Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.
An alkaloid that occurs in the extract of leaves of wild tomato plants. It has been found to inhibit the growth of various fungi and bacteria. It is used as a precipitating agent for steroids. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides and cytotoxic phenanthroindolizidine N-oxide alkaloids.
The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. The common name of "dragon's blood" is also used for CROTON and Daemonorops (ARECACEAE).
A plant genus of the family SMILACACEAE. Members contain smiglasides (phenylpropanoid glycosides) and steroidal saponins. Commercially it is sometimes adulterated with HEMIDESMUS, which would affect experimental results.
A plant family of the order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery. Fruits are one- or two-seeded capsules or drupes (stony-pitted fleshy fruits).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
A plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.
A genus of the plant family Liliaceae (sometimes classified as Alliaceae) in the order Liliales. Many produce pungent, often bacteriostatic and physiologically active compounds and are used as VEGETABLES; CONDIMENTS; and medicament, the latter in traditional medicine.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Ergostane derivatives of 28 carbons with oxygens at C1, C22, and C26 positions and the side chain cyclized. They are found in WITHANIA plant genus and have cytotoxic and other effects.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
An antineoplastic agent that is a derivative of progesterone and used to treat advanced breast cancer.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain holarrhenine (a steroidal alkaloid) and TRICHOTHECENES.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain anemarans (POLYSACCHARIDES), hinokiresinol, mangiferin (a xanthone), and timosaponin (a steroidal saponin).
Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that contains steroidal glycosides.
Subtotal or complete excision of the alveolar process of the maxilla or mandible. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain withanolides. Withania somnifera is the source of ashwagandha and aswal.
A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides and provide an ingredient of shengmaisan (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).
8-Hydroxyquinolinols chlorinated on the number 5 and/or 7 carbon atom(s). They are antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antidiarrheal, especially in amebiasis, and have also been used as antiseborrheics. The compounds are mostly used topically, but have been used also as animal feed additives. They may cause optic and other neuropathies and are most frequently administered in combination with other agents.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that is a short plant with a distinct whorl of 3 broad leaves.
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A non-estrogenic contraceptive which is a weak progestin with strong anti-progesterone properties. It is effective if used once a week orally or can also be used in intravaginal devices.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
Substances that are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. Members contain pregnane glycosides (marsdekoiside & marstomentosides, maryal) and hainaneosides (SAPONINS).
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
A plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida. Members of the family have narrow, lance-shaped, sometimes fleshy or toothed leaves that are clustered at the base of each plant. Most species have large flower clusters containing many flowers. The fruit is a capsule or berry.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members of this genus produce imperialine, a steroidal alkaloid which acts at muscarinic receptors.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE with roots that contain VERATRUM ALKALOIDS used as emetics, parasiticides, antihypertensives. It is the main ingredient of Boicil.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
A mixture of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, found in SOLANACEAE plants.
Removal of degenerated and necrotic epithelium and underlying connective tissue of a periodontal pocket in an effort to convert a chronic ulcerated wound to an acute surgical wound, thereby insuring wound healing and attachment or epithelial adhesion, and shrinkage of the marginal gingiva. The term is sometimes used in connection with smoothing of a root surface or ROOT PLANING. (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)

Dose-loading with hydroxychloroquine improves the rate of response in early, active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind six-week trial with eighteen-week extension. (1/7426)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) dose-loading to increase the percentage of responders or rate of response in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Two hundred twelve patients with early RA (mean duration 1.5 years) were enrolled in a 24-week trial. Patients were stabilized with 1,000 mg naproxen/day and then began a 6-week, double-blind trial comparing treatment with HCQ at 400 mg/day (n = 71), 800 mg/day (n = 71), and 1,200 mg/day (n = 66), followed by 18 weeks of open-label HCQ treatment at 400 mg/day. RESULTS: All patients had mild, active disease at the time of initiation of HCQ treatment (31-43% rheumatoid factor positive; no previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; mean swollen joint count 8.6-10.4). Based on the Paulus criteria, response during the 6-week double-blind portion of the study was 47.97%, 57.7%, and 63.6% in the 400 mg/day, 800 mg/day, and 1,200 mg/day groups, respectively (P = 0.052). Discontinuations for adverse events were dose related (3 in the 400 mg/day group, 5 in the 800 mg/day group, 6 in the 1,200 mg/day group). Most involved the gastrointestinal (GI) system, with the background naproxen treatment possibly contributing. Ocular abnormalities occurred in 17 of 212 patients (8%) but were not dose related. CONCLUSION: Dose-loading with HCQ increased the degree of response at 6 weeks in this group of patients with early, predominantly seronegative RA. Adverse GI events were dose related, while adverse ocular events were not.  (+info)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells is blocked by protein kinase C activation through inhibition of c-myc. (2/7426)

Apoptosis plays a major role in gastrointestinal epithelial cell turnover, ulcerogenesis and tumorigenesis. We have examined apoptosis induction by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in human gastric (AGS) cancer cells and the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and apoptosis-related oncogenes. After treatment with aspirin or indomethacin, cell growth was quantified by MTT assay, and apoptosis was determined by acridine orange staining, DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein of p53, p21waf1/cip1 and c-myc was detected by Northern and Western blotting respectively. The influence of PKC on indomethacin-induced apoptosis was determined by co-incubation of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The role of c-myc was determined using its antisense oligonucleotides. The results showed that both aspirin and indomethacin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis of AGS cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, without altering the cell cycle. Indomethacin increased c-myc mRNA and protein, whereas p53 and p21wafl/cip1 were unchanged. Down-regulation of c-myc by its antisense oligonucleotides reduced apoptosis induction by indomethacin. TPA could inhibit indomethacin-induced apoptosis and accumulate cells in G2/M. Overexpression of c-myc was inhibited by TPA and p21waf1/cip1 mRNA increased. In conclusion, NSAIDs induce apoptosis in gastric cancer cells which may be mediated by up-regulation of c-myc proto-oncogene. PKC activation can abrogate the effects of NSAIDs by decreasing c-myc expression.  (+info)

A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss. (3/7426)

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry, concentrations of albumin and C-reactive protein and assessment of appetite, performance status and quality of life using EuroQol-EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Thirty-eight and 35 patients (median weight loss 18%) were randomized to megestrol acetate/placebo or megestrol acetate/ibuprofen, respectively, for 12 weeks. Forty-six (63%) of patients failed to complete the 12-week assessment. Of those evaluable at 12 weeks, there was a decrease in weight (median 2.8 kg) in the megestrol acetate/placebo group compared with an increase (median 2.3 kg) in the megestrol acetate/ibuprofen group (P<0.001). There was also an improvement in the EuroQol-EQ-5D quality of life scores of the latter group (P<0.05). The combination of megestrol acetate/ibuprofen appeared to reverse weight loss and appeared to improve quality of life in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Further trials of this novel regimen in weight-losing patients with hormone-insensitive cancers are warranted.  (+info)

Pharmacology of LY315920/S-5920, [[3-(aminooxoacetyl)-2-ethyl-1- (phenylmethyl)-1H-indol-4-yl]oxy] acetate, a potent and selective secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor: A new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, SPI. (4/7426)

LY315920 is a potent, selective inhibitor of recombinant human, group IIA, nonpancreatic secretory PLA2 (sPLA2). In a chromogenic isolated enzyme assay, LY315920 inhibited sPLA2 activity with an IC50 of 9 +/- 1 nM or 7.3 x 10(-6) mole fraction, which approached the stiochiometric limit of this assay. The true potency of LY315920 was defined using a deoxycholate/phosphatidylcholine assay with a mole fraction of 1.5 x 10(-6). LY315920 was 40-fold less active against human, group IB, pancreatic sPLA2 and was inactive against cytosolic PLA2 and the constitutive and inducible forms of cyclooxygenase. Human sPLA2-induced release of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) from isolated guinea pig lung bronchoalveolar lavage cells was inhibited by LY315920 with an IC50 of 0.79 microM. The release of TXA2 from these cells by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or arachidonic acid was not inhibited. The i.v. administration of LY315920, 5 min before harvesting the bronchoalveolar lavage cells, resulted in the inhibition of sPLA2-induced production of TXA2 with an ED50 of 16.1 mg/kg. Challenge of guinea pig lung pleural strips with sPLA2 produced contractile responses that were suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by LY315920 with an apparent KB of 83 +/- 14 nM. Contractile responses induced by arachidonic acid were not altered. Intravenous or oral administration of LY315920 to transgenic mice expressing the human sPLA2 protein inhibited serum sPLA2 activity in a dose-related manner over a 4-h time course. LY315920 is a potent and selective sPLA2 inhibitor and represents a new class of anti-inflammatory agent designated SPI. This agent is currently undergoing clinical evaluation and should help to define the role of sPLA2 in various inflammatory disease states.  (+info)

Characterization of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ketorolac and its enantiomers in the rat. (5/7426)

