A name originally applied to a group of skin diseases characterized by the formation of fine, branny scales, but now used only with a modifier. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998. (1/6962)

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans. (2/6962)

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (3/6962)

The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (4/6962)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Prediction of the effects of inoculum size on the antimicrobial action of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in an in vitro dynamic model. (5/6962)

The effect of inoculum size (N0) on antimicrobial action has not been extensively studied in in vitro dynamic models. To investigate this effect and its predictability, killing and regrowth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli exposed to monoexponentially decreasing concentrations of trovafloxacin (as a single dose) and ciprofloxacin (two doses at a 12-h interval) were compared at N0 = 10(6) and 10(9) CFU/ml (S. aureus) and at N0 = 10(6), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU/ml (E. coli). A series of pharmacokinetic profiles of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin with respective half-lives of 9.2 and 4 h were simulated at different ratios of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to MIC (in [micrograms x hours/milliliter]/[micrograms/milliliter]): 58 to 466 with trovafloxacin and 116 to 932 with ciprofloxacin for S. aureus and 58 to 233 and 116 to 466 for E. coli, respectively. Although the effect of N0 was more pronounced for E. coli than for S. aureus, only a minor increase in minimum numbers of surviving bacteria and an almost negligible delay in their regrowth were associated with an increase of the N0 for both organisms. The N0-induced reductions of the intensity of the antimicrobial effect (IE, area between control growth and the killing-regrowth curves) were also relatively small. However, the N0 effect could not be eliminated either by simple shifting of the time-kill curves obtained at higher N0s by the difference between the higher and lowest N0 or by operating with IEs determined within the N0-adopted upper limits of bacterial numbers (IE's). By using multivariate correlation and regression analyses, linear relationships between IE and log AUC/MIC and log N0 related to the respective mean values [(log AUC/MIC)average and (log N0)average] were established for both trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against each of the strains (r2 = 0.97 to 0.99). The antimicrobial effect may be accurately predicted at a given AUC/MIC of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin and at a given N0 based on the relationship IE = a + b [(log AUC/MIC)/(log AUC/MIC)average] - c [(log N0)/(log N0)average]. Moreover, the relative impacts of AUC/MIC and N0 on IE may be evaluated. Since the c/b ratios for trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against E. coli were much lower (0.3 to 0.4) than that for ampicillin-sulbactam as examined previously (1.9), the inoculum effect with the quinolones may be much less pronounced than with the beta-lactams. The described approach to the analysis of the inoculum effect in in vitro dynamic models might be useful in studies with other antibiotic classes.  (+info)

In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves. (6/6962)

The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diary calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the result of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors.  (+info)

Influences of urinary pH on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in humans and antimicrobial activity in vitro versus those of sparfloxacin. (7/6962)

The impact of acidification and alkalinization of urine on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was investigated after single 200-mg oral doses were administered to nine healthy male volunteers. In addition, the effect of human urine on the MICs of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against some common urinary tract pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Acidic and alkaline conditions were achieved by repeated oral doses of ammonium chloride or sodium bicarbonate, respectively. Plasma ciprofloxacin levels in all subjects were adequately described in terms of two-compartment model kinetics with first-order absorption. Acidification and alkalinization treatments had no effect on ciprofloxacin absorption, distribution, or elimination. The total amount of unchanged ciprofloxacin excreted over 24 h under acidic conditions was 88.4 +/- 14.5 mg (mean +/- standard deviation) (44.2% of the oral dose) and 82.4 +/- 16.5 mg (41.2% of the oral dose) under alkaline conditions, while the total amount of unchanged drug excreted over 24 h in volunteers receiving neither sodium bicarbonate nor ammonium chloride was 90.53 +/- 9.8 mg (45.2% of the oral dose). The mean renal clearance of ciprofloxacin was 16.78 +/- 2.67, 16.08 +/- 3.2, and 16.31 +/- 2.67 liters/h with acidification, alkalinization, and control, respectively. Renal clearance and concentrations of ciprofloxacin in urine were not correlated with urinary pH. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against E. coli NIHJ JC-2 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was affected by human urine and in particular by its pH. The activities of both quinolones against E. coli NIHJ JC-2 were lower at lower urinary pH and rather uniform, while in the case of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 ciprofloxacin was more active than sparfloxacin.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa topoisomerase IV. (8/6962)

