Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Mixed Tumor, Mullerian: A tumor, basically a carcinoma with a single sarcoma such as leiomyosarcoma or angiosarcoma or multiple sarcomas of uterine origin. The role of estrogen has been postulated as a possible etiological factor in this tumor. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1703)Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Adenosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)Wolffian Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.46, XX Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a female karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Urogenital Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Subrenal Capsule Assay: In vivo method of screening investigative anticancer drugs and biologic response modifiers for individual cancer patients. Fresh tumor tissue is implanted under the kidney capsule of immunocompetent mice or rats; gross and histological assessments follow several days after tumor treatment in situ.Mixed Tumor, Malignant: A malignant tumor composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma in which the tumor elements are arranged as finger-like processes or as a solid spherical nodule projecting from an epithelial surface.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Freemartinism: A condition occurring in the female offspring of dizygotic twins (TWIN, DIZYGOTIC) in a mixed-sex pregnancy, usually in CATTLE. Freemartinism can occur in other mammals. When placental fusion between the male and the female FETUSES permits the exchange of fetal cells and fetal hormones, TESTICULAR HORMONES from the male fetus can androgenize the female fetus producing a sterile XX/XY chimeric "female"(CHIMERISM).Hematometra: Blood-filled UTERUS.Wnt4 Protein: A Wnt protein that is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes such as the formation of the KIDNEY; ADRENAL GLANDS; MAMMARY GLANDS; the PITUITARY GLAND; and the female reproductive system. Defects in WNT4 are a cause of ROKITANSKY KUSTER HAUSER SYNDROME.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Virilism: Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Hysterosalpingography: Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.Gonadal Dysgenesis: A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Mesonephros: One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Abnormalities, MultipleThyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Embryonic Structures: The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal: A highly malignant subset of neoplasms arising from the endometrial stroma. Tumors in this group infiltrate the stroma with a wide range of atypia cells and numerous mitoses. They are capable of widespread metastases (NEOPLASM METASTASIS).Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY: Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Broad Ligament: A broad fold of peritoneum that extends from the side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.

Paracrine-mediated apoptosis in reproductive tract development. (1/492)

In mammalian development, the signaling pathways that couple extracellular death signals with the apoptotic machinery are still poorly understood. We chose to examine Mullerian duct regression in the developing reproductive tract as a possible model of apoptosis during morphogenesis. The TGFbeta-like hormone, Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), initiates regression of the Mullerian duct or female reproductive tract anlagen; this event is essential for proper male sexual differentiation and occurs between embryonic days (E) 14 and 17 in the rat. Here, we show that apoptosis occurs during Mullerian duct regression in male embryos beginning at E15. Female Mullerian ducts exposed to MIS also exhibited prominent apoptosis within 13 h, which was blocked by a caspase inhibitor. In both males and females the MIS type-II receptor is expressed exclusively in the mesenchymal cell layer surrounding the duct, whereas apoptotic cells localize to the epithelium. In addition, tissue recombination experiments provide evidence that MIS does not act directly on the epithelium to induce apoptosis. Based on these data, we suggest that MIS triggers cell death by altering mesenchymal-epithelial interactions.  (+info)

Ptx1 regulates SF-1 activity by an interaction that mimics the role of the ligand-binding domain. (2/492)

Ptx1 (Pitx1) is a bicoid-related homeobox transcription factor expressed from the onset of pituitary development. It was shown to cooperate with cell-restricted factors, such as Pit1, NeuroD1/PanI and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), to establish a combinatorial code conferring lineage- and promoter-specific gene transcription in the pituitary. Transcriptional synergism between Ptx1 and SF-1 on two SF-1 target genes, pituitary luteinizing hormone beta and Mullerian-inhibiting substance (MIS), requires SF-1 binding to DNA and appears to result from direct physical interaction between these two proteins. The interaction between the C-terminus of Ptx1 and the N-terminal half of SF-1 results in transcriptional enhancement that equals the activity of a constitutively active SF-1 mutant and that may mimic the effect of a still unidentified SF-1 ligand. Thus, the unmasking of SF-1 activity by Ptx1 may represent a developmental mechanism to alleviate the need for SF-1 ligand in transcription and, possibly, at critical times during organogenesis.  (+info)

