Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.p-Azobenzenearsonate: A hapten capable of eliciting both antibody formation and delayed hypersensitivity when bound to aromatic amino acids, polypeptides or proteins. It is used as an immunologic research tool.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Iodine Isotopes: Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Azo CompoundsT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Inbred AHemocyaninImmunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Macroglobulins: Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Cryoglobulins: Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Paraproteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins synthesized by atypical cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Paraproteins containing only light chains lead to Bence Jones paraproteinemia, while the presence of only atypical heavy chains leads to heavy chain disease. Most of the paraproteins show themselves as an M-component (monoclonal gammopathy) in electrophoresis. Diclonal and polyclonal paraproteins are much less frequently encountered.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.NitrophenolsReceptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diazonium CompoundsLymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred C57BLBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred C3HSuppressor Factors, Immunologic: Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Mice, Inbred CBAAntibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Graft vs Host Reaction: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Ronald C. Kennedy
Chang Yi Wang
T cell anti-idiotypic antibodies reveal differences between two human leukemias. J Exp Med 1984; 160:499. 47. Posnett DN, Wang ... by human T cell lines and peripheral blood T lymphocytes stimulated by PMA and anti-CD3 antibody Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. ... Anti-HCV, anti-GOR, and autoimmunity. Lancet 1992, 339:871. 26. Hosein B, Fang CT, Popvsky MA, Ye J, Zhang M and Wang, CY. ... monoclonal antibody S-HCL1 and S-HCL3 allow the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia. Blood 1985; 65:974. 42. Bushkin Y, Chorney MJ ...
This includes anti-VAP antibodies, receptor anti-idiotypic antibodies, extraneous receptor and synthetic receptor mimics. This ... This may include VAP anti-idiotypic antibodies, natural ligands of the receptor and anti-receptor antibodies.[clarification ... and since the process of generating anti-idiotypic antibodies is partly trial and error, it can be a relatively slow process ... One anti-viral strategy is to interfere with the ability of a virus to infiltrate a target cell. The virus must go through a ...
... yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic antibodies". The Journal of Immunology. 152 (6): 3175-82. PMID 8144911. Lowes, K. F.; ... Several experiments suggest that antibodies that mimic the biological activity of killer toxins have application as antifungal ... "Therapeutic potential of yeast killer toxin-like antibodies and mimotopes". FEMS Yeast Research. 5 (1): 11-8. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Idiotypic intravaginal vaccination to protect against candidal vaginitis by secretory, ...
... "anti-idiotypic antibody". If such is the case, the anti-idiotypic antibodies will be able to bind to the B lymphocyte receptor ... Ladjemi MZ (2012). "Anti-idiotypic antibodies as cancer vaccines: achievements and future improvements". Front Oncol. 2: 158. ... Because of the resemblance of anti-idiotypic antibodies to the original antigen, vaccine studies have been performed. These ... If a separate antibody is produced that has specific binding capabilities to an idiotope of the previously described antibody, ...
Jorgensen, T.; Gaudernack, G.; Hannestad, K. (1977). "Production of BALB/c Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Against the BALB/c Myeloma ... He further generated monoclonal antibodies specific for the hematopoietic stem cell marker, CD34. A joint collaboration with ... and generated monocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies (ID5) in hybridomas. Inspired by his research and without being ... Hospital and Baxter resulted in development of an instrument to isolate hematopoietic stem cells in large scale using anti-CD34 ...
This property is exploited by the immune system in regulation by anti-idiotypic antibodies (originally proposed by Nobel ... If this second antibody is of IgM class, its binding can upregulate the immune response; if the second antibody is of IgG class ... For example, the epitope is the specific piece of the antigen to which an antibody binds. The part of an antibody that binds to ... Following synthesis, the resulting epitope tag allows the antibody to find the protein or other gene product enabling lab ...
List of cocaine analogues
... analysis of the specificity of anticocaine antibodies (Ab1) capable of inducing Ab2beta anti-idiotypic antibodies". Immunology ... "Inhibition of cocaine binding to the human dopamine transporter by a single chain anti-idiotypic antibody: its cloning, ... Schabacker, DS; Kirschbaum, KS; Segre, M (2000). "Exploring the feasibility of an anti-idiotypic cocaine vaccine: ... Catalytic antibodies against cocaine and methods of using and producing same Google patents US 6566084 B1 Deng, Shixian; Bharat ...
Regulating the isotypic and idiotypic profile of an anti-PC antibody response: lessons from peptide mimics. Mol. Immunol. 39: ... She identified the first idiotype marker on anti-DNA antibodies in patients with lupus, and discovered that anti-DNA antibodies ... single base change in a protective anti-pneumococcal antibody could convert it into a potentially pathogenic anti-DNA antibody ... She also found that a peptide that binds to 50% of anti-DNA antibodies in lupus patients and mice represents an epitope on ...
2011). Anti-NeuGcGM3 antibodies actively elicited by idiotypic vaccination in non-small cell lung cáncer patients induce tumor ... Racotumomab is an anti-idiotypic mouse monoclonal antibody that mimics NGc gangliosides, thus triggering an immune response ... 2002). An anti idiotype vaccine elicits a specific response to N-glycolylsialic acid residues of glycoconjugates in melanoma ... 2012). Racotumomab: an anti-idiotype vaccine related to N-glycolyl-containing gangliosides - preclinical and clinical data. ...
Immune network theory
"Selection of human anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies occurs within the context of a frozen 1F7-idiotypic repertoire". ... and B anti-anti-B (antiidiotypic) antibodies. The former stimulate anti-anti-B T cells and the latter stimulate anti-B T cells ... In the model IgG molecules are selected to have both anti-anti-(self MHC class II) and anti-anti-anti-(self MHC class II) ... of lymphocytes defined by co-selection of both anti-C and anti-anti-C lymphocytes and co-selection of anti-B and anti-anti-B ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ... hiv antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.518.104.22.168.500 - htlv-i antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.522.214.171.124.510 - htlv-ii ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
... antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.071 -- antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.089 -- antibodies, ... antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.107 -- antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.125 -- ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.179 -- antibodies, ... antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.167 -- antibodies, catalytic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.179 -- antibodies, ...
Matched antibody pairs Anti-idiotypic Antibodies HBV Core Antigen Antibody Isotyping Kits Protein Antigen Expression Service ... The initial business is antibody-monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Later, various kinds of antibody, viral antigens, ... "The Way We Take Care of Antibody Purification". APSence. Retrieved December 16, 2014. "Molecular detection of hepatitis B virus ... Creative Diagnostics is an American biotechnology company that specializes in research and manufacture of antibodies, viral ...