The marked analgesic efficacy of ketorolac in humans, relative to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), has lead to speculation as to whether additional non-NSAID mechanism(s) contribute to its analgesic actions. To evaluate this possibility, we characterized (R,S)-ketorolac's pharmacological properties in vivo and in vitro using the nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors [indomethacin (INDO) and diclofenac sodium (DS)] as well as the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, as references. The potency of racemic (R,S)-ketorolac was similar in tests of acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced paw hyperalgesia, and carrageenan-induced edema formation in rats; ID50 values = 0.24, 0. 29, and 0.08 mg/kg, respectively. (R,S)-ketorolac's actions were stereospecific, with (S)-ketorolac possessing the biological activity of the racemate in the above tests. The analgesic potencies for (R,S)-, (S)-, and (R)-ketorolac, INDO, and DS were highly correlated with their anti-inflammatory potencies, suggesting a common mechanism. (R,S)-ketorolac was significantly more potent than INDO or DS in vivo. Neither difference in relative potency of COX inhibition for (R,S)-ketorolac over INDO and DS nor activity of (S)-ketorolac at a number of other enzymes, channels, or receptors could account for the differences in observed potency. The distribution coefficient for (R,S)-ketorolac was approximately 30-fold less than for DS or INDO, indicating that (R,S)-ketorolac is much less lipophilic than these NSAIDs. Therefore, the physicochemical and pharmacokinetics properties of (R,S)-ketorolac may optimize the concentrations of (S)-ketorolac at its biological target(s), resulting in greater efficacy and potency in vivo.  (+info)

Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists. (6/7426)

1. Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws. 2. Up to 100 microg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method. 3. Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. 4. Treatment with aprotinin to inhibit tissue kallikrein reduced the scratching behaviour induced by sodium deoxycholic acid, whereas treatment with soybean trypsin inhibitor to inhibit plasma kallikrein did not. 5. Although injection of kininase II inhibitor, lisinopril together with sodium deoxycholic acid did not alter the scratching behaviour, phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, significantly increased the frequency of scratching. 6. Homogenates of the skin excised from the backs of mice were subjected to gel-filtration column chromatography followed by an assay of kinin release by trypsin from each fraction separated. Less kinin release from the fractions containing kininogen of low molecular weight was observed in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than in normal skin. 7. The frequency of scratching after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in plasma kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats of the same strain, Brown Norway Kitasato rats. 8. These results indicate that BK released from low-molecular-weight kininogen by tissue kallikrein, but not from high-molecular-weight kininogen by plasma kallikrein, may be involved in the scratching behaviour induced by the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in the rodent.  (+info)

The effect of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and phenylbutazone on spermatogenesis in bulls. (7/7426)

To determine whether declining semen quality associated with health problems may be due to certain antibiotic or anti-inflammatory treatments, semen was collected 3 times per week for up to 42 d from 6 normal bulls after treatment with oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, dihydrostreptomycin, or phenylbutazone. No adverse effects on semen quality were observed.  (+info)

Pseudogout attack associated with chronic thyroiditis and Sjogren's syndrome. (8/7426)

A 66-year-old woman, diagnosed with chronic thyroiditis at age 63, presented with anorexia and fatigue. Therapy for the chronic thyroiditis consisted of levothyroxine sodium (100 microg/day). Her symptoms were attributed to the insufficient supply of levothyroxine sodium. Following a dosage increase to 150 microg/day, she suffered from an acute attack of pseudogout. Clinical features were complicated by Sjogren's syndrome, which appeared after treatment onset. Pseudogout was effectively treated by colchicine after administration of diclofenac sodium failed to alleviate the symptoms. Pseudogout is a recognized complication of thyroid replacement therapy, but association with Sjogren's syndrome has not been previously reported.  (+info)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Okadaic acid is a type of toxin that is produced by certain species of marine algae, including Dinophysis and Prorocentrum. It is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, which are important enzymes that help regulate cellular processes in the body.

Okadaic acid can accumulate in shellfish that feed on these algae, and consumption of contaminated seafood can lead to a serious illness known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Symptoms of DSP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. In severe cases, it can also cause neurological symptoms such as dizziness, disorientation, and tingling or numbness in the lips, tongue, and fingers.

It is important to note that okadaic acid is not only a marine toxin but also used in scientific research as a tool to study the role of protein phosphatases in cellular processes. However, exposure to this compound should be avoided due to its toxic effects.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

Transcription Factor RelA, also known as NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) p65, is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammation, as well as cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation.

RelA is one of the five subunits that make up the NF-kB protein complex, and it is responsible for the transcriptional activation of target genes. In response to various stimuli such as cytokines, bacterial or viral antigens, and stress signals, RelA can be activated by phosphorylation and then translocate into the nucleus where it binds to specific DNA sequences called kB sites in the promoter regions of target genes. This binding leads to the recruitment of coactivators and the initiation of transcription.

RelA has been implicated in a wide range of biological processes, including inflammation, immunity, cell growth, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of NF-kB signaling and RelA activity has been associated with various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Inflammation mediators are substances that are released by the body in response to injury or infection, which contribute to the inflammatory response. These mediators include various chemical factors such as cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and histamine, among others. They play a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory process by attracting immune cells to the site of injury or infection, increasing blood flow to the area, and promoting the repair and healing of damaged tissues. However, an overactive or chronic inflammatory response can also contribute to the development of various diseases and conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

I-kappa B kinase (IKK) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the activation of NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of immune response, inflammation, cell survival, and proliferation.

The IKK complex is composed of two catalytic subunits, IKKα and IKKβ, and a regulatory subunit, IKKγ (also known as NEMO). Upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, pathogens, or stress, the IKK complex becomes activated and phosphorylates I-kappa B (IkB), an inhibitor protein that keeps NF-kB in an inactive state in the cytoplasm.

Once IkB is phosphorylated by the IKK complex, it undergoes ubiquitination and degradation, leading to the release and nuclear translocation of NF-kB, where it can bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression. Dysregulation of IKK activity has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

I-kappa B (IκB) proteins are a family of inhibitory proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a key transcription factor involved in inflammation, immune response, and cell survival. In resting cells, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by binding to IκB proteins, which prevents NF-κB from translocating into the nucleus and activating its target genes.

Upon stimulation of various signaling pathways, such as those triggered by proinflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral components, and stress signals, IκB proteins become phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. This process allows NF-κB to dissociate from IκB, translocate into the nucleus, and bind to specific DNA sequences, leading to the expression of various genes involved in immune response, inflammation, cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

There are several members of the IκB protein family, including IκBα, IκBβ, IκBε, IκBγ, and Bcl-3. Each member has distinct functions and regulatory mechanisms in controlling NF-κB activity. Dysregulation of IκB proteins and NF-κB signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammation, as well as in cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. It is composed of several subunits, including p50, p52, p65 (RelA), c-Rel, and RelB, which can form homodimers or heterodimers that bind to specific DNA sequences called κB sites in the promoter regions of target genes.

Under normal conditions, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins known as IκBs (inhibitors of κB). However, upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, bacterial or viral products, and stress, IκBs are phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and degraded, leading to the release and activation of NF-κB. Activated NF-κB then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to κB sites and regulates the expression of target genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation.

Dysregulation of NF-κB signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as cancer, chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, targeting NF-κB signaling has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling. Specifically, IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in the body. It is produced by various cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in response to infection or injury.

IL-1 exists in two forms, IL-1α and IL-1β, which have similar biological activities but are encoded by different genes. Both forms of IL-1 bind to the same receptor, IL-1R, and activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of other cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators.

IL-1 has a wide range of biological effects, including fever induction, activation of immune cells, regulation of hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and modulation of bone metabolism. Dysregulation of IL-1 production or activity has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, IL-1 is an important target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is defined as a pharmacological agent that is a derivative of the phorbol ester family. It is a potent tumor promoter and activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation. TPA has been widely used in research to study PKC-mediated signaling pathways and its role in cancer development and progression. It is also used in topical treatments for skin conditions such as psoriasis.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Spirostans" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It seems like it might be a reference to a specific chemical compound or class of compounds, possibly related to steroids, based on the prefix "spiro-" and the suffix "-stan." However, I cannot provide a precise definition without more context.

If you're referring to a specific medical or scientific concept, could you please provide more information or check the spelling? I'm here to help, and I want to make sure I give you the most accurate and helpful response possible.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Saponins are a type of naturally occurring chemical compound found in various plants, including soapwords, ginseng, and many others. They are known for their foaming properties, similar to that of soap, which gives them their name "saponin" derived from the Latin word "sapo" meaning soap.

Medically, saponins have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to lower cholesterol levels, reduce inflammation, and boost the immune system. However, they can also have toxic effects in high concentrations, causing gastrointestinal disturbances and potentially damaging red blood cells.

Saponins are typically found in the cell walls of plants and can be extracted through various methods for use in pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics.