Reversion of the differentiated phenotype and maturation block in Sertoli cells in pathological human testis. (3/492)

To study the relationship between abnormal Sertoli cell differentiation and spermatogenic impairment, we examined the expression of Sertoli cell markers normally lost at puberty, cytokeratin 18 (CK18), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and M2A antigen, in three children (aged 1-2 years), 50 adults (aged 19-45 years) with obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia or oligozoospermia, and six patients (aged 1-18 years) with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. There was CK18 and/or AMH expression, but never M2A antigen expression, associated with spermatogonial arrest or Sertoli cell-only (SCO) syndrome in infertile men. Loss of M2A antigen suggests the transition of Sertoli cells to an adult phenotype, while CK18 and/or AMH expression may be a manifestation of de-differentiation of Sertoli cells. In 5 alpha-reductase deficiency, there was a sequential loss of CK18, M2A antigen and AMH around puberty, associated with partial spermatogenesis. The persistence of immature Sertoli cells expressing M2A antigen was associated with prepubertal seminiferous cords and SCO syndrome. Therefore, 5 alpha-reductase deficiency may prevent the maturation of Sertoli cells, resulting in impairment of spermatogenesis, and loss of M2A antigen expression coincides with a critical step in the Sertoli cell maturation. High follicle stimulating hormone concentrations due to failure of normal Sertoli cell differentiation indicate a normal development pattern of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.  (+info)

Anti-Mullerian hormone as a seminal marker for spermatogenesis in non-obstructive azoospermia. (4/492)

Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) also known as Mullerian inhibiting substance or factor, is a Sertoli cell-secreted glycoprotein responsible in male embryos for Mullerian duct regression. However, its role in adults remains unknown. AMH seminal concentrations have been evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunoassay in three groups of young men: group 1, fertile donors (n = 18); group 2, obstructive azoospermia (n = 9) after vasectomy or associated with deferent duct agenesia; and group 3, non-obstructive azoospermia with spermatogenesis deficiency and normal karyotype (n = 23). AMH was present in seminal plasma of most fertile donors at concentrations ranging from undetectable (<3.5 pmol/l) up to 543 pmol/l (geometric mean: 153 pmol/l), higher than the serum level (range <3.5 up to 67 pmol/l, geometric mean: 10.7 pmol/l, n = 13). Seminal AMH concentrations were undetectable in all obstructive azoospermic patients, confirming its testicular origin. In non-obstructive azoospermia (group 3), seminal AMH concentration was lower (range <3. 5-68.5 pmol/l, geometric mean: 17 pmol/l) than in fertile donors (P < 0.003) without correlation with plasma follicle stimulating hormone values. In group 3, comparison of seminal AMH concentration and the results of histological analysis of testicular biopsies revealed that undetectable AMH found in 14 cases was associated in 11 of them with lack of spermatozoa, while detectable concentrations of AMH (10-68.5 pmol/l) found in nine cases were associated in seven of them with persistent spermatogenesis. In the adult, AMH is secreted preferentially towards the seminiferous lumen. Although its relationship with spermatogenesis requires further investigation, our results suggest that seminal AMH may represent a non-invasive marker of persistent hypospermatogenesis in cases of non-obstructive azoospermia which may indicate the likely success of testicular spermatozoa recovery before intracytoplasmic sperm injection.  (+info)

Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of genes involved in gonadal differentiation in pigs. (5/492)

