope ...
Anti-HIV Agents (40) * Anti-Retroviral Agents (25) * CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes (14) ... Antiretroviral therapy alone versus antiretroviral therapy with a kick and kill approach, on measures of the HIV reservoir in ... A systematic review of the effectiveness of non- health facility based care delivery of antiretroviral therapy for people ... Motivating people living with HIV to initiate antiretroviral treatment outside national guidelines in three clinics in the HPTN ...
Commentary: The place of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in pediatric antiretroviral therapy.. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 34(4):406-8. ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 57(11):5619-28.*PubMed ...
Initially, he focused on treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections and currently works on antiretroviral agents, ... immunotherapies and hepatitis treatments as well as retroviral vector research and gene therapy. ...
Adherencia al tratamiento antirretrovirales; VIH; República Dominicana; Adherence, therapeutic; Agents, anti-retroviral; ... To develop a tool that measures levels of adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resour ce-poor settings, based on a ... Use of Multiple Methods to Measure Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment in La Romana, Dominican Republic. Medição da adesão a ...
Not receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy. A change in anti-retroviral therapy within 6 months of the start of ... Prior exposure to ketoconazole (systemic), abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide or other agents targeting the AR signaling pathway ... Receiving anti-retroviral therapy that may interfere with the study drug(s) (consult the PI / sponsor for review of medication ... For Cohort B2, prior ADT and/or first generation anti-androgen treatment in the (neo)adjuvant and/or salvage setting in ...
However, limited evidence exists for other clinically approved anti-retroviral protease inhibitors that may bind more ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of the ongoing pandemic of 2019 CoV ... However, limited evidence exists for other clinically approved anti-retroviral protease inhibitors that may bind more ... a compound recognized for its anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities. Together, our data strongly suggest that ATV and ATV ...
For the cure arm, they will use the funds to acquire agents known to activate latent HIV from ViiV, a pharmaceutical company ... with most victims taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) or HIV treatment shots. ART requires that patients take daily medicine ... dedicated to HIV research, and utilize retroviral therapy to eradicate the virus. For the vaccine arm, they plan to use the ...
  • However, limited evidence exists for other clinically approved anti-retroviral protease inhibitors that may bind more efficiently to Mpro from SARS-CoV-2 and block its replication. (
  • Initially, he focused on treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections and currently works on antiretroviral agents, immunotherapies and hepatitis treatments as well as retroviral vector research and gene therapy. (
  • This program presented by David Hardy is a review of highlights from AIDS 2022: the live 24th International AIDS Conference in Montreal, Canada, including clinically relevant advances in antiretroviral therapy and PrEP, emerging adverse effects, as well as new agents for HIV treatment and prevention. (
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Report of the NIH Panel To Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection and Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. (
  • Recommendations for offering antiretroviral therapy among asymptomatic patients require analysis of real and potential risks and benefits. (
  • Failure of therapy at 4--6 months might be ascribed to nonadherence, inadequate potency of drugs or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents, viral resistance, and other factors that are poorly understood. (
  • These guidelines were developed by the Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children convened by the National Pediatric and Family HIV Resource Center (NPHRC), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (
  • Maintenance of Viral Suppression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Controllers Despite Waning T-Cell Responses During Antiretroviral Therapy. (
  • This project is an international, multicenter, randomized, partially blind clinical study to evaluate efficacy and safety of two different doses of VM-1500 in comparison with Efavirenz added to standard antiretroviral therapy including two NRTIs in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected patients. (
  • Antiretroviral therapy in primary health care : experience of the Khayelitsha programme in South Africa : case study / Médecins sans Frontières South Africa, the Department of Health at the University of Cape Town, and the Provincial Administration of the Western Capre, South Africa. (
  • Stepping back from the edge : the pursuit of antiretroviral therapy in Botswana, South Africa and Uganda. (
  • Treating 3 million by 2005 : making it happen : the WHO strategy : the WHO and UNAIDS global initiative to provide antiretroviral therapy to 3 million people with HIV/AIDS in developing countries by the end of 2005 / Treat 3 Million by 2005 Initiative. (
