Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.ChloraminesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Diamide: A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.GuanineCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.F2-Isoprostanes: Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pachyrhizus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Isoprostanes: A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)IndiaDeoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Bromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Mice, Inbred C57BLRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Oxypurinol: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.PhotochemistryDNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Metalloporphyrins: Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)PeroxidasesEndothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)MethemoglobinCysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.SmokeImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Eosinophil Peroxidase: A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.HydroquinonesCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Sulfenic Acids: Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molsidomine: A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mice, Inbred BALB CGlucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Heinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Pro-oxidant activities[edit]. Further information: Pro-oxidant. Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro- ... The relative importance of the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of antioxidants is an area of current research, but ... water-soluble antioxidants react with oxidants in the cell cytosol and the blood plasma, while lipid-soluble antioxidants ... Thus, the function of antioxidant systems is not to remove oxidants entirely, but instead to keep them at an optimum level.[55] ...
Due to the ability of thiols to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Its antioxidant properties are ... More aggressive oxidants convert cysteine to the corresponding sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid. Cysteine residues play a ...
The redox functions of CoQ in cellular energy production and antioxidant protection are based on the ability to exchange two ... Idebenone - synthetic analog with reduced oxidant generating properties. *MitoQ - mitochondrion-targeted version of CoQ10 with ... Shindo, Y.; Witt, E.; Han, D.; Epstein, W.; Packer, L. (1994). "Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of ... electrons in a redox cycle between ubiquinol (reduced CoQ) and ubiquinone (oxidized CoQ).[60][61] The antioxidant role of the ...
Naturally Occurring Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidant Agent Derived from Extra Virgin Olive Oils". Organic ... Anti-inflammatory[edit]. Oleocanthal has been found to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro. Similar to ... the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of dietary oleocanthal cannot be as relevant as hypothesized by Beauchamp et al."[4] ... of a typical extra virgin olive oil per day contains an amount of oleocanthal with similar in vitro anti-inflammatory effect as ...
Sohal RS, Ku HH, Agarwal S, Forster MJ, Lal H (1994). "Oxidative damage, mitochondrial oxidant generation and antioxidant ... Bergamini, E; Cavallini, G; Donati, A; Gori, Z (2003). "The anti-ageing effects of caloric restriction may involve stimulation ... Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 14 (2): 275-287. doi:10.1089/ars.2010.3253. PMC 3014770 . Everitt et al., 2010, p. 15. Cava E, ... a small number of people have independently adopted the practice of calorie restriction in some form as a potential anti-aging ...
... leading to the anti-addition product. The attack of the nucleophile occurs on the carbon atom that has the more stable positive ... are often carried out with catalytic amounts of the selenium compound and in presence of a sacrificial catalyst or co-oxidant ... Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 9 (7): 775-806. doi:10.1089/ars.2007.1528. PMID 17508906. Comasseto, João Valdir; Ling, Lo Wai ...
... as an antioxidant and also regenerator of other antioxidants.[134] Plants use multiple pathways to synthesize vitamin C. The ... At high tissue concentrations ascorbic acid is described as acting as a pro-oxidant, generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to ... "Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 19 (17): 2141-56. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5372. PMC 3869468. PMID 23621620.. ... Evidence for ascorbate's anti-tumor effects was limited to case reports and observational and uncontrolled studies."[44] ...
... doses of beta-carotene in conjunction of high oxygen tension due to smoking results in a pro-oxidant effect and an antioxidant ... table due to the lack of evidence that the antioxidant level present in a food translated into a related antioxidant effect in ... The use of antioxidants to prevent some diseases is controversial. In a high-risk group like smokers, high doses of beta ... The immune system uses the lethal effects of oxidants by making production of oxidizing species a central part of its mechanism ...
A diet rich in anti-oxidants could allow for skin alterations such as acute acne or chronic non-infectious lesions, especially ... However, there has not been a dietary system devised to quantify what levels of oxidants or antioxidants are "healthy". ... A dietary balance of oxidants and antioxidants are critical in maintaining optimal health. There have been studies on ... Antioxidant supplements may also interact with some medicines. The primary factor in antioxidants causing or promoting the ...
In addition, the presence of large quantities of humics in the water can also act as antioxidants of ROS. However, it must be ... In marine systems, superoxide most often acts as a one-electron reductant, but it can also serve as an oxidant and may increase ... doi:10.1016/0921-8734(92)90030-S. De Gara, Laura; De Pinto, Maria C.; Tommasi, Franca (2003). "The antioxidant systems vis-à- ... The dismutation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide can also be catalyzed by the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase with a ...
