Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
3-(p-Fluorophenyl)-alanine.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
A diffuse or multifocal peripheral neuropathy related to the remote effects of a neoplasm, most often carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically, there are inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. The most common clinical presentation is a symmetric distal mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1334)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Cerebellar degeneration associated with a remote neoplasm. Clinical manifestations include progressive limb and GAIT ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; and NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC. The histologic type of the associated neoplasm is usually carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically the cerebellar cortex and subcortical nuclei demonstrate diffuse degenerative changes. Anti-Purkinje cell antibodies (anti-Yo) are found in the serum of approximately 50% of affected individuals. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p686)
An autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of proximal muscles, particularly of the pelvic girdle, lower extremities, trunk, and shoulder girdle. There is relative sparing of extraocular and bulbar muscles. CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL of the lung is a frequently associated condition, although other malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be associated. Muscular weakness results from impaired impulse transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction leads to a reduced amount of acetylcholine being released in response to stimulation of the nerve. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 1471)
Ocular manifestations secondary to various NEOPLASMS in which antibodies to antigens of the primary tumor cross-react with ocular antigens. This autoimmune response often leads to visual loss and other ocular dysfunctions.

Cognitive deficits following anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. (1/20)

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Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: an important differential diagnosis in psychosis. (2/20)

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Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis presenting with focal non-convulsive status epilepticus in a child. (3/20)

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Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: an emerging cause of centrally mediated sinus node dysfunction. (4/20)

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Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in childhood. (5/20)

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Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: distinct pattern of disease. (6/20)

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Anti-NMDA-receptor antibody detected in encephalitis, schizophrenia, and narcolepsy with psychotic features. (7/20)

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Appearance of anti-NMDAR antibodies after plasma exchange and total removal of malignant ovarian teratoma in a patient with paraneoplastic limbic encephalopathy. (8/20)

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Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a type of autoimmune encephalitis, which is a inflammation of the brain. It occurs when the body's immune system produces antibodies against NMDA receptors, which are proteins found on the surface of certain brain cells (neurons). These antibodies can bind to and disrupt the function of the NMDA receptors, leading to a range of neurological symptoms.

The symptoms of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis typically develop over several weeks or months and can include:

* Behavioral changes, such as anxiety, agitation, or paranoia
* Memory loss
* Seizures
* Movement disorders, such as involuntary jerking or twitching of muscles
* Speech difficulties
* Loss of consciousness
* Autonomic instability (problems regulating heart rate, blood pressure, breathing and temperature)

The diagnosis is confirmed by detecting the anti-NMDA receptor antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum. Treatment typically involves a combination of immunotherapy (such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange) and tumor removal if a tumor is present.

It's important to note that this disorder can affect both children and adults, and it can be associated with ovarian teratoma in women of childbearing age.

Amino acid receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to specific amino acids or peptides and trigger intracellular signaling pathways. These receptors play important roles in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, and regulation of metabolism.

There are several types of amino acid receptors, including:

1. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These receptors are activated by amino acids such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, and glutamate, and play important roles in neurotransmission and neuromodulation.
2. Ionotropic receptors: These receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by amino acids such as glutamate and glycine. They play critical roles in synaptic transmission and neural excitability.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors activate intracellular signaling pathways through the activation of enzymes, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Some amino acid receptors, such as the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), are RTKs that play important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.
4. Intracellular receptors: These receptors are located within the cell and bind to amino acids or peptides that have been transported into the cell. For example, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are intracellular receptors that bind to fatty acids and play important roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation.

Overall, amino acid receptors are critical components of cell signaling pathways and play important roles in various physiological processes. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

Encephalitis is defined as inflammation of the brain parenchyma, which is often caused by viral infections but can also be due to bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to toxins. The infection or inflammation can cause various symptoms such as headache, fever, confusion, seizures, and altered consciousness, ranging from mild symptoms to severe cases that can lead to brain damage, long-term disabilities, or even death.

The diagnosis of encephalitis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis). Treatment may include antiviral medications, corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Dyskinesias are a type of movement disorder characterized by involuntary, erratic, and often repetitive muscle movements. These movements can affect any part of the body and can include twisting, writhing, or jerking motions, as well as slow, writhing contortions. Dyskinesias can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications (such as those used to treat Parkinson's disease), brain injury, stroke, infection, or exposure to toxins. They can also be a side effect of some medical treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Dyskinesias can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, making it difficult for them to perform routine tasks and affecting their overall quality of life. Treatment for dyskinesias depends on the underlying cause and may include medication adjustments, surgery, or physical therapy. In some cases, dyskinesias may be managed with the use of assistive devices or by modifying the person's environment to make it easier for them to move around.

A teratoma is a type of germ cell tumor, which is a broad category of tumors that originate from the reproductive cells. A teratoma contains developed tissues from all three embryonic germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. This means that a teratoma can contain various types of tissue such as hair, teeth, bone, and even more complex organs like eyes, thyroid, or neural tissue.

Teratomas are usually benign (non-cancerous), but they can sometimes be malignant (cancerous) and can spread to other parts of the body. They can occur anywhere in the body, but they're most commonly found in the ovaries and testicles. When found in these areas, they are typically removed surgically.

Teratomas can also occur in other locations such as the sacrum, coccyx (tailbone), mediastinum (the area between the lungs), and pineal gland (a small gland in the brain). These types of teratomas can be more complex to treat due to their location and potential to cause damage to nearby structures.

N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, which are found in the membranes of excitatory neurons in the central nervous system. They play a crucial role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory processes. NMDA receptors are ligand-gated channels that are permeable to calcium ions (Ca2+) and other cations.

NMDA receptors are composed of four subunits, which can be a combination of NR1, NR2A-D, and NR3A-B subunits. The binding of the neurotransmitter glutamate to the NR2 subunit and glycine to the NR1 subunit leads to the opening of the ion channel and the influx of Ca2+ ions.

NMDA receptors have a unique property in that they require both agonist binding and membrane depolarization for full activation, making them sensitive to changes in the electrical activity of the neuron. This property allows NMDA receptors to act as coincidence detectors, playing a critical role in synaptic plasticity and learning.