The topoisomerase IV subunit A gene, parC homolog, has been cloned and sequenced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, with cDNA encoding the N-terminal region of Escherichia coli parC used as a probe. The homolog and its upstream gene were presumed to be parC and parE through sequence homology with the parC and parE genes of other organisms. The deduced amino acid sequence of ParC and ParE showed 33 and 32% identity with that of the P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase subunits, GyrA and GyrB, respectively, and 69 and 75% identity with that of E. coli ParC and ParE, respectively. The putative ParC and ParE proteins were overexpressed and separately purified by use of a fusion system with a maltose-binding protein, and their enzymatic properties were examined. The reconstituted enzyme had ATP-dependent decatenation activity, which is the main catalytic activity of bacterial topoisomerase IV, and relaxing activities but had no supercoiling activity. So, the cloned genes were identified as P. aeruginosa topoisomerase IV genes. The inhibitory effects of quinolones on the activities of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase were compared. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of quinolones for the decatenation activity of topoisomerase IV were from five to eight times higher than those for the supercoiling activities of P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase. These results confirmed that topoisomerase IV is less sensitive to fluoroquinolones than is DNA gyrase and may be a secondary target of new quinolones in wild-type P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Pityriasis is a general term used to describe a group of skin conditions characterized by scaling. It includes several specific types, the most common being Pityriasis rosea and Pityriasis simplex capillitii (also known as dandruff).

1. Pityriasis rosea: This is a temporary skin rash that often begins with a single, round, scaly patch on the chest, abdomen, or back. A few days to weeks later, more patches appear. These patches are oval and scaly, and they may be pink, red, or tan. The rash usually lasts about 6-8 weeks.

2. Pityriasis simplex capillitii: This is a very common condition characterized by flaking or scaling of the scalp, which is often referred to as dandruff.

The term "pityriasis" comes from the Greek word "pitýrios," which means "bran."