Artificial immune system
... network theory proposed by Niels Kaj Jerne that describes the regulation of the immune system by anti-idiotypic antibodies ( ... antibodies that select for other antibodies). This class of algorithms focus on the network graph structures involved where ... antibodies (or antibody producing cells) represent the nodes and the training algorithm involves growing or pruning edges ... Immune Network Algorithms: Algorithms inspired by the idiotypic ... where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody ...
K. Christopher Garcia
... hormone recognition by an anti-idiotypic antibody, Science (1992) An αβ T Cell Receptor Structure at 2.5 Å and Its Orientation ... At Stanford University, Garcia has continued to study antigen recognition by both antibodies and TCRs. The Garcia Laboratory ... Engineered SIRPα variants as immunotherapeutic adjuvants to anticancer antibodies, Science (2013) Durable antitumor responses ... earliest research as a graduate student at Johns Hopkins University used X-ray crystallography to determine how antibodies ...
The anti-idiotypic antibody abagovomab in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. A phase I trial of the AGO-OVAR. Ann Oncol. ... Abagovomab is a mouse anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody whose variable epitope mirrors a tumour antigen (CA-125) highly ... Immunological consolidation of ovarian carcinoma recurrences with monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody ACA125: immune responses ... "Medical News: ESGO: Anti-CA125 Fails to Slow Ovarian Cancer - in Meeting Coverage, ESGO from". MedPage Today. Retrieved 2011-09 ...
An example of anti-idiotype antibody is Racotumomab. In one example of producing an anti-idiotypic vaccine, antibodies that ... "anti-idiotypic". The resulting murine antibodies are harvested and used to vaccinate other mice. The resulting antibodies in ... Because the antibody produced using the "anti-idiotypic" process closely resembles the original epitope of the antigen, these ... Anti-idiotypic vaccines comprise antibodies that have three-dimensional immunogenic regions, designated idiotopes, that consist ...
John H. Sampson
Generation of anti-idiotypic reagents in the EGFRvIII tumor-associated antigen system. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. 2002; ... The first is novel mechanisms of delivery of large molecular weight molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies, throughout brain ... Approaches used to target this tumor-specific epitope include unarmed and radiolabeled antibody therapy and cell mediated ... Phase II trial of murine (131)I-labeled antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 administered into surgically created resection ...
Germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
"Therapy of B-cell lymphoma with anti-CD20 antibodies can result in the loss of CD20 antigen expression". Clinical Cancer ... Clonal B-cells spontaneously mutate the idiotypic region of their immunoglobulin. This high mutation rate makes them prone to ... Anti-apoptotic proteins include Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-w, Mcl-1. When anti-apoptotic family members are overexpressed, apoptotic ... Monoclonal antibodies are made by injecting human cancer cells into mice so that their immune systems create antibodies against ...
In most cases, an adapted antibody can only react to and bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may ... autologous and idiotypic or allogenic (homologous) antigens. An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and ... "anti(body)-gen". Epitope - The distinct surface features of an antigen, its antigenic determinant. Antigenic molecules, ... Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. Each antibody (immune response) is specifically produced by the immune system to match ...
Patente US4925787 - Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, method for production thereof, and ... - Google Patentes
... and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent ... monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody specific to ... a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody ... propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, ...
anti-idiotypic antibodies - Everything2.com
... anti-idiotypic antibodies. To keep things running along smoothly, the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies is automatic, ... I dont know what exactly the anti-idiotypic antibodies do with/to the antibodies to get rid of the extra antibodies. I dont ... anti-idiotypic antibodies actually means (I know I do). Well, it turns out that an idiotypic antibody is "immunologically ... You can also get cool things like anti-anti-idiotype antibodies. (Just read anti- as meta- and youll get the idea). ...
Order the anti-idiotypic antibodies you need and more today! ... ProSci is a leading provider of anti-idiotypic antibody ... Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies. The Antibody Variable Region. The idiotypic region of an antibody is defined as the unique set of ... These antibodies are known as anti-idiotypic antibodies and are particularly useful in their ability to specifically bind one ... Applications of Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies. The human or humanized nature of the majority of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies ...
B-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-Antibody
This antibody is able to induce an anti-idiotypic IgG response and B-T idiotypic cascade, even in the absence of any adjuvant ... B-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-Antibody. Darel Martínez,1 Amaury Pupo,2 Lianet ... Both humoral and CTL anti-idiotypic responses could be mechanisms to protect against the self-reactive antibody, contributing ... Interestingly, transfer of both B-1a and B-2 to BALB/Xid mice was required to recover anti-P3 IgG response in this model. In ...
B-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-Antibody
"Syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to an anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside monoclonal antibody," Hybridoma, vol. 17 ... "Establishment and characterization of an anti-idiotypic CD4+ CD8- T cell line to murine anti-alpha(1 --, 3) dextran antibody," ... B-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-Antibody. Darel Martínez,1 Amaury Pupo,2 Lianet ... S. Oak, L. K. Gilliam, M. Landin-Olsson et al., "The lack of anti-idiotypic antibodies, not the presence of the corresponding ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20044195 - Isolation of alpaca anti-idiotypic heavy-chain single-domain antibody for the...
... are leading candidates to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies. In this work, we constructed an antibody phage library from the ... Single-domain antibodies from camlid heavy-chain antibodies with the benefit features of small size, thermostability, and ease ... Anti-idiotypic antibodies recognize the antigenic determinants of an antibody, thus they can be used as surrogate antigens. ... Anti-idiotypic antibodies recognize the antigenic determinants of an antibody, thus they can be used as surrogate antigens. ...
Creative Biolabs Launched Anti-idiotypic Antibody for Antibody Drug Studies - PharmiWeb.com
Recently, Creative Biolabs announced the anti-idiotypic antibody for pre-clinical study of therapeutic a... ... 23, 2018, Creative Biolabs, as a world-leading supplier and manufacturer in recombinant antibody (rAb) discovery, has served ... Creative Biolabs developed anti-idiotypic antibody for assisting researchers projects. Our anti-idiotypic antibody is ... What is anti-idiotypic antibody?. Antibody is a kind of recognition proteins which are mainly found in the serum and other ...
Chain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies | The Journal of Immunology
Chain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies. Asoke C. Ghose and Fred Karush ... Chain Interactions and Idiotypic Specificities of Homogeneous Rabbit Anti-Lactose Antibodies Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Functionally homogeneous fractions of rabbit anti-lactose IgG antibody have been characterized with respect to their idiotypic ... This proposal would account for the inhibition by ligands as the result of the inability of ligand and anti-idiotype antibody ...