Abnormal functioning of NMDA receptors has been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and chronic pain. Therefore, NMDA receptors are a common target for drug development in the treatment of these conditions.

Aspartic acid is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CO2H. It is one of the twenty standard amino acids, and it is a polar, negatively charged, and hydrophilic amino acid. In proteins, aspartic acid usually occurs in its ionized form, aspartate, which has a single negative charge.

Aspartic acid plays important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, and energy production. It is also a key component of many enzymes and proteins, where it often contributes to the formation of ionic bonds and helps stabilize protein structure.

In addition to its role as a building block of proteins, aspartic acid is also used in the synthesis of other important biological molecules, such as nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. It is also a component of the dipeptide aspartame, an artificial sweetener that is widely used in food and beverages.

Like other amino acids, aspartic acid is essential for human health, but it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. Foods that are rich in aspartic acid include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, and some fruits and vegetables.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) are a preparation of antibodies, specifically immunoglobulins, that are derived from the plasma of healthy donors. They are administered intravenously to provide passive immunity and help boost the immune system's response in individuals with weakened or compromised immune systems. IVIG can be used for various medical conditions such as primary immunodeficiency disorders, secondary immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and some infectious diseases. The administration of IVIG can help prevent infections, reduce the severity and frequency of infections, and manage the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders. It is important to note that while IVIG provides temporary immunity, it does not replace a person's own immune system.

Viral encephalitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the brain caused by a viral infection. The infection can be caused by various types of viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, enteroviruses, arboviruses (transmitted through insect bites), or HIV.

The symptoms of viral encephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and altered level of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage, coma, or even death. The diagnosis is usually made based on clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scan. Treatment typically involves antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of complications.

Japanese encephalitis is a viral inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex mosquitoes, particularly in rural and agricultural areas. The majority of JE cases occur in children under the age of 15. Most people infected with JEV do not develop symptoms, but some may experience mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and vomiting. In severe cases, JEV can cause high fever, neck stiffness, seizures, confusion, and coma. There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis, and care is focused on managing symptoms and supporting the patient's overall health. Prevention measures include vaccination and avoiding mosquito bites in endemic areas.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a type of flavivirus that is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

JEV is endemic in many parts of Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is estimated to cause around 68,000 clinical cases and 13,000-20,000 deaths each year. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds.

Most JEV infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. However, in some cases, the infection can progress to severe encephalitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the brain, leading to neurological symptoms such as seizures, tremors, paralysis, and coma. The case fatality rate for Japanese encephalitis is estimated to be 20-30%, and around half of those who survive have significant long-term neurological sequelae.

Prevention of JEV infection includes the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito feeding times. Vaccination is also an effective means of preventing Japanese encephalitis, and vaccines are available for travelers to endemic areas as well as for residents of those areas.

Chemotaxis is a term used in biology and medicine to describe the movement of an organism or cell towards or away from a chemical stimulus. This process plays a crucial role in various biological phenomena, including immune responses, wound healing, and the development and progression of diseases such as cancer.

In chemotaxis, cells can detect and respond to changes in the concentration of specific chemicals, known as chemoattractants or chemorepellents, in their environment. These chemicals bind to receptors on the cell surface, triggering a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in the cytoskeleton and directed movement of the cell towards or away from the chemical gradient.

For example, during an immune response, white blood cells called neutrophils use chemotaxis to migrate towards sites of infection or inflammation, where they can attack and destroy invading pathogens. Similarly, cancer cells can use chemotaxis to migrate towards blood vessels and metastasize to other parts of the body.

Understanding chemotaxis is important for developing new therapies and treatments for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

Aspartate aminotransferases (ASTs) are a group of enzymes found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, liver, and muscles. They play a crucial role in the metabolic process of transferring amino groups between different molecules.

In medical terms, AST is often used as a blood test to measure the level of this enzyme in the serum. Elevated levels of AST can indicate damage or injury to tissues that contain this enzyme, such as the liver or heart. For example, liver disease, including hepatitis and cirrhosis, can cause elevated AST levels due to damage to liver cells. Similarly, heart attacks can also result in increased AST levels due to damage to heart muscle tissue.

It is important to note that an AST test alone cannot diagnose a specific medical condition, but it can provide valuable information when used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

P-Fluorophenylalanine (p-FPA) is not a medical term, but a chemical compound used in research and medical fields. It's a type of amino acid that is used as a building block for proteins, similar to the naturally occurring amino acid phenylalanine. However, p-FPA has a fluorine atom attached to its para position (one of the possible positions on the phenyl ring).

This compound can be used in various research applications, including the study of protein synthesis and enzyme function. It's also been explored as a potential therapeutic agent for certain medical conditions, such as cancer and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy for these uses.

"Salmonella enterica" serovar "Typhimurium" is a subspecies of the bacterial species Salmonella enterica, which is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It is a common cause of foodborne illness in humans and animals worldwide. The bacteria can be found in a variety of sources, including contaminated food and water, raw meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.

The infection caused by Salmonella Typhimurium is typically self-limiting and results in gastroenteritis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. However, in some cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe illness, particularly in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

Salmonella Typhimurium is a major public health concern due to its ability to cause outbreaks of foodborne illness, as well as its potential to develop antibiotic resistance. Proper food handling, preparation, and storage practices can help prevent the spread of Salmonella Typhimurium and other foodborne pathogens.

Chemoreceptor cells are specialized sensory neurons that detect and respond to chemical changes in the internal or external environment. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis within the body by converting chemical signals into electrical impulses, which are then transmitted to the central nervous system for further processing and response.

There are two main types of chemoreceptor cells:

1. Oxygen Chemoreceptors: These cells are located in the carotid bodies near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and in the aortic bodies close to the aortic arch. They monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and respond to decreases in oxygen concentration or increases in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions (indicating acidity) by increasing their firing rate. This signals the brain to increase respiratory rate and depth, thereby restoring normal oxygen levels.

2. Taste Cells: These chemoreceptor cells are found within the taste buds of the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity. They detect specific tastes (salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami) by interacting with molecules from food. When a tastant binds to receptors on the surface of a taste cell, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the generation of an action potential. This information is then relayed to the brain, where it is interpreted as taste sensation.