Glycosides are organic compounds that consist of a glycone (a sugar component) linked to a non-sugar component, known as an aglycone, via a glycosidic bond. They can be found in various plants, microorganisms, and some animals. Depending on the nature of the aglycone, glycosides can be classified into different types, such as anthraquinone glycosides, cardiac glycosides, and saponin glycosides.

These compounds have diverse biological activities and pharmacological effects. For instance:

* Cardiac glycosides, like digoxin and digitoxin, are used in the treatment of heart failure and certain cardiac arrhythmias due to their positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and negative chronotropic (heart rate-slowing) effects on the heart.
* Saponin glycosides have potent detergent properties and can cause hemolysis (rupture of red blood cells). They are used in various industries, including cosmetics and food processing, and have potential applications in drug delivery systems.
* Some glycosides, like amygdalin found in apricot kernels and bitter almonds, can release cyanide upon hydrolysis, making them potentially toxic.

It is important to note that while some glycosides have therapeutic uses, others can be harmful or even lethal if ingested or otherwise introduced into the body in large quantities.

Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin molecule that is found in various plants, including yams and fenugreek. It is a type of compound called a sapogenin, which is the aglycone (non-sugar) part of a saponin. Diosgenin has been extensively studied for its potential medicinal properties, particularly as a precursor in the synthesis of various steroid hormones such as progesterone and cortisone.

Diosgenin is not typically found in its free form in plants but rather as part of saponins, which are glycosides that have both a sugar and a non-sugar component. The saponins containing diosgenin are converted to diosgenin through a process called hydrolysis, which involves breaking down the saponins using heat, acid, or enzymes.

Diosgenin has been shown to have various potential health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardioprotective effects. It may also have potential as an anticancer agent, although more research is needed to confirm its effectiveness and safety for this use. Diosgenin is available as a dietary supplement, but it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any new supplements.

Tomatine is not a medical term, but a chemical compound found in plants, specifically in the leaves and stems of green tomatoes and in higher concentrations in the roots and flowers. It is a glycoalkaloid, which is a type of toxic compound that some plants produce to deter pests.

In the context of human health, tomatine has been studied for its potential effects on the body. Some research suggests that it may have anti-cancer properties, but more studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine whether it has any therapeutic value. It's important to note that tomatine can be toxic in high concentrations, so it should not be consumed in large amounts or as a supplement without medical supervision.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Liliaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, specifically it is the family name for plants that include lilies, tulips, and related species. In a medical context, you might be referring to the specific plant species themselves, or possibly the allergic reactions some people can have to the pollen of these plants. If you have any more specific questions about botanical terms in a medical context, I'd be happy to try and help further.

Solanaceous alkaloids are a type of natural toxin found in plants belonging to the Solanaceae family, also known as the nightshade family. These alkaloids contain nitrogen and are produced by the plant as a defense mechanism against herbivores and other threats. Some common solanaceous alkaloids include nicotine, atropine, scopolamine, and solanine.

Nicotine is found in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) and is highly addictive. Atropine and scopolamine are found in belladonna (Atropa belladonna), also known as deadly nightshade, and are used in medical settings for their anticholinergic effects, but can be toxic or even fatal if ingested in large quantities. Solanine is found in potatoes, tomatoes, and eggplants, and can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea if consumed in large amounts.

It's worth noting that the levels of solanaceous alkaloids in commonly consumed plants like potatoes and tomatoes are generally low and not considered harmful to most people. However, some individuals may be more sensitive to these compounds and may experience adverse effects even at low levels.

Chlormadinone Acetate is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of female sex hormone. It is used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and abnormal menstrual bleeding. It works by suppressing the natural progesterone produced by the ovaries, thereby preventing the buildup of the lining of the uterus (endometrium). This medication is available in the form of tablets for oral administration.

It's important to note that Chlormadinone Acetate can cause a range of side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your doctor about all the medications you are taking before starting this medication.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Pregnanes are a class of steroid hormones and steroids that contain a pregnane nucleus, which is a steroid core with a carbon skeleton consisting of 21 carbons. This structure includes four fused rings, labeled A through D, and is derived from cholesterol.

Pregnanes are important precursors for the synthesis of various steroid hormones in the body, including progesterone, which plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle. Other examples of pregnanes include cortisol, a stress hormone produced by the adrenal gland, and aldosterone, a hormone that helps regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.

It's worth noting that pregnanes can also refer to synthetic compounds that contain this steroid nucleus and are used in various medical and research contexts.

'Cynanchum' is a genus of plants in the family Apocynaceae, also known as Milkweed or Dogbane family. These plants are primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Some species of Cynanchum have medicinal uses, including treatments for skin conditions, inflammation, and pain relief. However, it's important to note that some species may contain toxic compounds and should only be used under the guidance of a medical professional.

Androstanes are a class of steroidal compounds that have a basic structure consisting of a four-ring core derived from cholesterol. Specifically, androstanes contain a 19-carbon skeleton with a chemical formula of C19H28O or C19H28O2, depending on whether they are alcohols (androgens) or ketones (androstanes), respectively.

The term "androstane" is often used to refer to the parent compound, which has a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached at the C3 position of the steroid nucleus. When this hydroxyl group is replaced by a keto group (-C=O), the resulting compound is called androstane-3,17-dione or simply "androstane."

Androstanes are important precursors in the biosynthesis of various steroid hormones, including testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol. They are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of certain drugs and pharmaceuticals.

Estrogen antagonists, also known as antiestrogens, are a class of drugs that block the effects of estrogen in the body. They work by binding to estrogen receptors and preventing the natural estrogen from attaching to them. This results in the inhibition of estrogen-mediated activities in various tissues, including breast and uterine tissue.

There are two main types of estrogen antagonists: selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and pure estrogen receptor downregulators (PERDS), also known as estrogen receptor downregulators (ERDs). SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, can act as estrogen agonists or antagonists depending on the tissue type. For example, they may block the effects of estrogen in breast tissue while acting as an estrogen agonist in bone tissue, helping to prevent osteoporosis.

PERDS, such as fulvestrant, are pure estrogen receptor antagonists and do not have any estrogen-like activity. They are used primarily for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

Overall, estrogen antagonists play an important role in the management of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and other conditions where inhibiting estrogen activity is beneficial.

A rhizome is not typically used as a medical term, but it is a term borrowed from botany that has been adopted in some areas of medicine, particularly in psychiatry and psychotherapy.

In its original botanical sense, a rhizome is a horizontal stem of a plant that grows underground, often sending out roots and shoots from its nodes. This growth pattern is contrasted with that of a root system, which grows downward, and a stem system, which grows upward.

In psychiatry and psychotherapy, the term "rhizome" has been used as a metaphor to describe a non-hierarchical and decentralized approach to understanding mental processes and subjectivity. The rhizome model emphasizes the complexity, multiplicity, and interconnectedness of these processes, and rejects simplistic or reductionist explanations that focus on a single cause or origin. Instead, it encourages a more holistic and dynamic view of mental life, one that is open to multiple perspectives and interpretations.

It's important to note that the use of the term "rhizome" in this context is metaphorical and not medical in the strict sense. It is a way of thinking about mental processes and subjectivity that has been influenced by poststructuralist and feminist theories, among others.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

'Dracaena' is a genus of plants belonging to the family Asparagaceae. It includes several species of evergreen trees and shrubs that are native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and Central America. Some popular species include Dracaena fragrans (also known as corn plant or dragon tree), D. deremensis (Janet Craig), and D. marginata (Madagascar dragon tree). These plants are commonly grown indoors as ornamentals due to their attractive foliage and air-purifying properties.

"Smilax" is a genus of flowering plants, also known as greenbriars. While "Smilax" itself is not a medical term, some species of this plant have been used in traditional medicine. For instance, the roots and rhizomes of Smilax aristolochiifolia (Mexican sarsaparilla) and Smilax ornata (Jamaican sarsaparilla) have been used in traditional herbal remedies for various health conditions, including skin diseases, rheumatism, and sexual impotence. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these uses is generally weak, and these remedies may carry risks, such as allergic reactions or contamination with harmful substances. Always consult a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment.

Buxaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes the boxwoods and related genera. It is a small family with only about 120 species, mostly evergreen trees and shrubs. The plants in this family are characterized by their opposite, simple leaves and small, inconspicuous flowers.

The flowers of Buxaceae have both male and female reproductive structures (they are perfect flowers) and are typically arranged in dense clusters. The fruits of these plants are usually small, hard capsules that contain several seeds.

Buxaceae is a member of the order Buxales, which contains only one other family: Didymelaceae. Plants in this family have economic importance as ornamental plants and for their wood, which is used to make musical instruments and other items. Some species of Buxaceae also contain toxic alkaloids that can be harmful if ingested.

