A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The consumption of edible substances.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Glucose in blood.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.
Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The selection of one food over another.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Educational institutions.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Abstaining from all food.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
The physical measurements of a body.
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.

Development of beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists for the treatment of obesity and diabetes--an update. (1/472)

Beta 3-adrenoceptor (beta 3-AR) agonists were found to have remarkable anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in rodents shortly after their discovery in the early 1980s. Despite these promising qualities, several pharmaceutical problems and theoretical concerns have slowed the development of these products as therapeutic agents in humans during the last 15 years. To date, the pharmaceutical industry has not been successful in developing a beta 3-AR agonist for use in the treatment of human obesity and type 2 diabetes. Pharmaceutical problems in this area concern important differences between rodent and human beta 3-AR and the difficulty in finding a compound with sufficient bioavailability that is a highly selective and full agonist at the human receptor. Some of these problems seem to have been solved with the cloning of the human beta 3-AR, which has made it possible to develop novel compounds directly and specifically against the human receptor. However, several theoretical concerns still remain. These include the major question as to whether the number of biologically active beta 3-ARs in adult humans is sufficient to produce relevant metabolic effects and, if so, whether their long-term stimulation is safe and free of unwarranted side effects. In addition, the mechanisms of action of beta 3-AR agonists remain poorly understood. Recent studies using CL 316,243, a highly selective beta 3-adrenergic compound, have provided new insights into the potential mechanisms of action of these drugs in rodents as well as the first evidence that treatment with a highly selective beta 3-AR agonist exerts relevant metabolic effects in humans. It appears that chronic beta 3-adrenergic stimulation in white adipose tissue increases the expression of newly discovered mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP 2 and 3) and a "reawakening" of dormant brown adipocytes. In addition, beta 3-ARs may be present in skeletal muscle where ectopic expression of UCP-1 has been reported. If these findings are confirmed, tissues other than brown fat may play an important role in mediating beta 3-adrenergic effects on thermogenesis and substrate oxidation. In humans, treatment with CL 316,243 for 8 weeks, in spite of limited bioavailability, induced marked plasma concentration-dependent increases in insulin sensitivity, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in lean volunteers, without causing beta 1-, or beta 2-mediated side effects. These results clearly indicate that favourable metabolic effects can be achieved by selective beta 3-AR stimulation in humans. The compounds of the next generation currently emerging from preclinical development are full agonists at the human beta 3-AR. These agents have demonstrated promising results in non-human primates. It will be interesting to see whether their efficacy in clinical trials is superior to that achieved with previous (rodent) beta 3-AR agonists and, if so, whether their effects will eventually translate into weight loss and improved metabolic control that could facilitate their use as effective drugs for the treatment of obesity and Type 2 diabetes in humans.  (+info)

Orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, for weight maintenance after conventional dieting: a 1-y study. (2/472)

BACKGROUND: Long-term maintenance of weight loss remains a therapeutic challenge in obesity treatment. OBJECTIVE: This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to test the hypothesis that orlistat, a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor, is significantly more effective than a placebo in preventing weight regain. DESIGN: Obese subjects who lost > or = 8% of their initial body weight during a 6-mo lead-in of a prescribed hypoenergetic diet (4180-kJ/d deficit) with no adjunctive pharmacotherapy were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 30 mg orlistat, 60 mg orlistat, or 120 mg orlistat 3 times daily for 1 y in combination with a maintenance diet to help prevent weight regain. Of 1313 recruited subjects [body mass index (in kg/m2): 28-43], 729 subjects lost > or =8% of their initial body weight during the 6-mo weight-loss lead-in period and were enrolled in the double-blind phase. RESULTS: After 1 y, subjects treated with 120 mg orlistat 3 times daily regained less weight than did placebo-treated subjects (32.8 +/- 4.5% compared with 58.7 +/- 5.8% regain of lost weight; P < 0.001). Moreover, more subjects in the 120-mg orlistat group than in the placebo group regained < or = 25% of lost weight (47.5% of subjects compared with 29.9%). In addition, orlistat treatment (120 mg 3 times daily) was associated with significantly greater reductions in total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than was placebo (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The use of orlistat during periods of attempted weight maintenance minimizes weight readjustment and facilitates long-term improvement in obesity-related disease risk factors.  (+info)

The effect of moxonidine on feeding and body fat in obese Zucker rats: role of hypothalamic NPY neurones. (3/472)

The antihypertensive agent moxonidine, an imidazoline Ii-receptor agonist, also induces hypophagia and lowers body weight in the obese spontaneously hypertensive rat, but the central mediation of this action and the neuronal pathways that moxonidine may interact with are not known. We studied whether moxonidine has anti-obesity effects in the genetically-obese and insulin-resistant fa/fa Zucker rat, and whether these are mediated through inhibition of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones. Lean and obese Zucker rats were given moxonidine (3 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or saline by gavage for 21 days. Moxonidine decreased food intake throughout by 20% in obese rats (P<0.001) and by 8% in lean rats (P<0.001), and reduced weight gain that final body weight was 15% lower in obese (P<0.001) and 7% lower in lean (P<0.01) rats than their untreated controls. Plasma insulin and leptin levels were decreased in moxonidine-treated obese rats (P<0.01 and P<0.05), but unchanged in treated lean rats. Uncoupling protein-1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue was stimulated by 40-50% (P< or =0.05) in both obese and lean animals given moxonidine. Obese animals given moxonidine showed a 37% reduction in hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels (P = 0.01), together with significantly increased NPY concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus (P<0.05), but no changes in the arcuate nucleus or other nuclei; this is consistent with reduced NPY synthesis in the arcuate nucleus and blocked release of NPY in the paraventricular nucleus. In lean animals, moxonidine did not affect NPY levels or NPY mRNA. The hypophagic, thermogenic and anti-obesity effects of moxonidine in obese Zucker rats may be partly due to inhibition of the NPY neurones, whose inappropriate overactivity may underlie obesity in this model.  (+info)

Review article: malnutrition and maltreatment--a comment on orlistat for the treatment of obesity. (4/472)

The prevalence of obesity has doubled in the last 10 years and is now reaching epidemic proportions. There is a significant comorbidity and financial cost associated with this disorder. Orlistat is an intestinal lipase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of obesity. Recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated the benefit of orlistat used in conjunction with a hypocaloric (low-fat) diet in facilitating weight reduction and the long-term maintenance of this weight loss. Patients treated with orlistat lost a greater amount of initial body weight compared to those who received placebo. After 24 months of treatment, weight loss of more than 5% was maintained in a greater number of those treated with orlistat. This was associated with significant reductions in cardiovascular risk factors (cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio). The main adverse events are related to fat malabsorption, with potential losses of fat-soluble vitamins and other compounds. Orlistat as a treatment for obesity, when prescribed within present guidelines, can aid modest weight loss in about one-third of patients. More importantly, it can assist in the maintenance of weight loss with major medical benefits for these patients.  (+info)

Orlistat. No hurry.... (5/472)

Treatments for obesity are disappointing. None has yet shown an effect on morbidity and mortality. Nondrug treatments are poorly assessed. Stable long-term weight loss necessitates long-term management. Orlistat (Xenical, Hoffman-La Roche), a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor, is indicated, in combination with a low-calorie diet, for management of obesity. The assessment file is bulky and methodologically sound, at least in terms of the weight loss end point. During medium-term trials (12 to 24 months), orlistat administered at a dose of 120 mg three times daily and combined with dietary intervention had a moderate positive effect on body weight (-3.5 kg on average). No longer-term trials have been done. It is unknown whether this drug affects morbidity and mortality linked to obesity. In clinical trials, patients treated with orlistat had an increased frequency of breast cancer. This potential risk is currently being assessed in a specific trial. Gastrointestinal adverse effects are frequent. Treatment is costly.  (+info)

Drug therapy for obesity. (6/472)

Obesity is a common health problem in the United States, and effective treatment is challenging. Obesity is associated with an increased mortality rate and risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Numerous treatments are available for obesity. Behavioral therapy, surgery and pharmacologic treatment have been used with varying degrees of success. Older anorectic agents have significant side effects and limited benefit, and some have even been withdrawn from the U.S. market because of a possible association with cardiovascular complications. The safety of newer agents must be extensively evaluated before widespread use is recommended. Therefore, behavioral therapy, including regular exercise and the development of healthy eating habits, continues to be the best treatment for long-term weight loss.  (+info)

Urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi) (7/472)

BACKGROUND: Chinese-herb nephropathy is a progressive form of renal fibrosis that develops in some patients who take weight-reducing pills containing Chinese herbs. Because of a manufacturing error, one of the herbs in these pills (Stephania tetrandra) was inadvertently replaced by Aristolochia fangchi, which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. METHODS: The diagnosis of a neoplastic lesion in the native urinary tract of a renal-transplant recipient who had Chinese-herb nephropathy prompted us to propose regular cystoscopic examinations and the prophylactic removal of the native kidneys and ureters in all our patients with end-stage Chinese-herb nephropathy who were being treated with either transplantation or dialysis. Surgical specimens were examined histologically and analyzed for the presence of DNA adducts formed by aristolochic acid. All prescriptions written for Chinese-herb weight-reducing compounds during the period of exposure (1990 to 1992) in these patients were obtained, and the cumulative doses were calculated. RESULTS: Among 39 patients who agreed to undergo prophylactic surgery, there were 18 cases of urothelial carcinoma (prevalence, 46 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 29 to 62 percent): 17 cases of carcinoma of the ureter, renal pelvis, or both and 1 papillary bladder tumor. Nineteen of the remaining patients had mild-to-moderate urothelial dysplasia, and two had normal urothelium. All tissue samples analyzed contained aristolochic acid-related DNA adducts. The cumulative dose of aristolochia was a significant risk factor for urothelial carcinoma, with total doses of more than 200 g associated with a higher risk of urothelial carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of urothelial carcinoma among patients with end-stage Chinese-herb nephropathy (caused by aristolochia species) is a high.  (+info)