In summary, chemoreceptor cells are essential for maintaining physiological balance by detecting and responding to chemical stimuli in the body. They play a critical role in regulating vital functions such as respiration and digestion.

Limbic encephalitis is a rare type of inflammatory autoimmune disorder that affects the limbic system, which is a part of the brain involved in emotions, behavior, memory, and sense of smell. It is characterized by inflammation of the limbic system, leading to symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, seizures, changes in behavior and mood, and problems with autonomic functions.

Limbic encephalitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, cancer, or autoimmune disorders. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI), and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment usually involves immunosuppressive therapy to reduce inflammation, as well as addressing any underlying causes if they can be identified.

It is important to note that limbic encephalitis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention and treatment. If you or someone else experiences symptoms such as sudden confusion, memory loss, or seizures, it is essential to seek medical care immediately.

Arbovirus encephalitis is a type of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) caused by a group of viruses that are transmitted through the bite of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes or ticks. The term "arbovirus" stands for "arthropod-borne virus."

There are many different types of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis, including:

* La Crosse virus
* St. Louis encephalitis virus
* West Nile virus
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus
* Western equine encephalitis virus
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

The symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis can vary, but may include fever, headache, stiff neck, seizures, confusion, and weakness. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or death. Treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral treatment for most types of arbovirus encephalitis. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) is a type of alphavirus that can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in horses and humans. It is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes, although it can also be spread through contact with contaminated food or water, or by aerosolization during laboratory work or in bioterrorism attacks.

VEEV infection can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild flu-like illness to severe encephalitis, which may result in permanent neurological damage or death. There are several subtypes of VEEV, some of which are more virulent than others. The virus is endemic in parts of Central and South America, but outbreaks can also occur in other regions, including the United States.

VEEV is considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ease of transmission through aerosolization and its high virulence. There are no specific treatments for VEEV infection, although supportive care can help manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites in endemic areas, using personal protective equipment during laboratory work with the virus, and implementing strict biocontainment procedures in research settings.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a severe and potentially life-thingening inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), most commonly HSV-1. It is a rare but serious condition that can cause significant neurological damage if left untreated.

The infection typically begins in the temporal or frontal lobes of the brain and can spread to other areas, causing symptoms such as headache, fever, seizures, confusion, memory loss, and personality changes. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or death.

Diagnosis of HSE is often made through a combination of clinical presentation, imaging studies (such as MRI), and laboratory tests, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to detect the presence of the virus.

Treatment typically involves antiviral medications, such as acyclovir, which can help reduce the severity of the infection and prevent further neurological damage. In some cases, corticosteroids may also be used to reduce inflammation in the brain. Prompt treatment is critical for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term neurological complications.

St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE) is a type of viral brain inflammation caused by the St. Louis Encephalitis virus. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Culex species. The virus breeds in warm, stagnant water and is more prevalent in rural and suburban areas.

Most people infected with SLE virus do not develop symptoms or only experience mild flu-like illness. However, some individuals, particularly the elderly, can develop severe illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, headache, neck stiffness, disorientation, coma, seizures, and spastic paralysis. There is no specific treatment for SLE, and management is focused on supportive care, including hydration, respiratory support, and prevention of secondary infections. Vaccination against SLE is not available, and prevention measures include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water around homes to reduce mosquito breeding sites.

Encephalitis viruses are a group of viruses that can cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain. Some of the most common encephalitis viruses include:

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2: These viruses are best known for causing cold sores and genital herpes, but they can also cause encephalitis, particularly in newborns and individuals with weakened immune systems.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV): This virus causes chickenpox and shingles, and it can also lead to encephalitis, especially in people who have had chickenpox.
3. Enteroviruses: These viruses are often responsible for summertime meningitis outbreaks and can occasionally cause encephalitis.
4. Arboviruses: These viruses are transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Examples include West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus.
5. Rabies virus: This virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal and can cause encephalitis in its later stages.
6. Measles virus: Although rare in developed countries due to vaccination, measles can still cause encephalitis as a complication of the infection.
7. Mumps virus: Like measles, mumps is preventable through vaccination, but it can also lead to encephalitis as a rare complication.
8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): This virus is a member of the herpesvirus family and can cause encephalitis in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients.
9. La Crosse virus: This arbovirus is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes and mainly affects children.
10. Powassan virus: Another arbovirus, Powassan virus is transmitted through the bites of infected black-legged ticks (also known as deer ticks) and can cause severe encephalitis.

It's important to note that many of these viruses are preventable through vaccination or by avoiding exposure to infected animals or mosquitoes. If you suspect you may have been exposed to one of these viruses, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Disulfides are a type of organic compound that contains a sulfur-sulfur bond. In the context of biochemistry and medicine, disulfide bonds are often found in proteins, where they play a crucial role in maintaining their three-dimensional structure and function. These bonds form when two sulfhydryl groups (-SH) on cysteine residues within a protein molecule react with each other, releasing a molecule of water and creating a disulfide bond (-S-S-) between the two cysteines. Disulfide bonds can be reduced back to sulfhydryl groups by various reducing agents, which is an important process in many biological reactions. The formation and reduction of disulfide bonds are critical for the proper folding, stability, and activity of many proteins, including those involved in various physiological processes and diseases.

Methylation, in the context of genetics and epigenetics, refers to the addition of a methyl group (CH3) to a molecule, usually to the nitrogenous base of DNA or to the side chain of amino acids in proteins. In DNA methylation, this process typically occurs at the 5-carbon position of cytosine residues that precede guanine residues (CpG sites) and is catalyzed by enzymes called DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs).

DNA methylation plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and suppression of repetitive elements. Hypermethylation or hypomethylation of specific genes can lead to altered gene expression patterns, which have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer.

In summary, methylation is a fundamental epigenetic modification that influences genomic stability, gene regulation, and cellular function by introducing methyl groups to DNA or proteins.

St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV) is a type of arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) from the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. It is the causative agent of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), a viral disease characterized by inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex spp.