"Solanum" is a genus of flowering plants that includes many species, some of which are economically important as food crops and others which are toxic. The term "Solanum" itself does not have a specific medical definition, but several species within this genus are relevant to medicine and human health. Here are some examples:

1. Solanum lycopersicum (tomato): While tomatoes are primarily known as a food crop, they also contain various compounds with potential medicinal properties. For instance, they are rich in antioxidants like lycopene, which has been studied for its potential benefits in preventing cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
2. Solanum tuberosum (potato): Potatoes are a staple food crop, but their leaves and green parts contain solanine, a toxic alkaloid that can cause gastrointestinal disturbances, neurological symptoms, and even death in severe cases.
3. Solanum melongena (eggplant): Eggplants have been studied for their potential health benefits due to their high antioxidant content, including nasunin, which has been shown to protect against lipid peroxidation and DNA damage.
4. Solanum nigrum (black nightshade): This species contains solanine and other toxic alkaloids, but some parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. However, its use as a medicinal herb is not well-established, and it can be toxic if improperly prepared or consumed in large quantities.
5. Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade): This species has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including treating skin conditions, respiratory ailments, and gastrointestinal complaints. However, its use as a medicinal herb is not well-supported by scientific evidence, and it can be toxic if ingested in large quantities.

In summary, "Solanum" refers to a genus of flowering plants that includes several species with relevance to medicine and human health. While some species are important food crops, others contain toxic compounds that can cause harm if improperly consumed or prepared. Additionally, the medicinal use of some Solanum species is not well-established and may carry risks.

'Dioscorea' is the medical term for a genus of plants commonly known as yams. These plants belong to the family Dioscoreaceae and are native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The tubers or roots of some species of Dioscorea are edible and are an important food source in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa and Asia. Some species of Dioscorea contain steroidal saponins, which have been used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory and other properties. However, it is important to note that some species of Dioscorea are toxic and should not be consumed without proper preparation and knowledge.

'Allium' is a genus of plants that includes several species which are commonly used as vegetables or spices, such as onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, and chives. These plants are characterized by their distinctive strong smell and taste, which are caused by sulfur-containing compounds. They have been widely used in traditional medicine for their potential health benefits, including antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties.

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that are primarily used in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. They work by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting androgens into estrogens. By blocking this conversion, AIs decrease the amount of estrogen in the body, thereby depriving hormone-sensitive breast cancer cells of the estrogen they need to grow and multiply.

There are three main types of aromatase inhibitors:

1. Letrozole (Femara) - a non-steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.
2. Anastrozole (Arimidex) - another non-steroidal AI that is also taken orally once a day.
3. Exemestane (Aromasin) - a steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.

In addition to their use in breast cancer treatment, AIs are also sometimes used off-label for the treatment of estrogen-dependent conditions such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids. However, it's important to note that the use of aromatase inhibitors can have significant side effects, including hot flashes, joint pain, and bone loss, so they should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Withanolides are a class of steroidal lactones found primarily in the nightshade family of plants, including Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant. These compounds have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory effects. They are currently being researched for their potential uses in various medical applications.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Testolactone is a medication that is primarily used in the treatment of breast cancer. It is an oral steroidal aromatase inhibitor, which means it works by blocking the enzyme aromatase, thereby preventing the conversion of androgens into estrogens. This helps to reduce the amount of estrogen in the body, which can slow or stop the growth of certain types of breast cancer cells that need estrogen to grow.

Testolactone is not as commonly used as other aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane, but it may be prescribed in certain cases where these medications are not suitable or have not been effective. It is important to note that testolactone can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash, and changes in liver function tests. As with any medication, it should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Holarrhena is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceae, commonly known as Kurchi or Conessi. The bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica and Holarrhena pubescens are used in traditional Ayurvedic and Unani medicine.

The bark contains various alkaloids such as conessine, conamine, holarrhenine, which have been traditionally used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and other gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of Holarrhena in modern medicine is not well-studied, and its efficacy and safety are not established. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Anemarrhena is a plant genus that belongs to the family Asphodelaceae. It includes several species, but the most commonly referenced one in medical contexts is Anemarrhena asphodeloides, also known as Zhong Wei Zi in traditional Chinese medicine.

The root of Anemarrhena asphodeloides has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries to treat various health conditions, such as fever, cough, and diabetes. The active components of this plant include steroidal saponins, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential medical applications and safety profile of Anemarrhena.

Hydroxysteroids are steroid hormones or steroid compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) as a functional group. These molecules have a steroid nucleus, which is a core structure composed of four fused carbon rings, and one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the rings.

The presence of hydroxyl groups makes hydroxysteroids polar and more soluble in water compared to other steroids. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as metabolism, bile acid synthesis, and steroid hormone regulation. Some examples of hydroxysteroids include certain forms of estrogens, androgens, corticosteroids, and bile acids.

It is important to note that the specific medical definition may vary depending on the context or source.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Molecular conformation, also known as spatial arrangement or configuration, refers to the specific three-dimensional shape and orientation of atoms that make up a molecule. It describes the precise manner in which bonds between atoms are arranged around a molecular framework, taking into account factors such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles.

Conformational isomers, or conformers, are different spatial arrangements of the same molecule that can interconvert without breaking chemical bonds. These isomers may have varying energies, stability, and reactivity, which can significantly impact a molecule's biological activity and function. Understanding molecular conformation is crucial in fields such as drug design, where small changes in conformation can lead to substantial differences in how a drug interacts with its target.

An Asparagus plant, scientifically known as *Asparagus officinalis*, is a perennial vegetable that belongs to the family *Asparagaceae*. It is native to Europe and western Asia. The plant is characterized by its long, thin green spears that grow out of the ground. These spears are harvested and eaten as a spring vegetable. The plant also produces fern-like foliage and small red berries. Asparagus is rich in nutrients, including fiber, vitamin C, vitamin A, and folate. It is also a good source of antioxidants.

Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) Mass Spectrometry is a technique used for determining the mass of ions in a sample. In FAB-MS, the sample is mixed with a matrix material and then bombarded with a beam of fast atoms, usually xenon or cesium. This bombardment leads to the formation of ions from the sample which can then be detected and measured using a mass analyzer. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the sample molecules. FAB-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large, thermally labile, or polar molecules that may not ionize well by other methods.

"Solanum nigrum" is the scientific name for a plant species that is commonly known as black nightshade. It belongs to the family Solanaceae, which also includes other well-known plants such as tomatoes, potatoes, and eggplants.

Black nightshade is an annual or short-lived perennial herb that can grow up to 1 meter tall. The plant has simple, alternate leaves that are usually dark green in color and have a slightly hairy texture. The flowers of the black nightshade are small and white with yellow centers, and they produce round, shiny black berries that contain numerous seeds.

While some parts of the black nightshade plant, including the berries, are edible and can be used in cooking, it is important to note that all parts of the plant contain solanine, a toxic alkaloid that can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dizziness if ingested in large quantities. Therefore, it is generally recommended to avoid consuming any part of the black nightshade plant unless it has been properly prepared by a knowledgeable source.

In medical contexts, "Solanum nigrum" may be mentioned in relation to its potential medicinal properties or as a cause of toxicity if ingested in large quantities. However, it is not typically used as a medical treatment or therapy.

Alveolectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of alveolar bone, which is the bony ridge in the jaw that contains the sockets of the teeth. This procedure is typically performed as a part of dental or maxillofacial surgery, such as during the preparation for dentures or to remove any remaining root structures after tooth extraction.

The goal of alveolectomy is to reshape the jawbone and create a smoother surface that makes it easier to fit and wear dentures or other prosthetic devices. It may also be performed to treat certain dental conditions, such as periodontal disease or oral tumors. As with any surgical procedure, alveolectomy carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, and damage to adjacent tissues. Therefore, it is important to consult with a qualified dental surgeon to determine whether this procedure is appropriate for your individual needs and circumstances.

Androstenes are a group of steroidal compounds that are produced and released by the human body. They are classified as steroids because they contain a characteristic carbon skeleton, called the sterane ring, which consists of four fused rings arranged in a specific structure. Androstenes are derived from cholesterol and are synthesized in the gonads (testes and ovaries), adrenal glands, and other tissues.

The term "androstene" refers specifically to compounds that contain a double bond between the 5th and 6th carbon atoms in the sterane ring. This double bond gives these compounds their characteristic chemical properties and distinguishes them from other steroidal compounds.

Androstenes are important in human physiology because they serve as precursors to the synthesis of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. They also have been found to play a role in the regulation of various bodily functions, including sexual behavior, mood, and cognition.

Some examples of androstenes include androstenedione, which is a precursor to both testosterone and estrogen; androstenediol, which can be converted into either testosterone or estrogen; and androsterone, which is a weak androgen that is produced in the body as a metabolite of testosterone.

It's worth noting that androstenes are sometimes referred to as "pheromones" because they have been found to play a role in chemical communication between individuals of the same species. However, this use of the term "pheromone" is controversial and not universally accepted, as it has been difficult to demonstrate conclusively that humans communicate using chemical signals in the same way that many other animals do.

"Withania" is the common name for Withania somnifera, also known as Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng. It is a plant native to India and Southeast Asia that has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for centuries. The root of the plant is used to make medicinal preparations.