Detection of impaired intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids: validation studies of a novel test in a rat model of fat malabsorption. (8/472)

BACKGROUND: Classic fat balance studies detect fat malabsorption but do not discriminate between the potential causes of malabsorption, such as impaired intestinal lipolysis or reduced uptake of fatty acids. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate a novel test for the specific, sensitive detection of impaired intestinal uptake of long-chain unesterified fatty acids in an appropriate rat model of fat malabsorption. DESIGN: The absorption and appearance in plasma of [(13)C]palmitic acid were determined in control rats and in rats with fat malabsorption due either to chronic bile deficiency (permanent bile diversion) or to oral administration of the lipase inhibitor orlistat (200 mg/kg diet). [(13)C]Palmitic acid results were compared with the percentage absorption of ingested dietary fat determined by fat balance. RESULTS: Between 1 and 6 h after intraduodenal administration, plasma [(13)C]palmitate concentrations in control rats were 4-10-fold higher than in bile-deficient rats (P < 0.05) but were not significantly different between orlistat-supplemented rats and their controls. In control and bile-deficient rats, plasma [(13)C]palmitate concentrations allowed complete discrimination between normal (>92%) and reduced (<92%) fat absorption, whereas the percentage absorption of [(13)C]palmitate over 48 h appeared to be highly correlated with the percentage absorption of ingested dietary fat (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The [(13)C]palmitic acid absorption test detects impaired intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids selectively and sensitively in a rat model of fat malabsorption due to bile deficiency. Our data strongly support the use of the [(13)C]palmitic acid absorption test for the diagnosis of clinical fat malabsorption syndromes.  (+info)

Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
Celastrol is a promising anti-obesity agent that acts as a sensitizer of the protein hormone leptin. Despite its potent activity, a sustainable source of celastrol and celastrol derivatives for further pharmacological studies is lacking. To elucidate the celastrol biosynthetic pathway and reconstruct it in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mined a root-transcriptome of Tripterygium wilfordii and identified four oxidosqualene cyclases and 49 cytochrome P450s as candidates to be involved in the early steps of celastrol biosynthesis. Using functional screening of the candidate genes in Nicotiana benthamiana, TwOSC4 was characterized as a novel oxidosqualene cyclase that produces friedelin, the presumed triterpenoid backbone of celastrol. In addition, three P450s (CYP712K1, CYP712K2, and CYP712K3) that act downstream of TwOSC4 were found to effectively oxidize friedelin and form the likely celastrol biosynthesis intermediates 29-hydroxy-friedelin and polpunonic acid. To facilitate production of friedelin, the
Obesity is a global public health problem. There are a range of treatments available with varying short and long term success rates. One option is the use of anti-obesity medication the prescription of which has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite this, little is known about the individual and GP practice factors that influence the prescription of anti-obesity medication. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with the prescription of anti-obesity medication in Northern Ireland using a population primary care prescribing database (~1.5 million people aged 16+ years) during 2009/10. While 25.0% of people are obese, only 1.3% (2.1% of females, 0.6% of males) received anti-obesity medication. The relationship between medication rates and age differed by gender (P | 0.001) with prescriptions higher in younger females and older males. Prescribing of anti-obesity medication reflected obesity prevalence across urban/rural areas and deprivation. There was
In this systematic review and meta-analysis in male rats, available data on body weights in NO3-treated and control groups were collected, evaluated, and analyzed. Meta-analysis of the 43 included animal experiment arms indicated that treatment with inorganic NO3 (via drinking water) might be related to a lower weight gain, compared to control animals (93.68 vs. 110.87 g, with a mean difference of -16.81 g, 95 % CI= -27.38, -6.24). Effects of NO3 on weight gain were greater when higher doses of NO3 or longer NO3 exposure periods were implemented; further moderator analyses showed that preventive weight-gain capacity of inorganic NO3 appears to be affected by age and the baseline body weights of the animals. These data strongly potentiate the hypothesis that introducing inorganic NO3 in the diet, acts as a natural anti-obesity agent. Meta-analysis of the amount of water intakes in NO3-treated and controls showed that inorganic NO3 had not significant effect on regular water intake of the animals. ...
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When coupled with a low-fat, low-calorie diet, Xenical (generic name: orlistat) helps obese patients lose weight and maintain a lower BMI. So i am trying orlistat …. Com/orlistat-plus-metformin-an Vol. According to MayoClinic. Alli diet pills contain 60 mg of orlistat, while Xenical pills contain 120 mg. Reprinted from Eating Disorders Review November/December 2004 Volume 15, Number 6 Two antiobesity agents that have been used for patients with diabetes mellitus are orlistat (Xenical®) and metformin (Glucophage®) Our review shows that orlistat is a more effective drug than metformin and should be the preferred drug in obese PCOS in combination with weight loss May 24, 2014 · PCOS, Orlistat and Metformin! Alli (orlistat): Alli is a miracle drug. Xenical (orlistat) for Obesity: Ive been on Xenical/Orlistat for 5 orlistat reviews for pcos days and have lost 3. They may also point to a role for anti-obesity drugs, point out UK researchers Orlistat is effective in preventing fat absorption ...
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Compounds are provided which have the structure wherein Q is C or N, X1 is CH or N and, A, E, M, G, X2, X3, X4, R1, R2, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3, Y, x, m, and n are as defined herein, which compounds are useful as antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and antiobesity agents.
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Xenical or orlistat is used to help to reduce weight in fat people. Orlistat is related with the class of medications known as anti-obesity agents, especially gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors.
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Technavio analysts forecast the global anti-obesity drugs market to grow at a CAGR of close to 8% during the forecast period, according to their latest market research report. However, the growth momentum of the market is expected to decelerate due to a decline in th...
Researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology have warned that new anti-obesity drugs may interfere with neural development in kids.
It blocks the intestines from absorbing about 25% of the fat that you eat. Cheapest price I could find out of the proper online pharmacies Cheap xenical orlistat price ireland to united states. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking Xenical capsules against the benefits they expect. Xenical is a medicinal medicinethat includes orlistat Buy Xenical and Orlistat treatments online now from just £16.95. Buy Xenical and Orlistat treatments online now from just £16.95. Orlistat is used to aid in weight loss, or to help reduce the risk of regaining weight already lost Orlistat (the generic version of Xenical) is a proven weight loss treatment licensed for supply in the UK. 1 Fortunately, there are quite a few brands available of Orlistat and this makes finding a way to buy cheapest Orlistat rather simple. Alli is approved for use in adults 18 and older who have a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or more Xenical may reduce the absorption of a specific drug from the intestine, such as those listed ...
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in Current Research in Nutrition & Food intake (2007), 3. The present paper is reviewing the current place of weight-reducing drugs in the overall management of overweight/obese subjects, especially those with metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes. Anti ... [more ▼]. The present paper is reviewing the current place of weight-reducing drugs in the overall management of overweight/obese subjects, especially those with metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes. Anti-obesity agents should be carefully evaluated in long-term (1-2 years) randomized controlled trials. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analysis assessed both the safety and efficacy of the two drugs currently used in the treatment of obesity, i.e. orlistat, a gastric and pancreatic lipase inhibitor that reduces fat absorption from the gut, and sibutramine, a combined norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor that regulates food intake. Rimonabant, a new compound acting as selective blocker of CB1 receptors of the endocannabinoid ...
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After a thirteen-year hiatus, the FDA approved two new anti-obesity drugs in 2012, lorcaserin (brand-name Belviq®) and a fixed-combination of topiramide and phentermine (brand-name Qsymia®); one new anti-obesity drug was approved in 2014, a fixed-combination of naltrexone and bupropion (brand-name Contrave®), and in 2015 the high dose liraglutide (brand-name Saxenda®) was approved for weight loss. During this time, the marketed anti-obesity drug sibutramine was withdrawn due to increase in non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke incidence [1], two drugs targeting cannabinoid receptors were not approvable in the United States and the European Union due to concerns regarding suicidality and leptin at pharmacologic doses was not marketed due to disappointing efficacy. All approved drugs, in conjunction with diet and exercise, achieve more weight gain as compared to placebo. Efficacy between different drugs cannot be directly compared since no head-to-head studies have been performed; ...
Eisai Co., Ltd. has entered into an agreement to grant exclusive development and marketing rights for its anti-obesity agent lorcaserin hydrochloride (generic name, product name in the United States: BELVIQ, product name for once-daily formulation in the United States: BELVIQ XR, lorcaserin) in 17 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, excluding Brazil, to Eurofarma Laboratorios S.A. which has a business foundation in Latin America.. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Obesity Medication, Appetite Suppressants, Appetite Depressants, Anti-Obesity Agents.
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Using new fluxomic techniques, our study reveals that viral infection takes control of cellular metabolism and drives, among other things, marked increases in fatty acid synthesis, said researcher Joshua Munger. We also found that if you target these increases in fatty acid metabolism using existing anti-obesity and anti-metabolism drugs, you inhibit viral replication.. In their experiments, Munger and colleagues developed a technique to measure changes in metabolic flux in human cells as they become infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), an enveloped virus of the b-herpes family that infects most human adults and that causes severe disease in those with weakened immune systems. Researchers chose cytomegalovirus for experiments because it serves as an excellent model for processes at play in many enveloped viral infections and in cancers. HCMV replicates in a variety of human cell types, including fibroblasts, the cell type used in the study.. To study metabolic flux, Munger and his team ...
Obesity is a complex health problem, caused by a number of factors such as excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, genetic predisposition, endocrine disorders, medications and psychiatric illnesses. The incidence of obesity among populations in both the developing and the developed world has reached epidemic proportions. In response to this, efforts to control and treat obesity have also been vigorously pursued, ranging from activities focused on raising awareness about lifestyle changes to the discovery and development of safe and effective anti-obesity drugs. Anti-obesity Drug Discovery and Development is a book series focused on this very important area of healthcare research. Each volume presents insightful updates on pharmaceutical research and development for clinical researchers and healthcare professionals involved in obesity treatment programs.. The fourth volume of this series covers 6 reviews on anti-obesity treatment strategies including updates on obesity and cancer ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Orlistat on Fecal Fat, Fecal Biliary Acids, and Colonic Cell Proliferation in Obese Subjects. AU - Ahnen, Dennis J.. AU - Guerciolini, Roberto. AU - Hauptman, Jonathan. AU - Blotner, Steven. AU - Woods, Cindy J.. AU - Wargovich, Michael J.. PY - 2007/11/1. Y1 - 2007/11/1. N2 - Background & Aims: Orlistat is a weight management agent that selectively inhibits gastrointestinal lipase activity. Because of orlistats mode of action, increased fecal fat is presented to the colonic mucosa, and fecal bile acid and free fatty acid composition may be altered during treatment. Our aim was to assess the effect of treatment of obese subjects with orlistat 120 mg 3 times a day for 6 weeks on fecal lipid and bile acid parameters and colonic mucosal cell proliferation. Methods: Twenty-four obese (body mass index, 30-40 kg/m2) but otherwise healthy male and female subjects were enrolled in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Participants ...
In almost all high income countries, people who suffer from the chronic disease of obesity must be provided with affordable and reimbursable access to specialized healthcare providers who can treat the disease with individualized treatment approaches of diet, anti-obesity medication, behavior and exercise options that are unique to the individual; in some cases that may also include surgical intervention.. Care provided by a properly trained clinician who either specializes in Obesity Medicine or has extensive training in the use of anti-obesity medication and treatment plan options, is still not readily available in most areas. Obesity is a complex, chronic disease with many contributing factors that challenge primary care and obesity medicine specialists alike, but without access to properly trained specialty providers, most people who suffer from Obesity will not be able to reach and maintain a healthy long-term weight goal.. Access to healthcare in itself can be challenging based on ...
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Objective: The present study investigated whether CAP exerted its anti-obesity effect through changes in the composition of gut microbiota and SCFAs, and whether the TRPV1 contributes to CAPs effects against obesity in HFD-fed mice.. Design: C57BL/6J (TRPV1+/+) and B6.129X1-Trpv1tm1Jul/J (TRPV1-/-) mice were respectively divided into three groups (n = 6),that is SLD, HFD-fed, and CAP (2 mg/kg, po) +HFD fed and were administered respective treatment for 12 weeks.. Results: We observed significantly lower weight gain and food intake, triglyceride, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels in HFD+CAP-fed TRPV1knockout (KO) mice compared to the HFD-fed KO mice, though this effect was more obvious in wild-type (WT) mice. CAP increased the numbers of Akkermansia, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Odoribacter, Allobaculum, Coprococcus, and S24-7, and reduced the numbers of Desulfovibrio, Escherichia, Helicobacter, and Sutterella in the HFD+CAP-fed WT and KO mice compared with HFD-fed WT and KO mice. CAP ...