The SLEV infection in humans is often asymptomatic or may cause mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting. However, in some cases, the virus can invade the central nervous system, leading to severe neurological manifestations like meningitis, encephalitis, seizures, and even coma or death. The risk of severe disease increases in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

There is no specific antiviral treatment for SLE; management typically focuses on supportive care to alleviate symptoms and address complications. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellents, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes. Vaccines are not available for SLEV, but they have been developed and tested in the past, with potential for future use in high-risk populations during outbreaks.

Aspartate carbamoyltransferase (ACT) is a crucial enzyme in the urea cycle, which is the biochemical pathway responsible for the elimination of excess nitrogen waste from the body. This enzyme catalyzes the second step of the urea cycle, where it facilitates the transfer of a carbamoyl group from carbamoyl phosphate to aspartic acid, forming N-acetylglutamic semialdehyde and releasing phosphate in the process.

The reaction catalyzed by aspartate carbamoyltransferase is as follows:

Carbamoyl phosphate + L-aspartate → N-acetylglutamic semialdehyde + P\_i + CO\_2

This enzyme plays a critical role in maintaining nitrogen balance and preventing the accumulation of toxic levels of ammonia in the body. Deficiencies or mutations in aspartate carbamoyltransferase can lead to serious metabolic disorders, such as citrullinemia and hyperammonemia, which can have severe neurological consequences if left untreated.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccines are immunobiological preparations used for active immunization against Japanese Encephalitis, a viral infection transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The vaccines contain inactivated or live attenuated strains of the JE virus. They work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies and T-cells that provide protection against the virus. There are several types of JE vaccines available, including inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccine, live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine, and inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccine. These vaccines have been shown to be effective in preventing JE and are recommended for use in individuals traveling to or living in areas where the disease is endemic.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Togaviridae and the genus Alphavirus. It is the causative agent of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), a rare but serious viral disease that can affect humans, horses, and some bird species.

EEEV is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culiseta and Coquillettidia genera. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and wild birds, primarily passerine birds. Horses and humans are considered dead-end hosts, meaning they do not develop high enough levels of viremia to infect feeding mosquitoes and perpetuate the transmission cycle.

EEE is most commonly found in the eastern and Gulf Coast states of the United States, as well as in parts of Canada, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. The disease can cause severe neurological symptoms, including inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), meningitis, and neuritis. In severe cases, EEE can lead to seizures, coma, and death. There is no specific treatment for EEE, and prevention efforts focus on reducing mosquito populations and avoiding mosquito bites.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body under normal circumstances, but may need to be obtained from external sources in certain conditions such as illness or stress. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH, and it contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which allows it to act as a powerful antioxidant and participate in various cellular processes.

Cysteine plays important roles in protein structure and function, detoxification, and the synthesis of other molecules such as glutathione, taurine, and coenzyme A. It is also involved in wound healing, immune response, and the maintenance of healthy skin, hair, and nails.

Cysteine can be found in a variety of foods, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, and some grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement and can be used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as liver disease, bronchitis, and heavy metal toxicity. However, excessive intake of cysteine may have adverse effects on health, including gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, and headaches.

Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) is a type of viral encephalitis that is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes. It is caused by the western equine encephalitis virus, which belongs to the family Togaviridae and the genus Alphavirus.

WEEV is most commonly found in North America, particularly in the western and central regions of the United States and Canada. The virus is maintained in a natural cycle between mosquitoes and birds, but it can also infect horses and humans.

In humans, WEEV infection can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological manifestations such as encephalitis, meningitis, and seizures. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex tarsalis.

The incubation period for WEEV is typically 4-10 days, after which symptoms may appear suddenly or gradually. Mild cases of WEEV may be asymptomatic or may cause fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Severe cases may involve neck stiffness, disorientation, seizures, coma, and permanent neurological damage.

There is no specific treatment for WEEV, and management is primarily supportive. Prevention measures include the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito hours. Public health authorities may also implement mosquito control measures to reduce the risk of transmission.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Paraneoplastic syndromes refer to a group of rare disorders that are caused by an abnormal immune system response to a cancerous (malignant) tumor. These syndromes are characterized by symptoms or signs that do not result directly from the growth of the tumor itself, but rather from substances produced by the tumor or the body's immune system in response to the tumor.

Paraneoplastic syndromes can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the nervous system, endocrine system, skin, and joints. Examples of paraneoplastic syndromes include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), which affects nerve function and causes muscle weakness; cerebellar degeneration, which can cause difficulty with coordination and balance; and dermatomyositis, which is an inflammatory condition that affects the skin and muscles.

Paraneoplastic syndromes can occur in association with a variety of different types of cancer, including lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and lymphoma. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cancer, as well as managing the symptoms of the paraneoplastic syndrome.

Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system are a group of rare disorders that occur in some individuals with cancer. These syndromes are caused by an immune system response to the cancer tumor, which can lead to the damage or destruction of nerve cells. The immune system produces antibodies and/or activated immune cells that attack the neural tissue, leading to neurological symptoms.

Paraneoplastic syndromes can affect any part of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and muscles. Symptoms vary depending on the specific syndrome and the location of the affected nerve tissue. Some common neurological symptoms include muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, seizures, memory loss, confusion, difficulty speaking or swallowing, visual disturbances, and coordination problems.

Paraneoplastic syndromes are often associated with specific types of cancer, such as small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and lymphoma. Diagnosis can be challenging because the symptoms may precede the discovery of the underlying cancer. A combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, laboratory tests, and sometimes a brain biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cancer with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Immunosuppressive therapies may also be used to manage the immune response that is causing the neurological symptoms. While treatment can help alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life, paraneoplastic syndromes are often difficult to cure completely.

Paraneoplastic polyneuropathy is a rare neurological disorder that can occur in some individuals with cancer. It's caused by the immune system producing antibodies or cells that attack the nervous system (neurons, nerve axons, or myelin sheath) as a response to the presence of a tumor or cancer in the body.

The term "polyneuropathy" refers to damage or dysfunction affecting multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. This can lead to various symptoms such as numbness, tingling, muscle weakness, and pain, typically starting in the hands and feet and progressing upwards.