Anti-Infective Agents. 18 (3): 233-238. doi:10.2174/2211352517666190531110829. S2CID 191139942. "What Is E. Coli?". WebMD. ...
... combining nanoparticles with antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents". Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. 9 (11): 1035 ...
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Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (1): 49-56. doi:10.2174/187152107779314179. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (1): 49-56. doi:10.2174/187152107779314179. Archived (PDF) from the original on ... The earlier-generation agents are, in general, more narrow-spectrum than the later ones, but no standard is employed to ... It has been recommended that fluoroquinolones not be used as a first-line agent for community-acquired pneumonia, instead ...
... a new broad spectrum antiparasitic agent". Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. 2 (1): 43-49. doi:10.1586/14787210.2.1.43. ... The anti-protozoal activity of nitazoxanide is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase ( ... Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a main compound of a class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compounds named thiazolides. It is composed ... Rossignol JF, La Frazia S, Chiappa L, Ciucci A, Santoro MG (October 2009). "Thiazolides, a new class of anti-influenza ...
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Lee, V. J. (2007-01-01), Taylor, John B.; Triggle, David J. (eds.), "7.22 - Anti-Gram Positive Agents of Natural Product ... Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. 4 (6): 939-945. doi:10.1586/14787210.4.6.939. PMID 17181409. S2CID 12881565. ... Fulco P, Wenzel RP (December 2006). "Ramoplanin: a topical lipoglycodepsipeptide antibacterial agent". ...
... an antifungal agent for the topical treatment of superficial candidiasis". Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. 11 (4): 347 ... Amphotericin B has been replaced by safer agents in most circumstances, but is still used, despite its side effects, for life- ... The "azole" class of antifungal agents inhibit the enzyme that performs these demethylation steps in the biosynthetic pathway ...
"Minor groove binders as anti-infective agents". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 139 (1): 12-23. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.03. ... Derivates from distamycin are used as alkylating antineoplastic agents to combat tumours. Derivates with fluorophores are used ... "Hybrid molecules between distamycin a and active moieties of antitumor agents". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 15 (1): 17-35 ...
"Progress Towards Host-Directed Anti-Infective Agents , Department of Chemistry , Columbian College of Arts & Sciences , The ... His research looks to develop antibacterial agents and technologies for bioenergy. In 2020, he was named by Cell Press as one ... At MIT, he worked with Robert T. Sauer on antibacterial agents that can impede protein turnover in bacteria. Sello has ...
Padberg S (2014-09-17). "Anti-infective agents: Nitrofurans and drugs for urinary infection". In Schaefer C, Peters PW, Miller ... Antiprotozoal agents, Chagas disease, Bayer brands, Hydrazones, Nitrofurans, Sulfones, Thiomorpholines, World Health ...
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 17 (1): 51-56. doi:10.1080/14787210.2018.1555241. PMC 6376865. PMID 30501436. ( ... "Oxfendazole". Gonzalez AE, Codd EE, Horton J, Garcia HH, Gilman RH (January 2019). "Oxfendazole: a promising agent for the ...
Wuthiekanun V, Peacock SJ (June 2006). "Management of melioidosis". Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 4 (3): 445-55. doi ... The CDC classifies it as a "Tier 1 select agent" with potential as a bioterrorism agent. It infects other animals, most ... Agents Chemother. 54 (8): 3113-20. doi:10.1128/AAC.01803-09. PMC 2916348. PMID 20498323. Baker, Sarah M.; Settles, Erik W.; ... Norris MH, Kang Y, Lu D, Wilcox BA, Hoang TT (2009). "Glyphosate resistance as a novel select-agent-compliant, non-antibiotic- ...
O'Keeffe J, Doyle S, Kavanagh K (December 2003). "Exposure of the yeast Candida albicans to the anti-neoplastic agent ... den Boer M, Davidson RN (April 2006). "Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis". Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. ... Neuromuscular-blocking agents: Amphorectin B-induced hypokalemia may potentiate the effects of certain paralytic agents. ... This is amphotericin B's primary effect as an antifungal agent. It has been found that the amphotericin B/ergosterol ...
Panipenem/betamipron Finch RG (2003). Antibiotic and chemotherapy: anti-infective agents and their use in therapy. Elsevier ...
When infection attacks the body, anti-infective drugs can suppress the infection. Several broad types of anti-infective drugs ... First, the catalog of infectious agents has grown to the point that virtually all of the significant infectious agents of the ... Second, an infectious agent must grow within the human body to cause disease; essentially it must amplify its own nucleic acids ... Not all infectious agents cause disease in all hosts. For example, less than 5% of individuals infected with polio develop ...
v t e (Anti-infective agents, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... Guadinomines are anti-infective compounds produced by Streptomyces sp. K01-0509. Guadinomine B is the most potent known ...
Gibbons S (January 2005). "Plants as a source of bacterial resistance modulators and anti-infective agents". Phytochemistry ... "Computational modelling of some phenolic diterpenoid compounds as anti-influenza A virus agents". Scientific African. 19: ... anti-acne, pimple patches, face cream, eye cream, sun screen, deodorants, face mists, facial wash, anti-wrinkle, restorative ... Totarol's anti-cancer activity is hypothesized to be due to the natural product's ability to form an o-quinone methide in vivo ...