Peptidomimics of antigen are present in variable region of heavy and light chains of anti-idiotypic antibody and function as...
Peptidomimics of antigen are present in variable region of heavy and light chains of anti-idiotypic antibody and function as ... We have sequenced the variable regions of heavy and light chains of the anti-idiotypic antibody specific to rinderpest virus ... The functional capacity of anti-idiotypic antibody derived peptides to stimulate antigen specific T cells in vitro was tested. ... Here, we show that short peptides derived from internal image sequences of anti-idiotypic antibody (peptidomimics) can function ...
Humanization Strategies for an Anti-idiotypic Antibody Mimicking HIV-1 gp41 | Molecular Devices
Idiotypic intravaginal vaccination to protect against candidal vaginitis by secretory, yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic...
... yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic antibodies.. L Polonelli, F De Bernardis, S Conti, M Boccanera, M Gerloni, G Morace, W ... yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic antibodies.. L Polonelli, F De Bernardis, S Conti, M Boccanera, M Gerloni, G Morace, W ... Idiotypic intravaginal vaccination to protect against candidal vaginitis by secretory, yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic ... Idiotypic intravaginal vaccination to protect against candidal vaginitis by secretory, yeast killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic ...
Neonatal treatment with low doses of anti-idiotypic antibody leads to the expression of a silent clone. | JEM
The activation of A48 Id+ anti-BL clones anti-A48 Id antibody is specific because the pretreatment of newborn mice with anti- ... Neonatal treatment with low doses of anti-idiotypic antibody leads to the expression of a silent clone.. J Hiernaux, C Bona, P ... Neonatal treatment with low doses of anti-idiotypic antibody leads to the expression of a silent clone. ... Moreover, pretreatment of mice with anti-A48 Id antibody does not alter the MOPC 460 Id+ component of the anti-TNP response. It ...
Specific Interference with the Determination of the Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 by Human Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Formed...
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Against Progesterone | yeda
Anti-idiotypic antibodies to anti-steroids: § 252-253 - Anti-idiotypic antibodies against anti-progesterone Description: Anti- ... Anti-idiotypic antibody raised against anti-progesterone-7- BSA.KLH conjugate (clone 2H4). Available clones: 15F11 (betatypic ... Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Against Progesterone (No. T4-252). Lead Researcher: Dr. Fortune Kohen ... idiotypic antibody raised against anti-progesterone-7- BSA.KLH conjugate (clone 2H4). Available clones: 15F11 (betatypic), 2E11 ...
DK2379601T3 - Anti-idiotypic antibody to an antibody to amyloid BETA PEPTIDE - Google Patents
Anti-idiotypic antibody to an antibody to amyloid BETA PEPTIDE - Google Patents. Anti-idiotypic antibody to an antibody to ... monoclonal anti-idiotypic anti-Αβ antibody antibody spiked in 5% human serum) have been incubated in the wells. Anti anti-Αβ ... It has been found that by using an antibody against an antibody against the amyloid β peptide (anti-anti-Αβ antibody antibody) ... or anti-idiotypic antibodies against monoclonal anti-Αβ antibody as standard are pre-incubated with monoclonal anti-Αβ antibody ...
Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus, Archives of...
"Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus, Archives of ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus. Kiyohara, ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on... Kiyohara, Tomoko; Totsuka, ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus. ...
Anti-idiotypic antibodies: Biological function and structural studies<...
... anti-idotypic antibodies, anti- ids). Some of the antibodies are directed against the binding sites of the eliciting antibodies ... anti-idotypic antibodies, anti- ids). Some of the antibodies are directed against the binding sites of the eliciting antibodies ... anti-idotypic antibodies, anti- ids). Some of the antibodies are directed against the binding sites of the eliciting antibodies ... anti-idotypic antibodies, anti- ids). Some of the antibodies are directed against the binding sites of the eliciting antibodies ...
Induction of neutralizing antibodies to papillomaviruses by anti-idiotypic antibodies<...
"Induction of neutralizing antibodies to papillomaviruses by anti-idiotypic antibodies",. abstract = "Anti-idiotypic antibodies ... Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids) were generated against three mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which neutralized three ... N2 - Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids) were generated against three mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which neutralized ... AB - Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids) were generated against three mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which neutralized ...
Clinical evidence that the human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody 105AD7, delays tumor growth by stimulating anti-tumor T...
A human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, 105AD7, which mimics a colorectal tumor associated antigen, 791Tgp72, has been ... Clinical evidence that the human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody 105AD7, delays tumor growth by stimulating anti-tumor T- ... Keywords: Human monoclonal antibody, vaccine, colorectal cancer, anti-idiotypic antibody, cellular immune responses ... Abstract: A human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, 105AD7, which mimics a colorectal tumor associated antigen, 791Tgp72, has ...
Syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to an anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside monoclonal antibody. - Semantic Scholar
The five Ab2 MAbs were injected into syngeneic mice and four of them produced strong anti-anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab3) ... When this MAb was administered alone in syngeneic mice, an specific IgG anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) response was induced, ... While these Ab2 MAbs were unable to generate Ab3 antibodies with the same antigenic specificity than P3 MAb, three of them ... induced antibodies bearing P3 MAb idiotopes (Ag-Id+ Ab3). These results demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are not internal ...
GMS | 27th German Cancer Congress Berlin 2006 | Molecular characterization of the anti-idiotypic immune response of a relapse...
The molecular origin of the anti-idiotypic antibody response in tumor patients was not investigated previously. To clone anti- ... a subset of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2beta) form an internal image of the antigen and induce antibodies (Ab3) against the ... Production of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) against ch14.18 (Ab1) in some cases was positively correlated with a more ... Surprisingly, GK8-Fab alone was able to inhibit binding of all of the patients anti-idiotypic antibodies by 80%, suggesting ...
GEN Magazine | January 2019 VOL. 39 NO. 1
Suppression of in Vitro Production of Anti‐U1‐Ribonucleoprotein Antibody by Monoclonal Anti‐Idiotypic Antibody to Anti‐U1...
Idiotypic Antibody to Anti‐U1‐Ribonucleoprotein Antibody",. abstract = "We produced monoclonal anti‐idiotypic antibody against ... T1 - Suppression of in Vitro Production of Anti‐U1‐Ribonucleoprotein Antibody by Monoclonal Anti‐Idiotypic Antibody to Anti‐U1‐ ... Suppression of in Vitro Production of Anti‐U1‐Ribonucleoprotein Antibody by Monoclonal Anti‐Idiotypic Antibody to Anti‐U1‐ ... Suppression of in Vitro Production of Anti‐U1‐Ribonucleoprotein Antibody by Monoclonal Anti‐Idiotypic Antibody to Anti‐U1‐ ...