  • The debate regarding 'When to Start' antiretroviral therapy has raged since the introduction of zidovudine in 1987. (
  • 5) Some cohort studies have demonstrated the clear benefit of antiretroviral therapy at any CD4 count and no cohort studies have demonstrated that early therapy is more detrimental than late therapy at the population level. (
  • The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the mid-1990s brought new hopes for the advocates of the "hit early, hit hard" approach [ 10 ]. (
  • In response to a decline in his bone mineral density, recent progressive renal dysfunction (eGFR had decreased from 60 to 30 mL/min/m 2 over the course of the year) and worsening dyslipidemia, his antiretroviral therapy was changed to abacavir, lamivudine and dolutegravir eight weeks before he presented to the emergency department. (
  • Non-adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is one of the factors for treatment failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in developing countries. (
  • What is the current impact of antiretroviral therapy on weight gain? (
  • In the context of polypharmacy so often seen in older people, and in the midst of the the COVID-19 pandemic, Giovanni Guaraldi will help you understand the principles of HIV geriatric medicine, assess biological age with frailty, appreciate different models of HIV care in older adults, and maintain optimal antiretroviral therapy while deprescribing polypharmacy. (
  • This program presented by David Hardy is a review of highlights from the Virtual IAS Conference on HIV Science 2021, including clinically relevant advances in antiretroviral therapy, metabolic effects, as well as investigational agents for HIV treatment and prevention. (
  • The objective of this study was to assess traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) utilization pattern among HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. (
  • She was diagnosed with HIV infection in 2000 and had not been on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) since 2003, but recently started triple drug therapy to minimize risk of vertical transmission with zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine 4 wk prior to presentation. (
  • The objectives of these guidelines are to provide recommendations outlining a public health approach to managing people presenting with advanced HIV disease, and to provide guidance on the timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all people living with HIV. (
  • First, antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated in everyone living with HIV at any CD4 cell count. (
  • Commentary: The place of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in pediatric antiretroviral therapy. (
  • To report the frequency of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), comparing with a non-HIV infected control group, and to correlate the presence of lesions with demographic and clinical features of HIV-seropositive patients. (
  • A wide spectrum of oral manifestations may occur in these patients dependent on factors such as degree of immune impairment, use of antiretroviral therapy, oral hygiene, among others 5 . (
  • For the cure arm, they will use the funds to acquire agents known to activate latent HIV from ViiV, a pharmaceutical company dedicated to HIV research, and utilize retroviral therapy to eradicate the virus. (
  • After receiving 3 L of crystalloid, he felt better and was discharged home, with all antiretroviral treatments suspended and follow-up scheduled in clinic. (
  • however treatments with retroviral drugs can slow the underlying HIV infection and delay the onset of full-blown AIDS. (
  • WHO guidelines on HIV and Infant Feeding in 2010 for the first time recommended the use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. (
  • These guidelines provide guidance on the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection and the care of people living with HIV. (
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of the ongoing pandemic of 2019 CoV disease (COVID-19), which is already responsible for far more deaths than were reported during the previous public health emergencies of international concern provoked by two related pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs) from 2002 and 2012. (
  • He is a HIV/AIDS denialist [2] who believes nutritional deficiencies are the causative agents of all illnesses, and has accordingly promoted fringe, diet-based treatment regimes for curing AIDS and other illnesses. (
  • Currently, investments in prevention, scaling up access to HIV testing and to antiretroviral treatment, as well as training of health professionals, keep the AIDS epidemic under control 1 . (
  • Prunella vulgaris has potent anti-Ebola virus activity and may be developed as a novel antiviral approach against EBOV infection. (
  • Over subsequent years substantial progress was made in developing more potent antiretroviral agents and regimens. (
  • In November 2017, the Long acting/Extended Release Antiretroviral Resource Program (LEAP) convened a workshop with the aim of shaping the research agenda and promoting early development of long-acting or extended release products for key populations: pregnant and lactating women, children aged up to 10 years, and adolescents aged 10-19 years. (
  • In conclusion, our experience on the largest group of HIV-infected patients treated with the highest doses of AL 721 provides no support for the use of this compound as an antiretroviral agent. (