In paraneoplastic polyneuropathy, these symptoms are related to the immune system's response to the cancer rather than direct invasion of the nerves by the tumor itself. The specific type of polyneuropathy can vary between individuals, and it may present as sensorimotor polyneuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, or a combination of both.

Early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cancer are crucial for managing paraneoplastic polyneuropathy. Immunotherapy, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin may be used to help control the immune response and alleviate symptoms.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive damage to the cerebellum, the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements. It is considered a paraneoplastic syndrome, which means it is caused by an abnormal immune system response to a cancerous tumor (neoplasm) located elsewhere in the body.

In PCD, antibodies produced by the immune system to fight the tumor mistakenly attack proteins in the cerebellum that are similar to those found in the tumor. This leads to inflammation and degeneration of the Purkinje cells, a type of neuron critical for maintaining balance and coordinating movements.

PCD can present with symptoms such as unsteady gait, loss of coordination, slurred speech, nystagmus (involuntary eye movement), and tremors. These symptoms often develop rapidly, over the course of days to weeks, and may progress even after the tumor has been removed or treated.

PCD is associated with several types of cancers, including small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and others. Early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cancer are essential to slowing down the progression of PCD and improving outcomes.

Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS) is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigability. It is caused by the presence of antibodies against voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in the neuromuscular junction, which disrupts the normal transmission of signals between nerves and muscles.

The symptoms of LEMS include proximal muscle weakness, which may affect the legs more than the arms, and autonomic dysfunction such as dry mouth and constipation. The weakness tends to improve with exercise but worsens after periods of rest. In some cases, LEMS can be associated with cancer, particularly small cell lung cancer.

Diagnosis of LEMS typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, electromyography (EMG) studies, and blood tests to detect VGCC antibodies. Treatment may include medications such as pyridostigmine, which improves neuromuscular transmission, or intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange, which help to reduce the immune response. In cases where LEMS is associated with cancer, treatment of the underlying malignancy can also improve muscle strength and function.

Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of rare disorders that occur in some individuals with cancer. These syndromes are caused by substances produced by the tumor or the body's immune response to the tumor, which can affect distant organs and cause various symptoms.

Ocular paraneoplastic syndromes refer to a subset of these disorders that specifically affect the eyes. They are caused by an abnormal immune response directed against antigens shared by both the tumor and the nervous tissue of the eye. This results in damage to the nerve cells and can lead to various visual symptoms, such as:

1. Visual loss or blurring
2. Double vision (diplopia)
3. Light sensitivity (photophobia)
4. Abnormalities in pupil size or reactivity
5. Jerky eye movements (nystagmus)
6. Loss of peripheral vision (visual field defects)
7. Impaired color vision
8. Deterioration of the optic nerve (optic neuropathy)

Some examples of ocular paraneoplastic syndromes include:

1. Paraneoplastic retinopathy: A condition characterized by damage to the light-sensitive cells in the retina, leading to visual loss and other visual disturbances.
2. Paraneoplastic optic neuropathy: Damage to the optic nerve that can result in visual loss and visual field defects.
3. Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR): A condition characterized by progressive vision loss, night blindness, and abnormalities in the electroretinogram (ERG), a test used to assess retinal function.
4. Melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR): Similar to CAR but specifically associated with melanoma, this condition can cause visual loss, night blindness, and abnormal ERG results.
5. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by rapid, involuntary eye movements (opsoclonus) and muscle jerks (myoclonus), which can be associated with various types of cancer, including breast, lung, and ovarian cancer.

It is important to note that these conditions are relatively rare but can significantly impact a patient's quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cancer can help improve outcomes for patients with ocular paraneoplastic syndromes.