Interaction studies between the antigen cytokeratin 8 and idiotypic-antiidiotypic monoclonal antibodies
Catalysis of ecterilysis by anti-idiotypic antibody towards acetylcholinesterase - Fingerprint - UC Davis
Why rely on a mouse for generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies? | Bio-Rad
Anti-idiotypic antibodies are critical reagents for bioanalytical assays supporting clinical evaluation of mAb drugs; choose ... Anti-idiotypic Antibodies Anti-Adalimumab Antibodies Anti-Alemtuzumab Antibodies Anti-Bevacizumab Antibodies Anti-Cetuximab ... Anti-Panitumumab Antibodies Anti-Rituximab Antibodies Anti-Tocilizumab Antibodies Anti-Trastuzumab Antibodies Anti-Ustekinumab ... Antibodies Anti-Denosumab Antibodies Anti-Etanercept Antibodies Anti-Golimumab Antibodies Anti-Infliximab Antibodies Anti- ...
Creative Biolabs Announced Anti-idiotypic Antibody to Meet Scientists' Research Needs | Massachu Settschronicle
Anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-ID antibody) is a class of antibody that specifically binds to the antigen-binding site of an ... Beyond an increasing number of our anti-ID antibody products, comprehensive anti-ID antibody custom service is also available ... Creative Biolabs Announced Anti-idiotypic Antibody to Meet Scientists Research Needs. Print This Article Share it With Friends ... Creative Biolabs Announced Anti-idiotypic Antibody to Meet Scientists Research Needs. Back To Homepage Subscribe To RSS Feed ...
Evaluation of a Novel Antigen-Enhanced, Anti-Idiotypic Antibody Vaccine Strategy - Michael Cho
Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 is the utmost critical goal towards the development of a ... Although the process is conceptually similar to generating PGT128-like anti-anti- idiotypic antibodies, our strategy is ... Evaluation of a Novel Antigen-Enhanced, Anti-Idiotypic Antibody Vaccine Strategy Cho, Michael W. Neovaxsyn, Inc., Ames, IA, ... Evaluation of a Novel Antigen-Enhanced, Anti-Idiotypic Antibody Vaccine Strategy. Cho, Michael W. / Neovaxsyn, Inc.. ...
The Limiting Dilution Approach to the Analysis of the Idiotypic Repertoire | SpringerLink
Common idiotypic specificities between idiotypes and antibodies raised against anti-idiotypic antibodies in rabbits,J. Exp. Med ... Idiotypic regulation of the immune system by the induction of antibodies against anti-idiotypic antibodies,Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Anti-idiotypes to monoclonal anti-H-2 antibodies. II. Expression of anti-H-2kidiotypes on antibodies induced by antiidiotype or ... Cazenave, P.-A., 1977, Idiotypic-anti-idiotypic regulation of antibody synthesis in rabbits,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:5122- ...
"Idiotypic regulation by isologous monoclonal anti-idiotope antibodies." by M Reth, G Kelsoe et al.
AbstractDeterminantAutoantibodiesPolyclonalImmunizationInduceReagentsResponsesProduction of anti-idiotypic antibodiesAssayImmuneIdiotopeDetectionPresence of anti-idiotypicInteractionsCell-mediated cytotoxicityImmunogenicityVaccineRecombinant antibodyIdiotypeReactivityReceptorsSpecificity of monoclonalClinical1986TitersSingle domain antibodyImmunoaffinity purifiedGlycoproteinBALBImmunotherapyMurine monoclonal antibodyPeptidesGangliosidesSystemic lupus erythemBinding affinityRabbitsImmunoassaysVariable RegionELISAAntigen-bindTherapeuticsPathogenicReagentMyasthenia gravisAutoimmuneMoleculeRegulationSeraReactiveHumoral
- abstract = "Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids) were generated against three mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which neutralized three different papillomaviruses. (elsevier.com)
- Krantz MJ, MacLean G, Longenecker BM, Suresh MR (1988) A radioimmunoassay for CA 125 employing two new monoclonal antibodies (Abstract). (springer.com)
- It is suggested that the major portion of the idiotypic determinant is constituted of amino acid residues located along the periphery of the binding site rather than the contact residues in the groove or cleft of the site. (jimmunol.org)
- To determine if the epitope for 7H11D6 is comprised of residues involved in the alpha 2M receptor determinant, anti-idiotypic antibodies against 7H11D6 were prepared. (duke.edu)
- The results indicate either that the combining site of anti-benzoate antibody is part of an important idiotypic determinant, which is sterically blocked by hapten, or that the hapten induces a conformational change which alters idiotypic determinants not involving the active site. (rupress.org)
- Antibodies against the idiotypic determinant ( 18 ) and against the carboxy terminus of the IgG heavy chain where IL-2 is linked (Fc-IL2 end) were detected. (aacrjournals.org)
- In vitro and in vivo effects of antiidiotypic antibodies to spontaneously occuring autoantibodies to rat thyroglobulin. (springer.com)
- These results indicate that lupus autoantibodies which share Ag binding properties with pathogenic Ig, including both cross-reactive and anti-dsDNA antibodies, can induce the production of Ig with similar autoantigen binding properties through immune-network interactions. (elsevier.com)
- Interestingly, 15% of patients with MG, which is caused by autoantibodies against the AChR, have serum antibodies against DEX. (rupress.org)
- However, some of these anti-Ids would also be autoantibodies against the AChR. (rupress.org)
- Anti-OJ autoantibodies: Rare or underdetected? (bioportfolio.com)
- Anti-OJ autoantibodies are rare myositis-specific autoantibodies that have been described to target isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase. (bioportfolio.com)
- Association between anti-Sm and anti-ribosomal P protein autoantibodies in human systemic lupus erythematosus and MRL/lpr mice. (unc.edu)
- Cellular interactions for the in vitro production of anti-chromatin autoantibodies in MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice. (unc.edu)
- Anti-oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies are exceptional among the autoantibodies prevalent in atherosclerosis: on the one hand, a correlation was found between the existence and titers of anti-oxLDL antibodies and the extent of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( Table 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
- B lymphocytes secreting natural antibodies could represent a reservoir capable of mutating their immunoglobulin variable region genes to give rise to high‐affinity pathogenic autoantibodies. (els.net)
- Our priority is to provide the highest quality monoclonal , polyclonal , and single domain antibody services in the industry. (prosci-inc.com)
- As for immunogenicity assays, polyclonal anti-IDs are widely applied. (pharmiweb.com)
- The polyclonal anti-Ids were screened in an ELISA using a panel of 10 N-MAbs (4 HPV-11 neutralizing, 5 CRPV neutralizing, and 1 BPV-1 neutralizing), and cross-reactive idiotypic reactivity was observed. (elsevier.com)
- Two of the three polyclonal rabbit anti-Ids induced strong anti-viral antibody responses (including virus-neutralizing antibodies) in BALB/c mice following immunization. (elsevier.com)
- If you have invested in high technology platforms for discovery of your mAb drug, and appreciate the specificity, affinity and flexibility achievable with these, why revert back to animal generated monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies as research tools to support the drug's clinical evaluation? (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- A polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibody was produced in rabbits against the murine monoclonal antibody OSA-1 . (musc.edu)
