Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.United StatesMice, Inbred C57BLIntra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.TriglyceridesMotor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Gastroplasty: Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.IndiaBody Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.GuanineDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Sperm Agglutination: Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Agouti Signaling Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Schools: Educational institutions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.CyclobutanesNutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.IranBardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Biliopancreatic Diversion: A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.

Development of beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists for the treatment of obesity and diabetes--an update. (1/472)

Beta 3-adrenoceptor (beta 3-AR) agonists were found to have remarkable anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in rodents shortly after their discovery in the early 1980s. Despite these promising qualities, several pharmaceutical problems and theoretical concerns have slowed the development of these products as therapeutic agents in humans during the last 15 years. To date, the pharmaceutical industry has not been successful in developing a beta 3-AR agonist for use in the treatment of human obesity and type 2 diabetes. Pharmaceutical problems in this area concern important differences between rodent and human beta 3-AR and the difficulty in finding a compound with sufficient bioavailability that is a highly selective and full agonist at the human receptor. Some of these problems seem to have been solved with the cloning of the human beta 3-AR, which has made it possible to develop novel compounds directly and specifically against the human receptor. However, several theoretical concerns still remain. These include the major question as to whether the number of biologically active beta 3-ARs in adult humans is sufficient to produce relevant metabolic effects and, if so, whether their long-term stimulation is safe and free of unwarranted side effects. In addition, the mechanisms of action of beta 3-AR agonists remain poorly understood. Recent studies using CL 316,243, a highly selective beta 3-adrenergic compound, have provided new insights into the potential mechanisms of action of these drugs in rodents as well as the first evidence that treatment with a highly selective beta 3-AR agonist exerts relevant metabolic effects in humans. It appears that chronic beta 3-adrenergic stimulation in white adipose tissue increases the expression of newly discovered mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP 2 and 3) and a "reawakening" of dormant brown adipocytes. In addition, beta 3-ARs may be present in skeletal muscle where ectopic expression of UCP-1 has been reported. If these findings are confirmed, tissues other than brown fat may play an important role in mediating beta 3-adrenergic effects on thermogenesis and substrate oxidation. In humans, treatment with CL 316,243 for 8 weeks, in spite of limited bioavailability, induced marked plasma concentration-dependent increases in insulin sensitivity, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in lean volunteers, without causing beta 1-, or beta 2-mediated side effects. These results clearly indicate that favourable metabolic effects can be achieved by selective beta 3-AR stimulation in humans. The compounds of the next generation currently emerging from preclinical development are full agonists at the human beta 3-AR. These agents have demonstrated promising results in non-human primates. It will be interesting to see whether their efficacy in clinical trials is superior to that achieved with previous (rodent) beta 3-AR agonists and, if so, whether their effects will eventually translate into weight loss and improved metabolic control that could facilitate their use as effective drugs for the treatment of obesity and Type 2 diabetes in humans.  (+info)

Orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, for weight maintenance after conventional dieting: a 1-y study. (2/472)

BACKGROUND: Long-term maintenance of weight loss remains a therapeutic challenge in obesity treatment. OBJECTIVE: This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to test the hypothesis that orlistat, a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor, is significantly more effective than a placebo in preventing weight regain. DESIGN: Obese subjects who lost > or = 8% of their initial body weight during a 6-mo lead-in of a prescribed hypoenergetic diet (4180-kJ/d deficit) with no adjunctive pharmacotherapy were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 30 mg orlistat, 60 mg orlistat, or 120 mg orlistat 3 times daily for 1 y in combination with a maintenance diet to help prevent weight regain. Of 1313 recruited subjects [body mass index (in kg/m2): 28-43], 729 subjects lost > or =8% of their initial body weight during the 6-mo weight-loss lead-in period and were enrolled in the double-blind phase. RESULTS: After 1 y, subjects treated with 120 mg orlistat 3 times daily regained less weight than did placebo-treated subjects (32.8 +/- 4.5% compared with 58.7 +/- 5.8% regain of lost weight; P < 0.001). Moreover, more subjects in the 120-mg orlistat group than in the placebo group regained < or = 25% of lost weight (47.5% of subjects compared with 29.9%). In addition, orlistat treatment (120 mg 3 times daily) was associated with significantly greater reductions in total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than was placebo (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The use of orlistat during periods of attempted weight maintenance minimizes weight readjustment and facilitates long-term improvement in obesity-related disease risk factors.  (+info)

The effect of moxonidine on feeding and body fat in obese Zucker rats: role of hypothalamic NPY neurones. (3/472)

The antihypertensive agent moxonidine, an imidazoline Ii-receptor agonist, also induces hypophagia and lowers body weight in the obese spontaneously hypertensive rat, but the central mediation of this action and the neuronal pathways that moxonidine may interact with are not known. We studied whether moxonidine has anti-obesity effects in the genetically-obese and insulin-resistant fa/fa Zucker rat, and whether these are mediated through inhibition of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones. Lean and obese Zucker rats were given moxonidine (3 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or saline by gavage for 21 days. Moxonidine decreased food intake throughout by 20% in obese rats (P<0.001) and by 8% in lean rats (P<0.001), and reduced weight gain that final body weight was 15% lower in obese (P<0.001) and 7% lower in lean (P<0.01) rats than their untreated controls. Plasma insulin and leptin levels were decreased in moxonidine-treated obese rats (P<0.01 and P<0.05), but unchanged in treated lean rats. Uncoupling protein-1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue was stimulated by 40-50% (P< or =0.05) in both obese and lean animals given moxonidine. Obese animals given moxonidine showed a 37% reduction in hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels (P = 0.01), together with significantly increased NPY concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus (P<0.05), but no changes in the arcuate nucleus or other nuclei; this is consistent with reduced NPY synthesis in the arcuate nucleus and blocked release of NPY in the paraventricular nucleus. In lean animals, moxonidine did not affect NPY levels or NPY mRNA. The hypophagic, thermogenic and anti-obesity effects of moxonidine in obese Zucker rats may be partly due to inhibition of the NPY neurones, whose inappropriate overactivity may underlie obesity in this model.  (+info)

Review article: malnutrition and maltreatment--a comment on orlistat for the treatment of obesity. (4/472)

The prevalence of obesity has doubled in the last 10 years and is now reaching epidemic proportions. There is a significant comorbidity and financial cost associated with this disorder. Orlistat is an intestinal lipase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of obesity. Recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated the benefit of orlistat used in conjunction with a hypocaloric (low-fat) diet in facilitating weight reduction and the long-term maintenance of this weight loss. Patients treated with orlistat lost a greater amount of initial body weight compared to those who received placebo. After 24 months of treatment, weight loss of more than 5% was maintained in a greater number of those treated with orlistat. This was associated with significant reductions in cardiovascular risk factors (cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio). The main adverse events are related to fat malabsorption, with potential losses of fat-soluble vitamins and other compounds. Orlistat as a treatment for obesity, when prescribed within present guidelines, can aid modest weight loss in about one-third of patients. More importantly, it can assist in the maintenance of weight loss with major medical benefits for these patients.  (+info)

Orlistat. No hurry.... (5/472)