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Orlistat is an anti-obesity treatment with which several gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects are commonly associated in the initial stages of therapy. There is no physiological explanation as to why two-thirds of those who take the drug experience one or more side-effects. It has been hypothesized that the GI microbiota may protect from or contribute to these GI disturbances. Using in vitro batch culture and human gut model systems, studies were conducted to determine whether increased availability of dietary lipids and/or orlistat affect the composition and/or activity of the faecal microbiota. Results from 24-h batch culture fermentation experiments demonstrated no effect of orlistat in the presence or absence of a dietary lipid (olive oil) on the composition of bacterial communities [as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses], but did show there was great variability in the lipolytic activities of the microbiotas of ...
This trial is conducted in the United States of America (USA). The aim of this trial is to investigate the safety, tolerability, efficacy and pharmacokinetics (the rate at which the trial drug is eliminated from the body) of NNC 0070-0002-0453 in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy male and female volunteers. Selected subjects will continue in a follow-up period of up to 5 years ...
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Heal DJ, Aspley S, Prow MR, Jackson HC, Martin KF, Cheetham SC: Sibutramine: a novel anti-obesity drug. A review of the pharmacological evidence to differentiate it from d-amphetamine and d-fenfluramine. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998 Aug;22 Suppl 1:S18-28; discussion S29. PMID 9758240 ...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the constituents and anti-obesity activity of the methanolic extract of Helianthus annuus seeds in mice model.
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0122]In accordance with the foregoing the present invention provides in a yet further aspect: [0123]5.1 A pharmaceutical combination comprising a) a first agent which is Compound A, or Compound B or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, preferably Compound A or the acetate salt thereof, and b) a co-agent, e.g. a second drug agent as defined above, for example a drug agent selected from the group consisting of an HDL increasing compound, a PPAR delta compound, a non-glitazone type PPARγ agonist, an anti-hypertensive agent, a cholesterol absorption modulator, an apo-A1 analog or mimetics, a renin inhibitor, a thrombin inhibitor, an aldosterone inhibitor, a GLP-1 agonist, a glucagon receptor antagonist, a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, an anti-obesity agent, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, a PPAR agonist, a prosclerotic growth factor, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. [0124]5.2 A pharmaceutical combination comprising a) a first agent which is Compound C or a ...
This study investigated the anti-obesity effect of a polysaccharide-rich red algae |i|Gelidium amansii|/i| hot-water extract (GHE) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese hamsters. GHE contained 68.54% water-soluble indigestible carbohydrate polymers. Hamsters were fed with a HF diet for 5 weeks to indu …
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Effect of orlistat on blood cyclosporin concentration in an obese heart transplant patient.: Orlistat markedly decreased blood cyclosporin concentrations, possi
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CPR researchers are co-hosting the international conference on brown fat research and anti-obesity strategies CPH BAT with prominent researchers and coordinators from Rigshospitalet and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at UCPH.. The conference features an excellent line-up of scientific speakers from this research field https://www.cphbat.com/speakers.. Welcome text from the CPHBAT website:. This spring, we will gather some of the very top scientists in the world within brown fat research and anti-obesity strategies. We are looking forward to groundbreaking discussions and new ideas on future directions in this research field. We also look forward to welcoming you in Copenhagen, a city to which some refer as the happiest in the world. Following a dark and rainy winter, Copenhagen comes to life. You will be able to enjoy a green city with amazing microbreweries, excellent coffee shops and a wide range of high level restaurants. You will be inspired by the Copenhagen biking and running ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The purpose of the proposed studies is to assess the feasibility of developing a novel Neuropeptide Y (NPY) obesity treatment. Extensive preclinical and clinical studies indicate that NPY receptors are important mediators of appetite and obesity. The proposed Specific Aims will determine if chronic treatment with selective NPY Y2 or Y4 receptor agonists demonstrate significant anti-obesity activity in a well established rodent model of obesity. Preliminary studies indicate that proprietary Y2 (PD4048) and Y4 (PD4074) receptor agonists administered acutely demonstrated significant anti-obesity effects as judged by decreased food intake and enhanced metabolic rate. Additional Preliminary Studies demonstrate that acute co-administration of our selective Y2 and Y4 agonists resulted in a synergistic effect on food intake that was significantly greater than either drug administered alone. The proposed Specific Aims will take our preliminary studies to the logical ...
The objective of this study was to predict long-term health and economic outcomes of orlistat in obese type 2 diabetic patients.. Therefore, we examined the impact of weight loss due to orlistat on different cardiovascular risk factors and extrapolated this impact to morbidity and mortality outcomes based on results of long-term trials in diabetic patients.. A 40% risk reduction obtained for every 10% relative reduction in HbA1c was observed in patients with type 1 diabetes (18) and extrapolated to type 2 diabetes by other authors (10,11,18,27). This risk reduction was confirmed for type 2 diabetes by a more recent publication of the UKPDS investigators (21).. A debatable aspect of our analysis is that for patients with hypercholesterolemia, we independently added the beneficial effects on HbA1c associated with weight loss caused by orlistat to the effects on LDL cholesterol. This may be an overestimation of the effects of orlistat. However, besides the evidence from Stratton et al. (21) and ...
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Body fat mass of the cold group significantly decreased at week 6 compared with week 0 (-5.2% ± 1.9% change, P , 0.05), whereas body weight and fat-free mass did not change significantly (Figure 3A). In contrast, in the control group, there was no significant change in these parameters. During the 6-week period, body fat mass decreased more in the cold group than in the control group (-0.70 ± 0.23 vs. 0.03 ± 0.21 kg, P , 0.05; Figure 3C). The change in body fat mass was inversely correlated with that in BAT activity (r = -0.62, P , 0.01; Figure 3F) and insignificantly with that in CIT (r = -0.43, P = 0.08; Figure 3H), which suggests that increased BAT leads to body fat reduction. Chronic effects of capsinoids on BAT activity/thermogenesis and body fat. Although our results are the first demonstration of the effective recruitment of human BAT, it would seem difficult to increase exposure to cold in daily life. To explore more practical methods for the recruitment of BAT, we focused on the ...
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Aston University researchers are seeking industrial partners to develop an anti-obesity drug that exploits a fat-burning process that affects cancer patients. Weight loss is triggered by a protein, Zag (zinc alpha 2 glyco-protein), that is produced naturally in the body. Zag occurs in greater quantities in cancer patients. The protein allows weight loss with no change in eating habits. The protein was first discovered in 1962, but scientists have been unsure about its function until now. Research led by Mike Tisdale, professor of cancer biochemistry at Astons School of Life and Health Sciences, found that Zag acts in a similar way to hormones produced in the body that convert fat into heat rather than energy during exposure to cold. The discovery was made when the research team was studying cachexia syndrome, the process of weight-loss in cancer patients that can cause them to lose up to 85 per cent of their body fat. The researchers found that while Zag is present in normal tissue, its ...
On Thursday, December 28th, 2017, researchers at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore announced theyd developed a skin path that delivers anti-obesity drugs to the body with a lower risk of side effect than that associated with the same drugs (including a thyroid hormone derivative) when they are administered via injection or swallowed in a pill.. However, there are similarities with an injection because the ingredients are housed in hundreds of micro-needles that embed in the skin when the slimming patch is applied and the degrade in a manner that feeds the white adipose tissue below the skin a drug that causes it to turn brown.. Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center in New York are working on something similar. The needles deliver nanoparticles that change the fat near the patch application area and, when details of the project hit the news in September 2017, it sparked a lot of interest.. Both micro-needle patches have been tested on mice. The researchers in Singapore ...
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Oh, Sangmi; Kim, Koon; Chung, Young; Shong, Minho; Park, Seung (2009). "Anti-obesity Agents: A Focused Review on the Structural ... Based on its chemical structure, UWA-101 may actually also possess some activity as a releasing agent, and if so, unlike RTI-83 ... A closely related type of drug is a serotonin-dopamine releasing agent (SDRA). Relative to serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine ... Hofbauer, Karl (2004). Pharmacotherapy of obesity : options and alternatives. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-415-30321- ...
... as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial". JAMA. 280 (18): 1596-600. doi:10.1001/jama.280.18.1596. PMID ... In a study in Zucker rats, which are genetically predisposed to obesity, Garcinia cambogia extract containing HCA showed that ...
... not as an anti-obesity agent. When researchers found out that it promotes less energy uptake, the focus was switched to obesity ... Lipase inhibitors belong to a drug class that is used as an antiobesity agent. Their mode of action is to inhibit gastric and ... For that reason orlistat was chosen over lipstatin for development as an anti-obesity drug. It is the only available FDA- ... Golay A (2000). "The Role of Dietary Fat in Obesity and Therapy with Orlistat.". In Cristophe AB, De Vriese S (eds.). Fat ...
... reduces proliferation of colon cancer cells and has been tested as an anti-obesity agent in mice. Limonin has been ... Ono, E.; Inoue, J.; Hashidume, T.; Shimizu, M.; Sato, R. (2011). "Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of the dietary ...
That is why nesfatin-1 has drawn attention as a new therapeutic agent, especially for the treatment of obesity and diabetes ... Thus, Nesfatin-1 acts as a potent Anorexigenic factor (anti-obesity) that improves insulin resistance and opposes weight gain. ... secondary to obesity, ET-1 high level changes on PVAT will lead to PVAT hypertrophy which will be associated with reduced ... Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mitogen and insulin tropic agent for the β cell. Inadequate β-cell mass can lead to insulin ...
... agents, such as mianserin, trazodone and bupropion. Anti-obesity medications have also proven very effective. Studies suggest ... that anti-obesity drugs, or moderate appetite suppressants, may be key to controlling binge eating. Many eating disorders are ... Obesity has been attributed to eating behavior or fast food, personality issues, depression, genetics but also social and ... "Obesity Treatment at Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions". Mayo Clinic. 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2014-02-01. McElroy SL, ...
Bays, HE (2004). "Current and investigational anti-obesity agents and obesity therapeutic treatment targets". Obesity Research ... Regarding drug therapies, it has been stated that: "An emerging concept is that the development of anti-obesity agents must not ... Do you know what the number one health risk in America is? Obesity, obesity They say we're in the middle of an obesity epidemic ... According to the Obesity Medicine Association Obesity Algorithm: "Obesity is defined as a chronic, relapsing, multi-factorial, ...
