A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.

Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(1/7501)


HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (2/7501)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease. (3/7501)

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (4/7501)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (5/7501)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

A multiple drug interaction study of stavudine with agents for opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (6/7501)

The effects of multiple opportunistic infection medications on stavudine pharmacokinetics were evaluated. Ten patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 received stavudine (40 mg twice daily) in combination with one to three other drugs used to treat opportunistic infections. Serial blood samples for stavudine concentrations were collected after 1 week of therapy on each regimen and assayed for stavudine by using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Although the maximum concentration of drug in serum was significantly decreased when the drug was given in combination with three opportunistic infection medications, the area under the concentration-time curve did not significantly differ across various treatment regimens. Stavudine exposure was not significantly altered by multiple concomitant medications. Side effects were minor throughout the 3-month study period. The tolerability of stavudine, combined with its lack of drug interactions, makes it an attractive agent for use as part of a combination regimen.  (+info)

Lack of absorption of didanosine after rectal administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (7/7501)

The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean +/- standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 +/- 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.9 mumol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 +/- 412 min.mumol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 mumol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application.  (+info)

Suppression of replication of multidrug-resistant HIV type 1 variants by combinations of thymidylate synthase inhibitors with zidovudine or stavudine. (8/7501)

The replication of recombinant multidrug-resistant HIV-1 clones modeled on clinically derived resistant HIV-1 strains from patients receiving long-term combination therapy with zidovudine (AZT) plus 2',3'-dideoxycytidine was found to regain sensitivity to AZT and stavudine (D4T) as a consequence of a pharmacologically induced decrease in de novo dTMP synthesis. The host-cell system used was phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells; dTMP and dTTP depletion were induced by single exposures to a low level of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its deoxynucleoside, 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine. The host-cell response to the latter was biphasic: a very rapid decrease in the rate of de novo dTMP formation and, consequently, in intracellular dTTP pools, followed by slower recovery in both indices over 3 to 24 h. With the additional presence of AZT or D4T, however, replication of the multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains remained inhibited, indicating dependence of HIV DNA chain termination by AZT-5'-monophosphate or 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate in these resistant strains on simultaneous inhibition of host-cell de novo synthesis of thymidine nucleotides. No effect on viability of control (uninfected) phytohemagglutinin-stimulated/peripheral blood mononuclear cells was noted on 6-day exposures to 5-FU or 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine alone or in combination with AZT or D4T, even at drug levels severalfold higher than those used in the viral inhibition studies. These studies may provide useful information for the potential clinical use of AZT/5-FU or D4T/5-FU combinations for the prevention or reversal of multidrug resistance associated with long-term dideoxynucleoside combination therapy.  (+info)

This study compared the efficacy of efavirenz versus ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor based initial antiretroviral therapy in patients with high plasma
The discovery of medicinal agents capable of specifically inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is urgently needed due to its globally widespread infection. Most of clinically useful anti-HIV agents are nucleosides but their use is limited due to their severe toxicity and emerging drug resistance. More than 50% of world marketed drugs have their origin of the nature. Natural products, of which structural diversity is so broad, are good sources for the effective discovery of anti-HIV agents with decreased toxicity. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in research on the natural products for the anti-HIV agents. New natural products that have potent anti-HIV activities with novel structures were reviewed in this article. These compounds, isolated mainly from medicinal plants, in this review have been classified as secondary metabolites such as terpenes, phenolics, and naturally scarce peptides and sugars. Especially, terpenes and phenol substances have gained much ...
HIV-1 infection is associated with B cell dysregulation and dysfunction. In HIV-1-infected patients, we previously reported preservation of intestinal lymphoid structures and dendritic cell maturation pathways after early combination antiretroviral therapy (e-ART), started during the acute phase of the infection, compared with late combination antiretroviral therapy started during the chronic phase. In this study, we investigated whether the timing of combination antiretroviral therapy initiation was associated with the development of the HIV-1-specific humoral response in the gut. The results showed that e-ART was associated with higher frequencies of functional resting memory B cells in the gut. These frequencies correlated strongly with those of follicular Th cells in the gut. Importantly, frequencies of HIV-1 Env gp140-reactive B cells were higher in patients given e-ART, in whom gp140-reactive IgG production by mucosal B cells increased after stimulation. Moreover, IL-21 release by PBMCs stimulated
Browsing by Title Early antiretroviral therapy reduces the incidence of otorrhea in a randomized study of early and deferred antiretroviral therapy : evidence from the Children with HIV Early antiretroviral therapy (CHER) Study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of class-specific therapy interruption on persistence of HIV type 1 antiretroviral resistance. AU - Campo, Rafael E.. AU - Rosa, Isabella. AU - Lichtenberger, Paola N.. AU - Suarez, German. AU - Rivera, Fernando A.. AU - Jayaweera, Dushyantha T.. AU - Rodriguez, Allan E.. AU - Wahlay, Natalie A.. AU - Kolber, Michael A.. PY - 2003/8/1. Y1 - 2003/8/1. N2 - Interruption of all antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection when therapy is failing and antiretroviral resistance has emerged is frequently associated with the disappearance of detectable resistance-associated protease and reverse transcriptase substitutions. However, the effect that discontinuation of treatment with a particular antiretroviral class has on resistance to that class when other antiretroviral therapy is continued is unknown. We investigated differences in detectable genotypic resistance to protease inhibitors (PI) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) among two populations: patients ...