Treatments for obesity are disappointing. None has yet shown an effect on morbidity and mortality. Nondrug treatments are poorly assessed. Stable long-term weight loss necessitates long-term management. Orlistat (Xenical, Hoffman-La Roche), a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor, is indicated, in combination with a low-calorie diet, for management of obesity. The assessment file is bulky and methodologically sound, at least in terms of the weight loss end point. During medium-term trials (12 to 24 months), orlistat administered at a dose of 120 mg three times daily and combined with dietary intervention had a moderate positive effect on body weight (-3.5 kg on average). No longer-term trials have been done. It is unknown whether this drug affects morbidity and mortality linked to obesity. In clinical trials, patients treated with orlistat had an increased frequency of breast cancer. This potential risk is currently being assessed in a specific trial. Gastrointestinal adverse effects are frequent. Treatment is costly.  (+info)

Drug therapy for obesity. (6/472)

Obesity is a common health problem in the United States, and effective treatment is challenging. Obesity is associated with an increased mortality rate and risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Numerous treatments are available for obesity. Behavioral therapy, surgery and pharmacologic treatment have been used with varying degrees of success. Older anorectic agents have significant side effects and limited benefit, and some have even been withdrawn from the U.S. market because of a possible association with cardiovascular complications. The safety of newer agents must be extensively evaluated before widespread use is recommended. Therefore, behavioral therapy, including regular exercise and the development of healthy eating habits, continues to be the best treatment for long-term weight loss.  (+info)

Urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi) (7/472)

BACKGROUND: Chinese-herb nephropathy is a progressive form of renal fibrosis that develops in some patients who take weight-reducing pills containing Chinese herbs. Because of a manufacturing error, one of the herbs in these pills (Stephania tetrandra) was inadvertently replaced by Aristolochia fangchi, which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. METHODS: The diagnosis of a neoplastic lesion in the native urinary tract of a renal-transplant recipient who had Chinese-herb nephropathy prompted us to propose regular cystoscopic examinations and the prophylactic removal of the native kidneys and ureters in all our patients with end-stage Chinese-herb nephropathy who were being treated with either transplantation or dialysis. Surgical specimens were examined histologically and analyzed for the presence of DNA adducts formed by aristolochic acid. All prescriptions written for Chinese-herb weight-reducing compounds during the period of exposure (1990 to 1992) in these patients were obtained, and the cumulative doses were calculated. RESULTS: Among 39 patients who agreed to undergo prophylactic surgery, there were 18 cases of urothelial carcinoma (prevalence, 46 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 29 to 62 percent): 17 cases of carcinoma of the ureter, renal pelvis, or both and 1 papillary bladder tumor. Nineteen of the remaining patients had mild-to-moderate urothelial dysplasia, and two had normal urothelium. All tissue samples analyzed contained aristolochic acid-related DNA adducts. The cumulative dose of aristolochia was a significant risk factor for urothelial carcinoma, with total doses of more than 200 g associated with a higher risk of urothelial carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of urothelial carcinoma among patients with end-stage Chinese-herb nephropathy (caused by aristolochia species) is a high.  (+info)

Detection of impaired intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids: validation studies of a novel test in a rat model of fat malabsorption. (8/472)

BACKGROUND: Classic fat balance studies detect fat malabsorption but do not discriminate between the potential causes of malabsorption, such as impaired intestinal lipolysis or reduced uptake of fatty acids. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate a novel test for the specific, sensitive detection of impaired intestinal uptake of long-chain unesterified fatty acids in an appropriate rat model of fat malabsorption. DESIGN: The absorption and appearance in plasma of [(13)C]palmitic acid were determined in control rats and in rats with fat malabsorption due either to chronic bile deficiency (permanent bile diversion) or to oral administration of the lipase inhibitor orlistat (200 mg/kg diet). [(13)C]Palmitic acid results were compared with the percentage absorption of ingested dietary fat determined by fat balance. RESULTS: Between 1 and 6 h after intraduodenal administration, plasma [(13)C]palmitate concentrations in control rats were 4-10-fold higher than in bile-deficient rats (P < 0.05) but were not significantly different between orlistat-supplemented rats and their controls. In control and bile-deficient rats, plasma [(13)C]palmitate concentrations allowed complete discrimination between normal (>92%) and reduced (<92%) fat absorption, whereas the percentage absorption of [(13)C]palmitate over 48 h appeared to be highly correlated with the percentage absorption of ingested dietary fat (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The [(13)C]palmitic acid absorption test detects impaired intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids selectively and sensitively in a rat model of fat malabsorption due to bile deficiency. Our data strongly support the use of the [(13)C]palmitic acid absorption test for the diagnosis of clinical fat malabsorption syndromes.  (+info)

*YM-348

Nilsson, BM (2006). "5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor agonists as potential antiobesity agents". Journal of Medicinal ... It has thermogenic and anorectic effects in animal studies, making it potentially useful for the treatment of obesity. AL-34662 ... Hayashi, A; Sonoda, R; Kimura, Y; Takasu, T; Suzuki, M; Sasamata, M; Miyata, K (2004). "Antiobesity effect of YM348, a novel 5- ... Smith, BM; Thomsen, WJ; Grottick, AJ (2006). "The potential use of selective 5-HT2C agonists in treating obesity". Expert ...

*Serotonin-dopamine reuptake inhibitor

Oh, Sangmi; Kim, Koon; Chung, Young; Shong, Minho; Park, Seung (2009). "Anti-obesity Agents: A Focused Review on the Structural ... Based on its chemical structure, UWA-101 may actually also possess some activity as a releasing agent, and if so, unlike RTI-83 ... A closely related type of drug is a serotonin-dopamine releasing agent (SDRA). Relative to serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine ... Hofbauer, Karl (2004). Pharmacotherapy of obesity : options and alternatives. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. ISBN 0-415-30321-4. " ...

*5-HT2C receptor agonist

"Tricyclic dihydroquinazolinones as novel 5-HT2C selective and orally efficacious anti-obesity agents". Bioorganic & Medicinal ... Staten, M A (2007). "Challenges in the Discovery and Development of New Agents for the Treatment of Obesity". Clinical ... In 1996, dexfenfluramine became the first long-term treatment anti-obesity medication approved in the US; adverse effects ... Obesity is a global epidemic health problem and has received considerable attention as a major public hazard. Obesity is a ...

*Hydroxycitric acid

... as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial". JAMA. 280 (18): 1596-600. doi:10.1001/jama.280.18.1596. PMID ... In a study in Zucker rats, which are genetically predisposed to obesity, Garcinia cambogia extract containing HCA showed that ...

*Discovery and development of gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors

... not as an anti-obesity agent. When researchers found out that it promotes less energy uptake, the focus was switched to obesity ... Lipase inhibitors belong to a drug class that is used as an antiobesity agent. Their mode of action is to inhibit gastric and ... For that reason orlistat was chosen over lipstatin for development as an anti-obesity drug. It is the only available FDA- ... Medeiros-Neto, G., A. Halpern, and C. Bouchard, Progress in Obesity Research: 9. Orlistat in the treatment of obesity, ed. A. ...

*Garcinia gummi-gutta

... as a Potential Antiobesity Agent: A Randomized Controlled Trial". J. Am. Med. Assoc. 280 (18): 1596-1600. doi:10.1001/jama. ... Journal of Obesity. 2011 (December 14): 509038. doi:10.1155/2011/509038. PMC 3010674 . PMID 21197150. Publications & ...

*Drinabant

"The current status and future perspectives of studies of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists as anti-obesity agents". Current ... Drinabant reached phase IIb clinical trials for this purpose in the treatment of obesity but was shortly thereafter ... which was under investigation varyingly by Sanofi-Aventis as a treatment for obesity, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, ...