Anti-oxidant activityEdit. The curcumin derivatives demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin have, like curcumin itself, been ... Curcuminoids act as a superoxide radical scavenger as well as singlet oxygen quencher and gives the antioxidant its ... tested for their antioxidant activities in vitro.[3] Antioxidants can be used to extend the shelf life for food and maintain ... This isolation method was used to demonstrate the antioxidant activities of curcuminoids, where they isolated pure curcuminoids ...
... anti-oxidant: sulphur dioxide, colouring agent: cochineal, burned sugar.[13] It is made in Belgium at Heineken's Stassen plant. ...
An antioxidant is a molecule stable enough to donate an electron to a free radical and neutralize it, thus reducing its ... 4 to produce the amino radical in acid solutions, given that radicals are stronger oxidants than OH. In order to test this, ... These antioxidants delay or inhibit cellular damage mainly through their free radical scavenging property, as they can safely ... There are two principal mechanisms of action of antioxidants: *The first is a chain-breaking mechanism by which the primary ...
These damaging oxidants are removed by antioxidant metabolites such as glutathione and enzymes such as catalases and ... Sies H (1997). "Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants" (PDF). Exp Physiol. 82 (2): 291-5. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.1997. ... Vertuani S, Angusti A, Manfredini S (2004). "The antioxidants and pro-antioxidants network: an overview". Curr Pharm Des. 10 ( ...
Sies H (March 1997). "Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants" (PDF). Exp. Physiol. 82 (2): 291-5. doi:10.1113/expphysiol. ... Antioxidant Biodegradation Bioremediation Microbial biodegradation Jakoby WB, Ziegler DM (December 1990). "The enzymes of ... and the various antioxidant systems that eliminate reactive oxygen species. The metabolism of xenobiotics is often divided into ... and the various antioxidant systems that remove reactive oxygen species. Quantitatively, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of ...
... is an experimental therapy that aims to effect an outcome by modifying the levels of pro-oxidant and antioxidant ... Antioxidant therapy Orthomolecular medicine Vitamin C megadosage Douglas Robert Spitz; Kenneth J. Dornfeld; Koyamangalath ... Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 11 (5): 1107. doi:10.1089/ars.2008.2308. Chaiswing, Luksana; Zhong, Weixiong; Oberley, Terry D ...
... has antioxidant properties in vitro. Under laboratory conditions, it scavenges hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous ... acid, inhibits production of oxidants by metal ions, and may participate in metal ion transport and regulation of ... Ey J, Schömig E, Taubert D (August 2007). "Dietary sources and antioxidant effects of ergothioneine". J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 ( ... Akanmu D, Cecchini R, Aruoma OI, Halliwell B (July 1991). "The antioxidant action of ergothioneine". Arch Biochem Biophys. 288 ...
... as an antioxidant and also regenerator of other antioxidants. Plants use multiple pathways to synthesize vitamin C. The major ... At high tissue concentrations, ascorbic acid is described as acting as a pro-oxidant, generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to ... Evidence for ascorbate's anti-tumor effects was limited to case reports and observational and uncontrolled studies." A 2013 ... One of these was thought to be the anti-scorbutic factor. In 1928, this was referred to as "water-soluble C," although its ...
Melanin Mitohormesis Oxidative stress Oxygen toxicity Polyphenol antioxidants Pro-oxidant Reactive nitrogen species Reactive ... As such, they are an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen. In mammals and most chordates, three ... Deleting antioxidant enzymes, in general, yields shorter lifespan, though overexpression studies have not (with some recent ... Due to the dual role of ROS, both prooxidant and antioxidant-based anticancer agents have been developed. However, modulation ...
The menaquinone, with the help of another enzyme, then transfers these two electrons to a suitable oxidant, such fumarate or ... Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 8 (3-4): 347-353. doi:10.1089/ars.2006.8.347. PMID 16677080. Suttie, J. W. (1985). "Vitamin K- ... In aerobic respiration, the final oxidant is molecular oxygen (O2), which accepts four electrons from an electron donor such as ...
DLD is thought to have a pro-oxidant role by reducing oxygen to a superoxide or ferric to ferrous iron, which then catalyzes ... An antioxidant regenerating pathway". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 268 (5): 1486-90. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2001. ... Diaphorase activity of DLD may have an antioxidant role through its ability to scavenge nitric oxide and to reduce ubiquinone ... a mitochondrial protein involved in iron metabolism and antioxidant protection. In humans, mutations in DLD are linked to a ...