OBJECTIVES: No randomized controlled trials have yet reported an individual patient benefit of initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at CD4 counts , 350 cells/muL. It is hypothesized that earlier initiation of cART in asymptomatic and otherwise healthy individuals may lead to poorer adherence and subsequently higher rates of resistance development. METHODS: In a large cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we investigated the emergence of new resistance mutations upon virological treatment failure according to the CD4 count at the initiation of cART. RESULTS: Of 7918 included individuals, 6514 (82.3%), 996 (12.6%) and 408 (5.2%) started cART with a CD4 count ...
The purpose of this study was to find a safe and tolerable dose of the protease inhibitor (PI) atazanavir (ATV), with or without a low-dose boost of the PI ritonavir (RTV), when taken with other anti-HIV drugs in HIV infected infants, children, and adolescents.. Advancements in anti-HIV drugs for HIV infected children and adolescents have been hard to make, in part because these patients often do not take the drugs as prescribed. ATV may be a better option because it is available in the form of powder which children and adolescents may be more willing to take regularly. Using a low dose of RTV as a boosting agent for ATV may also increase the chances of virologic response of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-experienced patients. This study aimed to find safe and tolerable doses of ATV with or without low-dose RTV boost in infants, children, and adolescents. For this study, participants were enrolled in the United States and South Africa. ...
The purpose of this study was to find a safe and tolerable dose of the protease inhibitor (PI) atazanavir (ATV), with or without a low-dose boost of the PI ritonavir (RTV), when taken with other anti-HIV drugs in HIV infected infants, children, and adolescents.. Advancements in anti-HIV drugs for HIV infected children and adolescents have been hard to make, in part because these patients often do not take the drugs as prescribed. ATV may be a better option because it is available in the form of powder which children and adolescents may be more willing to take regularly. Using a low dose of RTV as a boosting agent for ATV may also increase the chances of virologic response of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-experienced patients. This study aimed to find safe and tolerable doses of ATV with or without low-dose RTV boost in infants, children, and adolescents. For this study, participants were enrolled in the United States and South Africa. ...
Objectives: To determine HIV-1 RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of successfully treated patients and to evaluate if combination antiretroviral treatments with higher central nervous system penetration-effectiveness (CPE) achieve better CSF viral suppression. Methods: Viral loads (VLs) and drug concentrations of lopinavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz were measured in plasma and CSF. The CPE was calculated using 2 different methods. Results: The authors analyzed 87 CSF samples of 60 patients. In 4 CSF samples, HIV-1 RNA was detectable with 43-82 copies per milliliter. Median CPE in patients with detectable CSF VL was significantly lower compared with individuals with undetectable VL: CPE of 1.0 (range, 1.0-1.5) versus 2.3 (range, 1.0-3.5) using the method of 2008 (P = 0.011) and CPE of 6 (range, 6-8) versus 8 (range, 5-12) using the method of 2010 (P = 0.022). The extrapolated CSF trough levels for atazanavir (n = 12) were clearly above the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in only 25% of samples; ...
PRECLINICAL PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTITUMOR AND ANTI-HIV AGENTS NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 3, January 21, 1994 RFP AVAILABLE: NCI-CM-57199-12 P.T. 34 Keywords: Pharmacology Chemotherapeutic Agents National Cancer Institute The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP), Division of Cancer Treatment, is soliciting organizations having the necessary experience, scientific and technical personnel, and facilities to conduct a series of preclinical pharmacokinetic and other pharmacology studies in non-disease bearing animals on agents having demonstrated antitumor or anti-HIV activity and considered by DCT to merit further development. The studies to be performed will include: the development of methodology for the quantitative measurement of test agents and/or metabolites in animal body fluids and tissues; stability studies of test agents in biological fluids; plasma protein binding determinations; characterization of in vivo plasma concentration-time profiles and calculation of relevant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcomes of second-line antiretroviral therapy among children living with HIV. T2 - a global cohort analysis. AU - The Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER) Global Cohort Collaboration. AU - Patel, Kunjal. AU - Smith, Colette. AU - Collins, Intira Jeannie. AU - Goodall, Ruth. AU - Abrams, Elaine J.. AU - Sohn, Annette H.. AU - Mohamed, Thahira J.. AU - Van Dyke, Russell B.. AU - Rojo, Pablo. AU - Wools-Kaloustian, Kara. AU - Pinto, Jorge. AU - Edmonds, Andrew. AU - Marete, Irene. AU - Paul, Mary. AU - Nuwaqaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet. AU - Leroy, Valériane. AU - Davies, Mary Ann. AU - Vreeman, Rachel. AU - Maxwell, Nicky. AU - Timmerman, Venessa. AU - Duff, Charlotte. AU - Mofenson, Lynne. AU - Bekker, Linda Gail. AU - Vicari, Marissa. AU - Essajee, Shaffiq. AU - Penazzato, Martina. AU - Collins, Intira Jeannie. AU - Wools-Kaloustian, Kara. AU - Davies, Mary Ann. AU - Leroy, Valériane. AU - Goodall, Ruth. AU - Patel, Kunjal. AU - Smith, ...
A systematic review and meta-analysis from China finds that transmitted drug resistance (TDR) - when people who have never been on antiretroviral treatment (ART) before are already resistant to first-line ART - was found at 3% of cases overall, with significant regional variation. The analysis also found this type of drug-resistant HIV has been accelerating in China since 2012, mainly due to resistance to a class of ART known as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI).. The review, published in The Lancets E-Clinical Medicine, analysed 170 studies to assess the level, trend and geographical distribution of HIV drug resistance between 2001 and 2017, and the most common genetic mutations that cause it.. Studies included in this analysis, the most comprehensive of its kind to date, relate to 21,450 people living with HIV who had not been on antiretroviral treatment (ART) before (otherwise known as treatment or ART-naïve), and 30,475 people who had previously been on ...