*Rosonabant

"The current status and future perspectives of studies of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists as anti-obesity agents". Current ... Tim C. Kirkham; S. J. Cooper (2007). Appetite and Body Weight: Integrative Systems and the Development of Anti-Obesity Drugs. ... Heal DJ, Gosden J, Smith SL (December 2009). "Regulatory challenges for new drugs to treat obesity and comorbid metabolic ... and suicidal ideation associated with it and with similarly-acting agents. Cannabinoid receptor antagonist Janero DR, ...

*Velneperit

Yukioka H. A potent and selective neuropeptide Y Y5-receptor antagonist, S-2367, as an anti-obesity agent. (Japanese). Nihon ... was still considered a successful proof of concept of the potential of Y5 receptor antagonists as possible anti-obesity agents ... doi: 10.1021/acs.oprd.5b00023 George M, Rajaram M, Shanmugam E. New and emerging drug molecules against obesity. J Cardiovasc ... It has anorectic effects and was developed as a possible treatment for obesity, but was discontinued from further development ...

*Limonin

... reduces proliferation of colon cancer cells and has been tested as an anti-obesity agent in mice. Yoon, J. S.; Yang, H ... Ono, E.; Inoue, J.; Hashidume, T.; Shimizu, M.; Sato, R. (2011). "Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of the dietary ...

*Adiposopathy

Bays, HE (2004). "Current and investigational anti-obesity agents and obesity therapeutic treatment targets". Obesity Research ... Regarding drug therapies, it has been stated that: "An emerging concept is that the development of anti-obesity agents must not ... Do you know what the number one health risk in America is? Obesity, obesity They say we're in the middle of an obesity epidemic ... From an anti-inflammatory standpoint, fat tissue produces various anti-inflammatory factors with the most commonly described ...

*Orlistat

"The anti-obesity agent Orlistat is associated to increase in colonic preneoplastic markers in rats treated with a chemical ... J. A. Menendez; L. Vellon; R. Lupu (2005). "Antitumoral actions of the anti-obesity drug orlistat (XenicalTM) in breast cancer ... However, due to its relative simplicity and stability, orlistat was chosen over lipstatin for development as an anti-obesity ... as a potential anti Trypanosoma brucei agent". Chemistry: A European Journal. 18 (27): 8403-13. doi:10.1002/chem.201200482. ...

*Anti-obesity medication

... or weight loss drugs are pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight. These drugs alter one of ... Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week (14 August 2004). "Legal Issues; Court dismisses claims against anti-obesity medication". ... Cooke D, Bloom S (2006). "The obesity pipeline: current strategies in the development of anti-obesity drugs". Nature Reviews. ... it is recommended that anti-obesity drugs only be prescribed for obesity where it is hoped that the benefits of the treatment ...

*Angiogenesis inhibitor

... angiogenesis inhibitors are being investigated for their use as anti-obesity agents, as blood vessels in adipose tissue never ... While the mechanisms of bleeding induced by anti-VEGF agents are complicated and not yet totally understood, the most accepted ... One of the most recent methods that is being developed for the delivery of anti-angiogenesis factors to tumour regions in ... After a series of clinical trials in 2004, Avastin was approved by the FDA, becoming the first commercially available anti- ...

*Deep ocean minerals

In 2008 the Korean researchers reported DOM could potentially be used as an anti-obesity agent by inhibiting adipocyte ... In 2009, the same Korean researchers published a further study on the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of DOM in obese ... The research suggests that the anti-diabetic and anti-obesity activities of DOM were mediated by modulating the expression of ... Hwang, Hee Sun; Kim, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sung Hak; Yun, Jong Won (2008). "Anti-obesity and Antidiabetic Effects of Deep Sea Water on ...

*Depressogenic

Another notable agent is rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor antagonist marketed as an anti-obesity agent which was withdrawn ... and agents with antiandrogen, antiestrogen, and/or anti-neurosteroid activities such as GnRH agonists (e.g., leuprolide, ...

*Oleoyl-estrone

... to potently induce body-fat loss while preserving protein stores in animals which is the ultimate goal of an anti-obesity agent ... It was first reported in 1996 to cause a body fat loss effect in rats in the International Journal of Obesity and Related ... Weight loss maintenance is one of the most difficult aspects of obesity treatment and so this effect is promising. This led to ... The animal research has all been conducted by the Nitrogen-Obesity Research Group of the University of Barcelona. The compound ...

*Anorectic

Anti-obesity medication Anorectics at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mitchell, Kari ( ... 2012). "Anorexiants as Pharmacologic Agents in the Management of Obesity". Foye's Medicinal Chemistry. pp. 1451-6. ISBN 978-1- ... Used on a short-term basis clinically to treat obesity, some appetite suppressants are also available over-the-counter. Most ... Epidemics of fatal pulmonary hypertension and heart valve damage associated with pharmaceutical anorectic agents have led to ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... anti-obesity agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.140.155 --- appetite depressants MeSH D27.505.954.427.153 --- antitussive agents MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ...

*Basal metabolic rate

... a clinical focus on metabolic rate and the psychological aspects of obesity". ISRN Obesity. 2012: 567530. doi:10.5402/2012/ ... The metabolic rate can be affected by some drugs, such as antithyroid agents, drugs used to treat hyperthyroidism, such as ... Some research has focused on developing antiobesity drugs to raise the metabolic rate, such as drugs to stimulate thermogenesis ... "Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: Executive summary. ...

*Fenfluramine/phentermine

The drug combination fenfluramine/phentermine, usually called fen-phen, was an anti-obesity treatment that utilized two ... Fenfluramine acts as a serotonin releasing agent, phentermine as primarily a norepinephrine releasing agent. Phentermine also ... Weigle, DS (June 2003). "Pharmacological therapy of obesity: past, present, and future". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology ... that their findings suggested a possible correlation between mitral valve dysfunction and the use of these anorectic agents. ...

*Rimonabant

"Anti-obesity drug use suspended". BBC News. 23 October 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2010. "Public Statement on Acomplia (rimonabant ... 1. Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic agents with ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 32 (2): ... concluded that Sanofi-Aventis failed to demonstrate the safety of rimonabant and voted against recommending the anti-obesity ... From EMA index page Saul, Stephanie (14 June 2007). "F.D.A. Panel Rejects Drug for Obesity". The New York Times. "Sanofi- ...

*Alpha-Cyclodextrin

... α-cyclodextrin binds to fat when taken with a meal and is a natural alternative to other synthetic anti-obesity medications. α- ... an odor or flavor masking agent as well as for emulsification applications. It is registered as a dietary fiber in the European ...

*Caloric restriction mimetic

Rimonabant (Acomplia) is an anti-obesity drug approved for use in the European Union but rejected approval by the FDA. This is ... 2-Deoxyglucose was the first agent pursued as a possible CRM. This compound inhibits glycolysis, and can mimic some of the ... The term was coined by Lane, Ingram, Roth of the National Institute on Aging in a seminal 1998 paper in the Journal of Anti- ... J Anti-Aging Med. 1 (4): 327-37. doi:10.1089/rej.1.1998.1.327. Retrieved 1 October 2013. de Magalhaes, JP; Wuttke, D; Wood, SH ...