  • The usual course of this condition is variable and many patients with VBDS respond to treatment of the underlying condition and/ or removal of the offending agent. (
  • The availability of an increasing number of antiretroviral agents and the rapid evolution of new information has introduced substantial complexity into treatment regimens for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • Don't miss this important talk by Tony Urbina on the current state-of-the-art in rapid initiation of antiretroviral treatment (RIA) for HIV infection. (
  • Antiretroviral agents with long-acting properties have potential to improve treatment outcomes substantially for people living with HIV. (
  • Identification and discontinuation of any offending agents and treatment of known pathology should occur promptly. (
  • Although treatment with buffering agents remains controversial, their use should be considered in certain instances with the assistance of appropriate medical consultation. (
  • To develop a tool that measures levels of adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resour ce-poor settings, based on a combination of four methods for measuring adherence. (
  • Currently, an estimated 38.4 million people worldwide live with HIV but treatment options are limited, with most victims taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) or HIV treatment shots. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Anti-Retroviral Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Anti-Retroviral Agents" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Anti-Retroviral Agents" by people in Profiles. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Anti-retroviral agents. (
  • These results suggest that two compounds largely contribute to the anti-allergic inflammatory effect of P. vulgaris. (
  • In addition, there are no reports of nevirapine, an anti-retroviral (anti-HIV) drug causing VBDS even though hepatotoxicity is an important side effect of the drug. (
  • demonstrated that a 3- susceptible T cells by HIV-bearing dendritic cells could be day course of the nucleoside analog BEA-005 (2,3'-dideoxy-3'- blocked in vitro by the addition of antiretroviral agents to the hydroxymethyl cytidine) prevented either SIV or HIV-2 culture system (4). (
  • Antiretroviral regimens are complex, have serious side effects, pose difficulty with adherence, and carry serious potential consequences from the development of viral resistance because of nonadherence to the drug regimen or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents. (
  • These guidelines were developed by the Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children convened by the National Pediatric and Family HIV Resource Center (NPHRC), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (
  • The combination of multiple antiretroviral drug regimens (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy - HAART) is currently the standard therapeutic approach for HIV infection. (
  • This FOA issued by National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health, solic its Research Project Grant (R01) applications from institutions/organizations proposing mechanistic projects or interventions designed to understand or intervene in c hronic co-morbid conditions common to HIV+ adults living in the U.S. who are treated with anti-retroviral therapy. (
  • These conditions may be a result of anti-retroviral therapy or the HIV disease process. (
  • Antiretroviral therapy in primary health care : experience of the Khayelitsha programme in South Africa : case study / Médecins sans Frontières South Africa, the Department of Health at the University of Cape Town, and the Provincial Administration of the Western Capre, South Africa. (
  • Stepping back from the edge : the pursuit of antiretroviral therapy in Botswana, South Africa and Uganda. (
  • Treating 3 million by 2005 : making it happen : the WHO strategy : the WHO and UNAIDS global initiative to provide antiretroviral therapy to 3 million people with HIV/AIDS in developing countries by the end of 2005 / Treat 3 Million by 2005 Initiative. (
  • We evaluated adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and its associated factors according to the type of regimen in patients initiating treatment in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. (
  • Embora o tratamento anti-retroviral (HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy) tenha reduzido a morbi-mortalidade da AIDS, ele está associado a distúrbios metabólicos e aumento do perfil de risco cardiovascular. (
  • All patients were included in a cardiovascular prevention program and received non-pharmacological concealing (diet, physical activity prescription, smoking cessation advice) and pharmacological therapy, when appropriate (hypolipidemic and anti-hypertensive medications). (
  • I. To investigate the feasibility of administration of the anti PD-L1 antibody (atezolizumab) as an immune primer and concurrent with chemoradiation (CRT) therapy in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. (
  • The aim of this study was to predict the effect of anti-retroviral therapy and latent tuberculosis treatment in controlling the spread of tuberculosis in Nigeria. (
  • Immune reconstitution syndrome which is an inflammatory response to infection may occur in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. (