Warning: Trizivir therapy should not be used without a NNRTI or PI unless circumstances dictate that this is the only practical therapy for a particular client. In particular patients with advanced disease or higher viral loads should be treated with an alternative regimen until further information becomes available. ...
Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy ...
Atazanavir sulfate is a drug used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including all stages of HIV infection and acquired
Journalists may submit queries online for fastest response. Journalists can also mail [email protected] or call 212-305-3900 to reach a member of the CUMC news office team.. Patients, please visit ColumbiaDoctors. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection. T2 - 2008 Recommendations of the international AIDS society-USA panel. AU - Hammer, Scott M.. AU - Eron, Joseph J.. AU - Reiss, Peter. AU - Schooley, Robert T.. AU - Thompson, Melanie A.. AU - Walmsley, Sharon. AU - Cahn, Pedro. AU - Fischl, Margaret A.. AU - Gatell, Jose M.. AU - Hirsch, Martin S.. AU - Jacobsen, Donna M.. AU - Montaner, Julio S.G.. AU - Richman, Douglas D.. AU - Yeni, Patrick G.. AU - Volberding, Paul A.. PY - 2008/8/6. Y1 - 2008/8/6. N2 - Context: The availability of new antiretroviral drugs and formulations, including drugs in new classes, and recent data on treatment choices for antiretroviral-naive and -experienced patients warrant an update of the International AIDS Society-USA guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Objectives: To summarize new data in the field and to provide current recommendations for the antiretroviral management and ...
BOSTON, Feb 11, 2003 (BUSINESS WIRE) --. 48-Week Data from Alize Trial Presented Today at 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. French researchers presented new 48-week data from a Phase III clinical trial today. These data demonstrate that emtricitabine (FTC), an investigational once-daily nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), suppresses HIV when taken as part of a once-daily, protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimen. Emtricitabine is being developed by Triangle Pharmaceuticals, which was acquired by Gilead Sciences (Nasdaq:GILD) in January 2003. Dr. Jean-Michel Molina presented the 48-week results of the ANRS 099 Alize trial (Abstract #551) at the 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston, Massachusetts. The ANRS 099 Alize trial is an ongoing three-year, open-label, multicenter study involving 355 patients who at baseline had to have HIV RNA less than 400 copies/mL while receiving PI-based antiretroviral therapy. ...
By several parameters known to be associated with HIV disease progression, children who are treated with protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy and reconstitute their CD4 T cells despite viral rebound have similar outcomes to those who optimally suppress viral replication. In our study, discordant viral and immune response outcome groups showed sustained increases in CD4 T-cell counts and displayed growth parameters, prevalence of HIV-associated illnesses, and levels of functional immunity that were equivalent to VS/IS children. The substantial restoration of CD4 T-cell counts in the VS/IS and VF/IS response groups during the initial 24 weeks of treatment was sustained over the subsequent 72 weeks in both outcome groups. The durability of CD4 reconstitution in VF/IS children who were enrolled in our study is in contrast to previous examinations of CD4 T-cell reconstitution in HIV-infected adults in which 30% to 40% of patients who displayed discordant viral and immune responses ...
The ARV Therapies and Therapeutic Strategies program is a comprehensive, independent review of the 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2018). This program consists of three components: (1) CME Internet Symposium: CROI 2018 Expert Review: a 1.5 hour Internet symposium that features an overview and discussion of key presentations and posters, selected by the expert faculty discussants; (2) Rapid-Fire Review of CROI 2018: a podcast that provides a brief, audio summary of the most essential data presented at the conference; and (3) From Conference to Clinic: Reviewing and Applying Data From CROI 2018: case-based dinner meetings during which the key data are reviewed, discussed and applied to patient care ...
The Original Study Several observational studies have reported that the early use of antiretroviral therapy by patients diagnosed with HIV decreases rates of HIV acquisition among their sexual partners. This study evaluates the impact of early antiretroviral therapy on HIV acquisition among serodiscordant couples from nine countries.
© 2020 The Author(s) Background: Early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the size of the viral reservoir in paediatric and adult HIV infection. Very early-treated children may have higher cure/remission potential. Methods: In an observational study of 151 in utero (IU)-infected infants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, whose treatment adhered strictly to national guidelines, 76 infants diagnosed via point-of-care (PoC) testing initiated cART at a median of 26 h (IQR 18-38) and 75 infants diagnosed via standard-of-care (SoC) laboratory-based testing initiated cART at 10 days (IQR 8-13). We analysed mortality, time to suppression of viraemia, and maintenance of aviraemia over the first 2 years of life. Findings: Baseline plasma viral loads were low (median 8000 copies per mL), with 12% of infants having undetectable viraemia pre-cART initiation. However, barely one-third (37%) of children achieved suppression of viraemia by 6 months that was maintained to |12 months. 24% had died or were
The annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) brings together top basic, translational, and clinical researchers from around the world to share the latest studies, important developments, and best research methods in the ongoing battle against HIV/AIDS and related infectious diseases. CROI is a global model of collaborative science and the premier international venue for bridging basic and clinical investigation into clinical practice in the field of HIV and related viruses.