*Serotonin receptor agonist

Lorcaserin is an appetite suppressant and anti-obesity drug which acts as a selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist. meta- ... The ergoline antimigraine agent ergotamine also acts on this receptor. Serenics such as batoprazine, eltoprazine, and ... IUPHAR GPCR Database - 5-HT receptor family MeSH list of agents 82017366 Serotonin agonists at the US National Library of ... serotonin releasing agents (e.g., fenfluramine, MDMA), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g., phenelzine, moclobemide) are ...

*Essendon Football Club supplements saga

During the early phase of the investigation, much attention and media speculation fell on the anti-obesity supplement AOD-9604 ... players to get out of existing contracts and bypass other player movement restrictions by qualifying as delisted free agents, ... World Anti-Doping Agency v. Thomas Bellchambers et al., Australian Football League, Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority - ... "Statement on AFL cases". World Anti-Doping Agency. 11 May 2015. "Stephen Dank handed lifetime ban from AFL Anti-Doping Tribunal ...
Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
Celastrol is a promising anti-obesity agent that acts as a sensitizer of the protein hormone leptin. Despite its potent activity, a sustainable source of celastrol and celastrol derivatives for further pharmacological studies is lacking. To elucidate the celastrol biosynthetic pathway and reconstruct it in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mined a root-transcriptome of Tripterygium wilfordii and identified four oxidosqualene cyclases and 49 cytochrome P450s as candidates to be involved in the early steps of celastrol biosynthesis. Using functional screening of the candidate genes in Nicotiana benthamiana, TwOSC4 was characterized as a novel oxidosqualene cyclase that produces friedelin, the presumed triterpenoid backbone of celastrol. In addition, three P450s (CYP712K1, CYP712K2, and CYP712K3) that act downstream of TwOSC4 were found to effectively oxidize friedelin and form the likely celastrol biosynthesis intermediates 29-hydroxy-friedelin and polpunonic acid. To facilitate production of friedelin, the
Although it is known that the annual number of prescriptions and cost of prescribed anti-obesity medication has increased there is little information about how prescription of these drugs relates to need and how much it is influenced by the prescriber. To our knowledge, this study is the first to explore both individual (patient) and group (practice) level factors associated with the likelihood of being prescribed anti-obesity medication using multilevel statistical modelling. It also adds to the existing literature by including deprivation and urban/rural factors, which are known to be associated with obesity.. The alignment of prescribing and prevalence data has allowed us to estimate the equity of the prescription of anti-obesity medication and while there are many aspects where prescribing appeared aligned with need, there were examples where it is not. The most obvious is the relative difference between the prescription of anti-obesity medication amongst obese men and women. The health ...
The present invention relates to a compound comprising a PYY peptide or a functional derivative thereof, which is coupled to a reactive group. Such a reactive group is capable of reacting on a blood component so as to form a stable covalent bond therewith. The present invention also relates to a conjugate comprising such a compound which is covalently bonded to a blood component. Moreover, the invention also relates to a method of enhancing, in a patient, the anti-obesity activity of a PYY peptide or functional derivative thereof.
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When coupled with a low-fat, low-calorie diet, Xenical (generic name: orlistat) helps obese patients lose weight and maintain a lower BMI. So i am trying orlistat …. Com/orlistat-plus-metformin-an Vol. According to MayoClinic. Alli diet pills contain 60 mg of orlistat, while Xenical pills contain 120 mg. Reprinted from Eating Disorders Review November/December 2004 Volume 15, Number 6 Two antiobesity agents that have been used for patients with diabetes mellitus are orlistat (Xenical®) and metformin (Glucophage®) Our review shows that orlistat is a more effective drug than metformin and should be the preferred drug in obese PCOS in combination with weight loss May 24, 2014 · PCOS, Orlistat and Metformin! Alli (orlistat): Alli is a miracle drug. Xenical (orlistat) for Obesity: Ive been on Xenical/Orlistat for 5 orlistat reviews for pcos days and have lost 3. They may also point to a role for anti-obesity drugs, point out UK researchers Orlistat is effective in preventing fat absorption ...
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Compounds are provided which have the structure wherein Q is C or N, X1 is CH or N and, A, E, M, G, X2, X3, X4, R1, R2, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3, Y, x, m, and n are as defined herein, which compounds are useful as antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and antiobesity agents.
Xenical or orlistat is used to help to reduce weight in fat people. Orlistat is related with the class of medications known as anti-obesity agents, especially gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors.
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Technavio analysts forecast the global anti-obesity drugs market to grow at a CAGR of close to 8% during the forecast period, according to their latest market research report. However, the growth momentum of the market is expected to decelerate due to a decline in th...
San Jose, California (PRWEB) November 17, 2011 -- Follow us on LinkedIn - The global anti-obesity drugs market is characterized by the availability of few
Researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology have warned that new anti-obesity drugs may interfere with neural development in kids.
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in Current Research in Nutrition & Food intake (2007), 3. The present paper is reviewing the current place of weight-reducing drugs in the overall management of overweight/obese subjects, especially those with metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes. Anti ... [more ▼]. The present paper is reviewing the current place of weight-reducing drugs in the overall management of overweight/obese subjects, especially those with metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes. Anti-obesity agents should be carefully evaluated in long-term (1-2 years) randomized controlled trials. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analysis assessed both the safety and efficacy of the two drugs currently used in the treatment of obesity, i.e. orlistat, a gastric and pancreatic lipase inhibitor that reduces fat absorption from the gut, and sibutramine, a combined norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor that regulates food intake. Rimonabant, a new compound acting as selective blocker of CB1 receptors of the endocannabinoid ...
Xenical: Orlistat belongs to a class of medications known as anti-obesity agents, specifically gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors. When combined with a mildly reduced-calorie diet that contains no more than 30% of calories from fat, orlistat is used to help obese people lose weight and maintain weight loss.
Eisai Co., Ltd. has entered into an agreement to grant exclusive development and marketing rights for its anti-obesity agent lorcaserin hydrochloride (generic name, product name in the United States: BELVIQ, product name for once-daily formulation in the United States: BELVIQ XR, "lorcaserin") in 17 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, excluding Brazil, to Eurofarma Laboratorios S.A. which has a business foundation in Latin America.. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Obesity Medication, Appetite Suppressants, Appetite Depressants, Anti-Obesity Agents.
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a potent anti-obesity agent known to inhibit food intake in the absence of nausea, but the mechanism behind this process is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that in response to i.p. injection of PP in wild type but not in Y4 receptor knockout mice, immunostaining for the neuronal activation marker c-Fos is induced specifically in neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius and the area postrema in the brainstem, notably in cells also showing immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase. Importantly, strong c-Fos activation is also detected in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), particularly in neurons that co-express alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), the anorexigenic product of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. Interestingly, other hypothalamic regions such as the paraventricular nucleus, the ventromedial nucleus and the lateral hypothalamic area also show c-Fos induction after PP injection. In addition to c
Using new fluxomic techniques, our study reveals that viral infection takes control of cellular metabolism and drives, among other things, marked increases in fatty acid synthesis," said researcher Joshua Munger. "We also found that if you target these increases in fatty acid metabolism using existing anti-obesity and anti-metabolism drugs, you inhibit viral replication.". In their experiments, Munger and colleagues developed a technique to measure changes in metabolic flux in human cells as they become infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), an enveloped virus of the b-herpes family that infects most human adults and that causes severe disease in those with weakened immune systems. Researchers chose cytomegalovirus for experiments because it serves as an excellent model for processes at play in many enveloped viral infections and in cancers. HCMV replicates in a variety of human cell types, including fibroblasts, the cell type used in the study.. To study metabolic flux, Munger and his team ...