Withania somnifera contains several alkaloids, steroidal lactones, and saponins, which are believed to be responsible for its medicinal properties. It has been traditionally used as a remedy for various conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, stress, and inflammation. Some studies suggest that it may have adaptogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects, but more research is needed to confirm these findings and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

It's important to note that Withania somnifera supplements can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects, so it's always best to consult a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

'Agave' is a genus of plants, primarily found in hot and dry regions of the Americas. It is not a medical term or concept. Agave plants are known for their rosette-shaped arrangement of stiff, sharp leaves, and many species produce a tall flowering stalk after several years of growth. Some agave species are cultivated for the production of various products, such as tequila, a distilled beverage made from the blue agave plant (Agave tequilana), and agave nectar or syrup, derived from several different species.

While not directly related to medical terminology, it is worth noting that some agave species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions, wounds, or digestive issues. However, these uses are not well-studied and should not be considered a substitute for evidence-based modern medical treatments.

"Ophiopogon" is a botanical term that refers to a genus of plants commonly known as "mondo grass" or "snake's beard." While it is not a medical term, some species of Ophiopogon have been used in traditional medicine in certain cultures. For example, Ophiopogon japonicus (also known as "dwarf lilyturf") has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for its supposed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, it's important to note that the use of Ophiopogon species in modern medicine is not well-researched or widely accepted, and more scientific evidence is needed to support their medicinal benefits.

Chloroquinolinols are a class of chemical compounds that contain a quinoline ring substituted with a chlorine atom and a hydroxy or alkoxy group. These compounds have various medical applications, particularly in the treatment of parasitic diseases such as malaria. Chloroquine is one of the most well-known chloroquinolinols, which has been widely used as an antimalarial drug for many years. Other examples of chloroquinolinols include hydroxychloroquine and chloroxynol. These compounds have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, making them useful in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. However, they can also have side effects and potential toxicity, so their use must be carefully monitored and managed by healthcare professionals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Trillium" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of plants in the family Melanthiaceae, also known as Wake Robin or Wood Lily. These plants are native to North America and Asia and are characterized by their distinctive whorl of three leaves and solitary flower with three petals. They have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating wounds and skin conditions, but there is limited scientific evidence supporting these uses.

Tropaeolaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly known as nasturtiums. It consists of one genus, Tropaeolum, with around 80 species. These plants are native to South and Central America, and some species are widely cultivated as ornamentals and for their edible leaves and flowers. The name "nasturtium" is derived from the Latin words "nasus tortus," which means "twisted nose," referring to the mustard oil's pungent effect on the nasal passages when the plant is consumed. Despite its common name, Tropaeolaceae is not related to the watercress family (Brassicaceae), which also includes plants with the common name "nasturtium."

Gestrinone is a synthetic steroid hormone with anti-gonadotropic and progestogenic properties. It is used in the treatment of endometriosis due to its ability to reduce the production of estrogen and progesterone, which can help shrink endometrial implants and decrease the severity of pain associated with the condition.

Gestrinone works by inhibiting the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, which in turn suppresses the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland. This leads to a decrease in ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone.

Additionally, gestrinone has weak androgenic and anti-androgenic properties, which may contribute to its therapeutic effects in endometriosis. It is not approved for use in the United States but is available in some other countries for the treatment of endometriosis and breast cancer.

Phytosterols are a type of plant-derived sterol that have a similar structure to cholesterol, a compound found in animal products. They are found in small quantities in many fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, and vegetable oils. Phytosterols are known to help lower cholesterol levels by reducing the absorption of dietary cholesterol in the digestive system.

In medical terms, phytosterols are often referred to as "plant sterols" or "phytostanols." They have been shown to have a modest but significant impact on lowering LDL (or "bad") cholesterol levels when consumed in sufficient quantities, typically in the range of 2-3 grams per day. As a result, foods fortified with phytosterols are sometimes recommended as part of a heart-healthy diet for individuals with high cholesterol or a family history of cardiovascular disease.

It's worth noting that while phytosterols have been shown to be safe and effective in reducing cholesterol levels, they should not be used as a substitute for other lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, smoking cessation, and weight management. Additionally, individuals with sitosterolemia, a rare genetic disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of plant sterols in the body, should avoid consuming foods fortified with phytosterols.

Hemolytic agents are substances that cause the destruction or lysis of red blood cells, leading to the release of hemoglobin into the plasma. This process is known as hemolysis. Hemolytic agents can be classified into two categories: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic hemolytic agents are present within the body, such as enzymes or antibodies, while extrinsic hemolytic agents come from external sources, like certain medications, chemicals, or infections. Hemolysis can result in anemia, jaundice, and kidney damage if not properly managed.

"Convallaria" is a genus name in botany, which refers to the Lily of the Valley plant. In a medical context, it may be mentioned because all parts of this plant are considered toxic and can cause various symptoms if ingested or come into contact with the skin. These symptoms can include stomach upset, reduced heart rate, and skin irritation. In severe cases, it can lead to more serious complications such as heart rhythm abnormalities and seizures.

It's important to note that while some people use Lily of the Valley extract in traditional medicine or as a natural remedy, it should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to its potential toxicity.

Androstanols are a class of steroid compounds that contain a skeleton of 17 carbon atoms arranged in a particular structure. They are derived from androstane, which is a reduced form of testosterone, a male sex hormone. Androstanols have a variety of biological activities and can be found in various tissues and bodily fluids, including sweat, urine, and blood.

In the context of medical research and diagnostics, androstanols are sometimes used as biomarkers to study various physiological processes and diseases. For example, some studies have investigated the use of androstanol metabolites in urine as markers for prostate cancer. However, more research is needed to establish their clinical utility.

It's worth noting that while androstanols are related to steroid hormones, they do not have the same hormonal activity as testosterone or other sex hormones. Instead, they may play a role in cell signaling and other regulatory functions within the body.

"Marsdenia" is not a term that has a widely accepted medical definition. It is the name of a genus of plants in the family Apocynaceae, also known as the dogbane family. Some species of Marsdenia contain compounds with potential medicinal properties, and there has been some research into their use in treating various conditions such as cancer, HIV, and inflammation. However, more research is needed before these uses can be considered established medical facts.

"Solanaceae" is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, referring to the Nightshade family of plants. This family includes several plants that have economic and medicinal importance, as well as some that are toxic or poisonous. Some common examples of plants in this family include:

- Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)
- Solanum tuberosum (potato)
- Capsicum annuum (bell pepper and chili pepper)
- Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
- Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)
- Hyoscyamus niger (henbane)

While Solanaceae isn't a medical term itself, certain plants within this family have medical significance. For instance, some alkaloids found in these plants can be used as medications or pharmaceutical precursors, such as atropine and scopolamine from Atropa belladonna, hyoscine from Hyoscyamus niger, and capsaicin from Capsicum species. However, it's important to note that many of these plants also contain toxic compounds, so they must be handled with care and used only under professional supervision.

Agavaceae is a botanical name for a family of plants that includes various species of agave, yucca, and related genera. It was previously widely used in taxonomy, but more recent classifications have merged it into the broader family Asparagaceae. The plants in this family are characterized by their rosette-forming habits, stiff, strap-like leaves, and often large clusters of flowers borne on tall stalks. They are native to arid and semi-arid regions of the Americas, with some species found in Africa and southern Asia. Many Agavaceae plants have economic importance as sources of fiber, food, and beverages, such as tequila, which is made from the blue agave (Agave tequilana).

"Fritillaria" is a genus of plants that includes around 140 species, many of which have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. In a medical context, "Fritillaria" usually refers to the bulbs of certain Fritillaria species, such as Fritillaria cirrhosa and Fritillaria thunbergii, which are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

In TCM, Fritillaria bulbs are known as "Beimu" or "Chuanbei," and they have been used to treat respiratory conditions such as coughs, bronchitis, and asthma. The active components of Fritillaria include alkaloids, steroidal saponins, and polysaccharides, which are believed to have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, and antitussive effects.

However, it's important to note that the use of Fritillaria in medicine is not well-studied in Western medicine, and its effectiveness and safety are not established. Moreover, some Fritillaria species contain toxic compounds, so it's essential to consult a healthcare professional before using any Fritillaria products for medicinal purposes.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Pregnenes is not a term that is commonly used in medical terminology. However, in biochemistry, pregnenes are steroid compounds containing a carbon skeleton with nine or more rings. They are precursors to various steroid hormones such as progesterone and cortisol.

Pregnenes are derived from cholesterol through a series of enzymatic reactions that involve the removal of several carbons from the cholesterol molecule. The resulting pregnenolone is then further metabolized to produce other steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, androgens, and estrogens.

Therefore, while not a medical term per se, pregnenes are an essential class of compounds in the endocrine system that play a crucial role in various physiological processes, such as sexual development, stress response, and immune function.

"Veratrum" is a genus of plants that are part of the Melanthiaceae family, also known as hellebore. These plants contain various alkaloids with pharmacological properties and have been used in traditional medicine for their therapeutic effects. However, they can also be highly toxic if not used properly.