The Botswana national treatment guidelines for adults recommend two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), zidovudine/lamivudine, and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Typically, the NNRTI is efavirenz or, for women of reproductive age, nevirapine. The regimen consisted of 200 mg of Combivir (lamzid, once available) twice daily. Nevirapine began with a two-week lead-in period of 200 mg once a day followed by a maintenance regimen of 200 mg twice a day. Efavirenz was dosed at 600 mg each day.. Patients experiencing virologic failure on first-line therapy were switched to a protease inhibitor-based regimen (lopinavir/ritonavir) coupled with two NRTIs (didanosine and stavudine or tenofovir or abacavir and lamivudine). When virologic failure occurred with second-line therapy or when there were complicated first-line therapy failures, genotypic resistance testing was undertaken.. At the initial visit, all patients underwent a comprehensive physical examination ...
Slide 1 of 11 New Guidelines, Strategies, and Drugs for Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy 2013 Charles B. Hicks, MD Professor of Medicine Duke University Medical Center Durham, North Carolina From CB Hicks, MD, at Chicago, IL: May 20, 2013, IAS-USA. IAS-USA Improving Practical Skills for Primary Care of HIV-Infected Patients Slide 2 of 11 clinicaloptions.com/hiv Goals of Antiretroviral Therapy  Reduce HIV-associated morbidity and prolong duration and quality of survival  Restore and preserve immunologic function  Maximally and durably suppress HIV-1 RNA - Persistently below level of detection (, 20-75 copies/mL, depending on the assay used) - Isolated blips not uncommon in successfully treated patients and not thought to predict virologic failure  Prevent HIV transmission DHHS Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults and Adolescents. March 2012. From CB Hicks, MD, at Chicago, IL: May 20, 2013, IAS-USA. Slide 3 of 11 Improving Practical Skills for Primary Care of ...
Objectives: To assess how developing knowledge surrounding combination antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV infection since mid-1 996 has altered how drugs are used in Australia. Methods: Time trends in use of antiretroviral treatment were calculated on patients recruited to the Australian HIV Observational Database. For each six month period, patients were on one or more antiretroviral drugs for at least two weeks. Other patients were in the no-treatment group. Patients receiving antiretrovirals for more than two weeks were allocated to the category of treatment (mono, double or triple-plus therapy) they received for the longest period. Results: 1476 patients were recruited by September 2000. Of patients currently receiving antiretroviral therapy, 32 per cent took three or more antiretrovirals including an HIV protease inhibitor (PI) and 27 per cent took triple-plus therapy including a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The proportion of patients receiving ...
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched a large international trial called IMPAACT 2010 or VESTED to evaluate three antiretroviral treatment regimens in HIV-infected pregnant women.. The trial aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of these regimens in the 639 participants who are 14 to 28 weeks into their pregnancies, along with safety for their infants.. It will compare the existing World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended, first-line maternal efavirenz (EFV) / emtricitabine (FTC) / tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) regimen with two other regimens containing newer antiretroviral drugs dolutegravir (DTG) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF).. The mothers viral load at delivery will be measured to compare the virologic efficacy of these three regimens. The viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood.. In addition, effectivity rates of the regimens on adverse pregnancy outcomes will be monitored such as preterm delivery and low infant birth weight, maternal and infant adverse ...
On December 31, 2012, FDA approved Fulyzaq (crofelemer) to relieve symptoms of diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy. ...
A series of neamine-heterocycle conjugates were designed and synthesized. All new compounds displayed more potent inhibitory effect on HIV replication than neamine, among them two compounds displayed stronger anti-HIV activity than neomycin B. The results suggested that it might be a promising approach to modify neamine for the discovery of new anti-HIV agents. (C) 2013 Xiao-Lian Zhang, Xin-Shan Ye. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved. ...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Structured interruptions of antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1 infected individuals are currently being tested in clinical trials to study the effect interruptions have on the immune responses and control of virus replication. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential risks and benefits of interrupted therapy using standard population dynamical models of HIV replication kinetics. METHODS: Standard population dynamical models were used to study the effect of structured therapy interruptions on the immune effector cells, the latent cell compartment and the emergence of drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The models suggest that structured therapy interruption only leads to transient or sustained virus control if the immune effector cells increase during therapy. This increase must more than counterbalance the increase in susceptible target cells induced by therapy. The risk of inducing drug resistance by therapy interruptions or the risk of repopulating the pool of latent cells during ...
During the last three decades, HIV/AIDS has become the threat to the world. Almost 75 million people have been infected, and about 36 million people have died of HIV [1]. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) changes HIV/AIDS from diseases with a high mortality rate to manageable chronic diseases by decreasing the progression of AIDS and reducing HIV-related illness and deaths. Researches revealed that improved access to ART is helping to drive a decline in HIV-related morbidity and mortality [2-5]. In the USA and Canada, a person in his or her 20s who contracts HIV can now expect to live into the 70s if initiated ART early [6].. The standard therapy consists of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) [7]. In 2010, these guidelines were revised and recommended less toxic drugs in first-line therapy by replacing stavudine (d4T) with tenofovir (TDF) [8]. In resource-limited countries, World Health ...