... angiogenesis inhibitors are being investigated for their use as anti-obesity agents, as blood vessels in adipose tissue never ... While the mechanisms of bleeding induced by anti-VEGF agents are complicated and not yet totally understood, the most accepted ... After a series of clinical trials in 2004, Avastin was approved by the FDA, becoming the first commercially available anti- ... Kimura Y, Kido T, Takaku T, Sumiyoshi M, Baba K (September 2004). "Isolation of an anti-angiogenic substance from Agaricus ...
... to potently induce body-fat loss while preserving protein stores in animals which is the ultimate goal of an anti-obesity agent ... It was first reported in 1996 to cause a body fat loss effect in rats in the International Journal of Obesity and Related ... Weight loss maintenance is one of the most difficult aspects of obesity treatment and so this effect is promising. This led to ... The animal research has all been conducted by the Nitrogen-Obesity Research Group of the University of Barcelona. The compound ...
... a clinical focus on metabolic rate and the psychological aspects of obesity". ISRN Obesity. 2012: 567530. doi:10.5402/2012/ ... The metabolic rate can be affected by some drugs, such as antithyroid agents, drugs used to treat hyperthyroidism, such as ... Some research has focused on developing antiobesity drugs to raise the metabolic rate, such as drugs to stimulate thermogenesis ... New York: Fourth International Conference on Obesity 1983;52(abstr). Webb P. levels of energy exchange in women after ovulation ...
Nilsson, BM (2006). „5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor agonists as potential antiobesity agents". Journal of medicinal ... Smith, BM; Thomsen, WJ; Grottick, AJ (2006). „The potential use of selective 5-HT2C agonists in treating obesity". Expert ... Hayashi A, Sonoda R, Kimura Y, Takasu T, Suzuki M, Sasamata M, Miyata K (2004). „Antiobesity effect of YM348, a novel 5-HT2C ...
Stock MJ: Sibutramine: a review of the pharmacology of a novel anti-obesity agent. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997 Mar;21 ... Heal DJ, Aspley S, Prow MR, Jackson HC, Martin KF, Cheetham SC: Sibutramine: a novel anti-obesity drug. A review of the ... Sharma B, Henderson DC: Sibutramine: current status as an anti-obesity drug and its future perspectives. Expert Opin ... Tziomalos K, Krassas GE, Tzotzas T: The use of sibutramine in the management of obesity and related disorders: an update. Vasc ...
Lectins, carbohydrate-binding proteins, are known as anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory agents, had been detected in ... anti-obesity, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic medications. The sulfated polysaccharides were detected in ... Current analgesia-inducing drugs such as opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not helpful in all cases because ... "Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of lectin from the marine green alga Caulerpa cupressoides". International ...
His agent was later fined for not filing an election expenses report. He received 173 votes (0.57%), finishing sixth against ... "Un candidat anti diète dans Shefford," Le Soleil, 12 November 1998, A12. "Le côté charmeur de José Breton...," Le Soleil, 26 ... Describing himself as an activist against the "thinness industry," Breton argues that the threat of obesity has been greatly ... In 1998, he called for the provincial health system to eliminate medical consultations about obesity for aesthetic purposes. ...
... anti-obesity, Ebola, influenza, and immunization. John Maynard Keynes (New York: Chelsea House, 1995) American Homo: Community ... In the wake of the OutWrite conferences he worked as a literary agent for lesbian and gay authors across the Bay Area. ...
The anti-obesity agent Orlistat is associated to increase in colonic preneoplastic markers in rats treated with a chemical ... 抗肥胖药物(英语:Anti-obesity medication)/厌食 (A08) ... Antitumoral actions of the anti-obesity drug orlistat (XenicalTM) in breast cancer cells: blockade of cell cycle progression, ... as a potential anti Trypanosoma brucei agent. Chemistry-A European Journal. 2012, 18 (27): 8403. PMID 22674877. doi:10.1002/ ...
... is increasingly expressed with obesity and aging, resulting in reduced levels of the anti-inflammatory, pro-autophagy, ... "Role of RCP006 as an anti-inflammatory agent". Roskamp Institute. Retrieved 2011-09-06. Kolati SR, Kasala ER, Bodduluru LN, ... Many natural products (including anti-oxidants) that have been promoted to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity have ... or to become more sensitive to the action of anti-tumor agents. Thus, NF-κB is the subject of much active research among ...
Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents. *Stimulants. *Substituted amphetamines. *World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited ... It is used in the short-term management of obesity, along with dietary and lifestyle changes.[2] Amfepramone is most closely ... and amfepramone can essentially be considered a member of the class of drugs known as norepinephrine releasing agents (NRAs). ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Monoamine releasing agents • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine ... are commonly used in the treatment of conditions like ADHD and narcolepsy due to their psychostimulant effects and in obesity ... A closely related type of drug is a norepinephrine releasing agent (NRA). ...
"Mitochondrial uncoupling as a target for drug development for the treatment of obesity". Obesity Reviews. 2 (4): 255-265. doi: ... In living cells, DNP acts as a proton ionophore, an agent that can shuttle protons (hydrogen cations) across biological ... Tainter ML, Stockton AB, Cutting WC (1933). "Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions: a progress report". J Am ... DNP is probably the best known agent for uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. The "phosphorylation" of adenosine diphosphate ( ...
IL1R1 knock-out mice exposed to celastrol exhibit no leptin-sensitizing or anti-obesity effect. In in vitro and in vivo animal ... August 2010). "Celastrol acts as a potent antimetastatic agent targeting beta1 integrin and inhibiting cell-extracellular ... It has been shown to have obesity-controlling effects in mice. Celastrol has also shown to possess (by inhibition of NF-κB in ... Liu J, Lee J, Salazar Hernandez MA, Mazitschek R, Ozcan U (May 2015). "Treatment of obesity with celastrol". Cell. 161 (5): 999 ...
For example, the anti-obesity drug orlistat causes a percentage of fat to pass through the digestive tract undigested. Amylase ... "The effect of phytic acid and some natural chelating agents on the solubility of mineral elements in oat bran". Food Chemistry ... Like lipase inhibitors, they have been used as a diet aid and obesity treatment. They are present in many types of beans; ... Excessive intake of required nutrients can also result in them having an anti-nutrient action. Excessive intake of dietary ...
... agents, such as mianserin, trazodone and bupropion.[17][18] Anti-obesity medications[19] have also proven very effective. ... Studies suggest that anti-obesity drugs, or moderate appetite suppressants, may be key to controlling binge eating.[20] ... The problem of obesity is becoming a worldwide problem. A sugar tax is set to be introduced in Ireland to minimise the ... "Obesity Treatment at Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions". Mayo Clinic. 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2014-02-01.. ...
... the FDA issued a boxed warning regarding the use of thyroid hormone stimulating agents in treatment of obesity. Data does not ... Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is approved in the U.S. for a single post-operative injection in cats ... Hypothyroid agents should not be used in combination with sympathomimetic agents including: stimulants, and diet pills, due to ... FDA advisors have recommended that Pfizer be required to place a boxed warning on their non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ...
Risk factors include obesity, a lack of physical exercise, and a family history of someone with the condition. Diagnosis is ... Metformin and anti-androgens may also help. Other typical acne treatments and hair removal techniques may be used. Efforts to ... Although these agents have shown significant efficacy in clinical trials (for oral contraceptives, in 60-100% of individuals), ... The severity of PCOS symptoms appears to be largely determined by factors such as obesity. PCOS has some aspects of a metabolic ...
... as anti-obesity drugs. The primary forebrain sensor of peripheral cues that relays information about the availability of energy ... began a collaboration to search for potential antidepressant agents that would still retain the therapeutic activity of TCAs ... It has been used to research obesity and energy balance, and exerts some local analgesia effects. Researchers have attempted to ... Bray GA, Greenway FL (December 1999). "Current and potential drugs for treatment of obesity". Endocrine Reviews. 20 (6): 805-75 ...
ISBN 0-12-518121-3. Holmes, J. H.; Sapeika, N; Zwarenstein, H (1975). "Inhibitory effect of anti-obesity drugs on NADH ... and as anti-malaria agents (atovaquone). Also propylhexedrine inhibits cytochrome c reductase. A small fraction of electrons ...
Due to the change on hormones, the use of these agents can also effect athletes metabolism. Diuretics and masking agents: ... Anti-doping policy within tennis primarily developed from the 1980s with the increased prevalence of recreational drugs and ... The substance is widely prescribed to sufferers of obesity and diabetes with the main effect of the drug being an appetite ... Anti-doping policy remains controversial due to the large amount of substances, ingredients and chemicals that athletes are ...
See also: Anti-diabetic medication. There are several classes of anti-diabetic medications available. Metformin is generally ... such as diet and obesity, other factors are not, such as increasing age, female gender, and genetics.[10] Obesity is more ... A second oral agent of another class or insulin may be added if metformin is not sufficient after three months.[87] Other ... Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than ...
Hormonal agents[edit]. In women, the use of combined birth control pills can improve acne.[100] These medications contain an ... Proposed mechanisms for tea tree oil's anti-acne effects include antibacterial action against C. acnes and anti-inflammatory ... Few studies have examined the relationship between obesity and acne.[2] Vitamin B12 may trigger skin outbreaks similar to acne ... "Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 63 (1). doi:10.1128/AAC.01297-18. PMC 6325184. PMID 30397052.. ...
Aronson, edited by Jeffrey K. (2008). Meyler's side effects of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Amsterdam: Elsevier ... Female anatomy, sexual intercourse, diabetes, obesity, family history[2]. Diagnostic method. Based on symptoms, urine culture[3 ... "Antimicrobial agents for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10 ... obesity, and family history.[2] Although sexual intercourse is a risk factor, UTIs are not classified as sexually transmitted ...
Evidence for ascorbate's anti-tumor effects was limited to case reports and observational and uncontrolled studies."[44] ... Ascorbic acid is a common enzymatic cofactor in mammals used in the synthesis of collagen, as well as a powerful reducing agent ... "Arctic indigenous peoples experience the nutrition transition with changing dietary patterns and obesity". The Journal of ... Oxidized forms of the molecule such as dehydroascorbic acid are converted back to ascorbic acid by reducing agents.[3] ...
Rufus King notes that this stratagem was similar to that used by Harry Anslinger when he consolidated the previous anti-drug ... Drug enforcement administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New ... Methamphetamine: treatment of ADHD (rare), severe obesity (limited use). *Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), ... Paregoric, an antidiarrheal and anti-tussive, which contains opium combined with camphor (which makes it less addiction-prone ...
In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... anti-obesity drugs, anabolic drugs, haematopoietic drugs, food product drugs For neoplastic disordersEdit. cytotoxic drugs, ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ... Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors. *Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/ ...
Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents. These ... "Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3 effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 39 (2 ... a b c http://www.mesotheliomaweb.org/mesothelioma/treatment/chemotherapy/anti-Enausea-treatment/[permanent dead link] ... Anti-obesity drugs. *Anti-diabetics. *Vitamins. *Dietary minerals. Blood and blood. forming organs (B). *Antithrombotics * ...
Discovery of anti-TNF therapy as an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.[47] ... Discovery of leptin, a hormone that regulates appetite and body weight-a breakthrough that opened obesity research to molecular ... a chemical whose rapid action and freedom from residual effects have made it the most widely used agent for induction of ... Discovery of VEGF as a major mediator of angiogenesis and the development of an effective anti-VEGF therapy for wet macular ...
Risk factors for hypertensive emergency include age, obesity, noncompliance to anti hypertensive medications, female sex, ... Several classes of antihypertensive agents are recommended, with the choice depending on the cause of the hypertensive crisis, ... The most common cause in patients with diagnosed, chronic hypertension who have discontinued anti hypertensive medications.[6] ... With the usage of anti hypertensives, the rates of hypertensive emergencies has declined from 7% to 1% of patients with ...