- Antibodies directed against FVIII have been found to be comprised of a polyclonal IgG response. (bloodjournal.org)
- Generate custom monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies from scratch. (rndsystems.com)
- The anti-idiotype reaction was subject to inhibition with lactose and p-amino-phenyl-β-lactoside with some antisera, depending on the form in which the homogeneous antibody was presented for immunization. (jimmunol.org)
- Pretreatment of newborn BALB/c mice (at 1 d of age) with 0.01-10 microgram of affinity purified BALB/c anti-A48 Id antibody followed by immunization with BL 1-2 mo later produces an anti-BL response that expresses the A48 Id. (rupress.org)
- The activation of A48 Id+ anti-BL clones anti-A48 Id antibody is specific because the pretreatment of newborn mice with anti-MOPC 384 Id antibody, followed by immunization with BL, does not lead to its activation. (rupress.org)
- Arresting progressive atherosclerosis by immunization with an anti-glycosaminoglycan monoclonal antibody in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
- For example, the available idiotypic repertoire can be studied using immunization with antigen, but this approach only provides information concerning the antigensensitive B-cell clones, and thus does not permit the evaluation of the complete representation of a given idiotope in the whole antibody pool. (springer.com)
- More representative data on the B-cell receptor repertoire can be obtained by the clonotype analysis of anti-idiotype-treated animals (1,2) but, in this case, different immunization protocols can also produce misleading results. (springer.com)
- Immunization with the Sm nuclear antigen induces anti-Sm antibodies in normal and MRL mice. (unc.edu)
- This antibody is able to induce an anti-idiotypic IgG response and B-T idiotypic cascade, even in the absence of any adjuvant or carrier protein. (hindawi.com)
- It is well-known that the immunogenicity is the ability of therapeutic to induce a humoral and cell-mediated immune response leading to development of anti-drug-antibodies. (pharmiweb.com)
- According to Jerne's network theory, a subset of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2beta) form an 'internal image' of the antigen and induce antibodies (Ab3) against the original antigen. (egms.de)
- As such, developing a primogen that can induce antibodies directed predominantly against the PGT128 neutralizing epitope is of paramount importance. (grantome.com)
- The failure to induce an anti-tumor response in the patient was probably related to the large concentration (approximately 400 μg/mL) of free serum idiotype in addition to the severely compromised immune system of the patient at the time of treatment. (mdedge.com)
- Circulating antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) induce vascular injury and endothelial dysfunction, which are associated with thrombotic events and/or fetal loss. (bioportfolio.com)
- Anti-idiotypic antibodies induce neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus glycoprotein. (asm.org)
- Anti-idiotypic antibodies are critical reagents for the development of bioanalytical assays for such evaluations. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- The first glycoengineered mAbs are about to enter clinical trials and it is expected that, once glycoengineering reagents are available at affordable costs, and in-line with regulatory requirements, that targeted remodelling of antibody Fc glycosylation will become an integral part in manufacturing the next-generation of immunotherapeutics. (bioportfolio.com)
- You can expect the same for your customized antibody reagents. (rndsystems.com)
- There is accumulating clinical evidence that 105AD7 delays tumor growth by stimulating anti-tumor T-cell responses. (iospress.com)
- Neuroblastoma treatment with chimeric anti-disialoganglioside GD2 antibody ch14.18 showed objective anti-tumor responses. (egms.de)
- This proposal is based on a scientific premise that a priming immunogen (primogen) plays a critical role in generating a B-cell repertoire that will determine antibody responses during subsequent exposures to antigenically related boosting immunogens. (grantome.com)
- Insight into the potential for DNA idiotypic fusion vaccines designed for patients by analysing xenogeneic anti-idiotypic antibody responses. (mendeley.com)
- Extensive idiotypic connectivity has been discovered between the antibodies composing the immune responses against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and alpha-1,3-dextran. (rupress.org)
- The key anti-Ids that interconnect these two responses are more crossreactive, lower-affinity antibodies. (rupress.org)
- To generate a library of genes that reflect the entirety of antibody responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) made during the 20-year course of HCV infection in a single patient (WH) whose vir. (bioportfolio.com)
- In clinical practice, antibody responses against FVIII are commonly identified as FVIII inhibitors by using the Bethesda or Nijmegen-modified Bethesda Assay. (bloodjournal.org)
- 9 Although these assays have provided important results, greatly contributing to our understanding of the loss of FVIII function seen in patients, FVIII inhibitors do not reflect the whole picture of FVIII-specific antibody responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- 1998a) Enhanced B‐1 cell development, but impaired IgG antibody responses in mice deficient in secreted IgM. (els.net)
- This has resulted in successful immune cell- or antibody-responses against glycolipids, with promising results having been obtained in clinical trials. (frontiersin.org)
Production of anti-idiotypic antibodies2
- Accordingly, antibodies specially targeted against the complementarity determining region or CDR region of another antibody, play key roles in conducting this research and in assay development. (prosci-inc.com)
- The current invention is directed to an anti-idiotype antibody binding to an anti-Αβ antibody and an assay for detecting antibodies binding to the same or an overlapping epitope on an anti-Αβ antibody. (google.com)
- A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the anti-idiotypic IgG competed with alpha 2M-trypsin complexes for binding to 7H11D6. (duke.edu)
- With the homologous Assay 1, involving only OC125 antibodies, false increases of CA 125 values were observed after infusion of OC125 fragments, which completely covered real CA 125. (springer.com)
- In contrast, with Assay 2, 3 and 4, which involve no OC125 antibodies as capture antibodies, only slight false increases occurred in the presence of very high anti-OC125 antibody concentrations. (springer.com)
- Interference was eliminated by addition of non-specific murine IgG in Assay 2 and 4, but not in Assay 1 and 3 indicating that the false increases in Assay 1 and 3 were caused by anti-idiotypic anti-OC125 antibodies. (springer.com)
- In the presence of elevated real CA 125, with Assay 2 and to a considerably lesser degree with Assay 4, an inhibitory effect of anti-OC125 antibodies became evident leading to false decreases of CA 125 values. (springer.com)