BACKGROUND: Etravirine (ETR), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) available in France since 2006, is indicated for antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected adults, in combination with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI). To assess its clinical impact in routine care, we compared hospitalization rates according to ETR + PI prescription or not, among heavily treated HIV-1 infected individuals on failing regimens between 2005 and 2011. METHODS: From the French Hospital Database on HIV (ANRS CO4), we selected heavily treated individuals (prior exposure to at least 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 2PI and 1 NNRTI) with viral load (VL) | 50 copies/mL who started a new antiretroviral (ARV) regimen between 2005 and 2011. Using an intention-to-continue-treatment approach, hospitalization rates were calculated for the individuals who received ETR + PI, during the months after initiating ETR + PI (ETR + PI) or for the individuals who received ETR + PI, in the
In 2013, WHO published the first consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV treatment and prevention across all age groups and populations. A comprehensive revision of these guidelines based on new scientific evidence and lessons from implementation is being undertaken in 2015.. This early-release guideline makes available two key recommendations that were developed during the revision process in 2015. First, antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated in everyone living with HIV at any CD4 cell count. Second, the use of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as a prevention choice for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination prevention approaches. The first of these recommendations is based on evidence from clinical trials and observational studies released since 2013 showing that earlier use of ART results in better clinical outcomes for people living with HIV compared with delayed treatment. The second ...
List of wholesalers , traders for antiretroviral arv drugs, 22 antiretroviral arv drugs manufacturers & antiretroviral arv drugs suppliers from China.
In previously untreated patients, combinations that include efavirenz compare favorably with regimens that include either other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or components from other antiretroviral classes.. Two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III studies in antiretroviral-naive adults compared efavirenz with rilpivirine, each in combination with 2 NRTIs (predominantly tenofovir + emtricitabine). By ITT analysis of pooled data from the 2 studies, 82% of efavirenz recipients and 84% of rilpivirine recipients had HIV RNA levels of ,50 copies/mL at 48 weeks; the difference was not statistically significant. In patients with HIV RNA ,100,000 copies/mL, the efavirenz regimen resulted in higher rates of virologic suppression. The mean increase in CD4 count was 176 cells/µL in the efavirenz group (compared with 192 cells/µL in the rilpivirine group).(13) A randomized trial comparing efavirenz with nevirapine, each given with lamivudine + stavudine in initial therapy, ...
Among 100 children on first-line cART followed for a median 49 months, 34% experienced virologic failure. Twenty-three (68%) of the 34 children with viral failure had detectable resistance mutations, of whom 14 (61%) had multi-class resistance. Fourteen (14%) children were switched to second-line regimens and followed for a median of 28 months. Retrospective analysis revealed that virologic failure had occurred a median of 12 months prior to the switch to second-line. During prolonged first-line treatment in the presence of viral failure, additional resistance mutations accumulated, however, only 1 (7%) of 14 children had persistent viremia during second-line treatment ...
Several studies intensively evaluated the effect of antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute HIV infection has on the size of the cellular reservoir. One such study compared the reservoir as measured by HIV DNA as total, integrated and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) in those treated during acute infection (n=9), chronic infection (n=26) and amongst elite controllers (n=37) (15). It was not surprising that HIV DNA was detectable regardless of how early therapy was initiated and amongst the elite controllers. Nevertheless, they did find that the levels were significantly lower in those treated during acute infection than during chronic. Moreover, the levels in the early treatment group were similar to the elite controller. While early treatment did not eliminate the reservoir, even amongst those with 10 years of follow-up, it is conceivable that the success of any future strategies to target the reservoir may be more successful in those with a smaller reservoir, such as those initiating therapy ...
We investigated the evolution of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT)- and protease-associated antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance mutations during the time taken to perform genotypic drug resistance testing. Thirty treatment-experienced patients who were adherent to therapy and who underwent genotypic drug resistance testing provided blood samples at randomization and when reviewing the test results (baseline). Patients remained on their existing therapy between randomization and baseline. The predominant HIV strains in 10 patients (33%) either lost and/or gained primary RT inhibitor (RTI) or protease inhibitor (PI) associated resistance mutations during the testing period. Of the 9 patients with RT mutations, 2 lost, 5 gained, and 2 both lost and gained RTI resistance mutations. One patient gained a significant PI-associated resistance mutation on an existing PI-resistant background. The evolution that occurred in the RT may have altered the effectiveness of subsequent ARV therapy in some patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Starr, Stuart E.. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Spector, Stephen A.. AU - Brundage, Richard C.. AU - Yong, Florence H.. AU - Douglas, Steven D.. AU - Flynn, Patrizia M.. AU - Kline, Mark W.. PY - 2002/7/23. Y1 - 2002/7/23. N2 - Background. This study determined the safety, pharmacokinetics, antiviral activity and immunologic effects of efavirenz liquid formulation, nelfinavir and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in HIV-infected children, 3 to 9 years of age. Methods. Plasma HIV-1 RNA and lymphocyte subsets were measured at various intervals after initiation of therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed at Week 2, and doses of efavirenz and nelfinavir were adjusted if area under the curve values fell outside specified target ranges. Results. This combination of antiretrovirals was well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetic values were similar to those observed in a previous study ...
Title: Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Giuseppe Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63,00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, metabolic syndome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk of HIVinfected patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines. ...
2015 Elsevier Ltd. Background Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate can cause renal and bone toxic effects related to high plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a novel tenofovir prodrug with a 90% reduction in plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide-containing regimens can have improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimens. Methods In these two controlled, double-blind phase 3 studies, we recruited treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with an estimated creatinine clearance of 50 mL per min or higher from 178 outpatient centres in 16 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily oral tablets containing 150 mg elvitegravir, 150 mg cobicistat, 200 mg emtricitabine, and 10 mg tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/tenofovir alafenamide) or 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) with matching placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Adenovirus viremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. by Ronald M. Ferdman et al.