"Veterans exposed to Agent Orange have higher rates of prostate cancer recurrence". Medical College of Georgia News. May 20, ... The Times also noted an "anti-male bias in cancer funding" with a four-to-one discrepancy in the United Kingdom by both the ... A complete understanding of the causes of prostate cancer remains elusive.[17] The primary risk factors are obesity, age and ... "Scientists Discover Anti-Cancer Mechanism that Arrests Early Prostate Cancer". August 4, 2005. Archived from the original on ...
"Anti-slavery: Today's fight for tomorrow's freedom. Archived from the original on 20 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.. ... Usually, an emulsifying agent, such as soy lecithin, is added, though a few manufacturers prefer to exclude this ingredient for ... can cause weight gain and possibly lead to obesity.[80] Raw chocolate is high in cocoa butter, a fat which is removed during ... and anti-slavery[122] organisations are highlighting and campaigning against the use of trafficking in the chocolate industry. ...
Luque CA, Rey JA (April 2002). "The discovery and status of sibutramine as an anti-obesity drug". European Journal of ... Selectivity of antidepressant agents are based on the neurotransmitters that are thought to influence symptoms of depression.[ ... Sibutramine was the first drug for the treatment of obesity to be approved in 30 years.[11] It has been associated with ... Studies have shown that SNRIs as well as SSRIs have significant anti-inflammatory action on microglia[43] in addition to their ...
Agents associated with a moderately increased risk include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., ibuprofen), ... Abed HS, Wittert GA (November 2013). "Obesity and atrial fibrillation". Obesity Reviews. 14 (11): 929-38. doi:10.1111/obr.12056 ... experts generally recommend an anti-clotting medication.[18] Anti-clotting medications include warfarin and direct oral ... "FDA approves anti-clotting drug Savaysa". FDA. 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 19 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June ...
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically ... Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ... Main article: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (usually abbreviated to NSAIDs), are a ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ...
Rasmussen, MH.; Frystyk, J.; Andersen, T.; Breum, L.; Christiansen, JS.; Hilsted, J. (March 1994). "The impact of obesity, fat ... turning it up when the body comes under attack from pathogens or other disease agents, and damping it when the danger is ... through its immunoglobulin and other anti-microbial factors) and growth/healing factor constituents.[55] As pointed out by ... drugs and infectious microbes not only damages the gut but can lead to influx of damaging agents into the bloodstream. These ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... Kaplan, Lee M. (1 March 2005). "Pharmacological therapies for obesity". Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 34 (1): 91- ... Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929-1950". J. Hist. Med. Allied ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ...
Anti-microtubule agents[edit]. Vinca alkaloids prevent the assembly of microtubules, whereas taxanes prevent their disassembly ... and obesity, which has a major impact on the actual concentration of the drug in the patient's bloodstream.[15][17][18] As a ... Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ...
List of agents[edit]. Adrenaline releasing agents[edit]. Main article: Norepinephrine releasing agent ... Anti-obesity drugs. *Anti-diabetics. *Vitamins. *Dietary minerals. Blood and blood. forming organs (B). *Antithrombotics * ... 3 List of agents *3.1 Adrenaline releasing agents *3.1.1 Common or widely marketed ... since these agents lose effectiveness after a few days. ...
While there has been some social pressure from the anti-sweatshop and anti-globalization movements on manufacturers to reduce ... Other lingerie manufacturers like Frederick's of Hollywood and Agent Provocateur also joined the competition by that time,[77] ... The change in bra size has been linked to growing obesity rates, breast implants, increased birth control usage, estrogen ... Germaine Greer's book The Female Eunuch (1970) became associated with the anti-bra movement because she pointed out how ...
The evolution of obesity: insights from the mid-Miocene". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association ... That is, paradoxically, agents which are normally considered antioxidants can act as conditional pro-oxidants and actually ... The possible mechanisms of action of antioxidants were first explored when it was recognized that a substance with anti- ... Van Gaal LF, Mertens IL, De Block CE (December 2006). "Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease". Nature. 444 ( ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
Obesity[edit]. Various hereditary forms of obesity have been traced to defects in hypothalamic signaling (such as the leptin ... Recent reports on recombinant PYY 3-36 suggest that this agent may contribute to weight loss by suppressing appetite. ... "Anti-ghrelin immunoglobulins modulate ghrelin stability and its orexigenic effect in obese mice and humans". Nature ... "Journal of Obesity. 2011: 1-10. doi:10.1155/2011/528401. PMC 3178198 . PMID 21949903. Article id:528401.. ...
Tetrabenazine, a similar agent to reserpine, which also depletes catecholamine stores, and to a lesser degree 5-HT, was shown ... With a racemic pair of diastereomers, there is still the question of syn (cis) or anti (trans). In the case of the ... SNDRIs were developed as potential antidepressants and treatments for other disorders, such as obesity, cocaine addiction, ... This was accounted for on the basis of the energizing effect that these agents have. Moreover, NRIs have the additional adverse ...
Lozano GA (2008). "Obesity and sexually selected anorexia nervosa". Medical Hypotheses. 71 (6): 933-940. doi:10.1016/j.mehy. ... For example, abnormal hormonal responses to challenges with serotonergic agents have been observed during acute illness, but ... 565-89 in Handbook of Eating Disorders and Obesity, J. Kevin (ed.). Thompson. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ... Another hypothesis is that anorexia nervosa is more likely to occur in populations in which obesity is more prevalent, and ...
Holick MF (January 2013). "Vitamin D, sunlight and cancer connection". Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (1): 70-82 ... "Obesity and Cancer Risk". National Cancer Institute. 3 January 2012. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 4 ... Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a ... Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths.[2] Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity ...
Other infectious agents include cytomegalovirus, the herpes simplex virus, hyperthermia, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. Mother ... Aminopterin, a cytostatic drug with anti-folate effect, was used during the 1950s and 1960s to induce therapeutic abortions. In ... This finding is important for future understandings of how genetics may predispose individuals for diseases like obesity, ... It is estimated that 10% of all birth defects are caused by prenatal exposure to a teratogenic agent.[28] These exposures ...
A second oral agent of another class or insulin may be added if metformin is not sufficient after three months.[76] Other ... Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than ... There are several classes of anti-diabetic medications available. Metformin is generally recommended as a first line treatment ... "Antihypertensive agents for preventing diabetic kidney disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD004136. doi: ...
and a lipid-lowering agent, a lipid modulating agent, an antidiabetic agent, an anti-obesity agent, an antihypertensive agent, ... one or more anti-obesity agents, and/or one or more lipid-lowering agents, one or more lipid modulating agents (including anti- ... one or more agents for treating arthritis, one or more anti-osteoporosis agents, one or more anti-obesity agents, one or more ... anti-obesity agents, antihypertensive agents, platelet aggregation inhibitors, and/or anti-osteoporosis agents, which may be ...
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and ... Agents, Anti-Obesity; Agents, Antiobesity; Agents, Weight-Loss; Anti Obesity Agents; Anti Obesity Drugs; Drugs, Anti-Obesity; ... Anti-Obesity Agents (Antiobesity Drugs). Subscribe to New Research on Anti-Obesity Agents ... Antiobesity Drugs; Anti-Obesity Drugs; Antiobesity Agents; Weight-Loss Drugs; ...
Celastrol is a promising anti-obesity agent that acts as a sensitizer of the protein hormone leptin. Despite its potent ... Celastrol is a promising anti-obesity agent that acts as a sensitizer of the protein hormone leptin. Despite its potent ... Integrating pathway elucidation with yeast engineering to produce polpunonic acid the precursor of the anti-obesity agent ... Integrating pathway elucidation with yeast engineering to produce polpunonic acid the precursor of the anti-obesity agent ...
... the role of anti-obesity medications in polycystic ovary syndrome, potential anti-obesity strategies targeting mitochondria, ... Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents Continued as Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in ... Anti-Obesity Drug Discovery and Development. Obesity is a complex health problem, caused by a number of factors such as ... Anti-Obesity Drug Discovery and Development. Obesity is a complex health problem, caused by a number of factors such as ...
Prescribing of anti-obesity medication reflected obesity prevalence across urban/rural areas and deprivation. There was an ... One option is the use of anti-obesity medication the prescription of which has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite ... While 25.0% of people are obese, only 1.3% (2.1% of females, 0.6% of males) received anti-obesity medication. The relationship ... Educational material to improve the understanding of the role of anti-obesity medication, for patients and practitioners, is ...
... , Appetite Suppressants, Appetite Depressants, Anti-Obesity Agents. ... Agents, Anti-Obesity, Agents, Antiobesity, Anti Obesity Agents, Anti Obesity Drugs, Anti-Obesity Agents, Anti-Obesity Drugs, ... ANTIOBESITY AGENTS, anti-obesity agents (medication), anti-obesity agents, anti obesity drug, antiobesity drug, anti obesity ... Antiobesity Agents, Antiobesity Drugs, Drugs, Anti-Obesity, Drugs, Antiobesity, ...
Stock MJ: Sibutramine: a review of the pharmacology of a novel anti-obesity agent. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997 Mar;21 ... Heal DJ, Aspley S, Prow MR, Jackson HC, Martin KF, Cheetham SC: Sibutramine: a novel anti-obesity drug. A review of the ... Sharma B, Henderson DC: Sibutramine: current status as an anti-obesity drug and its future perspectives. Expert Opin ... Tziomalos K, Krassas GE, Tzotzas T: The use of sibutramine in the management of obesity and related disorders: an update. Vasc ...
Anti-obesity agents should be carefully evaluated in long-term (1-2 years) randomized controlled trials. Recent systematic ... Pharmacologic treatment of obesity, food intake, and reversal of metabolic disorders.. SCHEEN, André ; PAQUOT, Nicolas in ... Anti ... [more ▼]. The present paper is reviewing the current place of weight-reducing drugs in the overall management of ... reviews and meta-analysis assessed both the safety and efficacy of the two drugs currently used in the treatment of obesity, i. ...
In 1999 the FDA approved orlistat (the first of a new class of anti-obesity drugs called lipase inhibitors) for long-term use. ... Risks from Obesity Overweight and obese people are at higher risk for developing the following problems:. *sleep apnea ( ... Obesity refers to an excessively high proportion of body fat. The BMI is used to determine whether a person is overweight or ... American Obesity Association. 1250 24th Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20037. (800)986-2373. 〈http://www.obesity.org〉. ...
... understanding the mechanisms that drive BAT recruitment and activation could be useful in the development of novel anti-obesity ... Recruited brown adipose tissue as an antiobesity agent in humans. Takeshi Yoneshiro,1 Sayuri Aita,2 Mami Matsushita,2 Takashi ... Obesity. 2011;19(9):1755-1760.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ... Obesity. 2011;19(1):13-16.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ...
... Drugs. 2011 Dec 3;71(17):2247-55. doi: 10.2165/11596680- ... The serotonergic system remains a viable target for anti-obesity treatment. In this review, we examine the limited behavioural ... Currently, no appetite-suppressing drugs are approved specifically for the treatment of obesity. However, a new generation of ...
Anti-Obesity Agents/chemical synthesis*. *Anti-Obesity Agents/chemistry. *Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology* ... Antiobesity designed multiple ligands: Synthesis of pyrazole fatty acid amides and evaluation as hypophagic agents.. Alvarado M ... Searching for new antiobesity agents, a new series of fatty acid amide derivatives of 1,5-diarylpyrazole have been synthesized ...
Eisai Announces Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes Data for Anti-Obesity Agent BELVIQ® Presented at the European Society of ... We are not an agent for these third parties nor do we endorse or guarantee their products. We make no representation or ...