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Objective: The present study investigated whether CAP exerted its anti-obesity effect through changes in the composition of gut microbiota and SCFAs, and whether the TRPV1 contributes to CAPs effects against obesity in HFD-fed mice.. Design: C57BL/6J (TRPV1+/+) and B6.129X1-Trpv1tm1Jul/J (TRPV1-/-) mice were respectively divided into three groups (n = 6),that is SLD, HFD-fed, and CAP (2 mg/kg, po) +HFD fed and were administered respective treatment for 12 weeks.. Results: We observed significantly lower weight gain and food intake, triglyceride, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels in HFD+CAP-fed TRPV1knockout (KO) mice compared to the HFD-fed KO mice, though this effect was more obvious in wild-type (WT) mice. CAP increased the numbers of Akkermansia, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Odoribacter, Allobaculum, Coprococcus, and S24-7, and reduced the numbers of Desulfovibrio, Escherichia, Helicobacter, and Sutterella in the HFD+CAP-fed WT and KO mice compared with HFD-fed WT and KO mice. CAP ...
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Orlistat is an anti-obesity treatment with which several gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects are commonly associated in the initial stages of therapy. There is no physiological explanation as to why two-thirds of those who take the drug experience one or more side-effects. It has been hypothesized that the GI microbiota may protect from or contribute to these GI disturbances. Using in vitro batch culture and human gut model systems, studies were conducted to determine whether increased availability of dietary lipids and/or orlistat affect the composition and/or activity of the faecal microbiota. Results from 24-h batch culture fermentation experiments demonstrated no effect of orlistat in the presence or absence of a dietary lipid (olive oil) on the composition of bacterial communities [as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses], but did show there was great variability in the lipolytic activities of the microbiotas of ...
This trial is conducted in the United States of America (USA). The aim of this trial is to investigate the safety, tolerability, efficacy and pharmacokinetics (the rate at which the trial drug is eliminated from the body) of NNC 0070-0002-0453 in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy male and female volunteers. Selected subjects will continue in a follow-up period of up to 5 years ...
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AIMS Orlistat promotes weight loss in overweight and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes receiving hypoglycaemic treatment, but has not been investigated in patients with newly diagnosed and previously untreated Type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the efficacy of 24 weeks treatment with orlistat, combined with a mildly reduced-calorie diet, on weight loss and glycaemic control in overweight and obese patients with newly diagnosed and previously untreated Type 2 diabetes. METHODS A total of 249 Chinese patients (body mass index 25-40 kg/m2) with recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetes were randomized to placebo (n=124) or orlistat 120 mg (n=125) three times daily; all patients followed a mildly reduced-calorie diet. Patients had HbA1c 6.5-8.5% (mean 7.3%) and had never received any glucose-lowering medication. RESULTS Orlistat-treated patients achieved significantly greater weight loss at the study end than placebo-treated patients (-5.4 vs. -2.4 kg; P|0.0001). More orlistat than placebo patients lost|or=5%
Orlistat is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of obesity. Efficacy was proven by numerous clinical studies, so Orlistat received unconditional support from the medical specialists.. The main active ingredient within the composition of this drug is orlistat. This substance is successfully used in the therapeutic treatment of people suffering from obesity. A distinctive feature of the drug is its ability not to absorb into the blood, and to perform its function of reducing weight immediately in the stomach and small intestine. It is well known that fats that human consumes, are broken down by gastric and pancreatic lipase. Orlistat acts on the lipase, blocking and inhibiting its function. As a result, fat is not deposited in body tissues and is not a source of energy, but it directly excreted during defecation.. It should be particularly noted: this drug is not suitable for a person who just wants to lose 2 - 3 pounds and can adjust the weight. It is sufficient to increase physical ...
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It is well established that a modest weight loss of 5 to 10 can decrease. Health Canada, the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the. Anti-obesity medication approval by the FDA requires a 24-month study.
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This week, a new anti-obesity media campaign launched in Minnesota has been getting a lot of attention, and not necessarily the good kind. One ad (s
Anti-obesity Day which is observed on November 26, 2014, people should take responsibility of their health and well being to keep obesity and its related complications at bay.
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Tom Laskawy from Grist Magazine covers a new study that suggests we may need a tax on junk food, and then the fact that Michelle Obamas Anti-obesity program seems to be ignoring this very information.
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Rimonabant is an anorectic anti-obesity drug produced and marketed by Sanofi-Aventis. It is an inverse agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB1. Its main avenue of effect is reduction in appetite. Rimonabant is the first selective CB1 receptor blocker to be approved for use anywhere in the world. Rimonabant is approved in 38 countries including the E.U., Mexico, and Brazil. It was rejected for approval for use in the United States. This decision was made after a U.S. advisory panel recommended the medicine not be approved because it may increase suicidal thinking and depression.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies that provided sufficient data to calculate the incidence of type 2 diabetes using an intention-to-treat analysis, included patients , 18 years of age with a minimum sample size of 50 patients, and compared oral hypoglycemic agents (including biguanides, acarbose, sulfonylureas, and thiazolidinediones), antiobesity agents, antihypertensive drugs, statins, fibrates, or estrogen with placebo. Studies were excluded if they tested an intervention in patients with preexisting diabetes, were duplicates, or were in abstract form. 2 reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion ...
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A new weight-loss pill that many doctors consider the most effective of a new generation of anti-obesity drugs got the approval of the Food and Drug Administration on Tuesday.
A breakthrough study led by Ana Domingos at Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, in collaboration with Jeffrey Friedmans group at Rockefeller University, has shown that fat tissue is innervated and that direct stimulation of neurons in fat is sufficient to induce fat breakdown. These results, published in the latest issue of the prestigious journal Cell, set up the stage for developing novel anti-obesity therapies.
To overcome the side effects of current anti-obesity drugs, researchers Jee Young Chung and colleagues developed a specific gene silencing therapy against a fatty acid metabolism gene, Fabp4. Researchers used a CRISPR interference system wherein catalytically dead Cas9 protein and single guide RNA was targeted to white adipocytes with a tissue-specific fusion peptide. The complex is internalized with little toxicity to the cells and, upon internalization, decreased the expression of Fabp4 and reduced lipid storage in adipocytes. Demonstrating that this delivery method performed well in cells, Chung and colleagues tested their therapy on obese mice. Mice were fed a diet high in fat leading to obesity and insulin resistance. Fabp4 repression resulted in a 20% reduction of body weight and improved insulin resistance and inflammation after just six weeks of treatment. Additional systemic improvements were observed, including a reduction in fatty lipid deposition in the liver and reduced circulating ...
Surprising finding about WNT signaling points to Sfrp5 as a potential target for anti-obesity drugs. As the world fights obesity at the human level, scientists at the University of Michigan and their colleagues have made a surprising finding at the microscopic level that could help fuel that fight.. Their work helps explain why fat-storing cells get fatter, and burn fat slower, as obesity sets in. If their findings from mice can be shown to apply to humans, they may provide a new target for obesity-fighting drugs.. By studying the tiny signals that fat-storing cells send to one another, the team has shown a crucial and previously unknown role for a molecule called Sfrp5.. The results, which appear online today and will be in the July issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, surprised them.. In a series of experiments, the team showed that Sfrp5 influences a signaling pathway known as WNT to stimulate fat cells - called adipocytes - to grow larger and to suppress the rate at which fat is ...