... "c-Maf negatively regulates ARE-mediated detoxifying enzyme genes expression and anti-oxidant induction". Oncogene. 21 (34): ... proteins negatively regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of the NAD(P)H:Quinone ... Mouse Mafg gene is induced by Nrf2-sMaf heterodimers through an antioxidant response element (ARE) at the promoter proximal ... The latter DNA sequences have been recognized as antioxidant/electrophile response elements or NF-E2-binding motifs to which ...
Warner D, Sheng H, Batinić-Haberle I (2004). «Oxidants, antioxidants and the ischemic brain». J Exp Biol. 207 (Pt 18): 3221-31 ... Sies, Helmut (1997). «Oxidative stress: Oxidants and antioxidants». Experimental physiology. 82 (2): 291-5. PMID 9129943. ... Market Study: Antioxidants». Ceresana Research]. *↑ «Why use Antioxidants?». SpecialChem Adhesives. Consultado em 27 de ... Sautin, Yuri; Johnson, Richard (2008). «Uric Acid: The Oxidant-Antioxidant Paradox». Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids ...
... and the anti-oxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Glutathione was studied in two large double-blind placebo-controlled trials and seemed ... Interleukin-6 prevented peripheral nerve damage in animals without inhibiting the anti-cancer effect. As possible preventative ... alpha lipoic acid and n-acetyl cysteine as anti-CIPN adjuvants concluded that "currently no agent has shown solid beneficial ...
"Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (17): 7915-22. doi:10.1073/ ...
This, in turn, stimulates release of proteases and oxidants by the mesangial and epithelial cells, damaging the capillary walls ... or anti-proteinuric therapies. A large part of this difficulty is due to a lack of ability to predict which people will ... the treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs and non-specific anti-proteinuric measures. Recommended first line ...
2008) DPPH and oxygen free radicals as pro-oxidant of biomolecules. Toxicol In Vitro 22: 279-286. ... 29.7 μg/ml for anti-breast cancer and 18.7 μg /ml for anti-hepatic cancer). This extract showed strong antioxidant activity ... Phenolic; Anti-tumor; Antioxidant; Antimicrobial. Introduction. Main objectives of this study were to evaluate antitumor, ... Anti-Tumor, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial and the Phenolic Constituents of Clove Flower Buds (Syzygium aromaticum) Abd El Azim ...
Pro-oxidant activities[edit]. Further information: Pro-oxidant. Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro- ... The relative importance of the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of antioxidants is an area of current research, but ... water-soluble antioxidants react with oxidants in the cell cytosol and the blood plasma, while lipid-soluble antioxidants ... Thus, the function of antioxidant systems is not to remove oxidants entirely, but instead to keep them at an optimum level.[55] ...
"We have shown that this novel probucol-analog induces a pathway in the vessel wall which is both anti-oxidative and anti- ... Instead there has been a surprise finding, which relates to a synthetic antioxidant, the drug Probucol, which is no longer ... "There has been a lot of hype which suggested that antioxidant vitamin supplements had a beneficial outcome for cardiovascular ... points out that there is little convincing evidence that dietary antioxidant supplements such as vitamin E prevent heart ...
There are a few themes that have dogged the visionaries of speculative fiction more than the quest to cheat death, and today we may actually be within sight of completing that goal.. ...
... future research should address the effects of anti-oxidant supplementation on breast cancer outcomes, including whether anti- ... Given the common use of anti-oxidant supplements during breast cancer treatment, often at high doses and in conjunction with ... Many women with breast cancer take anti-oxidants while undergoing cancer treatment, even though the consequences are unknown, U ... Greenlees study is based on 764 patients who completed a follow-up interview and provided information on anti-oxidant ...
This book overviews the basic mechanisms of oxidant formation and antioxidant defences. In addition, the formation of oxidants ... Oxidants and Antioxidant Defense Systems. Editors. * Tilman Grune Series Title. Reactions and Processes. Series Volume. 2 / 2O ... Oxidants and free radicals are connected with diseases such as cancer, diabetes, infectious, cardiovascular and ... Therefore, comprehensive knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of oxidant and free radical production and the defence against ...