"Harnessing calcineurin as a novel anti-infective agent against invasive fungal infections". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 5 (6 ...
A course of oral antibiotics or anti-infective agents will be prescribed. Additionally, a urinary analgesic such as ... An IV antibiotic or other anti-infective medication is administered in conjunction with intravenous normal saline, and allowed ... In some cases, usually where longer strictures are present, a rapidly metabolized hypnotic agent such as propofol may be ... and the urinary meatus is cleansed with an appropriate surgical cleansing agent (scrub), usually containing Povidone-iodine, ...
"Issues in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-infective agents: distribution in tissue". Antimicrobial Agents and ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 42 (10): 2626-9. doi:10.1128/aac.42.10.2626. PMC 105908. PMID 9756766. Müller M, dela ...
ATC code A07 Antidiarrheals, intestinal anti-inflammatory/anti-infective agents Mutschler, Ernst; Schäfer-Korting, Monika (2001 ... An anti-diarrhoeal drug (or anti-diarrheal drug in American English) is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for ... Absorbents absorb toxic substances that cause infective diarrhoea, methylcellulose is an absorbent. Anti-inflammatory compounds ... Bulking agents like methylcellulose, guar gum or plant fibre (bran, sterculia, isabgol, etc.) are used for diarrhoea in ...
Antibiotic and chemotherapy anti-infective agents and their use in therapy (9th ed.). Edinburgh: Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0- ... Kominek, L. A. (1 February 1972). "Biosynthesis of Novobiocin by Streptomyces niveus". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 1 ...
"The MEP pathway and the Development of Inhibitors as Potential Anti-Infective Agents". Med. Chem. Commun. 3 (4): 418-433. doi: ...
Niedner R (1997). "Cytotoxicity and sensitization of povidone-iodine and other frequently used anti-infective agents". ... This agent exhibits a broad range of microbiocidal activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Slow release of ... They carried out tests in vitro to demonstrate anti-bacterial activity, and found that the complex was less toxic in mice than ... Kutscher, Bernhard (2020). "Dermatologicals (D), 4. Antiseptics and Disinfectants (D08), Anti‐Acne Preparations (D10), and ...
Antibiotic and chemotherapy anti-infective agents and their use in therapy (9th ed.). Edinburgh: Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0- ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 44 (3): 647-650. doi:10.1128/AAC.44.3.647-650.2000. PMC 89740. PMID 10681332. Hidaka, ...
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. 17 (3): 159-168. doi:10.1080/14787210.2019.1573671. hdl:2445/130535. PMID 30686133. ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 57 (12): 6389-6392. doi:10.1128/AAC.01509-13. PMC 3837899. PMID 24080666. Vila J, Hebert ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Antifungals, Anti-infective agents, British inventions). ... Oliver, J.; Law, D.; Sibley, G.; Kennedy, A.; Birch, M. "F901318, a Novel Antifungal Agent from the Orotomide Class: Discovery ... Birch, Michael (19 September 2015). "The antifungal activity of F901318, a new antifungal agent from the novel orotomide class ... The discovery was formally announced at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) 55th ...
In medicine, hexachlorophene is useful as a topical anti-infective and anti-bacterial agent. It is also used in agriculture as ...
Anti-Infective Agents covers pre-clinical and clinical research on antimicrobials, antibacterials, antiviral, antifungal, and ... Anti-Infective Agents. (Formerly as Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry) ISSN (Print): 2211-3525. ISSN (Online): 2211- ...
Anti-Infective Agents covers pre-clinical and clinical research on antimicrobials, antibacterials, antiviral, antifungal, and ... Anti-Infective Agents. (Formerly as Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry) ISSN (Print): 2211-3525. ISSN (Online): 2211- ...
Anti-Infective Agents covers pre-clinical and clinical research on antimicrobials, antibacterials, antiviral, antifungal, and ... Anti-Infective Agents. (Formerly as Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry) ISSN (Print): 2211-3525. ISSN (Online): 2211- ...
Frontiers in Anti-infective Agents. Volume: 6. Editor(s) : Parvesh Singh, Vipan Kumar, Rajshekhar Karpoormath. DOI: 10.2174/ ...
Anti-Infective Agents covers pre-clinical and clinical research on antimicrobials, antibacterials, antiviral, antifungal, and ... Anti-Infective Agents. (Formerly as Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry) ISSN (Print): 2211-3525. ISSN (Online): 2211- ...
Frontiers in Anti-infective Agents. Pregnancy and Anti-Infective Agents. Volume: 4. Editor(s) : Ricardo Ney Cobucci. DOI: ... Anti-Infective Agents for Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy Page: 141-150 (10). Author: Igor Thiago Queiroz* and Carolina A. D. Santos ... Anti-Infective Agents for HIV in Pregnancy Page: 110-131 (22). Author: Igor Thiago Queiroz*, Themis Rocha Souza, Juliana ... Anti-infective Agents for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pregnancy Page: 88-109 (22). Author: Ana Paula Costa*, Ayane ...
Series Title: Frontiers in Anti-Infective Agents. Current Perspectives on Anti-Infective Agents Volume 1. eBook: US $129 ... Another important group of anti-infective agents such as Bioactive Peptides are also being synthesized in by enzymatic ... Excessive use of antibiotics and other anti-infective agents has resulted in disease-resistant Superbugs such as Methicillin ... have been extracted from medicinal plants and these anti-infective agents have shown promising results clinically against ...