In mammals, testis development is initiated in the embryo as a response to the expression of the sex-determining gene, SRY. The time course of SRY expression during gonadal differentiation in the male has been described in detail only in mice and sheep. In this study, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis to define the SRY transcription profile in pig genital ridges. SRY transcripts were first detectable from 23 days postcoitum (dpc), then declined sharply after 35 dpc. None were detected at 60 dpc. In addition, we analyzed temporal expression of other genes known to be involved in mammalian sex determination: WT-1, SF-1, SOX9, and AMH. A key stage seems to be 28 dpc, in which SOX9 expression switches between the male and female, and AMH expression begins to attest to Sertoli cell differentiation and to correspond to seminiferous cord formation in the male. Expression of gonadotropin receptors and aromatase was also investigated in porcine gonads, and we showed that their transcripts were detected very early on, especially in the male: 25 dpc for the LH receptor (rLH) and aromatase, and 28 dpc for the FSH receptor (rFSH). In the female, aromatase transcripts were not detected until 70 dpc, and rFSH expression occurred later: at 45 dpc at the onset of meiosis. Moreover, no difference was observed between the sexes for the onset of rLH transcription at 25 dpc. Such a thorough study has never been performed on pigs; developmental analysis will be useful for investigating sex-reversed gonads and determining ontogeny in intersexuality, a common pathology in pigs.  (+info)

Targeted mutagenesis of the endogenous mouse Mis gene promoter: in vivo definition of genetic pathways of vertebrate sexual development. (6/492)

Mutations were introduced into conserved steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1)- and SOX9-binding sites within the endogenous mouse Mullerian inhibiting substance (Mis) promoter. Male mice homozygous for the mutant SF1-binding site correctly initiated Mis transcription in fetal testes, although at significantly reduced levels. Surprisingly, sufficient MIS was produced to eliminate the MUllerian ducts. In contrast, males homozygous for the mutant SOX9-binding site did not initiate Mis transcription, resulting in pseudohermaphrodites. These studies suggest an essential role for SOX9 in the initiation of Mis transcription, whereas SF1 appears to act as a quantitative regulator of Mis transcript levels, perhaps for influencing non-Mullerian duct tissues. Comparative studies of Mis expression in vertebrates indicate that the Mis promoter receives transcriptional inputs that vary between species but result in the same functional readout.  (+info)

Human ovarian cancer, cell lines, and primary ascites cells express the human Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) type II receptor, bind, and are responsive to MIS. (7/492)

Six human ovarian cancer cell lines and samples of ascites cells isolated from 27 patients with stage III or IV ovarian papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma were studied individually to test whether recombinant human Mullerian inhibiting substance (rhMIS) acts via its receptor. To do these experiments, we scaled up production of rhMIS and labeled it successfully with biotin for binding studies, cloned the human MIS type II receptor for mRNA detection, and raised antibodies to an extracellular domain peptide for protein detection. These probes were first tested on the human ovarian cancer cell lines and then applied to primary ovarian ascites cells. rhMIS inhibited colony growth of five of six cell lines that expressed the human MIS type II receptor mRNA by Northern analysis while not inhibiting receptor-negative COS cells. Flow cytometry performed on MIS-sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated specific and saturable binding of rhMIS (Kd = 10.2 nM). Ascites cells from 15 of 27 or 56% of patients tested bound biotinylated MIS (MIS-biotin) and, of the 11 that grew in soft agarose, 9 of 11 or 82% showed statistically significant inhibition of colony formation. Of the 15 patients who bound biotinylated MIS, mRNA was available for analysis from 9, and 8 of 9 expressed MIS type II receptor mRNA by reverse transcription-PCR, showing a statistically significant correlation, compared with binding, by chi2 analysis (P = 0.025). Solid ovarian cancers were positive for the MIS type II receptor protein by immunohistochemical staining, which colocalized with staining for antibody to CA-125 (OC-125). Thus, the detection of the MIS type I receptor by flow cytometry may be a useful predictor of therapeutic response to MIS and may be a modality to rapidly choose patients with late-stage ovarian cancer for treatment with MIS.  (+info)

Postnatal sex reversal of the ovaries in mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta. (8/492)

Mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta were generated to clarify the roles of each receptor in the physiology of estrogen target tissues. Both sexes of alphabeta estrogen receptor knockout (alphabetaERKO) mutants exhibit normal reproductive tract development but are infertile. Ovaries of adult alphabetaERKO females exhibit follicle transdifferentiation to structures resembling seminiferous tubules of the testis, including Sertoli-like cells and expression of Mullerian inhibiting substance, sulfated glycoprotein-2, and Sox9. Therefore, loss of both receptors leads to an ovarian phenotype that is distinct from that of the individual ERKO mutants, which indicates that both receptors are required for the maintenance of germ and somatic cells in the postnatal ovary.  (+info)