Many investors have proclaimed fat-busting blockbuster drugs Qsymia from VIVUS and Belviq from Arena Pharmaceuticals as the greatest thing since sliced bread. Its true that no anti-obesity drug had been approved in 13 years prior to the FDA approval of Belviq and Qsymia, but only one of these drugs is truly set up for immediate success -- Belviq.. Arena has a marketing deal set up with the extremely experienced Eisai, which will carry the costs of additional safety testing on Belviq. VIVUS has no partner, meaning that any additional safety concerns and all marketing costs of the drug fall squarely on VIVUS. Launch risk is another concern. All too often, weve seen blockbuster drugs limp out of the gate -- it happened with Human Genome Sciences Benlysta and Dendreons Provenge treatment. Without a proven marketing team, a mediocre launch is a very real concern. Finally, a European approval of Qsymia appears far less likely. Although VIVUS target patient resides in the U.S., a lack of EU ...
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromedin U (NMU) may be a novel target for obesity treatment owing to its anorectic and energy expenditure enhancing effects. Although two receptors, NMU1 and NMU2, are both responsible for the NMU-mediated anti-obesity effects, the receptor agonist with the most appropriate profiles for treating obesity and diabetes in terms of efficacy and safety is as yet unknown. Thus, we developed and evaluated novel NMU1/2 receptor-selective agonists. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Efficacy and safety were assessed in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and those with leptin-deficient diabetes (ob/ob) through repeated peripheral administration of selective agonists to NMU1 (NMU-6102) and NMU2 (NMU-2084), along with NMU1/2 non-selective agonists (NMU-0002 and NMU-6014 ...
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Common side effects may include: allergic reaction, oily spotting in your undergarments; orange or brown colored oil in your stool; oily or fatty stools; loose stools, or an urgent need to go to the bathroom, inability to control bowel movements; gas with discharge, an oily discharge; stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rectal pain; an increased number of bowel movements; loss of appetite, weakness, clay-colored stools, dark urine, itching, or jaundice, problems with your teeth or gums; cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, sneezing, cough; headache, back pain; fever, chills, sore throat, flu symptoms; mild skin rash. If you experience one of the side effects listed above please contact your doctor ...
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Xenical. Xenical bevat het actieve bestanddeel orlistat, een geneesmiddel dat gebruikt wordt om gewichtsverlies, bij mensen met ernstig overgewicht, It is marketed as a prescription under the trade name Xenical by Roche in most countries, and is sold over-the-counter as Alli by GlaxoSmithKline in the United Bestel afslankmedicijnen acomplia rimonabant, reductil sibutramine, xenical orlistat online zonder recept voor afvallen en overgewicht. Bestel Xenical (orlistat) via uw erkende online apotheek. Gratis online medisch consult met onze geregistreerde arts. Veilig, makkelijk en snelle bezorging. Sep 24, 2012 Xenical : EPAR - Summary for the public, NL = Nederlands, 2008-11-13. Xenical : EPAR - Summary for the public, PL = polski, 2008-11-13 Ik woon in Nederland en heb net twee weken Xenical gebruikt. Ik ben bijna 4 kilo afgevallen maar heb erg weinig vet gegeten per dag en dit Around two weeks ago i started taking Xenical. After about 8 days I lost about a pound which i thought was okay seeing as ...
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Evaluation of the Anti-obesity Activity of Platycodon grandiflorum Root and Curcuma longa Root Fermented with Aspergillus oryzae Platycodon grandiflorum;Curcuma longa;fermentation;lipid accumulation;anti-obesity; In the present study, the phenolic compound level, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of lipid accumulation in Aspergillus oryzae-fermented water extracts of the Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) root and the Curcuma longa (CL) root were determined. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were decreased after fermentation. However, the flavonoid content of the fermented PG (FPG) was increased by 2.9-fold that of the PG before fermentation. In addition, the antioxidant activities were significantly decreased following fermentation. The potential anti-obesity activity was assessed by determining lipid accumulation and mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) in 3T3-L1 cells. Aspergillus
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Diallyl disulfide potentiates anti-obesity effect of green tea in high-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced obesity. AU - Bae, Jaehoon. AU - Kumazoe, Motofumi. AU - Fujimura, Yoshinori. AU - Tachibana, Hirofumi. PY - 2019/2/1. Y1 - 2019/2/1. N2 - Obesity is a major problem in developed countries and a burden on social health care systems. Several epidemiological studies showed the protective effects of green tea against obesity-related diseases. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) acts as a mediator for the physiological effects of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, the major constituent of green tea. Here, we showed that the level of phosphodiesterase 5, a negative regulator of cGMP, was up-regulated in adipose tissues of high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet-fed mice and that this up-regulation was ameliorated by diallyl disulfide (DADS), the major organosulfur in garlic. A green tea extract (GT) and DADS in combination attenuated HF/HS diet-induced adipose increase and triglyceride ...
Cissus is a genus of approximately 350 species of lianas (woody vines) in the grape family (Vitaceae). They have a cosmopolitan distribution, though the majority are to be found in the tropics. Cissus quadrangularis has been evaluated for potential medical uses. As a source of carotenoids, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid the extracts may have potential for medical effects, including "gastroprotective activity" and benefits in terms of "lipid metabolism and oxidative stress". Cissus quinquangularis was used by the Maasai people of Kenya to relieve some of the symptoms of malaria. Cissus antarctica, Cissus alata and Cissus incisa are cultivated as garden plants, depending on area of the world. Succulent members of the genus such as Cissus quadrangularis are also found in the nursery trade but tend to be frost tender and are thus not widely cultivated. Cissus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Hypercompe eridanus and Hypercompe icasia. The generic ...
We previously reported that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO) was an effective anti-steatosis and antiobesity agent. Since the major fatty acid α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) in BMSO is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator, the objective was to investigate the role of PPARα in BMSO-modulated lipid disorders and α-ESA metabolism. C57BL/6J wild (WD) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet containing BMSO (15% soybean oil + 15% BMSO, HB) or not (30% soybean oil, HS) for 5 weeks. The HB diet significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride concentrations and increased acyl-CoA oxidase activity in WD, but not in KO mice. However, regardless of genotype, body fat percentage was lowered along with upregulated protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and tyrosine hydroxylase, as well as signaling pathway of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase in the white adipose tissue of HB-treated groups compared to HS cohorts. In WD-HB and KO-HB groups, white
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Background: Salvia officinalis (sage) is a native plant to the Mediterranean region and has been used for a long time in traditional medicine for various diseases. We investigated possible anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects of sage methanol (MetOH) extract in a nutritional mouse model of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as its effects on lipolysis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were treated for 5 weeks with sage methanol extract (100 and 400 mg.kg -1 /day. bid), or rosiglitazone (3 mg.kg -1 /day. bid), as a positive control. Energy expenditure, food intake, body weight, fat mass, liver glycogen and lipid content were evaluated. Blood glucose, and plasma levels of insulin, lipids leptin and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured throughout the experiment. The effects of sage MetOH extract on lipolysis and lipogenesis were tested in vitro in 3T3-L1 cells. Results: After two weeks of treatment, the lower dose
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of germinated brown rice extracts on pancreatic lipase, adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. AU - See Meng, Lim. AU - Goh, Yong Meng. AU - Kuan, Wen Bin. AU - Loh, Su Peng. PY - 2014/11/3. Y1 - 2014/11/3. N2 - Background: This study investigated anti-obesity effects of seven different solvent (n-hexane, toluene, dicholoromethane, ethyl acetate, absolute methanol, 80% methanol and deionized water) extracts of germinated brown rice (GBR) on pancreatic lipase activity, adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: GBR were extracted separately by employing different solvents with ultrasound-assisted. Pancreatic lipase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate (p-NPB) to p-nitrophenol at 405 nm. Adipogenesis and lipolysis were assayed in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by using Oil Red O staining and glycerol release measurement. Results: GBR extract using hexane showed the highest ...