Then, a known oxidant was added to the mix.. Compared to LDLs treated with the oxidant alone, those mixed with a beverage ... Unfortunately, with age our antioxidant-production systems begin to poop out. As their efficiency wanes, each new oxidant ... Mention antioxidants and most people will immediately think of vitamins-typically C and E-usually in the form of mega-dose ... Pulling antioxidants starves cancers. Science News 159(April 21):248.. ____. 2000. The power of caffeine and pale tea. Science ...
Shop Antioxidant Serums and find the best fit for your beauty routine. Free shipping and samples available ... Supercharge Anti-Oxidant Moisture Serum. Size 1 oz/ 30 mL · ITEM 2122281 ... What it is: A powerful antioxidant, this anti-aging serum works to both protect and prevent accelerated signs of aging while ... This serum contains four superfruit extracts rich in antioxidants that are known for their anti-aging and free radical fighting ...
... "oxidants are bad guys and antioxidants are good guys" myth. Oxidants can be harmful in some contexts, but they can also serve ... On the other hand, the antioxidant scavenger that soaks up oxidants being produced did not permit regeneration while it was ... After all, the elegance of this study lies in the genetically integrated oxidant sensor that allows live tracking of oxidants ... Instead of consuming large quantities of non-specific antioxidants, we need to use antioxidants in a very targeted, context- ...
Anti-oxidants are very important. I try to eat some anti-oxidant rich foods daily. Unfortunately, even if one can eat a lot of ... Anti-oxidants helps neutralize them. I eat fruits and vegetables. In addition, I take anti-oxidant vitamins C and E and Alpha ... Vitamin C is a good anti oxidant. Vitamin C is regarded as the Mother of all Vitamins. L-glutathione is also an anti oxidant ... anti oxidants are wonderful! we all should be taking them - cellular protection! too many toxins in the air, water, etc. our ...
Oxidative stress research has largely focused on the role and effects of antioxidants in protecting these molecules from damage ... Current antioxidant treatment. Several antioxidants are currently used to treat diseases.. For example, antioxidants may be ... Oxidative Stress and Oxidants. *Oxidative Stress Effects. Last Updated: Jan 14, 2014 ... Antioxidant source. Most antioxidants are obtained from diet but they can also be taken as supplements in the form of capsules ...
Activitats pro-oxidants[modifica]. Els antioxidants que són agents de reducció poden també actuar com pro-oxidants. Per exemple ... La importància relativa de les activitats dels antioxidants com pro-oxidants i antioxidants és una àrea dinvestigació actual; ... 9,0 9,1 9,2 9,3 9,4 Sies H «Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants». Exp Physiol, 82, 2, 1997, pàg. 291-5. PMID: 9129943. ... Hao Q, Maret W «Imbalance between pro-oxidant and pro-antioxidant functions of zinc in disease». J. Alzheimers Dis., 8, 2, 2005 ...
... proper flow of blood to carry nutrients to different cells of the brain and anti oxidants that can destroy the ... Read ,. ... The Chinese way of life has employed oolong tea for centuries for its therapeutic capabilities and anti-aging attributes. It is ... Red wine possesses a rich diet of antioxidants and also resveratrol that will help to make " free radicals " neutral. Many ... Candida and Cellulite - The Influence of Anti Candida Regime. 25th May 2011 ...
B. Halliwell, J. R. Hoult and D. R. Blake, Oxidants, inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, FASEB J. 2: 2867-2873 (1988). ... B. Halliwell, J. R. Hoult and D. R. Blake, Oxidants, inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, FASEB J. 2: 2867-2873 (1988). ... Dowling E.J., Winrow V.R., Merry P., Blake D.R. (1990) Oxidants, Joint Inflammation and Anti-Inflammatory Strategies. In: ... B. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, Iron as a biological pro-oxidant, ISI Atlas Sci. Biochem. 1: 48-52 (1988).Google Scholar ...
Goode HF, Webster NR (1993) Anti-oxidants in intensive care medicine. Clin Intensive Care 4: 265-270Google Scholar ... Halliwell B (1996) Vitamin C: antioxidant or pro-oxidant in vivo. Free Radic Res 25: 439454Google Scholar ... Maxwell SRJ (1995) Prospects for the use of antioxidant therapies. Drugs 49: 345-361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Haji-Michael PG (2000) Antioxidant therapy in the critically ill. Br J Intensive Care 10: 88-93Google Scholar ...