  • The objective of the study was to determine whether anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B are viable endocrine biomarkers for framing the menopause transition from initiation to the final menstrual period (FMP). (nih.gov)
  • The primary aim of this study will be to compare the rates of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) decline following tubal ligation, Essure placement, and levonorgestrel IUDs, and then identifying any and all differences that these specific contraceptive methods have on the changes of AMH rates over time. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on the effect of chemotherapy upon ovarian cancer and the prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage: an experimental study with nu/nu athymic mice. (cloud-clone.com)
  • Albeit infrequent, mutations of the AMH gene and certain AMH receptors sometimes lead to failure of the Mullerian system to regress and their subsequent persistence in affected male concepti resulting in failed virilization and phenotypic intersexuality, undescended testes, rudimentary uterus and cryptorchidism. (drgeoffreysherivf.com)
  • A new biomarker measured in blood, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), has been proposed to do exactly that but there are some important limitations that must be considered before rushing out to the closest doctor's office to request an AMH measurement. (pregnancylab.net)
  • Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has been found to be a new stable biomarker to predict menopause. (cdc.gov)
  • Smoking has anti-estrogen effects that can contribute to early menopause. (healthline.com)
  • Despite the relevance of estrogen in evaluating chondral and bone metabolism in OA, it is not easily clinically monitored because irregular menstrual cycles induce unstable female hormone patterns during menopausal transitions. (cdc.gov)
  • In this proposal, the investigators intend to establish feasibility and acceptability of a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing traditional HRT with COCs in women with POI and to evaluate differences in quality of life measures, hormone assays, bone turnover and cardiovascular risk between treatment arms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Nevertheless, widespread clinical application awaits an international standard for Anti Mullerian Hormone, so that results using future assays can be reliably compared. (ovohealth.com)
  • The investigators intend to establish feasibility/acceptability of a pilot randomized trial comparing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and combined oral contraceptives (COCs) in women with premature ovarian insufficiency to estimate differences in quality of life (QOL) and serum hormone assays and markers of bone turnover/cardiovascular risk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • AMH is one of the most important hormones which contributes to the proper working of the system in every woman. (ovohealth.com)
AMH Gene - GeneCards | MIS Protein | MIS Antibody
AMH Gene - GeneCards | MIS Protein | MIS Antibody (genecards.org)
AMH Protein Human Recombinant | Anti-Mullerian Hormone | ProSpec
AMH Protein Human Recombinant | Anti-Mullerian Hormone | ProSpec (prospecbio.com)
EPA228Hu61 | Eukaryotic Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) | Homo sapiens (Human) USCN(Wuhan USCN Business Co., Ltd. )
EPA228Hu61 | Eukaryotic Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) | Homo sapiens (Human) USCN(Wuhan USCN Business Co., Ltd. ) (uscnk.com)
Anti-Mullerian hormone as an ovarian reserve marker in women with the most frequent muscular dystrophies | Masaryk University
Anti-Mullerian hormone as an ovarian reserve marker in women with the most frequent muscular dystrophies | Masaryk University (muni.cz)
Scientists develop blood test that can 'predict final menstrual period' - Evening Express
Scientists develop blood test that can 'predict final menstrual period' - Evening Express (eveningexpress.co.uk)
Should you test your egg reserve? | The Baby Project
Should you test your egg reserve? | The Baby Project (thebabyproject.com.au)
Ovarian Reserve Testing and Diagnosing Diminished Ovarian Reserve | Fertile Health, LLC
Ovarian Reserve Testing and Diagnosing Diminished Ovarian Reserve | Fertile Health, LLC (fertilehealthexpert.com)
7 Supplements That Will Improve Your Egg Quality and Ovulation | Marie Kertes Fertility Coach