Results: A total 307 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, 153 highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (who didnt take highly active antiretroviral therapy) and 154 on highly active antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in the study. The mean ( SD) age of the participants was 34.69 ( 8.86) years and about 61% were females. The prevalence of renal impairment in highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve and on highly active antiretroviral therapy individuals was 30.1% and 12.9% respectively. Proteinuria was found in 17.9 % of the participant. Low CD4 count (Adjusted odds ratio= 24.11; (95% CI 11.06, 52.56) and being highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (Adjusted odds ratio = 6.58; 95% CI 2.99, 14.47) showed significant association with the prevalence of renal impairment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural models. AU - Cole, Stephen R.. AU - Hernán, Miguel A.. AU - Robins, James M.. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Chmiel, Joan. AU - Detels, Roger. AU - Ervin, Carolyn. AU - Feldman, Joseph. AU - Greenblatt, Ruth. AU - Kingsley, Lawrence. AU - Lai, Shenghan. AU - Young, Mary. AU - Cohen, Mardge. AU - Muñoz, Alvaro. N1 - Funding Information: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with additional supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute (grants UO1-AI-35042, 5-MO1-RR-00722 (General Clinical Research Center), UO1-AI-35043, UO1-AI-37984, UO1-AI-35039, UO1-AI-35040, UO1-AI-37613, and UO1-AI-35041). The Womens Interagency HIV Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute, the National ...
Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate drug information: uses, indications, side effects, dosage. Compare prices for generic emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate substitutes: Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets, Tavin- EM, Tenof- EM
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of different antiretroviral treatment regimens on viral load, CD4 lymphocyte counts, and rates of progression to clinical acquired immunodeficiency syndrome events among treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients enrolled in a large community cohort study. METHODS: Based in 7 outpatient clinics, the Swiss HIV Cohort Study is a cohort with national coverage. Virological, immunologic, and clinical results of 755 treatment-naive patients (median age, 36 years; 28.2% female) who initiated antiretroviral therapy between July 1, 1995, and June 30, 1997, were analyzed. Patients started undergoing monotherapy with 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI), combination therapy with at least 2 RTIs, or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with RTIs and protease inhibitors. RESULTS: Antiretroviral treatment led to a mean reduction of viremia of 1.8 log10 copies per milliliter with HAART, 1.2 log10 copies per milliliter with RTI comb
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune Complexes in Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. AU - Ellaurie, Maadhava. AU - Calvelli, Theresa. AU - Rubinstein, Arye. PY - 1990/11. Y1 - 1990/11. N2 - Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were analyzed in a cohort of 30 children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Elevated CIC were detected by the C1 q assay in 70% (21/30) of all patients and by the Raji cell assay in 93% (28/30) of all patients. While only less than one third of patients with elevated CIC had free serum antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, 80% (16/20) of them had detectable antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus associated with CIC. Enriched CIC in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children contained low levels of complement. These findings document that, as an expression of the humoral immunodeficiency, CIC in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children are deficient in complement and can thus be underestimated if complement-precipitating methods are used for their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cervicovaginal HIV-1 shedding in women taking antiretroviral therapy in Burkina Faso. T2 - a longitudinal study. AU - Low, Andrea J. AU - Konate, Issouf. AU - Nagot, Nicolas. AU - Weiss, Helen A. AU - Kania, Dramane. AU - Vickerman, Peter. AU - Segondy, Michel. AU - Mabey, David. AU - Pillay, Deenan. AU - Meda, Nicolas. AU - van de Perre, Philippe. AU - Mayaud, Philippe. AU - Yerelon Study Group. PY - 2014/2/1. Y1 - 2014/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces transmission of HIV-1. However, genital HIV-1 can be detected in patients on ART. We analyzed factors associated with genital HIV-1 shedding among high-risk women on ART in Burkina Faso.METHODS: Plasma viral load (PVL) and enriched cervicovaginal lavage HIV-1 RNA were measured every 3-6 months for up to 8 years. Random-effects logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze associations of frequency and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA with behavioral and biological factors, adjusting for ...
Background: New WHO guidelines recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers have to decide whether to further expand eligibility for antiretroviral therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage.. Methods: We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), Zambia (generalised epidemic, high antiretroviral therapy coverage), India (concentrated epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), and Vietnam (concentrated epidemic, low antiretroviral therapy coverage)-to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy under ...
To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. Observational prospective cohort. HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 ...