Unlike other antioxidants, especially synthetic carotenoids, astaxanthin lacks the ability to turn into a pro-oxidant, even at ... As an antioxidant, astaxanthin has powerful anti-inflammatory benefits, which makes it useful for a number of diseases ... Astaxanthin is believed to be the most potent antioxidant nature has to offer. In terms of antioxidant power or potency, ... The combination of its high-potency antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties allows it to address a vast array of health ...
... antioxidants become pro-oxidant 5. Any antioxidant will do 6. Theoretically, antioxidants cannot behave as such 7. Antioxidant ... 10 misconceptions about antioxidants 1: Antioxidants cure any disease 2. Antioxidants increase mortality 3. The more the better ... 8. Once used, antioxidants are inactive 9. Natural antioxidants are superior 10. Antioxidant drugs do not work ... This includes the anti-oxidant claims, which are in general based on alleged research from TUFTS University (US). However, this ...
Examples of antioxidants include beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, selenium as well as vitamins A, C and E. Fruits, vegetables, ... Antioxidants are believed to benefit overall health by protecting your cells against free radical damage. Free radicals are ...
Examples of antioxidants include beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, selenium as well as vitamins A, C and E. Fruits, vegetables, ... Antioxidants are believed to benefit overall health by protecting your cells against free radical damage. Free radicals are ... Brands A-Z Biotivia Antioxidants Categories Supplements Antioxidants Categories Health Topics Atherosclerosis Antioxidants ...
The combination of several synergistic antioxidants, enzymatic co-factors and amino acids in appropriate delivery vehicles ... While the oxidants in tar are stable, those organic radicals in the gas phase smoke are reactive carbon and oxygen centered ... Compounds having anti-proliferative properties. US20110040266 *. Oct 26, 2010. Feb 17, 2011. Blondino Frank E. Anti-insomnia ... Antioxidants have been found to inhibit all stages of carcinogenesis whereas other antioxidants are more specific and thus more ...
E. R. Stadtman, "Role of oxidant species in aging," Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1105-1112, 2004. View at ... Rationale for Antioxidant Supplementation in Sarcopenia. Francesco Cerullo,1 Giovanni Gambassi,1 and Matteo Cesari2 ... S. R. J. Maxwell, "Prospects for the use of antioxidant therapies," Drugs, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 345-361, 1995. View at Publisher ... P. M. Clarkson and S. Thompson, "Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health?" American Journal of ...
... researchers have touted the power of antioxidant compounds found in plants, grapes and food as a natural method to improve ... What is emerging is a new view that antioxidants are not a fix for everything, and that some degree of oxidant stress may be ... Antioxidants Can Block Benefits of Exercise. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... For decades, researchers have touted the power of antioxidant compounds found in plants, grapes and food as a natural method to ...
Despite an effective antioxidant network there are several diseases that can result from an imbalance between pro-oxidants and ... Antioxidants. Each of the living organisms thus have a complex network of antioxidant metabolites and enzymes that act together ... antioxidants. The term "oxidative stress" has been coined to represent a shift towards the pro-oxidants. This stress can be due ... These systems of antioxidants prevent these reactive species from being formed or remove them before they can damage vital ...
A. Kontush, "Amyloid-β: an antioxidant that becomes a pro-oxidant and critically contributes to Alzheimers disease," Free ... The antioxidants within the body are composed of antioxidant enzyme defenses (Table 2) and additional antioxidant compounds ... H.-M. Zhang and Y. Zhang, "Melatonin: a well-documented antioxidant with conditional pro-oxidant actions," Journal of Pineal ... H. Sies, "Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants," Experimental Physiology, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 291-295, 1997. View at ...
... They extinguish free radical damage. When your lifestyle produces more free radicals than your anti-oxidants can ... Intense C60 - A newly discovered universal anti-oxidant 172 times more potent than Vitamin C, C60 rejuvenates all cells in the ... Hydroxytyrosol Powerful antioxidant may promote cognitive actions. Luteolin Antioxidant that reduces free radicals. May also ... Reduce oxidative stress for anti-aging effects with one of the highest antioxidant formulas known - six times more than ...