- Klug TL, Green PJ, Zurawski VR, Davis HM (1988) Confirmation of a false positive result in CA 125 immunoradiometric assay caused by human anti-idiotypic immunoglobulin. (springer.com)
- Anti-adalimumab antibodies were detected in patients' sera by different techniques: bridging ELISA, reporter gene assay (RGA), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). (bioportfolio.com)
- Antidrug antibody detection for adalimumab depends on the type of assay used: an experimental approach to help clinicians interpret diagnostic data. (bioportfolio.com)
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibody to group A Streptococcus-specific C carbohydrate with trypsin-pronase-treated whole cells as antigen. (asm.org)
- Rapid quantitation of cytomegalovirus and assay of neutralizing antibody by using monoclonal antibody to the major immediate-early viral protein. (asm.org)
- We developed a novel epitope mapping assay that depends on competition of the serum antibodies with recombinant Fab derived from GAD65-specific monoclonal antibodies. (washington.edu)
- More recently, several assay platforms for the detection of total FVIII-binding antibodies were presented which were based on classic ELISA formats, immunoblotting or bead-based formats. (bloodjournal.org)
- As expected, there are binding antibodies with specificity to FVIII that do not neutralize the protein and, therefore, are not detectable using a Bethesda assay. (bloodjournal.org)
- All patients developed some inhibitory activity in the binding inhibition assay designed to detect antibodies to the Fc-IL2 region of the IC. (aacrjournals.org)
- For example, the high sensitivity and specificity of our antibodies allow for superior differentiation supporting the design and development of robust pharmacokinetic, immune response assays. (prosci-inc.com)
- BALB/c mice immunized with bacterial levan (BL) produce an immune response that fails to generate antibody expressing the idiotype (Id) of the beta (2 leads to 6) fructosan-binding myeloma protein ABPC 48 (A48). (rupress.org)
- Molecular characterization of the anti-idiotypic immune response of a relapse-free neuroblastoma patient following antibody therapy. (egms.de)
- Although the process is conceptually similar to generating PGT128-like anti-anti- idiotypic antibodies, our strategy is technically distinct and superior in that we are using an antigen-antibody immune complex as an immunogen. (grantome.com)
- Antibodies that can neutralize (block) HIV-1 infection are important components of the body's immune system. (grantome.com)
- The major goal of this proposal is to generate a novel vaccine candidate that can train the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can block fusion of viral and cellular membranes. (grantome.com)
- Regulatory effects of isologous anti-idiotypic antibodies on the formation of different immunoglobulin classes in the immune response to phosphorylcholine in balb/c mice. (jax.org)
- Binding of both Cluster II monoclonals (S5 and S7) to Hal 19 is inhibited by a rabbit anti-idiotype that we previously reported detects a common cross-reactive anti-myoglobin idiotope in immune sera. (elsevier.com)
- However, only one of these, S7, and not S5, identifies an idiotope that is present on 20 to 30% of A.SW anti-myoglobin antibodies in immune sera and ascites. (elsevier.com)
- The development of a panel of syngeneic monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies to different clusters of idiotopes on the same antibody molecule, including one that identifies a major common idiotope in immune sera, should allow the analysis of possible idiotype network regulation in vivo and in vitro in a completely syngeneic system. (elsevier.com)
- Anti-idiotypic antibodies have been described as a regulatory element in the humoral immune response. (washington.edu)
- The prevalence of FVIII-binding antibodies was 34% (5% for titers ≥ 1:80) in patients without FVIII inhibitors (n = 77), 39% (4% for titers ≥ 1:80) in patients after successful immune tolerance induction therapy (n = 23), and 100% (n = 20, all titers ≥ 1:80) in patients with FVIII inhibitors. (bloodjournal.org)
- An antibody against the Fc-IL2 end of the IC (anti-Fc-IL2) might interfere with immune activation facilitated through IL-2. (aacrjournals.org)
- With time, secretion of affinity‐mature, somatically selected antibodies will provide the immune system with a second wave of potent adaptive defence mechanism. (els.net)
- Although well established, this technology is laborious, and it is biased by the experimental animal immune system, which limits the ability to reach a high-affinity antibody against conserved mammal proteins. (mdpi.com)
- The first is an antigen which is blocking anti-ID antibody, the second is named as non blocking because the antibody drug's paratope and idiotope do not overlap, the third one is a complex specific anti-ID which cannot bind to the antibody drug unless the drug is already bound to its antigen. (pharmiweb.com)
- A monoclonal antibody against NeuGc-containing gangliosides contains a regulatory idiotope involved in the interaction with B and T cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- For anti-idiotypic antibody projects, selection of the antibody is carried out on the drug in the presence of isotype sub-class matched antibodies as blockers, to avoid enrichment of specificities that bind to other regions of the antibody drug and to ensure idiotope specificity. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Idiotypic regulation by isologous monoclonal anti-idiotope antibodies. (jax.org)
- Only Cluster II antibodies block the binding of myoglobin to HAL 19 and so identify a binding site-related idiotope(s). (elsevier.com)
- It is well-known that there are three main types of detection based anti-ID antibodies. (pharmiweb.com)
- Detection of anti-adalimumab antibodies in a RA responsive cohort of patients using three different techniques. (bioportfolio.com)
- Routinely used multiplex assays perform poorly in detection of anti-OJ an. (bioportfolio.com)
- To compare different methods of antidrug antibody (ADA) against adalimumab detection in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and the impact of ADA on adalimumab drug levels and mean ASDAS-CRP. (bioportfolio.com)
- Detection of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and Bacteroides ovatus in clinical specimens by immunofluorescence with a monoclonal antibody to B. fragilis lipopolysaccharide. (asm.org)
- 0.002) with IC measured during the second course of treatment, indicating that development of anti-idiotypic antibodies interfered with detection of circulating hu14.18-IL2. (aacrjournals.org)
- Comparison of commercial enzyme immunoassay kits with plaque reduction neutralization test for detection of measles virus antibody. (asm.org)
- Anti-idiotypic antibody as potential serodiagnostic reagent for detection of bluetongue virus infection. (asm.org)
- Antibodies have been used for antigen detection and therapeutics, and their specificity combined with low toxicity make them a promising pharmaceutical commodity [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
- From detection antibodies for immunoassays, to flow cytometry conjugates, we can provide small to large scale custom antibody conjugation with a fast turnaround and fully tested end material. (rndsystems.com)