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January 2007). "Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma". Annals of ... limbic encephalitis, brainstem encephalitis, opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and ... In this paradigm, tumor cells express tissue-restricted antigens (e.g., neuronal proteins), triggering an anti-tumor immune ... February 2011). "Investigations of caspr2, an autoantigen of encephalitis and neuromyotonia". Annals of Neurology. 69 (2): 303- ...
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Postpartum anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: a case report and literature review. Internal Medicine 56: 357-362 ... Due to above-average rates of PPP in individuals experiencing immunologic complications such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA ... Ito Y, Abe T, Tomioka R, Komori T, Araki N (2010) [Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis during pregnancy]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 50: ... receptor encephalitis and autoimmune thyroid disorders, as well as the known heightened immune response post-childbirth, some ...
... s can cause an autoimmune illness called N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis. In this condition, the ... "anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis", was identified as a serious complication. Patients develop a multistage illness that ... March 2018). "N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody production from germinal center reactions: Therapeutic implications". ... condition where ovarian teratomas cause encephalitis associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ...
December 2012). "N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies in herpes simplex encephalitis". Annals of Neurology. 72 (6): 902-911 ... Herpesviral encephalitis can serve as a trigger of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. About 30% of HSE patients develop this ... November 2016). "N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoimmunity affects cognitive performance in herpes simplex encephalitis". ... November 2019). "An update on anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis for neurologists and psychiatrists: mechanisms and models". The ...
"Prevalence of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies in patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses: A ... Lennox, Belinda R.; Coles, Alasdair J.; Vincent, Angela (1 February 2012). "Antibody-mediated encephalitis: a treatable cause ... 2014). "Immunotherapy for patients with acute psychosis and serum N-Methyl d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies: A ... Estrogen seems to have a dampening effect on dopamine receptors. Evidence suggests that it is the interaction between genes and ...
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Kaneko K, Sato DK, Misu T, Kurosawa K, Nakashima I, Fujihara K. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with ... Overlapping demyelinating syndromes and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. Ann Neurol. 2014 Mar. 75(3):411-28. [ ... Anti-aquaporin 4 antibody-positive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Brain Dev. 2014 May 16. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Still the presence of anti-MOG antibodies in ADEM may affect the nature and course of the disease. A recent study has ...
Clinical Relevance of Cerebrospinal Fluid Antibody Titers in Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis ...
Sleep spindles across youth affected by schizophrenia or anti- N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis. Front Psychiatry. ... Sleep Spindles: A Comparison in Young Patients with Schizophrenia and Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis. August 2, 2023. Raquel Gaerlan ... anti-NMDAR encephalitis (NMDARE), and healthy control participants.1 In addition, Dimitriades and colleagues investigated the ...
Kaneko K, Sato DK, Misu T, Kurosawa K, Nakashima I, Fujihara K. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with ... Overlapping demyelinating syndromes and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. Ann Neurol. 2014 Mar. 75(3):411-28. [ ... Anti-aquaporin 4 antibody-positive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Brain Dev. 2014 May 16. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Still the presence of anti-MOG antibodies in ADEM may affect the nature and course of the disease. A recent study has ...
Anti-NMDAR encephalopathy. Anti- N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a neuroimmune syndrome in patients with ... Antiepileptic treatment for anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: the need for video-EEG monitoring. Epileptic Disord. 2013 Jun. 15( ... Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis presenting with focal non-convulsive status epilepticus in a child. Neuropediatrics. 2011 Oct. ... Early electro-clinical features may contribute to diagnosis of the anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in children. Clin ...
7] Dalmau J, Tüzün E, Wu HY et al. Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian ... the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) neurotransmitter receptor. ... But many other anti-inflammatory agents did not have a ... 4] Sommer IE, Van Westrhenen R, Begemann MJH et al. Efficacy of anti-inflammatory agents to improve symptoms in patients with ... Miller does use anti-inflammatories in the clinic for patients who do not respond to conventional treatments and have raised ...
This complex case highlights barriers to identifying autoimmune encephalitis when no neurologic symptoms are present, which are ... Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is characterized by a clinical presentation of new-onset behavioral ... An update on anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis for neurologists and psychiatrists: mechanisms and models. Lancet Neurol. 2019;18( ... Ovarian teratoma-associated anti-NMDAR encephalitis: a systematic review of reported cases. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014;9(1):157. ...
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) Encephalitis in Children and Adolescents ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY Florance, N. R., Davis ... To report the clinical features of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in patients < or = 18 years old. ... with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were identified. Thirty-two (40%) were < or =18 years old (youngest 23 months, median 14 years); 6 ... Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is increasingly recognized in children, comprising 40% of all cases. Younger patients are less likely ...
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is associated with IRF7, BANK1 and TBX21 polymorphisms in two ...
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor or anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) encephalitis. Method:. We recruited ... Four (26.7%) patients were diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and 1 (6.7%) with anti-VGKC encephalitis. We found ... N-Methyl-D-Aspartate(NMDA) Receptor and Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel (VGKC) Antibody-Associated Encephalitides Presenting as ... Autoimmune encephalitis is not uncommon in patients with acute psychosis. Elevated WBC counts, certain prodromal features, and ...
... is a potentially lethal disease attributed to auto-antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Full recovery ... Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis (ANRE) is an autoimmune syndrome that results from autoantibodies targeting the ... Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma. Ann Neurol. 2007;61(1):25-36. ... pediatric anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis-clinical analysis and novel findings in a series of 20 patients. J ...
N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor encephalitis, especially in young women. This disorder also causes psychiatric symptoms, a ... Ovarian teratoma occurs in about 60% of women with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Removal of the teratoma (if present) and ... a positive result suggests anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. ... Cryptogenic epilepsy: Testing for the anti-NMDA receptor ... In cryptogenic epilepsy and often in refractory epilepsy, a rare but increasingly identified cause is anti-NMDA ( ...
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis. The drug. reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) ... Anti-IgLON5 IgG-associated neurologic disorder. HHV-6. encephalitis associated with CD19-directed CAR-T therapy. ... Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein. 5 (anti-MDA-5) dermatomyositis. Legionella pneumonia. Spontaneous. ... associated with human herpesvirus 6. Acute Viral Encephalitis.. 特にarbovirus encephalitisについて. ...
Ovarian Teratoma Associated With Anti-N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Report of 5 Cases Documenting Prominent ...
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , Retrospective Studies , Hashimoto Disease/therapy , Encephalitis, Arbovirus ... The symptoms in the AE stage are similar to those of classical anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. Immunotherapy ... In the AE stage, four children were positive for anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (one was also positive for anti-γ- ... with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis as the most common disease. ...
Kaneko K, Sato DK, Misu T, Kurosawa K, Nakashima I, Fujihara K. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with ... Overlapping demyelinating syndromes and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. Ann Neurol. 2014 Mar. 75(3):411-28. [ ... Anti-inflammatory Agents. Class Summary. These agents have anti-inflammatory properties and cause profound and varied metabolic ... Blocks Fc receptors on macrophages, suppresses inducer T and B cells, and augments suppressor T cells; blocks complement ...