7 Supplements That Will Improve Your Egg Quality and Ovulation | Marie Kertes Fertility Coach (mariekertesfertility.com)
Buyuk E, Seifer DB, Illions E, Grazi R, Lieman H. Elevated body mass index is associated with lower serum anti-mullerian...
Buyuk E, Seifer DB, Illions E, Grazi R, Lieman H. Elevated body mass index is associated with lower serum anti-mullerian... (genesisfertility.com)
Anti-Mullerian Hormone/Blood clotting issues | DailyStrength
Anti-Mullerian Hormone/Blood clotting issues | DailyStrength (dailystrength.org)
Association Between Laparoscopic Removal of Endometriomas and Anti-mullerian Hormone Levels - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
Association Between Laparoscopic Removal of Endometriomas and Anti-mullerian Hormone Levels - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials... (clinicaltrials.gov)
West Bengal Hospital Discovers Uterus, Ovary in Man
West Bengal Hospital Discovers Uterus, Ovary in Man (medindia.net)
MedlinePlus: Genes
MedlinePlus: Genes (medlineplus.gov)
Physiopathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Secondary Female Hypogonadism | SpringerLink
Physiopathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Secondary Female Hypogonadism | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Donor and recipient plasma follistatin levels are associated with acute GvHD in Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials...
Donor and recipient plasma follistatin levels are associated with acute GvHD in Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials... (nature.com)
Testing Anti-Mullerian Hormone to Determine Egg Reserves by Scott Roseff, MD | INCIID
Testing Anti-Mullerian Hormone to Determine Egg Reserves by Scott Roseff, MD | INCIID (inciid.org)
JISCMail - ACB-CLIN-CHEM-GEN Archives - February 2007
JISCMail - ACB-CLIN-CHEM-GEN Archives - February 2007 (jiscmail.ac.uk)
Insulin Deprivation Decreases Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Signaling in Cultured Rat Sertoli Cells
Insulin Deprivation Decreases Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Signaling in Cultured Rat Sertoli Cells (hindawi.com)
Anti-Müllerian Hormone Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test
Anti-Müllerian Hormone Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test (medlineplus.gov)
What Causes Early Menopause?
What Causes Early Menopause? (healthline.com)
Buy Online TAA (Tumor Associated Antigen), Chicken, ELISA Kit - [:en]Glory Bio Science Co. LTD[:ru]Anti Mullerian Hormone[:ar...
Buy Online TAA (Tumor Associated Antigen), Chicken, ELISA Kit - [:en]Glory Bio Science Co. LTD[:ru]Anti Mullerian Hormone[:ar... (glorybios.com)
Ayurveda for Low Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), Natural Treatment
Ayurveda for Low Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), Natural Treatment (planetayurveda.com)
Shatavari for Anti-Mullerian Hormone Archives - Planet Ayurveda
Shatavari for Anti-Mullerian Hormone Archives - Planet Ayurveda (planetayurveda.com)
Is Natural Conception and Pregnancy Over 40 Possible?
Is Natural Conception and Pregnancy Over 40 Possible? (natural-fertility-info.com)
Paramesonephric duct - Wikipedia
Paramesonephric duct - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Birthright
Birthright (webspace.webring.com)
Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH)  | Hormone Health Network
Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) | Hormone Health Network (hormone.org)
Fertility Struggles More Open - and Shared on Social Media | Inter Press Service
Fertility Struggles More Open - and Shared on Social Media | Inter Press Service (ipsnews.net)
A - Genes - Genetics Home Reference - NIH
A - Genes - Genetics Home Reference - NIH (ghr.nlm.nih.gov)
Free Biology Flashcards about vocabulary #9
Free Biology Flashcards about vocabulary #9 (studystack.com)
Fertility Hormone Tests | Reproductive Care Center
Fertility Hormone Tests | Reproductive Care Center (fertilitydr.com)
KEGG PATHWAY: hsa04390
KEGG PATHWAY: hsa04390 (genome.jp)
Pro Active Life - Wakefield, West Yorkshire | Groupon
Pro Active Life - Wakefield, West Yorkshire | Groupon (groupon.co.uk)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine (greenmedinfo.com)
How does amenorrhea affect self-esteem and body image?
How does amenorrhea affect self-esteem and body image? (medscape.com)
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Which genetic syndromes cause amenorrhea? (medscape.com)