Eisai Announces Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes Data for Anti-Obesity Agent BELVIQ® Presented at the European Society of ... About Obesity. Obesity is a serious and growing public health issue. The prevalence of obesity in the U.S. has more than ... This dramatic rise in obesity has also had a major impact on other diseases. Indeed, obesity is an important risk factor for ... Manage with immediate discontinuation of BELVIQ/BELVIQ XR and any concomitant serotonergic or antidopaminergic agents and ...
Universal Pharmaceutical Industries UNIPHARMA is one of the prominent advanced firms that is specialized in Pharmaceutical Industries in Syria, UNIPHARMA is a Limited family company established in 1990 according to The Syrian Investment Law No. 10. UNIPHARMA located about 15 Km of Damascus, at Jordan Highway, covers about 9,666 m2 built on a total flat land of 16,205 m2 and there is an expansion plan in the building of approximately 3000 sqm.
... as an anti-obesity agent. We investigated the effects of GS on adipogenesis, lipolysis and beiging using 3T3-L1 murine ... We demonstrate the three-way anti-obesity effects of GS in our in vitro cell culture model. Firstly, GS inhibited the ... Together, these data suggest that guggulsterone may exert anti-obesity effects not only by decreasing adipogenesis and ... Beiging of WAT increases energy expenditure and is gaining attention as a novel therapeutic approach for obesity. ...
National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Long-term pharmacotherapy in the management of obesity. JAMA. ... National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Long-term pharmacotherapy in the management of obesity. JAMA. ... Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Potential Antiobesity AgentA Randomized Controlled Trial. ... as a Potential Antiobesity AgentA Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 1998;280(18):1596-1600. doi:10.1001/jama.280.18.1596 ...
... feeding and is a functional regulator of obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) that can be exploited ther … ... Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, but little is known about its influence on the intestinal immune system. Here we show ... Regulation of obesity-related insulin resistance with gut anti-inflammatory agents Cell Metab. 2015 Apr 7;21(4):527-42. doi: ... feeding and is a functional regulator of obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) that can be exploited therapeutically. Obesity ...
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Anti-obesity agents. WO1997000319A2. Jun 11, 1996. Jan 3, 1997. Smithkline Beecham Plc. Chimeric leptin fused to immunoglobulin ... Thus, OB protein has the capacity to act, in addition to acting as a weight reducing agent, as an agent affecting lean tissue ... additives such as detergents and solubilizing agents (e.g., Tween 80, Polysorbate 80), anti-oxidants (e.g., ascorbic acid, ... The therapeutic agent could also be given in a film coated tablet and the materials used in this instance are divided into 2 ...
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Current obesity treatments such as surgical procedures and anti-obesity medications have serious and undesirable side effects. ... Consequently, safer and more natural therapeutic options are being explored for anti-obesity therapy. Immunomodulatory glycans ... WAT provides no protective mechanism against obesity due to the lack of UCPJ. Obese individuals thus exhibit a deficiency in ... While several therapeutic options attempting to reverse or reduce the effects of obesity are available, safe, effective, long- ...
Here, Martel and colleagues review the potential anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects of plants, mushrooms and their ... New approaches are required for the prevention and treatment of obesity and its associated pathologies. ... Food ingredients as anti-obesity agents. . Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 26, 585-587 (2015). An insightful overview of the anti- ... Limitations in anti-obesity drug development: the critical role of hunger-promoting neurons. . Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 11, 675- ...
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  • Obesity is a major health risk associated with numerous debilitating conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Orlistat (brand names Xenical/Alli) was first introduced in the UK and Europe in 1998 and is currently the main treatment option for those prescribed anti-obesity medication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Northern Ireland, during 2009/2010 orlistat accounted for approximately 80% of prescriptions for anti-obesity medication increasing to 99% following the withdrawal of sibutramine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In response to this, efforts to control and treat obesity have also been vigorously pursued, ranging from raising awareness about lifestyle changes to the discovery and development of safe and effective anti-obesity drugs. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In recent years, pharmacological treatment for obesity has been increasing against a backdrop of decreasing choice of available anti-obesity medications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fifteen well written reviews make this special volume an excellent compilation of recent developments in anti-obesity treatment. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In 1999, sibutramine (brand name Reductil) was introduced as an anti-obesity treatment option but was subsequently removed in January 2010 because of the risk of cardiovascular disease [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sharma B, Henderson DC: Sibutramine: current status as an anti-obesity drug and its future perspectives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tziomalos K, Krassas GE, Tzotzas T: The use of sibutramine in the management of obesity and related disorders: an update. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stock MJ: Sibutramine: a review of the pharmacology of a novel anti-obesity agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • While 25.0% of people are obese, only 1.3% (2.1% of females, 0.6% of males) received anti-obesity medication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It's true that no anti-obesity drug had been approved in 13 years prior to the FDA approval of Belviq and Qsymia, but only one of these drugs is truly set up for immediate success -- Belviq. (fool.com)
  • In 2006, Rimonabant (brand name Acomplia) was marketed as an anti-obesity drug but was removed in November 2008 because of the risk of psychiatric side effects [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rimonabant is an anorectic anti-obesity drug produced and marketed by Sanofi-Aventis. (drugbank.ca)
  • Educational material to improve the understanding of the role of anti-obesity medication, for patients and practitioners, is recommended. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Onset of obesity in both the developing and the developed world has reached epidemic proportions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that the attenuation of the activity of this system would have therapeutic benefit in treating disorders that might have a component of excess appetitive drive or over-activity of the endocannabinoid system, such as obesity, ethanol and other drug abuse, and a variety of central nervous system and other disorders. (drugbank.ca)
  • One option is the use of anti-obesity medication the prescription of which has increased dramatically in recent years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-obesity Drug Discovery and Development is focused on this very important area of healthcare research. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This book should be useful to clinicians and medicinal chemists involved in ant-obesity research and therapy. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Despite this, little is known about the individual and GP practice factors that influence the prescription of anti-obesity medication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multi-level logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with the prescription of anti-obesity medication in Northern Ireland using a population primary care prescribing database (~1.5 million people aged 16+ years) during 2009/10. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prescribing of anti-obesity medication reflected obesity prevalence across urban/rural areas and deprivation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was an unexplained two-fold difference, between the 25th and 75th percentile, in the GP practice prescription of anti-obesity medication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the prevalence (and presumably the health consequences) of obesity worsens with age, younger females are more likely to be prescribed anti-obesity medication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the potential benefits of using anti-obesity medication a history of safety fears and a variety of side effects may have hampered their use [ 5 , 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Limited animal studies have investigated the anti-obesity effects of inorganic NO 3 as a primary hypothesis (Roberts et al. (excli.de)
  • Long-term pharmacotherapy in the management of obesity. (jamanetwork.com)
  • As with all chronic medical conditions, effective management of obesity must be based on a partnership between a highly motivated patient and a committed team of health professionals. (medscape.com)
  • Short-term adjunct in the management of obesity in a medically monitored comprehensive regimen of wt reduction based on exercise, diet & behaviour modification in obese patients w/ BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 & in overwt patients (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ) w/ comorbidity. (mims.com)
  • An analysis of all clinical trials over ten-week long is also presented for medications used in the management of obesity, as well as data about future medications, such as a the inverse cannabinoid agonist, rimonabant. (scielo.br)
  • THE PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT of obesity has witnessed drastic changes and experienced the development of new products and treatment proposals. (scielo.br)
  • For Aetna's clinical policy on surgical management of obesity, see CPB 0157 - Obesity Surgery . (aetna.com)
  • During diet-induced obesity (DIO), many subsets of adaptive immune cells within the gut adopt a pro-inflammatory phenotype, primarily demonstrated by T cells producing pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFNγ) 7 , 8 . (nature.com)
  • Indeed, several rodent studies have demonstrated that BAT activation and recruitment by prolonged exposure to cold or β-adrenergic stimulation ameliorates diet-induced obesity and improves its associated complications, such as disturbed glucose and lipid homeostasis ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Despite intense research, an effective pharmacological treatment of obesity is still lacking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, pharmacological treatment for obesity has been increasing against a backdrop of decreasing choice of available anti-obesity medications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As obesity particularly that of central distribution represents an important triggering factor for insulin resistance, its pharmacological treatment is relevant in the context of metabolic syndrome control. (scielo.br)
  • The understanding of some key concepts is crucial in any discussion on the rationale of anti-obesity medications: 1) pharmacological treatment can only be justified when combined with diet and lifestyle changes. (scielo.br)
  • Anti-obesity pharmacological treatment is indicated when body mass index (BMI) is over 30 kg/m 2 , or when morbidities are associated to overweight (BMI over 25 kg/m 2 ) when dieting, physical activities and behavioral changes have proved unsuccessful (1). (scielo.br)
  • Here we show that the gut immune system is altered during high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and is a functional regulator of obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) that can be exploited therapeutically. (nih.gov)
  • The invention also relates to a method of identifying an insulin secretagogue agent for diabetes. (google.co.uk)
  • The intestinal immune system is emerging as an important contributor to obesity-related insulin resistance, but the role of intestinal B cells in this context is unclear. (nature.com)
  • Obesity is a global concern that is associated with many chronic complications such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance (IR), cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. (nature.com)
  • Obesity, defined as excess body fat, is considered the gateway condition for several chronic diseases and is a major factor in the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, ischaemic stroke, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidaemia [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The mechanisms underlying the development of obesity may include enzymatic/receptor and hormonal changes (i.e., lipoprotein lipase, hormone sensitive lipase, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor, insulin, growth hormone, catecholamine) in the skeletal muscles and adipose tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Examinations were performed, including general physiological characteristics, obesity-related biochemical parameters, and insulin-signaling pathway-related proteins in the hypothalamus. (hindawi.com)