NMDA Receptor Antibody Encephalitis): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis. ... began identifying cases of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] ... Example of Workup Prior to Diagnosis of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis If the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is not considered, ... has identified patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies, the likely etiology of their encephalitis. [ncbi ...
Background Anti-N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune neurological disorder that usually ... Background Anti-N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune neurological disorder that usually ... Combined Therapy for Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Takahiro Kido; Chie Kobayashi; Tatsuyuki Ohto; Yukitoshi ... a combination of rituximab and cyclophosphamide to be a safe and effective option for severe cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. ...
... neuronal cell surface membrane proteins and are exemplified by antibodies directed against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ( ... anti-NMDAR), found in patients with autoimmune encephalitis, and antibodies directed against the leucine-rich glioma- ... inactivated 1 protein (anti-LGI1), associated with faciobrachial dystonic seizures and limbic encephalitis. Antibodies in this ... such as anti-Yo and anti-Hu, remain poorly understood, and the respective roles of antibodies and T lymphocytes in causing ...
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Antibody Encephalitis: A Psychiatric Presentation DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11001-0001 ...
... teratoma-associated anti-NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) encephalitis in young females or Ma2-Abs in men , 50 years); ... Acute mechanisms underlying antibody effects in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. Annals of Neurology, 76(1), ... Bortezomib treatment for patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis. JAMA Neurology, 73(10), 1251-1253. ... 2010). Cellular and synaptic mechanisms of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of ...
Kaneko K, Sato DK, Misu T, Kurosawa K, Nakashima I, Fujihara K. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with ... Overlapping demyelinating syndromes and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. Ann Neurol. 2014 Mar. 75(3):411-28. [ ... Still the presence of anti-MOG antibodies in ADEM may affect the nature and course of the disease. A recent study has ... Sugita K, Suzuki N, Shimizu N, Takanashi J, Ishii M, Niimi N. Involvement of cytokines in N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine- ...
Neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregivers distress in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis , Research published from ... This journal article, published in September 2020, found that patients with anti NMDAR encephalitis often present severe ... The Future of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis Treatment: Exploring the ExTINGUISH Clinical Trial ... The International Autoimmune Encephalitis Society cannot provide medical advice.. International Autoimmune Encephalitis Society ...
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis presents commonly with psychiatric symptoms. One cohort of these ... Neuroleptic intolerance in the context of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: A systematic review and synthesis of ... Neuropsychological functioning in children and adolescents with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) ... The Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation Newsletter. Posted on September 19, 2022. ...
  • NMDA antibodies paraneoplastic symptoms autoimmune disorder Launch Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is normally a newly defined autoimmune condition that's frequently element of a paraneoplastic symptoms.1-5 Its pathology is centered at NMDA receptors. (biotechnologyconsultinggroup.com)
  • Almost 90 percent of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis situations occur in females using a median age group of 23. (biotechnologyconsultinggroup.com)
  • An anti-NMDA antibody test was positive. (biotechnologyconsultinggroup.com)
  • Discussion The pathology of anti-NMDA is inflammatory limbic encephalitis.6 Typically the teratoma cells produce anti-NMDA antibodies which result in severe damage to limbic brain NR1 and NR2 glutamate NMDA receptors. (biotechnologyconsultinggroup.com)
  • Positive results on an anti-NMDA antibody test help to confirm the diagnosis. (biotechnologyconsultinggroup.com)
  • In treating anti-NMDA the doctor should provide seizure control respiratory treatment and supportive procedures often. (biotechnologyconsultinggroup.com)
  • Anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder in which the use of immunotherapy and the long-term outcome have not been defined. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a type of brain inflammation caused by antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the development of a symptom complex that is specific to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, people may experience prodromal symptoms, including headaches, flu-like illness, or symptoms similar to an upper respiratory infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] One distinguishing characteristic of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is the concurrent presence of many of the above listed symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The condition is mediated by autoantibodies that target NMDA receptors in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These can be produced by cross reactivity with NMDA receptors in teratomas, which contain many cell types, including brain cells, and thus present a window in which a breakdown in immunological tolerance can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whilst the exact pathophysiology of the disease is still debated, empirical evaluation of the origin of anti-NMDA receptor antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leads to the consideration of two possible mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum NMDA receptor antibodies are consistently found at higher concentrations than cerebrospinal fluid antibodies, on average ten times higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • This implies that there are more NMDA receptor antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid than would be predicted given the expected quantities of total IgG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system. (scoop.it)
  • Autoimmune forms of encephalitis have been associated with autoantibodies against synaptic cell surface antigens such as NMDA- and AMPA-type glutamate receptors, GABA B receptor, and LGI1. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nobody expected the test to come back positive, but it did, for antibodies against a key brain protein: the N -methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) neurotransmitter receptor. (pharmaceutical-journal.com)
  • Probably the most famous case of psychosis caused by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies is that of journalist Susannah Cahalan, described in her memoir Brain on Fire , which is being turned into a Hollywood film. (pharmaceutical-journal.com)
  • A nti- N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is characterized by a clinical presentation of new-onset behavioral changes, cognitive dysfunction, neurologic abnormalities, and autonomic dysregulation. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The diagnosis is made through the detection of anti-NMDA receptor antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and treatment includes intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), glucocorticoids, and plasmapheresis. (psychiatrist.com)
  • CSF collected on day 5 of admission was positive 15 days later for NMDA receptor antibody. (psychiatrist.com)
  • N-Methyl-D-Aspartate(NMDA) Receptor and Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel (VGKC) Antibody-Associated Encephalitides Presenting as First Episode Acute Psychosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our study aimed to describe the frequency, clinical spectrum, and long-term outcomes in patients presenting with acute psychosis who have anti- N-methyl-D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor or anti- voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) encephalitis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Four (26.7%) patients were diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and 1 (6.7%) with anti-VGKC encephalitis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (ANRE) is a potentially lethal disease attributed to auto-antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • NMDA receptor antibody is found in a subset of patients with autoimmune limbic encephalitis and may occur with or without associated tumor. (aruplab.com)
  • This indirect fluorescent antibody assay utilizes full-length GluN1 transfected cell lines for the detection and semiquantification of NMDA receptor IgG antibody. (aruplab.com)
  • Infectious disease work-up was negative and anti-NMDA receptor antibodies were present in the CSF and serum. (symptoma.com)
  • In this multi-institutional observational study, we tested for the presence of NMDAR antibodies in serum or CSF samples of patients with encephalitis between Jan 1, 2007, and Jan 1, 2012. (nih.gov)