  • In addition, the formation of oxidants and their detoxification, the damage of macromolecules and the major repair and removal systems will be highlighted. (springer.com)
  • Natural formation of oxidants during mitochondrial electron transport, auto-oxidation of some neurotransmitters (e.g. norepinephrine, dopamine) and initiation of events during hypoxia or ischemia, can result in oxidant formation and subsequent tissue damage. (biologists.org)
  • Anti-Pollution Defense: Tomato leaf cell extract protects against environmental stressors. (sephora.com)
  • In truth, of course, there is no "magic bullet" to prevent cancer - but there IS a growing body of research that shows that anti-oxidants actually provide a kind of defense against this disease. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • Spinach is packed with carotenoids-antioxidants that promote healthy eyes and help prevent macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in older people. (rd.com)
  • Similarly, red grapes have 2016 total antioxidants per serving, and raisins contain 2490. (rd.com)
  • Make your portion more powerful: A study in the Journal of Nutrition determined that the anti-oxidant ellagic acid (found in raspberries, pomegranates, walnuts, and cranberries) enhanced the ability of quercetin (an antioxidant found in apples, grapes, onions, and buckwheat) to kill off cancerous cells. (rd.com)
  • In addition to these uses in medicine, antioxidants have many industrial uses, such as preservatives in food and cosmetics and preventing the degradation of rubber and gasoline . (wikidoc.org)
  • another antioxidant I try to implement as much as possible is catechins (the active extract in green tea), as the research I have (so far) has only pointed towards positive effects and health benefits both in terms of immunology, decreased cancer risk and increased system abilities. (hubpages.com)
  • Do antioxidants erase the beneficial effects of exercise? (marksdailyapple.com)
  • This review will focus on prostate cancer chemopreventive effects of polyphenolic anti-oxidants derived from green tea and pomegranate. (nih.gov)
  • I wrote about the impressive anti-viral, anti microbial, anti caner, immune supporting effects. (brinkzone.com)
  • Low grade inflammation is often part of aging - for reasons both known and reasons to yet be fully understood - which also effects redox status, so it's clear our anti oxidant needs at one age are not the same at another age, nor the same for two people of the same age! (brinkzone.com)
  • It is actually best to get our daily dose of antioxidants on natural resources for various reasons such as: it is more nutritious, economical and have less to no side-effects. (infobarrel.com)
  • Women taking antioxidants experienced no more adverse effects compared to those who received placebos or standard treatment, the study said. (upi.com)
  • This is likely due to the presence of polyphenols with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, such as anthocyanins and/or phenolic acids. (mdpi.com)
  • Growing evidence also shows that wholegrains offer protective effects against both types of disease, although this may not be related specifically to their antioxidant capacity. (mydr.com.au)
  • There is also some concern that consuming too many antioxidants may have negative effects on a person's health. (livingnaturally.com)
  • The effects of the two anti-oxidant treatments will be evaluated by measuring biomarkers in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the beginning and end of the 4-month period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Besides featuring antioxidant-rich parsley seed, the formulas also integrate other beneficial, natural ingredients like soothing lavender oil, grape seed extract and other seed oils from jojoba and blackcurrant. (trendhunter.com)
  • The current treatment involved in AMD is the use of anti-VEGF therapies. (medindia.net)
  • Cost Effective - The research team calculated that the patients in the study would need nearly eight fewer injections of anti-VEGF therapies into their eye. (medindia.net)
  • These are typically part of lotions, ointments and other goops applied to the skin, which suffer from "a paucity of controlled clinical trials in humans examining the role of anti-oxidants in preventing or decelerating skin aging. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Relatively high doses of antioxidants have not been effective in a number of larger clinical trials on a number of topics, said Dr Michael Joyner, a physiologist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. (health24.com)
  • Tirilazad is an antioxidant steroid derivative that inhibits the lipid peroxidation that is believed to play a key role in neuronal death in stroke and head injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study has shown that this stimulation is promoted by pro-oxidant conditions that result in increased hepatic lipid hydroperoxide content. (jci.org)
  • Conversely, PERPP is suppressed by antioxidants and by saturated fatty acids, which are not susceptible to lipid peroxidation. (jci.org)
  • These oxidants can damage cells by starting chemical chain reactions such as lipid peroxidation, or by oxidizing DNA or proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • Professor Bob Grimble is leading a team of scientists and clinicians from the Institute of Human Nutrition at the University of Southampton, the city s University Hospitals Trust and Sciona Ltd investigating how our genes interact with antioxidants in our diet in changing inflammation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Claims that a particular food is the 'richest source of antioxidants' can be confusing as the claim may depend on the type of measurement used or refer to a particular antioxidant, such as lycopene in tomatoes, and does not necessarily consider how well particular antioxidants can be absorbed. (mydr.com.au)