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), today announced that enrollment into a large international HIV/AIDS trial comparing continuous antiretroviral therapy with episodic drug treatment guided by levels of CD4+ cells has been stopped. (
  • The trial, known as Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy, or SMART, was designed to determine which of two different HIV treatment strategies would result in greater overall clinical benefit. (
  • We were surprised to learn that in the short term, episodic antiretroviral therapy carries such an increased risk without evidence of sparing patients the known side effects associated with ART. (
  • A non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor wit activity against HIV, it is used with other antiretrovirals for combination therapy of HIV infection. (
  • CHICAGO--(HSMN NewsFeed)--Results from an on-going Phase II study showed that antiretroviral suppression was sustained after 48-weeks of treatment with ISENTRESS(TM) (raltegravir), an investigational oral integrase inhibitor , in combination with optimized background therapy (OBT) versus placebo plus OBT in treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients failing therapy and who had virus resistant to three classes of oral antiretroviral drugs. (
  • Anti-retroviral therapy directed to inhibit viral proteins comprises the viral integrase as the primary target. (
  • The researchers demonstrated that the ATR kinase is required for stable retroviral DNA integration and can be inhibited under conditions that do not result in significant inhibition of cell viability, thus is an attractive cellular target for anti-retroviral therapy. (
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy has been shown effective in slowing the disease process. (
  • Highly active retroviral therapy increases the survival time of a person with HIV or AIDS. (
  • however, it is unknown whether the patient has contracted HIV, and antiretroviral therapy has helped people live beyond the 10 years expected if HIV goes untreated. (
  • Recent studies have shown that an increasing number of patients experiencing virologic failure on second line Antiretroviral therapy and require third line ART. (
  • This prospective cohort study was conducted in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal for a period of two years, to study the clinical, immunological, and virological profile of patients undergoing third line Antiretroviral therapy and to study the early immuno-virological response to third line Antiretroviral therapy. (
  • Antiretroviral Therapy Guidelines for HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents May 2013. (
  • Use of third line antiretroviral therapy in Latin America. (
  • Second-line failure and first experience with third-line antiretroviral therapy in Mumbai, India. (
  • Third-line antiretroviral therapy in Africa: Effectiveness in a Southern African retrospective cohort study. (
  • He was referred to the dermatology clinic in our center as the skin lesions were worsening with new onset of lesions over eyelids and glans penis despite starting anti-retroviral therapy (ART). (
  • This study is to investigate safety and feasibility of a combination therapy of a tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) transfer with anti-programmed cell death protein (PD)-1 therapy in patients with metastatic melanoma that failed immunotherapy.Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes will be expanded from resected melanoma samples from the patient and expanded TILs will be transferred to the patient after non-myeloablative chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine. (
  • Patients who entered the study were infected with HIV that was resistant to one or more drugs in each of the three oral anti-retroviral drug classes (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PI)), were receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for more than three months and had HIV viral loads greater than 5,000 copies/mL and CD4 counts greater than 50 cells/mm3. (
  • In subsequent studies, system (a mouse model of retroviral infection). (
  • Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. (
  • Efavirenz D5 was launched as Sustiva in the US for the treatment of infection by HIV, the virus causing AIDS, in combination with other anti-retroviral agents.Efavirenz D5 is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) belonging to the 3,1-benzoxazin-2-one chemical class. (
  • Among the patients with primary HIV infection, approximately 11.5% had evidence of resistance to at least one antiretroviral agent. (
  • As for patients with chronic HIV infection, approximately 7.5% had evidence of resistance to at least one antiretroviral agent-results similar to the CATCH study. (
  • And in North Carolina, among the 12 individuals diagnosed with primary HIV infection between January 1998 and June 2000, approximately one-quarter of them had evidence of phenotypic resistance to at least one antiretroviral agent (Hicks, 2004). (
  • Integration of the retroviral DNA into the host genome is an essential step of the retroviral infection and is sensed as DNA damage by the host cell. (
  • The present invention provides novel multi-functional (e.g., repelling biofilms, promoting formation of minerals, and having anti-infection properties) biocomposites and methods of use thereof. (