In a medical context, "Veratrum" may refer to the medicinal preparations made from these plants, which have been used historically to treat various conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, due to their narrow therapeutic index and potential for serious side effects, they are not commonly used in modern medicine.

It's worth noting that the term "Veratrum" is primarily a botanical designation, and its medical use is relatively limited. If you have any specific questions about the medicinal or toxicological properties of Veratrum plants, it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional or a trained medical herbalist.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hosta" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of plants commonly known as plantain lilies or hostas. They are popular ornamental plants in gardens due to their attractive foliage. If you have any questions about botanical or horticultural topics, I'd be happy to try and help with those!

Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic steroid hormone with anti-androgen and progestogenic properties. It works by blocking the action of androgens (male sex hormones) in the body, which helps to reduce symptoms associated with excessive androgen production such as severe acne or hirsutism (excessive hair growth).

Cyproterone acetate is used in the treatment of conditions such as prostate cancer, where it can help to slow the growth of cancer cells by reducing the levels of androgens in the body. It is also used in the treatment of sexual deviations, such as pedophilia or exhibitionism, as it can reduce sexual desire.

In addition, cyproterone acetate is sometimes used in combination with estrogen in hormone replacement therapy for transgender women to suppress the production of testosterone and promote feminization.

It's important to note that cyproterone acetate can have significant side effects and its use should be under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Solanine is a glycoalkaloid toxin found in plants of the nightshade family, Solanaceae, which includes potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers. It's primarily concentrated in the leaves, stems, and fruits (green potatoes and green, sprouted, or damaged potato areas), but it can also be found in lower concentrations in other parts of these plants. Solanine has a bitter taste and is produced by the plant as a defense mechanism against pests and diseases. When consumed in large amounts, solanine can cause symptoms such as gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and neurological problems like headaches, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it may lead to paralysis and even death. However, it's important to note that solanine concentrations in commonly consumed nightshade vegetables are generally low, and toxic effects are unlikely to occur from normal consumption unless the vegetables are spoiled or improperly prepared.

Subgingival curettage is a dental procedure that involves the removal of infected tissue from the area below the gum line (subgingival) down to the bottom of the periodontal pocket. This procedure is typically performed by a dentist or dental hygienist during a deep cleaning or scaling and root planing procedure to treat periodontal disease. The goal of subgingival curettage is to remove damaged, infected, or necrotic tissue from the periodontal pocket, which can help promote healing and reduce the depth of the pocket. This procedure may also be used as a diagnostic tool to assess the extent of periodontal damage and guide treatment planning.