In this review, we aimed to summarise the factors influencing the pharmacokinetics of the anti-infective agents. We have ... Understanding the pharmacokinetics of the anti-infectives used in clinical practice is essential for a correct application. The ... of the preclinical pharmacokinetic parameters obtained in different studies of intravitreal injections of anti-infectives ... Although intravitreal administration of anti-infectives represents the standard treatment for infectious endophthalmitis, the ...
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Immune modulation by infectious agents / edited by Wolfgang Zschiesche ; with contributions by J. Denner ... [et al.] by ... Practical guide to antimicrobial agents / Michael Ginsberg, Ira Tager. by Ginsberg, Michael , Tager, Ira. ...
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Anti-Infective Agents. 18 (3): 233-238. doi:10.2174/2211352517666190531110829. S2CID 191139942. "What Is E. Coli?". WebMD. ...
Anti-infective agents. *Drugs to treat neurologic disorders. *Radiation sensitizers and protectors ...
Anti-Infective Agents / adverse effects * Anti-Obesity Agents / adverse effects * Antiviral Agents / adverse effects ...
Anti-Infective Agents. Antibacterial Agents. Quinolones. Fluoroquinolones. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database ... long-term follow-up of 6 children with intrauterine exposure to second-line agents. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:1689-92. [PubMed: ...
Anti-Infective Agents *Print: 2211-3525. *Electronic: 2211-3533. ISSN Journal Type ...
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Anti-Infective. *Anti-Emetics. *Monoclonal Antibodies. *Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents. *Opioid Analgesics. *Bisphosphonates ... Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents segment held dominant position in the global cancer supportive care products market in 2019, ...
Anti-Alzheimer. 4.9. 76.9. 8.8. 87.2. Anti-Infective Agents. 63.5. 38.6. 50.8. 40.5. ... Anti-Cancer Agents. 4.0. 65.0. 2.8*. 76.3. SOURCE: Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, Institutional Drug File, 1998.* ... 47%). Anti-infective use was also higher in nursing homes than in assisted living facilities (64% vs. 51%), in particular, use ... 47%). Anti-infective use is also higher in nursing homes than in assisted living facilities (64% vs. 51%), in particular, ...
Anti-infective treatment is as follows:. * Infections should be treated early with full doses of antimicrobial agents ... A major component of medical care is anti-infective and prevention of further infectious episodes by regular infusion of human ... Antiviral agents may be useful in some patients with persistent or severe viral infections ... A selective antagonist of PKAI induces a significant increase in anti-CD3-stimulated proliferative responses, particularly in ...
Synthesis of anti-infective agents. *Treatment of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, or PFAS ...
  • Increased mortality rates, nosocomial infections, and reduced drug availability against such resistance organisms have generated an urgency for new antimicrobial agents. (benthambooks.com)
  • The pooled mean proportions of pathogenic isolates interpreted as resistant to selected antimicrobial agents were calculated by type of HAI and overall. (cdc.gov)
  • The pooled mean proportion of pathogenic isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents varied significantly across types of HAI for some pathogen-antimicrobial combinations. (cdc.gov)
  • Antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed followed by NSAIDs/analgesics. (who.int)
  • Amoxicillin alone or in combination was the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents followed by cefuroxime. (who.int)
  • The misuse of antimicrobial agents Study setting and sample tibacterial agents prescribed in each has led to a rise in the number This study was carried out in the surgi- surgical department. (who.int)
  • Chapters of this volume focus on the pathogenesis and etiology of each of the mentioned diseases, updated WHO reports wherever applicable, conventional drugs and their pharmacokinetics as well as new approaches to develop anti-infective agents. (benthambooks.com)
  • Ricardo Ney Cobucci , " Frontiers in Anti-infective Agents ", Bentham Science Publishers (2020). (eurekaselect.com)
  • Because of the relatively common occurrence of some infections during pregnancy, there is a great importance of studying them, therefore, knowing the classification of the drugs and identifying which agents are safe during pregnancy will both be discussed in this chapter. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This drug is also a second-generation cephalosporin that is indicated as single agent for the management of infections caused by susceptible gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rods. (medscape.com)
  • Anti-infectives are medicines that work to prevent or treat infections , they include antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitic medications. (onlinemedexport.com)
  • This chapter aims to discuss the anti-infective agents to broaden the understanding of the fundamental concepts, practical applications of the drugs prescribed and the necessary care for pregnant women. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This volume is essential for general readers, healthcare professionals, researchers, and academicians actively involved in research on infectious diseases and anti-infective therapeutic drugs. (benthambooks.com)
  • Cardiovascular Drugs / Antilipemic Agents / HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (i.e. (tevausa.com)