Presence of anti-idiotypic1
- Certain anti-DEX antibodies also bind to anti-AChR antibodies via idiotypic interactions. (rupress.org)
- 4 ⇓ - 6 Interactions between B cells and CD4 + T cells not only initiate expansion and differentiation of B cells, but also trigger isotype switching and affinity maturation of antibodies. (bloodjournal.org)
- The specificity of this special region has emerged as a significant area of interest, particularly in research involving antibody drug pharmacodynamics, studies in immunogenicity and drug pharmacokinetics. (prosci-inc.com)
- Our anti-idiotypic antibody is suitable for a variety of applications, including pharmacokinetic study, immunogenicity study and neutralizing antibody study. (pharmiweb.com)
- In addition to the pharmacokinetic assays, anti-idiotypic antibody from Creative Biolabs is also a remarkable tool in immunogenicity assays. (pharmiweb.com)
- It plays a very crucial role in analyzing the immunogenicity of a new antibody drug during preclinical analysis. (pharmiweb.com)
- The immunogenicity of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an important cause of loss of response to therapy that may lead to escalati. (bioportfolio.com)
- Human antibodies are of particular interest due to a lower immunogenicity response [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Of course, anti-idiotypic antibody is also useful in vaccine development. (pharmiweb.com)
- Ab2/3H6 is an anti-idiotypic antibody able to mimic the antigen recognition site of the broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody 2F5, making it a putative candidate as an HIV-1 vaccine. (moleculardevices.com)
- To this aim, a murine mAb (KT4, IgG1) neutralizing in vitro the anti-Candida activity of a yeast killer toxin (YKT) was used as an Id vaccine to elicit Abs with toxin-like activity in a rat vaginitis model. (jimmunol.org)
- Thus we cloned human anti-idiotypic Fab which may be suitable as a tumor vaccine against GD2-positive tumors. (egms.de)
- Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 is the utmost critical goal towards the development of a protective AIDS vaccine. (grantome.com)
- The critical roadblock to AIDS vaccine development is the difficulty in eliciting neutralizing antibodies that are broadly reactive against many different variants of the virus. (grantome.com)
- I. European patent application No. 99 914 725.9 published as International application No. WO 99/54457 with the title 'Vaccine formulations comprising antiidiotypic antibodies which immunologically mimic group B streptococcal carbohydrates' was refused by the examining division. (epo.org)
- Given the conserved nature of the stem region, stem-based vaccine approaches aim to elicit antibodies that recognize both homosubtypic and heterosubtypic strains. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this context, vaccine approaches aimed at eliciting antibodies targeting the influenza HA glycoprotein are the primary focus. (biomedcentral.com)
- Nov. 23, 2018, Creative Biolabs, as a world-leading supplier and manufacturer in recombinant antibody (rAb) discovery, has served customers in academia and industry fields with high-quality services and products. (pharmiweb.com)
- Over the last 10 years, Creative Biolabs has been a leader of recombinant antibody (rAb) discovery and manufacturing, providing high quality service to customers in academia and industry fields all over the world. (massachusettschronicle.com)
- Develop a new custom recombinant antibody or enhance your existing clones. (rndsystems.com)
- We are dedicated to ensuring our custom antibody solution fits the customer's needs by utilizing cutting edge protocols and incorporating recombinant antibody technology and antibody engineering. (rndsystems.com)
- The isolated chains were also evaluated with respect to binding affinity and inhibition of anti-idiotype antibody. (jimmunol.org)
- The heavy chain was also found to inhibit slightly the anti-idiotype reaction. (jimmunol.org)
- This proposal would account for the inhibition by ligands as the result of the inability of ligand and anti-idiotype antibody to be accommodated simultaneously at contiguous sites because of overlapping volumes. (jimmunol.org)
- The anti‐idiotypic antibody specifically suppressed the in vitro production of anti‐U1‐RNP antibody by lymphocytes from the patient K T., and unrelated patients with a cross‐reactive idiotype, in whom idiotype‐reactive T cells were demonstrated. (elsevier.com)
- A panel of syngeneic monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies was prepared by immunizing A.SW mice with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-coupled A.SW monoclonal anti-myoglobin (HAL 19, IgG1) and screening the cloned hybridomas for production of IgG2 binding to idiotype but not to certain other anti-myoglobin antibodies of the same subclass in an ELISA. (elsevier.com)
- The panel of syngeneic monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies also detects new idiotopes not detected by the rabbit anti-idiotype. (elsevier.com)
- The anti-idiotypic IgG inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled alpha 2M-trypsin complexes to normal rat kidney fibroblasts, and a Kd of 194 pM for the binding of the anti-idiotype to these cells was derived from a fit of the data to a model involving a single class of sites. (duke.edu)
- The best immunoassay developed with one of these VHH antibodies shows an IC50 of 0.16 ng/mL toward aflatoxin B1 and cross-reactivity toward aflatoxin B2, G1, and G2 of 90.4%, 54.4%, and 37.7%, respectively. (cdc.gov)
- Affinity-purified anti-B1.A1 (BPV-1 N-MAb) also showed unexpected cross-reactivity with the 4 HPV-11 N-MAbs, but not with any of the CRPV N-MAbs. (elsevier.com)
- Studies were performed to determine if monoclonal antibody 7H11D6 binds to the region of alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) that interacts with cell-surface receptors. (duke.edu)
- Natural antibodies could serve as innate recognition receptors, recognising various bacterial cell‐wall components or parasites. (els.net)
- Cell receptors for baboon endogenous virus recognized by monoclonal antibodies. (asm.org)
- Selective suppression of the major idiotypic component of an antihapten response by soluble T cell-derived factors with idiotypic or anti-idiotypic receptors. (rupress.org)
- The existence of TsF with anti-idiotypic receptors was also demonstrated. (rupress.org)
- It was found that TsF with idiotypic and anti-idiotypic receptors coexist in cultures of spleen cells prepared from idiotypically suppressed, hyperimmunized mice. (rupress.org)
- Evidence is discussed which suggests the possibility of mutual stimulation of suppressor T cells with idiotypic and anti-idiotypic receptors. (rupress.org)
Specificity of monoclonal1
- Firstly, it is an ideal tool for pre-clinical research and antibody drug development studies. (pharmiweb.com)
- You receive the highly specific antibodies you need in a matter of weeks, rather than months, and have a long-term secure supply to support clinical evaluation of your drug. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Neuronal surface antigen antibodies in limbic encephalitis: clinical-immunologic associations. (medscape.com)