  • Most patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis respond to immunotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • NMDAR) encephalitis was diagnosed by on-cell Western ncephalitis is a serious infection causing high rates analysis ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The underlying mechanism is autoimmune, with the primary target being the GluN1 subunit of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • To analyze the clinical profile and long-term prognosis of relapsing anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. (scoop.it)
  • This is a retrospective, multicenter, self-controlled study of 10 patients with relapsing anti-NMDAR encephalitis. (scoop.it)
  • Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis: an etiology worth considering in the differential of delirium. (scoop.it)
  • Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a rare condition characterized by emotional and behavioral disturbances, dyskinesias, and extrapyramidal signs. (scoop.it)
  • Without evidence of infection, the presence of anti-NMDAR antibodies both in serum and cerebrospinal fluid clinched the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. (scoop.it)
  • This is the first report of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in an HIV-infected individual, reminding us that autoimmune encephalitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a young patient presenting in an acute confusional state. (scoop.it)
  • Building on research indicating a relationship between sleep and schizophrenia, a recent study compared sleep spindle parameters in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), anti-NMDAR encephalitis (NMDARE), and healthy control participants. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is associated with IRF7, BANK1 and TBX21 polymorphisms in two populations. (cdc.gov)
  • Confirm diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. (aruplab.com)
  • CT scan revealed mediastinal teratoma and serum/spinal fluid was positive for anti-NMDAR antibody. (ac.ir)
  • Conclusion We consider early intensive treatment with a combination of rituximab and cyclophosphamide to be a safe and effective option for severe cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. (ac.ir)
  • Using immunoproteomics, we identified autoantibodies against the GABA A receptor in human sera from two patients diagnosed with encephalitis who presented with cognitive impairment and multifocal brain MRI abnormalities. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, this study establishes anti-GABA A receptor encephalitis and expands the pathogenic roles of GABA A receptor autoantibodies. (jneurosci.org)
  • BLAST implicated in causing life-threatening encephalitis in Ban- analysis (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast) was used to identi- gladeshi children ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These results strongly suggest that the patients' GABA A receptor antibodies play a central role in the patients' symptoms. (jneurosci.org)
  • This complex case highlights barriers to identifying autoimmune encephalitis when no neurologic symptoms are present, which are normally central to disease detection. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The β3-subunit-containing GABA A receptor was a major target of the patients' serum antibodies in rat hippocampal neurons because the serum reactivity to the neuronal surface was greatly decreased by 80% when the β3 subunit was knocked down. (jneurosci.org)
  • Application of the patients' serum at the time of symptom presentation of encephalitis to rat hippocampal neuron cultures specifically decreased both synaptic and surface GABA A receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • A negative test result does not rule out a diagnosis of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. (aruplab.com)
  • Both patients had antibodies directed against the extracellular epitope of the β3 subunit of the GABA A receptor. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our developed multiplex ELISA testing showed that both patients had similar levels of GABA A receptor antibodies, one patient also had a low level of LGI1 antibodies, and the other also had CASPR2 antibodies. (jneurosci.org)
  • Patients with autoimmune encephalitis also tended to be more unwell, with the majority requiring intensive care , had lower global assessment of functioning scores (30 ± 10 vs. 53.7 ± 21.2, p = 0.09), and were not well enough to complete standard psychiatric and cognitive assessments at presentation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Autoimmune encephalitis is not uncommon in patients with acute psychosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Encephalitis can also occur as a late reactivation of latent or subclinical viral infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Encephalitis can occur as a secondary immunologic complication of certain viral infections or vaccinations. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The negative MRI and EEG further lowered suspicion for autoimmune encephalitis, and, therefore, the patient was not treated empirically. (psychiatrist.com)
  • We assessed ATD binding in cell based assays and ELISAs with a commercial NR1 mAb, ANRE patient CSF, three human anti-NR1 IgG mAbs from an ANRE patient, and an additional panel of ANRE and normal patient sera and CSF samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prominence of perivenular round cell inflammation in either illness is a feature that is shared with many forms of encephalitis, but patchy demyelination with preservation of axon cylinders and the prominence of microglial cells in the inflammatory exudate are not. (medscape.com)
  • These agents have anti-inflammatory properties and cause profound and varied metabolic effects. (medscape.com)
  • The usual approach is administration of methylprednisolone for 3-5 d IV (or the equivalent dose of some other anti-inflammatory corticosteroid). (medscape.com)
  • Encephalitis is inflammation of the parenchyma of the brain, resulting from direct viral invasion or occurring as a postinfectious immunologic complication caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to a virus or another foreign protein. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In this study, we stably expressed the NR1 ATD on the outer plasma membrane of 293T cells, as a fusion protein that contains a Myc tag, a 6XHIS tag, a TEV protease site, and the PDGF receptor transmembrane domain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Believed to treat conditions associated with inflammation and immune dysregulation by neutralizing circulating myelin antibodies through anti-idiotypic antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • ANRE is the most common of an expanding list of autoimmune encephalitis syndromes mediated by antibodies against cell surface or synaptic proteins [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sleep spindles across youth affected by schizophrenia or anti- N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Even so, all the drugs that have been approved to treat psychosis share the same basic mechanism of action: they block the dopamine D2 receptor. (pharmaceutical-journal.com)
  • Acute psychosis is not an uncommon presenting feature in immune-mediated encephalitides. (bvsalud.org)
  • Encephalitis is most commonly due to viruses, such as herpes simplex, herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Viruses causing primary encephalitis directly invade the brain. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Empiric treatment with immunotherapy is recommended when suspicion is high for autoimmune encephalitis even before confirmation with antibodies. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Autoimmune encephalitis affects females to males in a 4:1 ratio. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Autoimmune encephalitis is complex and varied, but it is a curable disease. (illumina.com)
  • It is believed, that the anti-tumor immune response partly supresses tumor growth, thereby resulting in a breakthrough of the immunological tolerance with development of an autoimmune disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment involves antiviral drugs when indicated (eg, in herpes simplex virus encephalitis) and is otherwise supportive. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Globally, the Nucleotide sequences of all amplicons were deter- causes remain unrecognized in 60%-85% of encephalitis mined to confirm the PCR products, to distinguish geno- cases ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Another established trigger is herpesviral encephalitis, while the cause in others cases is unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • This caught the attention of neurologists, who eventually diagnosed her with autoimmune-induced brain inflammation, or encephalitis. (pharmaceutical-journal.com)
  • Inclusion criteria were based on the diagnostic criteria for autoimmune encephalitis published in Lancet Neurology in 2016. (illumina.com)
  • remains a significant cause of encephalitis in developing countries and still causes a few cases of encephalitis in the US. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Clinical and EEG characteristics analysis of autoimmune encephalitis in children with positive and negative anti-N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antibodies. (illumina.com)
  • The phylogenetic analysis was done with a neighbor- possible pathogens in children and adults with encephalitis joining tree by using MEGA5 (www.megasoftware.net). (cdc.gov)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is effective in relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma and results in a unique toxicity profile, namely cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome. (chemnews-japan.com)