Anti-obesity Agents | Encyclopedia.comAnti-obesity Agents | Encyclopedia.com

In 1999 the FDA approved orlistat (the first of a new class of anti-obesity drugs called lipase inhibitors) for long-term use. ... Risks from Obesity Overweight and obese people are at higher risk for developing the following problems:. *sleep apnea ( ... Obesity refers to an excessively high proportion of body fat. The BMI is used to determine whether a person is overweight or ... American Obesity Association. 1250 24th Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20037. (800)986-2373. 〈http://www.obesity.org〉. ...
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Anti-Obesity Agents
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Recruited brown adipose tissue as an antiobesity agent in humansJCI - Recruited brown adipose tissue as an antiobesity agent in humans

... understanding the mechanisms that drive BAT recruitment and activation could be useful in the development of novel anti-obesity ... Recruited brown adipose tissue as an antiobesity agent in humans. Takeshi Yoneshiro,1 Sayuri Aita,2 Mami Matsushita,2 Takashi ... Obesity. 2011;19(9):1755-1760.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ... Obesity. 2011;19(1):13-16.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ...
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Patent US6673815 - Substituted acid derivatives useful as antidiabetic and antiobesity agents ... - Google PatentsPatent US6673815 - Substituted acid derivatives useful as antidiabetic and antiobesity agents ... - Google Patents

and a lipid-lowering agent, a lipid modulating agent, an antidiabetic agent, an anti-obesity agent, an antihypertensive agent, ... one or more anti-obesity agents, and/or one or more lipid-lowering agents, one or more lipid modulating agents (including anti- ... one or more agents for treating arthritis, one or more anti-osteoporosis agents, one or more anti-obesity agents, one or more ... anti-obesity agents, antihypertensive agents, platelet aggregation inhibitors, and/or anti-osteoporosis agents, which may be ...
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Substituted acid derivatives useful as antidiabetic and antiobesity agents and method - DEVASTHALE PRATIKSubstituted acid derivatives useful as antidiabetic and antiobesity agents and method - DEVASTHALE PRATIK

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Eisai Announces Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes Data for Anti-Obesity Agent BELVIQ® Presented at t - PharmiWeb.comEisai Announces Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes Data for Anti-Obesity Agent BELVIQ® Presented at t - PharmiWeb.com

Eisai Announces Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes Data for Anti-Obesity Agent BELVIQ® Presented at the European Society of ... We are not an agent for these third parties nor do we endorse or guarantee their products. We make no representation or ...
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Eisai Announces Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes Data for Anti-Obesity Agent BELVIQ® Presented at the European Society of...Eisai Announces Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes Data for Anti-Obesity Agent BELVIQ® Presented at the European Society of...

Eisai Announces Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes Data for Anti-Obesity Agent BELVIQ® Presented at the European Society of ... About Obesity. Obesity is a serious and growing public health issue. The prevalence of obesity in the U.S. has more than ... This dramatic rise in obesity has also had a major impact on other diseases. Indeed, obesity is an important risk factor for ... Manage with immediate discontinuation of BELVIQ/BELVIQ XR and any concomitant serotonergic or antidopaminergic agents and ...
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DigitalCommons@PCOM - Research Day: Multifaceted effects of guggulsterone as an anti-obesity agent.[email protected] - Research Day: Multifaceted effects of guggulsterone as an anti-obesity agent.

... as an anti-obesity agent. We investigated the effects of GS on adipogenesis, lipolysis and beiging using 3T3-L1 murine ... We demonstrate the three-way anti-obesity effects of GS in our in vitro cell culture model. Firstly, GS inhibited the ... Together, these data suggest that guggulsterone may exert anti-obesity effects not only by decreasing adipogenesis and ... Beiging of WAT increases energy expenditure and is gaining attention as a novel therapeutic approach for obesity. ...
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Antiobesity designed multiple ligands: Synthesis of pyrazole fatty acid amides and evaluation as hypophagic agents.  - PubMed -...Antiobesity designed multiple ligands: Synthesis of pyrazole fatty acid amides and evaluation as hypophagic agents. - PubMed -...

Anti-Obesity Agents/chemical synthesis*. *Anti-Obesity Agents/chemistry. *Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology* ... Antiobesity designed multiple ligands: Synthesis of pyrazole fatty acid amides and evaluation as hypophagic agents.. Alvarado M ... Searching for new antiobesity agents, a new series of fatty acid amide derivatives of 1,5-diarylpyrazole have been synthesized ...
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Anti-Obesity Agents | Autophagy, Inflammation and Metabolism Center of Biomedical Research ExcellenceAnti-Obesity Agents | Autophagy, Inflammation and Metabolism Center of Biomedical Research Excellence

The AIM Center is funded by NIH grant P20GM121176, and it endows the state of New Mexico and the surrounding region with a state-of-the-art biomedical center and an intellectual and technological hub for cutting-edge research. On a larger scale, the AIM Center promises to be a nationally important center for the advancement of research on autophagy. ...
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Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Potential Antiobesity Agent | Nutrition | JAMA | The JAMA NetworkGarcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Potential Antiobesity Agent | Nutrition | JAMA | The JAMA Network

National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Long-term pharmacotherapy in the management of obesity. JAMA. ... National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Long-term pharmacotherapy in the management of obesity. JAMA. ... Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Potential Antiobesity AgentA Randomized Controlled Trial. ... as a Potential Antiobesity AgentA Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 1998;280(18):1596-1600. doi:10.1001/jama.280.18.1596 ...
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Human Milk Oligosaccharide LNnT as a Novel Anti-Obesity Agent by Meredith E. Hawkins"Human Milk Oligosaccharide LNnT as a Novel Anti-Obesity Agent" by Meredith E. Hawkins

Current obesity treatments such as surgical procedures and anti-obesity medications have serious and undesirable side effects. ... Consequently, safer and more natural therapeutic options are being explored for anti-obesity therapy. Immunomodulatory glycans ... WAT provides no protective mechanism against obesity due to the lack of UCPJ. Obese individuals thus exhibit a deficiency in ... While several therapeutic options attempting to reverse or reduce the effects of obesity are available, safe, effective, long- ...
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Integrating pathway elucidation with yeast engineering to produce polpunonic acid the precursor of the anti-obesity agent...Integrating pathway elucidation with yeast engineering to produce polpunonic acid the precursor of the anti-obesity agent...