- Dalakas MC, Fujii M, Li M, McElroy B. The clinical spectrum of anti-GAD antibody-positive patients with stiff-person syndrome. (medscape.com)
- Reliable monitoring of clinical relevant anti-drug antibodies is fundamental in the follow-up of patients under adalimumab treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
- Diffuse pruritic erythema as a clinical manifestation in anti-SAE antibody-associated dermatomyositis: a case report and literature review. (bioportfolio.com)
- We evaluated the clinical performance of anti-CEP-1 in a Chinese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. (bioportfolio.com)
- No association was seen between development of anti-IC antibodies and clinical toxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
- The discovery that some of these patients develop antibodies to the hu14.18-IL2 molecule will help us in the design of future clinical trials with this molecule. (aacrjournals.org)
- Examples of such antibodies will be discussed here with emphasis on those used as probes for molecular imaging and other clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
- The protection was associated with rising vaginal titers of anti-idiotypic Abs (IdAb), prevalently of the IgA isotype, that were able to passively transfer the protective state to nonimmunized animals. (jimmunol.org)
- Importantly anti-idiotypic antibody titers are elevated during remission in patients with autoimmune disease. (washington.edu)
Single domain antibody1
- We produced monoclonal anti‐idiotypic antibody against immunoaffinity purified anti‐U1‐ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibody from a patient (K.T.), by the cell fusion procedure. (elsevier.com)
- sera or by immunoaffinity-purified antibody preparations, substantiated that anti-SEA immunoaffinity-purified antibodies only reacted with components of SEA, and anti-epimastigote immunoaffinity-purified antibodies only reacted with components of epimastigote antigenic preparation. (ajtmh.org)
- When mutant cell lines having the MDR phenotype are isolated, they are found to express an ATP-dependent non-specific molecular "pump" protein (generally known as P-glycoprotein) that is located in the plasma membrane and keeps the intracellular accumulation of an anti-cancer drug low enough to evoke the drug-resistance phenotype. (google.com)
- Immunotherapy with unmodified anti-Id antibody alone does not reveal these variants, and we suggest it is the increased selective force exerted by the highly potent immunotoxins that allow these minor nonreactive populations to emerge. (elsevier.com)
- Despite the recent success of passive immunotherapy with the anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18 and cytokines , treatment of high-risk NB remains challenging. (curehunter.com)
- We expanded the approach of GD2-specific, antibody-based immunotherapy to an application of a GD2-specific natural killer (NK) cell line, NK-92-scFv(ch14.18)-zeta. (curehunter.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that block programmed death (PD)-1 signaling pathway hold great potential as a novel cancer immunotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
Murine monoclonal antibody1
- Here, we show that short peptides derived from internal image sequences of anti-idiotypic antibody (peptidomimics) can function as both B and T cell epitopes and perpetuate antigen specific immunological memory. (nih.gov)
- The functional capacity of anti-idiotypic antibody derived peptides to stimulate antigen specific T cells in vitro was tested. (nih.gov)
Systemic lupus erythem1
- The idiotypic region of an antibody is defined as the unique set of antigenic determinants located in its variable region. (prosci-inc.com)
- Under a variety of circumstances antibodies can be elicited against the variable region of other antibody molecules (anti-idotypic antibodies, anti- ids). (elsevier.com)
- Summarizing, ELISA, RGA and SPR recognized anti-adalimumab antibodies in few RA patients, showing good agreement among the methodology employed. (bioportfolio.com)
- On the other hand, differences observed between SPR and ELISA or RGA highlight the relevance of the employed technologies in anti-drug antibody identification. (bioportfolio.com)
- Patient sera were examined in ELISA to determine if an anti-IC antibody response occurred during treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
- ELISA was also used to detect antibodies to the Fc-IL2 end of hu14.18-IL2. (aacrjournals.org)
- The development of antibody to hu14.18-IL2 detected in the bridge ELISA was not related to the dose of hu14.18-IL2. (aacrjournals.org)
- Twenty of 33 adult patients (61%) demonstrated an anti-idiotypic antibody response based on binding inhibition ELISA. (aacrjournals.org)
- Furthermore there is growing evidence for an idiotypic-antiidiotypic regulation of Graves disease and other autoimmune diseases (6, 7). (springer.com)
- SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study demonstrates that targeting CD38-expressing leukocytes with a cytolytic antibody can ameliorate autoimmune disease in cynomolgus monkeys. (aspetjournals.org)
- For each antibody molecule, the region that makes contact with an antigen is called complementary determining region (CDR) which is a unique site to be found within the variable (V) regions of an antibody heavy chain and light chain. (massachusettschronicle.com)
- 24 OxLDL seems to be an immunogenic molecule that stimulates the induction of anti-oxLDL antibodies. (ahajournals.org)
- K.B. Raines, J.R. Baker, Y.G.Lukes, L. Wartofsky, K.D. Burman (1985) Antithyrotropin antibodies in the sera of Graves′ di sease patients. (springer.com)
- Paschke R., Teuber J., Schwedes U., Usadel K.H. (1987) Antiidiotypic Blocking of Graves′ Disease Biologic Activity with Autologous Sera But Not Consistently with Homologous Sera: Evidence for Polyclonality of Thyroid Receptor Antibodies (Trab). (springer.com)
- Control sera are negative for anti-DEX antibodies. (rupress.org)
- Robust techniques combining an antibody library displayed on the phage surface and protein microarray allowed the identification of auto antibodies recognized by patient sera. (mdpi.com)
- Affinity-purified anti-H11.B2 (HPV-11 N-MAb) cross-reacted with the 3 other HPV-11 N-MAbs, was unreactive to a nonneutralizing HPV-11 MAb and all 5 CRPV N-MAbs, but surprisingly was reactive to the BPV-1 N-MAb. (elsevier.com)
- The results indicate that within a mouse strain, papillomavirus-neutralizing antibodies share cross-reactive idiotopes that group the N-MAbs into several subsets. (elsevier.com)
- With the monoclonal anti‐idiotypic antibody, cross‐reactive idiotypes on anti‐U1‐RNP antibodies from unrelated patients with anti‐U1‐RNP antibody was detected in 57% of the samples. (elsevier.com)
- The expression of OSA-1 CRI was not restricted to osteosarcoma reactive antibodies in humans . (musc.edu)
- Approximately thirty percent of the animals immunized with OSA-1 Ab2 developed antibodies reactive against the 85,000 dalton osteosarcoma associated antigen . (musc.edu)
- 25,27,41 Because antibodies may protect or neutralize pathogens and immunogens, 42-44 humoral immunity to oxLDL can reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Evidence is presented for the selective suppression of the major idiotypic component of the humoral response to the phenylarsonate hapten by soluble factors derived from T cells (TsF). (rupress.org)