Among them are serotonin, a neurotransmitter; indometacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; L-761,066, a COX-2 ...
Kontogiorgis CA, Hadjipavlou-Litina DJ (January 2002). "Non steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy agents". Current ... The anti-IL-20 antibody has been shown to reduce the severity of RA in rats, mitigate bone destruction, and more. The anti-IL- ... Due to the clear association of IL-20 with RA, anti-IL-20 antibody is now in a clinical trial for RA. Anti-IL-20 monoclonal ... Hsu YH, Chen WY, Chan CH, Wu CH, Sun ZJ, Chang MS (August 2011). "Anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody inhibits the differentiation ...
... oral analgesia with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS); and topical analgesia with lidocaine, ice and heat. ... anti-inflammatory medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, traction, or epidural steroid injection can provide ...
Dahl SL, Ward JR (1982). "Pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent ... Somerville KW, Hawkey CJ (January 1986). "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and the gastrointestinal tract". Postgraduate ... It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class, and was marketed under the brand name Opren ... Unlike other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benoxaprofen acts directly on mononuclear cells. It inhibits their ...
... a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent". Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics. 11 (9): 612-9. doi:10.1248/bpb1978.11.612. PMID ... Amfenac, also known as 2-amino-3-benzoylbenzeneacetic acid, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with acetic acid ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 2-Aminobenzophenones, Acetic acids, All stub articles, Musculoskeletal system drug stubs) ...
Sivaprasad, Sobha; Bunce, Catey; Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne (2012-02-15). "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents for treating ... and antiviral agents for herpes simplex virus. The organisation has previously had funding from The Guide Dogs for the Blind ...
... two novel series of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. This article was published in Nature in 1968. In December 1988, ... two novel series of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents". Nature. 219 (5150): 164. Bibcode:1968Natur.219..164B. doi:10.1038/ ... Wang R, Dasgupta A, Ward MM (June 2016). "Comparative efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ankylosing ... Following the filing of the patent, the first description of oxaprozin exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties was outlined in ...
"Inhibition of human phenol and estrogen sulfotransferase by certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents". Current Drug ...
Ruscogenins function as anti-inflammatory agents and are also believed to cause constriction in veins. Currently the mode of ... The major phytochemicals in butcher's broom are steroidal saponins. Saponins occur naturally in plants as glycosides and have ... "Possible mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of ruscogenin: role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and nuclear ... Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D. (2008), "Steroidal Saponins", Fortschritte der Chemie organischer ...
Jones P, Lamdin R, Dalziel SR (August 2020). "Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs versus other oral analgesic agents for ... Jaturapatporn D, Isaac MG, McCleery J, Tabet N (February 2012). "Aspirin, steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are members of a therapeutic drug class which reduces pain, decreases ... Danelich IM, Wright SS, Lose JM, Tefft BJ, Cicci JD, Reed BN (May 2015). "Safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ...
... is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic activity similar to phenylbutazone. It is ...
Topical or oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents may be used to avoid steroid-induced complications like secondary ... muscarinic agents such as pilocarpine, hyperosmotic agents such as mannitol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as ... It is sometimes considered as a secondary inflammatory glaucoma. Ocular hypertension (IOP 30 - 70 mmHg) with open angle of ...
"Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and related properties of meloxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with ... Höglund OV, Dyall B, Gräsman V, Edner A, Olsson U, Höglund K (October 2018). "Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ... Metacam is a prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to control pain and inflammation (soreness ... In Europe the product is licensed for other anti-inflammatory benefits including relief from both acute and chronic pain in ...
Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents or treatment of the underlying Hodgkin's (usually with chemotherapy) will ...
Treatment is symptomatic and includes the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents or the application of heat ...
... anti-epileptic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; X-ray contrast agents; polycyclic musk fragrances; and ingredients of ... X-ray contrast agents, and ingredients of personal care products, can be broken down in a non-toxic way. Mycoremediation is a ...
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most recurrently used classes of drug clinically, indicated for ... Chemotherapeutic agents are drugs that are used in chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Many of these agents are known to ... non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and loop diuretics. While these drugs target on different body systems, they ... Vane, J. R.; Botting, R. M. (1998-12-03). "Anti-inflammatory drugs and their mechanism of action". Inflammation Research. 47: ...
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), preferably indometacin, are usually employed as pain control agents. A number ... The extract is thought to inhibit the same enzyme, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ... A couple of medications are used to relieve pleurisy symptoms: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) or anti-inflammatory agents to ... 1999). "Anti-inflammatory effects of the products from Wilbrandia ebracteata on carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice". Life Sci ...
Naturally Occurring Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidant Agent Derived from Extra Virgin Olive Oils". Organic ... Similar to classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX). 50 g (more ... a natural anti-inflammatory agent in extra virgin olive oils". Chem Senses. 34 (4): 333-9. doi:10.1093/chemse/bjp006. PMC ... "Against this background, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of dietary oleocanthal cannot be as relevant as hypothesized by ...
... is not recommended to be taken with aspirin or non-salicylate NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), as it ... Apigenin, a phytochemical in chamomile, may interact with anticoagulant agents and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while ... Chamomile is under preliminary research for its potential anti-anxiety properties. There is no high-quality clinical evidence ... scentless or false chamomile Chamomile may be used as a flavoring agent in foods and beverages, mouthwash, soaps, or cosmetics ...
Naproxen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug while cromolyn is an anti-allergic agent which acts as a mast cell ... Curcumin has wide pharmacological activities: anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, and wound healing ... Curcumin's mechanism of action is anti-inflammatory; it inhibits the nuclear transcriptional activator kappa B (NF-KB) that is ... Kohli K, Ali J, Ansari MJ, Raheman Z (2005). "Curcumin: A natural antiinflammatory agent". Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 37 ( ...
A new synthesis of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents with the 2-arylpropionic acid skeleton by the use of diphenyl ...
... non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cytotoxic agents (chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide), corticosteroid sparing ... 121(4):491-9, 2003 Narla LD et al: Inflammatory Pseudotumor. RadioGraphics. 23(3):719-729, 2003 Belanger C et al: Inflammatory ... Idiopathic orbital inflammatory (IOI) disease refers to a marginated mass-like enhancing soft tissue involving any area of the ... Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome, also known as orbital pseudotumor, was first described by Gleason in 1903 and by ...
Options include pain medication (except ibuprofen and other 'non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID's)' which may worsen ...
... anion transporter 3/solute carrier family 22 member 8 so is likely to interact with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and ...
... other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID) in humans. Synthetic BLT2 agonists may be useful for speeding the healing ... Opposition between the pro-inflammatory LTB4/BLT1 and anti-inflammatory actions of the 12-HHT/BLT2 axes occurs in another ... exerting an anti-inflammatory activity". Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 44 (6): 378-86. doi:10.3858/emm.2012.44.6.043. PMC ... and other agents. BLT2 may ultimately prove to have binding specificity for a similarly broad range of agents. The production ...
... enzymes which metabolize 20-HETE such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, opioids, gemfibrozil, Lasix, propanol, and ... Many agents stimulate cells and tissues to produce 20-HETE in vitro and in vivo. Androgens are particularly potent stimulators ... There are a variety of pharmacological agents which inhibit the synthesis of 20-HETE including various fatty acid analogs that ... This metabolism-induced inactivation may underlie the proposed roles of the cytochromes in dampening inflammatory responses and ...
... on the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced exacerbation of gastric ulcer in rats". Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. ... Tanaka H, Shuto K, Marumo H (April 1982). "Effect of N-acetyl-L-glutamine aluminium complex (KW-110), an antiulcer agent, ... 35-. ISBN 978-0-8155-1856-3. Morton IK, Hall JM (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and ... and antiulcer agent that is marketed in Spain and Japan. It is an acetylated form of the amino acid L-glutamine, the precursor ...
Antileukotrienes are anti-inflammatory agents which function as leukotriene-related enzyme inhibitors (arachidonate 5- ... "Cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: network meta-analysis". British Medical Journal (Clinical ... with anti-inflammatory effect several fold that of aspirin. Coal tar has been used for centuries for its anti-inflammatory and ... there are analgesics that are commonly associated with anti-inflammatory drugs but that have no anti-inflammatory effects. An ...
Hirohata M, Ono K, Naiki H, Yamada M (December 2005). "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have anti-amyloidogenic effects ... It increases cerebral blood flow and is an anti-inflammatory agent, enhancing activity at the neuronal synapses in the brain. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The ... Etminan M, Gill S, Samii A (July 2003). "Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on risk of Alzheimer's disease: ...
... is a member of the fenamate group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ...
Nephrotoxic Agents, Including Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs The concurrent use of mesalamine with known nephrotoxic ... agents, including non‑steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity. Monitor patients ... but appears to be a topical anti-inflammatory effect on colonic epithelial cells. Mucosal production of arachidonic acid (AA) ...
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors). In patients who are ... Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the effects of Mavik. ... Antidiabetic Agents. Concomitant use of ACE inhibitors and antidiabetic medicines (insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents) may ... Agents Increasing Serum Potassium. Trandolapril can attenuate potassium loss caused by thiazide diuretics and increase serum ...
7.1 Nephrotoxic Agents, Including Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs 7.2 Azathioprine or 6-Mercaptopurine 7.3 Interference ... 7.1 Nephrotoxic Agents, Including Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. The concurrent use of mesalamine with known ... nephrotoxic agents, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may increase the risk of renal reactions. Monitor ... The mechanism of action of 5-ASA is not fully understood, but appears to be a local anti-inflammatory effect on colonic ...
Among them are serotonin, a neurotransmitter; indometacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; L-761,066, a COX-2 ...
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use * Bandages * Chemotherapy, Adjuvant * Disease Progression ...
... or anti-inflammatory agents, steroidal; or various combinations of these terms. EMBASE and MEDLINE were also searched. ... either alone or in combination with another agent such as an antibiotic, were included. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria ...
Anti-Inflammatory Agents. *Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal. *Antiarrhythmic agents. *Antiinflammatory and Antirheumatic ... Nimesulide is a relatively COX-2 selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic ...
Gerrard, D. F. (1998). Renal abuse from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in sport. New Zealand Medical Journal, 111(1062 ... Gerrard, D. F. (1997). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in sport. Prescriber Update, 15, 7-12. Retrieved from https://www ... Manual physical therapy and exercise versus electrophysical agents and exercise in the management of plantar heel pain: A ...
CI: (c) 2013; JID: 0055107; 0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal); 0 (Placebos); R16CO5Y76E (Aspirin); OTO: NOTNLM; 2013/ ...
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal. Orner GA, Dashwood W-M, Blum CA, G Díaz D, Li Q, Al-Fageeh M, Tebbutt N, Heath JK, ...
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal. Orner GA, Dashwood W-M, Blum CA, G Díaz D, Li Q, Dashwood RH. 2003. Suppression of ...
Non steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, oxicams ATC code: M01 AC06 Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ... or other non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including acetylsalicylic acid given at anti-inflammatory doses (≥ 1g as single ... with other non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including acetylsalicylic acid given at anti-inflammatory doses ( ≥ 1g as ... Other non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetylsalicylic acid , 3g/d: ...
keywords = "Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal, Aspirin, Cohort Studies, ... T1 - Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug prescriptions and survival after the diagnosis of head and neck and ... Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug prescriptions and survival after the diagnosis of head and neck and ... Dive into the research topics of Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug prescriptions and survival after the ...
Fenoprofen is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of acute pain and chronic arthritis. ... Hannequin JR, Doffoel M, Schmutz G. [Hepatitis secondary to current non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents]. Rev Rhum Mal ... Bessone F. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: What is the actual risk of liver damage? World J Gastroenterol 2010; 16: 5651 ... Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic agents; pharmacotherapy of gout. In, Brunton LL, Chabner B, Knollman B, eds. ...
Contains steroidal saponins, which are natures most powerful anti-inflammatory agents How Long Does it Take to Work?. 1-3 ... With its powerful natural steroidal saponins, the anti inflammatory effects for skin, digestive and joint disorders has led to ... and inflammatory digestive disorders. In my 17 year veterinary career I have often been disappointed by "supposed" new miracle ... I am always looking for nondrug alternatives to help our pets who suffer from many chronic inflammatory disorders, including ...
Definition: Medication which is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. [d] [e] ...