Celastrol is a promising anti-obesity agent that acts as a sensitizer of the protein hormone leptin. Despite its potent ... Celastrol is a promising anti-obesity agent that acts as a sensitizer of the protein hormone leptin. Despite its potent ... Integrating pathway elucidation with yeast engineering to produce polpunonic acid the precursor of the anti-obesity agent ... Integrating pathway elucidation with yeast engineering to produce polpunonic acid the precursor of the anti-obesity agent ...
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The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese MiceThe Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

J. Ahn, H. Lee, S. Kim, J. Park, and T. Ha, "The anti-obesity effect of quercetin is mediated by the AMPK and MAPK signaling ... Clinically available antiobesity agents include orlistat, a pancreatic lipase inhibitor, and sibutramine, a centrally acting ... H. Choi, H. Eo, K. Park et al., "A water-soluble extract from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-obesity effects by controlling ... F. Lei, X. N. Zhang, W. Wang et al., "Evidence of anti-obesity effects of the pomegranate leaf extract in high-fat diet induced ...
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Health Benefits of Bell PeppersHealth Benefits of Bell Peppers

Anti-Obesity Agent. Capsaicin in bell pepper promotes the breakdown of large fat molecules into smaller ones. Large fat ... Anti-Microbial Activity. Bell pepper serves as a natural anti-bacterial agent and prevents bacterial and fungal growth. ... Obesity. Obesity is a condition where there is excess accumulation of body fat which poses a risk to the health of the ... Anti-Cancer Property. Red bell pepper is a great source of carotenoid pigments. Carotenoids act as an antioxidant and they are ...
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Anti-obesity Medicinal Plants | SpringerLinkAnti-obesity Medicinal Plants | SpringerLink

Obesity is a global health problem affecting all age groups, leading to many complications such as type 2 diabetes, systemic ... Mohamed GA, Ibrahim SR, Elkhayat ES, Salah El Dine RS (2014) Natural anti-obesity agents. Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy Cairo ... Saad B., Zaid H., Shanak S., Kadan S. (2017) Anti-obesity Medicinal Plants. In: Anti-diabetes and Anti-obesity Medicinal Plants ... Anti-diabetes and Anti-obesity Medicinal Plants and Phytochemicals pp 59-93 , Cite as ...
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Obesity Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Patient Screening, Assessment, and Expectations, Weight-Loss GoalsObesity Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Patient Screening, Assessment, and Expectations, Weight-Loss Goals

Obesity is a substantial public health crisis in the United States and in the rest of the industrialized world. The prevalence ... Other potential antiobesity agents. The increasing knowledge that has come on the heels of the discovery of leptin by Friedman ... encoded search term (Obesity) and Obesity What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Obesity ... Agents in early phases of investigation that may yet prove useful against obesity include the following:. * Ghrelin antagonists ...
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Yellow Tea | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural MedicineYellow Tea | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine

Diseases : High Fat Diet, Obesity. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Hypolipidemic, Interleukin-6 ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Hypoglycemic Agents, Hypolipidemic, Interferon Gamma Reducer, Interleukin-1 ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antioxidants, Gastroprotective, Interleukin-6 Downregulation, Tumor ...
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The relationship between BMI and the prescription of anti-obesity medication according to social factors: a population cross...The relationship between BMI and the prescription of anti-obesity medication according to social factors: a population cross...

General practiceAnti-obesity agentsSocioeconomic factorsWeight lossObesityMulti-level modelling ... are more likely to be prescribed anti-obesity medication.. What is already known on this topic. Anti-obesity medication has ... relate uptake of anti-obesity medications to need and; 2) quantify the amount of variation in prescribing of anti-obesity ... Prescribing of anti-obesity medication reflected obesity prevalence across urban/rural areas and deprivation. There was an ...
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Does Drinking Lemon Juice Help You Lose Weight?Does Drinking Lemon Juice Help You Lose Weight?

Anti-Obesity Agent. Lemons contain limonin that helps to lower bad cholesterol in the blood and helps to burn fat. ... Ginger fights obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, digestive problems, and skin issues. It has anti-inflammatory ... Kiwis are rich in vitamin E and antioxidants (7). Oranges have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties (8). ...
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Patent US7718400 - Methods of increasing lean tissue mass using OB protein compositions - Google PatentsPatent US7718400 - Methods of increasing lean tissue mass using OB protein compositions - Google Patents

Anti-obesity agents. WO1997000319A2. Jun 11, 1996. Jan 3, 1997. Smithkline Beecham Plc. Chimeric leptin fused to immunoglobulin ... Thus, OB protein has the capacity to act, in addition to acting as a weight reducing agent, as an agent affecting lean tissue ... additives such as detergents and solubilizing agents (e.g., Tween 80, Polysorbate 80), anti-oxidants (e.g., ascorbic acid, ... The therapeutic agent could also be given in a film coated tablet and the materials used in this instance are divided into 2 ...
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Patent US20070269522 - Transdermal Drug Delivery Device with Translucent Protective Film - Google PatentsPatent US20070269522 - Transdermal Drug Delivery Device with Translucent Protective Film - Google Patents

... drug delivery device comprising a reservoir comprising a releasably stored dosage of a pharmaceutically active agent and a ... anticancer agents (e.g., methotrexate); neurologic agents such as anxiolytic drugs; hemostatics; anti-obesity agents; and the ... Transdermal dosage form comprising an active agent and a salt and free-base form of an adverse agent. ... antimigraine agents (e.g., ergotamine, melatonin, sumatripan); antiarrhythmic agents (e.g., flecainide); antiemetics (e.g., ...
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  • In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether activation and recruitment of BAT can be a target to counterbalance the current obesity pandemic. (jci.org)
  • Obesity is associated with pathological expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) and is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. (pcom.edu)
  • In light of this finding, researchers have begun investigating a newly identified type of adipose tissue in an attempt to combat obesity. (pcom.edu)
  • At present, many oriental medicinal herbs are reported to effectively treat obesity without significant side effects and might be an excellent alternative strategy to develop safe and effective antiobesity drugs [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Treating obesity with drugs and surgery: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. (nih.gov)
  • Giuseppina De Simone and Claudiu T. Supuran, " Antiobesity Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors", Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry (2007) 7: 879. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In response to the increase in obesity, pharmacologic treatments for weight loss have become more numerous and more commonly used. (nih.gov)
  • A closely related type of drug is a serotonin-dopamine releasing agent (SDRA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Our data suggests that LNnT has the ability to directly induce transdifferentation of white to beige adipocytes and indirectly induce beiging by activating anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. (pcom.edu)
  • Multi-level logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with the prescription of anti-obesity medication in Northern Ireland using a population primary care prescribing database (~1.5 million people aged 16+ years) during 2009/10. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present invention comprises a transdermal drug delivery device comprising a reservoir comprising a releasably stored dosage of a pharmaceutically active agent and a translucent film adjacent to at least a portion of the reservoir, wherein the translucent film comprises at least one inorganic ultraviolet-absorbing. (google.ca)
  • 15 . A transdermal drug delivery device according to claim 1 , wherein the pharmaceutically active agent may undergo ultraviolet light induced degradation. (google.ca)
  • However, there are currently no published studies on the antiobesity effects of these compound. (pcom.edu)
  • Searching for new antiobesity agents, a new series of fatty acid amide derivatives of 1,5-diarylpyrazole have been synthesized as dual peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)/cannabinoid receptor ligands. (nih.gov)
  • Bell peppers are cultivated all around the world and are widely used as a seasoning agent due to their sweet taste, flavor, crunchy texture and attractive and bright color. (medindia.net)
  • National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference statements: gastrointestinal surgery for severe obesity. (jamanetwork.com)