  • He had significant weight loss with chronic cough with expectoration for the past 5 months, for which he was evaluated and diagnosed to have HIV infection and was started on antiretroviral drugs (TLE regimen). (
  • Which antiretroviral regimen is associated with higher adherence in Brazil? (
  • A comparison of single, multi, and dolutegravir-based regimens Which antiretroviral regimen is associated with higher adherence in Brazil? (
  • Numerous classes of antiretroviral agents have emerged as therapeutic tools for downregulation of different steps in the HIV replication process. (
  • Co-administration of certain antiretroviral drugs with Pharmacokinetic Enhancers (PEs) may boost the effectiveness of the primary therapeutic agent. (
  • The development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems may enable targeted delivery of antiretroviral agents to inaccessible viral reservoir sites at therapeutic concentrations. (
  • Up to now, there is no cure for COVID-19 and waiting for an efficacious vaccine, the development of "savage" protocols, based on "old" anti-inflammatory and anti-viral drugs represents a valid and alternative therapeutic approach. (
  • To use anti-Kynurenine antibodies for immunohistochemistry (IHC) as well as unbiased metabolome studies on plasma to understand the metabolic consequences of PARP-inhibition and their effects on immune infiltrates. (
  • It is important to evaluate this progress and identify new opportunities for research associated with the use of anti-retroviral therapies and the association of co-morbidities of HIV+ individuals as they live through middle and old age. (
  • Drug interactions can occur between anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), so routine blood sampling for TDM is critical to avoid adverse interactions and side effects. (
  • Since the advent of the protease inhibitors in 1996-1997, anti-retroviral treatment options have been evolving, including the customized combination ART. (
  • Methods for identifying agents that modulate this novel cellular target, chemical compounds and pharmaceutical preparations arising from identification of ATR kinase are also suggested. (
  • Compositions are directed to BCL2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) molecules and agents which modulate expression of BAG3 molecules. (
  • Pharmaceutical composition for administration to patients, for example, patients with heart failure, comprise one or more BAG3 molecules or agents which modulate expression of BAG3. (
  • The disease free equilibrium state will be stable only when the contraction rate β is low, effective application of anti retroviral drugs thus bringing down γ, high recovery from the latent classes thus increasing ε and ψ else we will have an unstable disease free equilibrium state. (
  • Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are broadly classified by the phase of the retrovirus life-cycle that the drug inhibits. (
  • Antiretroviral drugs are usually used in combinations of three or more drugs from more than one class. (
  • Be on stable doses of any drugs that may affect hepatic drug metabolism or renal drug excretion (e.g., non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, barbiturates, diphenylhydantoin, narcotic analgesics, probenecid). (
  • Dosage adjustment of anti-epileptic drugs by TDM is also important, especially for the first-generation anti-epileptic drugs. (
  • Researchers from Fox Chase Cancer Center focused on DNA repair proteins such as DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase) and its role in facilitating stable retroviral DNA integration. (
  • Anti-inflammatory agents, such as corticosteroids, may also be used. (
  • In addition, the application of Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) approaches has provided valuable tools for the development of anti-HIV drug candidates with favourable pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties. (
  • Over the past 18 months, significant amounts of data presented at scientific conferences have shed additional light on the mechanisms and clinical significance of antiretroviral drug resistance. (
  • In this study, the prevalence of drug-resistant HIV was assessed among 949 newly infected, antiretroviral-naïve individuals in 10 cities (Bennett, 2003). (
  • The advent of antiretroviral drug began a revolution in the management of HIV. (
  • Inhibitors of ATR kinase or its pathway could impede or interrupt retroviral replication, and the probability of resistance developing to such inhibitors would be relatively low compared to inhibitors of viral genes. (
  • We have learned a great deal about the safety and potential efficacy of these agents, as well as the optimal management of health-care workers occupationally exposed to HIV. (
  • Antiretrovirals (ARVs) are key in the management of HIV. (
  • MannionDaniels is the in-country local fund agent (LFA) for the Global Fund in Somalia. (
  • In one study, reporting on new HIV infections at the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam and the Amsterdam Cohort Studies, the prevalence of transmitted HIV resistant to at least one antiretroviral agent decreased from 20% between the years of 1994 and 1997 to 6% between the years 1998 and 2002 (Bezemer, 2004). (
  • Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS . (
  • Our in-depth programmatic and financial reviews of the grants provide the Fund Agent and Global Fund with data and evidence of performance of specific issues. (