  • The mechanism responsible for the antiobesity effect of CPAE may be related to suppression of energy intake via regulation of insulin-signaling pathway in the hypothalamus. (hindawi.com)
  • These metabolic adaptations to prolonged exposure to mild cold may lead to improved glucose metabolism or prevent the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The volume first provides information on inflammation as an important link between obesity and insulin resistance, which is in itself linked to promotion of cancer through hyperinsulinemia. (springer.com)
  • Treatment of wild-type HFD C57BL/6 mice with the local gut anti-inflammatory, 5-aminosalicyclic acid (5-ASA), reverses bowel inflammation and improves metabolic parameters. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we demonstrate that IgA levels are reduced during obesity and the loss of IgA in mice worsens IR and increases intestinal permeability, microbiota encroachment, and downstream inflammation in metabolic tissues, including inside the VAT. (nature.com)
  • The present invention relates to a compound represented by formula (I): and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof are disclosed as useful for treating or preventing diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, inflammation related disorders, and related diseases and conditions. (patents.com)
  • Increases in the secretion of a number of adipokines occur in obesity, underpinning inflammation in white adipose tissue and the development of obesity-associated diseases. (psu.edu)
  • In addition to its metabolic and endocrinologic effects, obesity and adipose tissue have now been shown to be associated with low grade inflammation resulting in cellular and humoral inflammatory factors of which the latter may act by endocrine, paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • The volume then covers some of the most important mechanisms by which obesity leads to inflammation, including the novel inflammasome concept, alterations in chromatin structure, circulating inflammatory factors, unique cellular interactions between adipocytes and macrophages and the direct link of dietary fat to inflammation and cancer. (springer.com)
  • Overall, this volume will provide important insight to help understand how inflammation may help modulate the linkage between obesity and cancer and serve as a platform for developing future research in this area. (springer.com)
  • Beiging of WAT increases energy expenditure and is gaining attention as a novel therapeutic approach for obesity. (pcom.edu)
  • While several therapeutic options attempting to reverse or reduce the effects of obesity are available, safe, effective, long-term treatments are limited. (pcom.edu)
  • Consequently, safer and more natural therapeutic options are being explored for anti-obesity therapy. (pcom.edu)
  • Active ingredients of central nervous system agents will remain the largest therapeutic group served by pharmaceutical chemicals based on value and will post above average revenue growth. (freedoniagroup.com)
  • Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown fat state as a potential therapeutic option for obesity and diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Staying current with evidence-based recommendations for treatment, including knowledge of the safety and efficacy of emerging therapeutic options, is vital to health care practitioners as they work with patients to develop optimal, individualized, long-term strategies for overcoming obesity. (thedoctorschannel.com)
  • The moderate efficacy of currently used antiobesity drugs has led to an intense effort to identify new, safe antiobesity drugs with better therapeutic profiles. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Eligible studies were randomized trials of overweight children and adolescents assessing the effect of nonsurgical interventions on obesity outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether activation and recruitment of BAT can be a target to counterbalance the current obesity pandemic. (jci.org)
  • Obesity is associated with pathological expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) and is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. (pcom.edu)
  • In light of this finding, researchers have begun investigating a newly identified type of adipose tissue in an attempt to combat obesity. (pcom.edu)
  • Celastrol was shown to protect against obesity and metabolic dysfunction through activation of the transcription factor HSF1, which regulates metabolic programs in adipose tissue and muscle [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The natural phytochemicals present in foods, including anthocyanins, might play a role in attenuating obesity by producing a decrease in weight and adipose tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • Obesity is an abnormal excess accumulation of fat in adipose tissue due to an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been reported that the anthocyanins might play a role in attenuating obesity by producing a decrease in weight and adipose tissue [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recruitment of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a potential tool to combat obesity and associated metabolic complications. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The rise in the incidence of obesity has led to a major interest in the biology of white adipose tissue. (psu.edu)
  • Objective-Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. (psu.edu)
  • Immunomodulatory glycans found on the surface of helminth parasites and in human breast milk are being investigated for their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mechanisms. (pcom.edu)
  • On the other hand, although it is obvious that macroalgae represent promising sources of antihypertensive and anti-obesity compounds, it is also clear that further efforts are required to fully understand their cellular mechanisms of action, to establish structure-inhibition relationships and mainly to evaluate them in pre-clinical and clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of Cyclocarya paliurus (CP) aqueous extract (CPAE) on obesity. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms of obesity is urgently needed along with the development of new antiobesity drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: mechanisms and implications. (exrx.net)
  • Tea is a potent anti-obesity agent. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The RC:PCP 2:1 mixture used in this study may be a promising new potent and protective agent for relieving climacteric symptoms. (mdpi.com)
  • It is also a potent antidiabetic agent ( 1 ). (stylecraze.com)
  • Potent anti-obesity effect of e. (cambridge.org)
  • C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity. (naturalnews.com)
  • In fact, these studies showed that the amount of OB-3 entering the blood stream of the mice was four times greater when the agent was administered nasally. (csjalbany.org)
  • China's demand for Anti-Obesity Drugs has grown at a fast pace in the past decade. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Antiobesity drugs may not be optimal for treating obesity. (hindawi.com)
  • Peptide drugs are particularly exciting for chronic disease applications because they metabolize to natural amino acids and thus are intrinsically devoid of the chemical toxicity issues that have plagued many of the earlier anti-obesity and anti-diabetic drugs,' said Edward T. Maggio, M.D., CEO of Aegis Therapeutics. (csjalbany.org)
  • This review summarizes data on currently used antiobesity drugs and new compounds under clinical development. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Three antiobesity drugs are currently accepted for long-term use. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Other drugs can induce weight loss, e.g. some antidepressants, antiseizure agents, and antidiabetic drugs. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A1 - Zieba,Remigiusz, Y1 - 2007/10/19/ PY - 2007/05/16/received PY - 2007/09/28/accepted PY - 2007/11/1/pubmed PY - 2008/2/5/medline PY - 2007/11/1/entrez SP - 612 EP - 26 JF - Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online) JO - Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) VL - 61 N2 - This review summarizes data on currently used antiobesity drugs and new compounds under clinical development. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This enzyme is a target for anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-metastatic agents. (lsu.edu)
  • Obesity induces a chronic phenotypic pro-inflammatory shift in bowel lamina propria immune cell populations. (nih.gov)
  • Antidiabetic;Orlistat is an antiobesity agent. (frbiz.com)
  • Led by active ingredients of anticancer, antidiabetic, and hormone replacement formulations, hormones and related agents will post the fastest growth in value among all pharmaceutical chemicals. (freedoniagroup.com)
  • Used to treat diabetes and obesity, Dexfenfluramine decreases caloric intake by increasing serotonin levels in the brain's synapses. (pharmacycode.com)
  • We recently described an important role played by the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway in modulating the appearance of brown adipocytes in traditional white fat, and its implications to thermogenesis, mitochondrial energetics, energy expenditure, and protection from diabetes and obesity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The rise in the worldwide incidence of obesity and, by a tight correlation, diabetes is proof that we are failing as a populace to obey the energy balance equation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because of this "energy-wasting" process, BAT activation results in increased EE, which could reverse or protect against obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, but little is known about its influence on the intestinal immune system. (nih.gov)
  • Obesity is reaching global epidemic proportions as a result of factors such as high-calorie diets and lack of physical exercise. (nature.com)
  • Onset of obesity in both the developing and the developed world has reached epidemic proportions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Obesity is a major public health problem approaching epidemic proportions worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • These anti-obesity effects are beneficial, since abdominal fat (the type of fat that causes protruding bellies even in otherwise "skinny" people) is strongly associated with obesity-related complications like the metabolic syndrome, Type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, even in the absence of classical risk factors 4,5. (abilityhub.com)
  • However, due to its relative simplicity and stability, orlistat was chosen over lipstatin for development as an anti-obesity drug. (frbiz.com)
  • In Northern Ireland, during 2009/2010 orlistat accounted for approximately 80% of prescriptions for anti-obesity medication increasing to 99% following the withdrawal of sibutramine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference statements: gastrointestinal surgery for severe obesity. (jamanetwork.com)
  • A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. (exrx.net)
  • Our data suggests that LNnT has the ability to directly induce transdifferentation of white to beige adipocytes and indirectly induce beiging by activating anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. (pcom.edu)
  • Controversial results were obtained in animals and human studies in obesity condition [ 5 - 11 ] by type of supplementation (fresh and/or commercial product or pure compound), dose, length of the study, and by different sizes and clinical characteristics of the enrolled sample. (hindawi.com)
  • This program will consist of a series of four video vignettes presenting interviews with clinical experts who will explore some of the most pressing issues in the management of patients with obesity. (thedoctorschannel.com)
  • We used this animal to test the hypothesis that intervention with agents that block innate immunity and diabetes is associated with a shift in the gut microbiota. (bireme.br)
  • Natural News ) A recent study from South Korea's Mokpo National University revealed that Caulerpa okamurae can be used for managing obesity and its accompanying metabolic disorders. (naturalnews.com)
  • Antiobesity designed multiple ligands: Synthesis of pyrazole fatty acid amides and evaluation as hypophagic agents. (nih.gov)
  • Searching for new antiobesity agents, a new series of fatty acid amide derivatives of 1,5-diarylpyrazole have been synthesized as dual peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)/cannabinoid receptor ligands. (nih.gov)
  • Together, these data suggest that guggulsterone may exert anti-obesity effects not only by decreasing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis in WAT, but also by inducing white to beige transdifferentiation thereby increasing thermogenesis and promoting weight loss. (pcom.edu)
  • Xenical is indicated for obesity management including weight loss and weight maintenance when used in conjunction with a reduced-calorie diet. (drugs.com)
  • 1 NCCN guidelines favor the use of single-agent low molecular weight heparin, edoxaban, or rivaroxaban, 7 but practice patterns vary. (urotoday.com)
  • Sister Patricia Grasso, CSJ, (Sister John Damien) associate professor of medicine at Albany Medical College, is the head of a team of researchers who have been working since 1997 on creating an anti-obesity peptide that would also be effective in treating Type 2 diabetes. (csjalbany.org)