  • Due to fluid retention properties of NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), the effect of diuretics may be reduced, and increased dosage of diuretics may be needed. (ratguide.com)
  • ll human pathogens, including bacterial pathogens and malaria parasites, with the ultimate objective of developing potential therapeutic agents. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The Surgical Infection Society recommends starting prophylactic antibiotics before surgery, using appropriate spectrum agents for less than 24 hours for nonperforated appendicitis and for less than 5 days for perforated appendicitis. (medscape.com)
  • However, in this period, physiological changes take place that make the woman more vulnerable to infectious agents. (eurekaselect.com)
  • A major component of medical care is anti-infective and prevention of further infectious episodes by regular infusion of human immunoglobulin and antimicrobial therapy. (medscape.com)
  • When used as a single agent, it inhibits biosynthesis of cell wall mucopeptide and is effective during active multiplication stages. (medscape.com)
  • Nitrofurazone is a topical antibacterial agent indicated as an adjunctive therapy for second and third degree burns when resistance to other agents is a real or potential problem. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Combination of white tea and peppermint demonstrated synergistic antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • ABSTRACT This study compared the utilization and cost of antibacterial agents in surgical units of 2 government hospitals in Palestine. (who.int)
  • The total consumption of antibacterial agents was 414.1 DDD and 591.5 DDD at Thabet and Rafidia hospitals respectively. (who.int)
  • 1. Name some common pathogens that are responsible for causing infective conjunctivitis. (collegepaper.us)
  • An infection is the invasion of tissues by pathogens , their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agent and the toxins they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pentamidine is an anti-infective agent that helps to treat or prevent pneumonia caused by the organism Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii). (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is used as a single agent and interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis during active replication, causing bactericidal activity against susceptible organisms. (medscape.com)
  • The plant-mediated nano-sized cubic and spherical anatase TiO 2 -NPs encapsulated bioactive green elements, such as carbon, sodium, magnesium, chlorine, potassium, calcium and sulphur, from the C . gigantea extract, ultimately leading to versatile and eco-friendly bactericidal agents with wound-healing properties. (researchsquare.com)
  • Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used for gram-negative coverage, as well as in combination with an agent against gram-positive organisms and another one against anaerobes. (medscape.com)
  • Collaborations are in place with the School of Public Health to explore mechanisms of anti-viral immunity in influenza and COVID-19. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Medicinal plants have proven to play an important role in generating anti-malarial medications. (benthambooks.com)
  • Antimalarials such as quinone, artemesinin, etc . have been extracted from medicinal plants and these anti-infective agents have shown promising results clinically against malaria. (benthambooks.com)
  • Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Infective Agents. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Our strategies for creating new anti-infective agents involve interdisciplinary research in the continuum of organic, biological and medicinal chemistry. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Fusion inhibitors, pharmacokinetic enhancers, fixed dose anti-retrovirals, and combination therapy are new promising anti-infective agents. (benthambooks.com)
  • La consommation et le coût des médicaments dans les services ont été estimés sur une période d'un mois en 2010 à l'aide du système de classification anatomique, thérapeutique et chimique et des doses thérapeutiques quotidiennes calculées pour 100 jours-patient. (who.int)
  • La consommation totale des agents antibactériens était de 414,1 doses thérapeutiques quotidiennes dans l'hôpital de Thabet et de 591,5 doses thérapeutiques quotidiennes dans l'hôpital de Rafidia. (who.int)
  • Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents segment held dominant position in the global cancer supportive care products market in 2019, accounting for 24.7% share in terms of value, increasing research and development along with product approvals is expected to assist the segment growth during the forecast period. (medgadget.com)
  • This agent is a drug combination of beta-lactamase inhibitor with piperacillin. (medscape.com)
  • These agents work by binding to the 30S ribosome, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • Agents under consideration must offer full aerobic and anaerobic coverage. (medscape.com)
  • A synthetic nonsteroidal drug that is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic. (ratguide.com)
  • To assess the effect of adding zinc oxide nanoparticles to dental adhesives on their anti-microbial and bond strength properties. (bvsalud.org)
  • Incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles into dental adhesives increases their anti-microbial properties without affecting their bond strength. (bvsalud.org)
  • Abad M.J., Luis M.B., and Bermejo P., (2008) Natural marine anti-inflammatory Product. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Many natural sources are also under investigation for extracting new anti-microbial agents. (benthambooks.com)