5. Ceuppens JL, et al: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents inhibit the synthesis of IgM rheumatoid factor in vitro. Lancet 1 ... 1. Baruth H, et al: In Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Rheumatic Drugs, Vol. II, Newer Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Rainsford KD, ed. ... Carprofen is a non-narcotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with characteristic analgesic and antipyretic activity ... TruProfen Flavored Tab is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class that includes ibuprofen, ...
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents mentioned above can be performed during likeness. Im sure you terrorize a puncture- ...
Triptolide inhibits the inflammatory response of monocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients by regulating miR-155]. - Anping ... Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal (pharmacology) *Arthritis, Rheumatoid (blood, genetics, pathology) *Blotting, Western ... To explore the anti-inflammatory effect of triptolide (TPT) by regulating miR-155 in monocytes pre-stimulated by ... Triptolide inhibits the inflammatory response of monocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients by regulating miR-155].. Abstract ...
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. *Mast cell stabilisers such as ketotifen. *Clofazimine ... Long term anti-inflammatory antibiotics, such as a six to twelve-month course of tetracycline, erythromycin or penicillin ... a mixed inflammatory cell infiltration, in the dermis (the deeper layer of the skin). ...
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal. *Anticonvulsants. *Bronchitis (etiology, physiopathology) *Cysteine (analogs & ...
Pharmaceuticals include a wide array of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, ... Bernhardt ES, Rosi EJ, Gessner MO (2017) Synthetic chemicals as agents of global change. Front Ecol Environ 15:84-90 ... Caliman FA, Gavrilescu M (2009) Pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine disrupting agents in the environment-a ... and antibacterial agents; personal care products that contain chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, and formaldehyde; ...
As with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, its mode of action is not known; however, the ability to inhibit ... RELAFEN (nabumetone) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and ... Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). (See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID ... What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? ...
... such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, viscosupplementation, and narcotics; and surgical procedures ... Traditionally, these injuries have been managed using activity modification; physical therapy; pharmacological agents, ... The Company believes that the causes of bradykinesia may be related to an inflammatory response in the body. The Companys new ... Especially in the United States - where the field has become intertwined in the politically potent anti-abortion movement - ...
An evaluation of piroxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. A multicentre trial. S Afr Med J1981;59:915-16. ... Recommended drugs for acute attacks were oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral colchicine (ES = 0.87 (95% ... specifically oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for acute gout) it was agreed that the final number of ... Effect of a combination therapy with losartan and anti-hyperuricemic agents on uric acid metabolism in gout patients with ...
These agents act similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and also prevent platelet aggregation. ... These agents help in repair and maintenance of cartilage and are useful in patients with osteoarthritis rather than rheumatoid ... These agents are found in high amounts in fruit and vegetables including apples, oranges, spinach, tomatoes, blueberries, ... This is caused both by medications used in the condition as well as inflammatory flare ups. Iron is essential to prevent and ...
... and ibuprofen-and an anti-epileptic drug-carbamazepine-in water samples we collected (n = 8) from the Danube. Our samples were ... Active substances detected in surface water in Hungary today include pain and anti-inflammatory agents and antiepileptics, as ... a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, the maximum concentration reached 2070 ng/L; in addition, it exceeded 100 ng/L during ... In that research, naproxen was less frequently detected among the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but it showed the ...
Do not administer concurrently with steroidal, other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or with anti-coagulant agents. ... Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the oxicam class that acts by inhibition of prostaglandin ... As a class, cyclo-oxygenase inhibitory non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as meloxicam may be associated with ... is a clear yellow sterile solution for injection of a synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ...
It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. They have analgesic, antipyretic, platelet-inhibitory properties, and anti- ... Thiocolchicoside is a semi-synthetic derivative of the colchicine, a natural anti-inflammatory glycoside which originates from ... Its believed to treat chronic inflammatory illnesses as well as a number of other health conditions. ...
  • Mefenamic acid, an anthranilic acid derivative, is a member of the fenamate group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). (pharmacycode.com)
  • Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ) may reduce the effects of Mavik. (medicinenet.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Aspirin and other NSAIDs are widely used as analgesics and the former is a preventative agent for vascular events. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Like other NSAIDs, fenoprofen is a cyclo-oxygenase (Cox-1 and -2) inhibitor that blocks the formation of prostaglandins that are important in pain and inflammatory pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Recommended drugs for acute attacks were oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral colchicine (ES = 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 1.50)), or joint aspiration and injection of corticosteroid. (bmj.com)
  • These agents act similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and also prevent platelet aggregation. (news-medical.net)
  • As a class, cyclo-oxygenase inhibitory non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as meloxicam may be associated with gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. (drugs.com)
  • Since many NSAIDs may induce gastrointestinal ulceration, concomitant use of ZELERIS ® with other anti-inflammatory drugs, such as other NSAIDs and corticosteroids, should be avoided. (drugs.com)
  • The cyclooxygenase pathway is specifically inhibited by aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). (medscape.com)
  • In this article, the role of non-opioid agents including short-course non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is discussed. (iasp-pain.org)
  • High blood pressure may be a side effect of medication, such as hormonal contraceptives and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). (harvard.edu)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are useful for preventing and relieving pain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed followed by NSAIDs/analgesics. (who.int)
  • We used this anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) insurance ( 9 ). (who.int)
  • Fenoprofen is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of acute pain and chronic arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Relafen (nabumetone) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ( NSAID ) drug used to treat inflammation and pain caused by arthritis . (rxlist.com)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including Relafen) may rarely increase the risk for a heart attack or stroke . (rxlist.com)
  • Indomethacin is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aspirin and nonsteroidal agents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nimesulide is a relatively COX-2 selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. (rcsb.org)
  • TruProfen Flavored Tab is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class that includes ibuprofen, naproxen, and ketoprofen. (drugs.com)
  • Address with patients whether to discontinue the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) agents 24--48 hours before a procedure. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Macfarlane, TV, Murchie, P & Watson, MC 2015, ' Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug prescriptions and survival after the diagnosis of head and neck and oesophageal cancer ', Cancer Epidemiology , vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1015-1022. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents should be discontinued 3 days prior to the biopsy procedure, if possible. (uclahealth.org)
  • It exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Carprofen is a non-narcotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with characteristic analgesic and antipyretic activity approximately equipotent to indomethacin in animal models. (drugs.com)
  • Carprofen has also been shown to inhibit the release of several prostaglandins in two inflammatory cell systems: rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and human rheumatoid synovial cells, indicating inhibition of acute (PMN system) and chronic (synovial cell system) inflammatory reactions. (drugs.com)
  • Prostaglandins are the chemicals that produce inflammatory response like pain, fever, swelling and tenderness. (qrxpharma.com)
  • COX-2 responds to tissue trauma and produces prostaglandins involved in the inflammatory response and pain mediation 5 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes. (bvsalud.org)
  • These include glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (lifeextension.com)
  • In summary, C. erythrocarpos has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity and these findings support the use of the extract in traditional medicine for treating inflammatory conditions. (scialert.net)
  • The mechanism of action of mesalamine (and sulfasalazine) is not fully understood, but appears to be a topical anti-inflammatory effect on colonic epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Randomized controlled trials of oral and topical nasal steroids, either alone or in combination with another agent such as an antibiotic, were included. (nih.gov)
  • Triptolide inhibits the inflammatory response of monocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients by regulating miR-155]. (curehunter.com)
  • To explore the anti-inflammatory effect of triptolide ( TPT ) by regulating miR-155 in monocytes pre-stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. (curehunter.com)
  • The aim of the study was to assess the activity of an ethanolic extract of Capparis erythrocarpos Isert roots in the carrageenan-induced foot oedema model in chicks, an acute inflammatory model and baker s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. (scialert.net)
  • The aim of our research is to detect residues of four pain-killer drugs-naproxen, nimesulide, diclofenac, and ibuprofen-and an anti-epileptic drug-carbamazepine-in water samples we collected ( n = 8) from the Danube. (mdpi.com)
  • Do not administer concurrently with steroidal, other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or with anti-coagulant agents. (drugs.com)
  • This is one of the most preferred drugs in mild to severe inflammatory conditions. (qrxpharma.com)
  • The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on pain control after open flap debridement. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, also raise the risk of colorectal cancers considerably. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • ZELERIS ® is a clear yellow sterile solution for injection of a synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. (drugs.com)
  • Ibuprofen is potent anti inflammatory drug given in various ailments as it treats mild to severe painful conditions. (qrxpharma.com)
  • Similarly, the steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg kg -1 , i.p.), completely inhibited the oedema produced dose-dependently. (scialert.net)
  • Because contrast dyes can also decrease kidney blood flow, the two agents should not be given concurrently. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Intraplantar injection of carrageenan into the footpad of the 7-day-old chick has been found to elicit a measurable, reliable and relatively short lasting state of oedema that is differentially attenuated by systemic administration of typical anti-inflammatory compounds ( Roach and Sufka, 2003 ). (scialert.net)
  • Medication which is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. (citizendium.org)
  • Alternatively, CME associated with uveitis or following cataract surgery is most likely caused by the cytokines released by activated inflammatory cells. (medscape.com)
  • Following the NK cell infusion, the patient regained consciousness, and laboratory analyses showed reduced infection-related markers, suppressed serum inflammatory cytokines, and elevated anti-tumor cytokines. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the inflammatory pathway, the enzyme phospholipase causes the release of arachidonic acid. (medscape.com)
  • Another product of arachidonic acid breakdown involves the enzyme lipoxygenase, which alternately converts arachidonic acid to leukotriene, a chemotactic agent. (medscape.com)
  • It selectively gets bind to the enzyme receptor and stops the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin (PG's) which is the precursors of inflammatory mediators. (qrxpharma.com)
  • Active substances detected in surface water in Hungary today include pain and anti-inflammatory agents and antiepileptics, as wastewater treatment mechanisms cannot remove these micropollutants. (mdpi.com)
  • It belongs to the class of COX- 2 inhibitors and stops the production of inflammatory mediators that causes pain and inflammation. (qrxpharma.com)
  • As a holistic-oriented veterinarian, I am always looking for nondrug alternatives to help our pets who suffer from many chronic inflammatory disorders, including crippling arthritis, frustrating itchy skin allergies, and inflammatory digestive disorders. (1800petmeds.com)
  • TPT suppressed the expression of miR-155 and up-regulated the release of SHIP-1, thus inhibiting the inflammatory response in the LPS-stimulated monocytes of RA patients. (curehunter.com)
  • Prescription therapies are often used to support healthy uric acid levels, a healthy inflammatory response and patient comfort. (lifeextension.com)
  • The office visit rate in exaggerated broncho-constrictor the Northeast was almost 2.5 times that in the South, although the prevalence of response to many physical changes and chemical and pharmacologic agents. (cdc.gov)
  • An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES , which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE . (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of COX-1 is thought to be associated with gastrointestinal and renal toxicity while inhibition of COX-2 provides anti-inflammatory activity. (drugs.com)
  • In patients at increased risk for CIN, use contrast agents with lower osmolarity, and in the smallest possible quantities. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This study therefore was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of the extract in carrageenan-induced foot oedema in chicks. (scialert.net)
  • The exact role of leukotriene in CME remains unclear, and, currently, no lipoxygenase specific blocking agents are approved for use in the treatment of CME. (medscape.com)
  • Anti-inflammatory agents may be helpful in the treatment of gout flares. (lifeextension.com)
  • With its powerful natural steroidal saponins, the anti inflammatory effects for skin, digestive and joint disorders has led to remarkable results in treating these conditions. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Anticancer agents based on natural product models / edited by John M. Cassady, John D. Douros. (who.int)
  • Conclusions --The patient populations receiving care for asthma vary (anti-inflammatory agents) or open the depending on the ambulatory care setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Contrast agents with lower osmolarity are less dense and, therefore, less likely to interfere with blood flow to the kidneys. (sciencedaily.com)