Objective:To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland.Design:Retrospective molecular epidemiology analysis of all newly HIV-diagnosed individuals between 2008 and 2010.Methods:Phylogenet
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antidepressant treatment and adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among patients with AIDS and diagnosed depression. AU - Walkup, James. AU - Wei, Wenhui. AU - Sambamoorthi, Usha. AU - Crystal, Stephen. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements Support for this research was provided by funding from grants: MH 58984-03, MH 60831, MH076206-01 and HS 016097.. PY - 2008/3. Y1 - 2008/3. N2 - Background: The prevalence of depression is elevated among HIV-infected individuals and there is evidence that depression exerts a negative impact on HIV medication adherence. Methods: Merged HIV/AIDS surveillance data and Medicaid claims data from January 1996 to December 1998 were used to identify AIDS-infected patients with diagnosed depression, and filled prescriptions were used to identify their antidepressant use, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Chi-square tests and robust logistic regressions were used to examine antidepressant use after HAART initiation, and a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement in lipoatrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients switched from stavudine to abacavir or zidovudine. T2 - The results of the TARHEEL study. AU - Bartlett, John. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85026137152&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85026137152&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1097/01.idc.0000130889.35482.ee. DO - 10.1097/01.idc.0000130889.35482.ee. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:85026137152. VL - 12. JO - Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. JF - Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. SN - 1056-9103. IS - 4. ER - ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Compromised immunologic recovery in treatment-experienced patients with HIV infection receiving both tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and didanosine in the TORO studies. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Objective: Some HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) do not resolve their plasma viraemia or HIV RNA can reappear after a period of virological control. We investigate whether polymorphisms in cytokine genes affect the control of plasma HIV RNA over 5 years on HAART. Design: The study utilized adult HIV-infected patients in Western Australia. Plasma HIV-RNA levels were assessed from commencement of HAART in patients who had a CD4 T-cell count less than 100 cells/μl before HAART and achieved immune reconstitution assessed by CD4 T-cell counts. Results: Control of plasma viraemia could be predicted from carriage of allele 2 at position -889 in the IL1A gene (IL1A-889*2). This was significant when assessed by the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-RNA level of 400 copies/ml or less (P = 0.002). At 48 months post-HAART, proportions were approximately 0.76, 0.51 and 0.32 for IL1A (1,1), (1,2) and (2,2) patients, respectively. The outcome was independent of the ...
PubMed journal article: CD4+ cell count, viral load, and highly active antiretroviral therapy use are independent predictors of body composition alterations in HIV-infected adults: a longitudinal study. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Primary HIV-associated thrombocytopenia (PHAT) typically improves with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, cases continue to occur. Data comparing the epidemiology of PHAT between the pre-HAART and HAART eras are limited. We retrospectively examined the incidence of PHAT over 28 years in the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) from 1986 to 2013. Subjects had a nadir platelet count |100 × 109/l with no other identifiable cause. Time periods were categorized as pre-HAART (1986-1995), early HAART (1996-2001), and later HAART (2002-2013). Incidence, demographic data, and CD4 count were compared across the three eras. A generalized estimating equations model was used to assess any association of platelet count and HIV viral load in cases diagnosed during the HAART eras. 218 participants met the case definition. 86.2 % of cases occurred prior to 2002. The incidence of PHAT per 1000 person-years of follow-up was 16.3, 4.6, and 1.9 during pre-HAART, early HAART and later HAART eras
1. PerelsonAS, EssungerP, CaoY, VesanenM, HurleyA, et al. (1997) Decay characteristics of HIV-1-infected compartments during combination therapy. Nature 387: 188-191.. 2. GulickRM, MellorsJW, HavlirD, EronJJ, GonzalezC, et al. (1997) Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy. The New England journal of medicine 337: 734-739.. 3. WalenskyRP, PaltielAD, LosinaE, MercincavageLM, SchackmanBR, et al. (2006) The survival benefits of AIDS treatment in the United States. The Journal of infectious diseases 194: 11-19.. 4. HammerSM, SquiresKE, HughesMD, GrimesJM, DemeterLM, et al. (1997) A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team. The New England journal of medicine 337: 725-733.. 5. RichmanDD, MargolisDM, DelaneyM, GreeneWC, HazudaD, et ...
We analyzed the effect of age on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and tolerance in 639 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (99 of whom were aged ,50 years, and 540 of whom were aged ,50 years). Late testing, which was more frequent in the older age group, was the only independent factor associated with immunologic and clinical evolution of infection. Age ,50 years was associated with earlier treatment discontinuation.. ...
We next isolated highly purified populations of resting CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood of these donors. After depletion of monocytes by adherence, negative selection with monoclonal antibodies and magnetic beads was used to remove CD8+ T cells, B cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells. In addition, activated CD4+ T cells, which represented an average of 10% of the CD4+ T cell populations in these individuals (Table 1), were removed by bead depletion with antibodies to CD25, CD69, and human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-DR. Additional purification was achieved by flow cytometric sorting of small lymphocytes expressing CD4 but not HLA-DR, which is expressed on all activated T cells. This multistep purification gave populations of resting CD4+ HLA-DR− T cells that were, on average, 97% pure (Table 1). Most importantly, the sorted populations were typically contaminated with ,1% activated CD4+ T cells.. Specialized PCR approaches have shown that a low frequency of resting CD4+ T cells from ...
A pilot longitudinal study was conducted for 3 months on HIV positive and AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy, at a day care clinic at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon, between April and July 2008. A total of 223 HIV patients were recruited following initiation and each patient benefited from pretherapeutic tests. Social-demographic, clinical and biological data were recorded for each subject and finally analyzed using standard statistical procedures. Out of the 223 subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the study, 153 were females (68. 6%) and 70 were males (31. 6%). The age group that was most represented was 30 - 39 (37.7%). The mean age of patients was 39.34 ± 11.31 years. At initiation the highest administered antiretroviral (ARV) regimen was Zidulam N (34.10%). For hepatotoxicity evaluation, with aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) study, 5.8% of patients showed degree 1 and 1.3% of patients had degree 2 changes. In alanine amino transferase
... with both molecules showing promising anti-HIV activity. GS-CA1 functions by binding directly to the HIV capsid. This bonding ... April 2016). "Ebselen, a Small-Molecule Capsid Inhibitor of HIV-1 Replication". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 60 (4): ... Ebselen shows anti-HIV activity in infected cell lines. Uracil based scaffolds such as bispyrimidine dione and tetrapyrimidine ... Because of this, drugs that specifically inhibit the HIV capsid are being developed in order to reduce the replication of HIV, ...
Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents ... They are highly effective against HIV and have, since the 1990s, been a key component of anti-retroviral therapies for HIV/AIDS ... In common usage HIV usually implies HIV-1. HIV-1 protease is one of the best known aspartic proteases, and an attractive target ... The Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database (also called the "HIV Drug Resistance Database") was formed in 1998 with HIV ...
Reviriego, C (July 2011). "Chemokine CCR2/CCR5 Receptor Antagonist Anti-HIV Agent". Drugs of the Future. 36 (7): 511-7. doi: ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) CROI 2013: CCR5/CCR2 Inhibitor Cenicriviroc Has Both Anti-HIV and Anti- ... HIV-infected patients taking cenicriviroc had significant reductions in viral load, with the effect persisting up to two weeks ... Inhibition of CCR2 may have an anti-inflammatory effect.[citation needed] A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled ...
Zhang, Heping; Zembower, David; Chen, Zhidong (1997). "Structural analogues of the michellamine anti-HIV agents. Importance of ... Michellamine B is particularly active against the NID-DZ strain of HIV-2, which is mainly found in West Africa. The National ... Additionally, novel alkaloids korupensamines A, B, C and D, with anti-malarial activity, have been isolated from the plant. ... atropisomeric alkaloids which have been found to inhibit HIV viral replication. ...
Zhang, Heping; Zembower, David; Chen, Zhidong (October 1997). "Structural analogues of the michellamine anti-HIV agents. ... They have a broad range of effectiveness in vitro across most HIV strains, particularly the HIV-2 strain, which is found ... Michellamines are a group of atropisomeric alkaloid which have been found to be HIV viral replication inhibitors in vitro. It ... michellamine B is the most active against the NID-DZ strain of HIV-2. Michellamine A and B occur naturally in Ancistrocladus ...
Jung M, Lee S, Kim H (June 2000). "Recent studies on natural products as anti-HIV agents". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 7 (6): ... This process has been proven through test on several envelop viruses such as HIV and HSV. Also, the isoforms of the fatty acid ... Activity-structure relationships to design new bioactive agents". Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening. 6 (6): ... anti-mycoplasma and hemolytic activities. The structure of the main congener consists of a peptide loop of seven amino acids (L ...
Zhan, Peng; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Xinyong (September 2010). "Cosalane and its analogues: a unique class of anti-HIV agents". Mini ... a Novel Anti-HIV Agent Which Inhibits Multiple Features of Virus Reproduction". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 37 (19): 3040- ... synthesis and evaluation of 6-aryl-indenoisoquinolone derivatives dual targeting ERα and VEGFR-2 as anti-breast cancer agents ... Some of the compounds his group prepared include: the antileukemic agent nitidine chloride (III); corydaline, which possesses ...
New York: W.H. Freeman (1997). Cragg, G. M.; Newman, D. J. (2003). "Plants as a source of anti-cancer and anti-HIV agents". ... they discovered the anti-HIV/AIDS properties of prostratin found in the bark of the mamala tree of Samoa. He was elected as ...
Anti-acne preparations, Anti-inflammatory agents, Hepatotoxins, Neuroprotective agents, NMDA receptor antagonists, PARP ... Copeland KF, Brooks JI (15 April 2010). "A Novel Use for an Old Drug: The Potential for Minocycline as Anti-HIV Adjuvant ... Minocycline significantly reduces concentrations of the anti-HIV drug atazanavir in the body. Minocycline is quickly and nearly ... Joks R, Durkin HG (December 2011). "Non-antibiotic properties of tetracyclines as anti-allergy and asthma drugs". Pharmacol. ...
Drug-resistant viruses are an inevitable consequence of prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to anti-HIV drugs. In the summer of 1981 ... This compound had been prepared in 1964 as a potential anti-cancer agent but was shown to be ineffective. In 1974 zidovudine ... The reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 has been the main foundation for the development of anti-HIV drugs. The first nucleoside ... "Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV", International Journal of Antimicrobial ...
It is a potential antichagonistic agent and has shown to possess neuroprotective effects as well. It is also found to have anti ... It has shown significant antiviral activity against human hepatitis B virus, HIV and SARS-CoV. Cubebin Marcotullio, Maria; ... Cao, Xue-li; Xu, Jing; Bai, Ge; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yan; Xiang, Jun-feng; Tang, Ya-lin (June 2013). "Isolation of anti-tumor ... It has also shown to reduce LPS induced nitric oxide production from macrophages.The anti-inflammatory property of hinokinin is ...
Other diarylpyrimidine-analogues are currently being used as anti-HIV agents, notably rilpivirine. In 2009, the prescribing ... Muresan-Pop, M.; Macavei, S.; Turza, A.; Borodi, G. (2021-11-01). "New solvates and a salt of the anti-HIV compound etravirine ... "Appendix A: Key to Acronyms". Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. ... Rajput, Lalit; Sanphui, Palash; Desiraju, Gautam R. (2013-08-07). "New Solid Forms of the Anti-HIV Drug Etravirine: Salts, ...
Trichostatin A (TSA) and others are being investigated as anti-inflammatory agents. After the successful initial round of in ... "Activation of HIV transcription with short-course vorinostat in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy". ... Adcock IM (April 2007). "HDAC inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents". British Journal of Pharmacology. 150 (7): 829-31. doi: ... The goal is for HDAC inhibitors to flush HIV from the reservoirs it builds within the DNA of infected cells, followed by a ...
... a model for in vitro testing of potential anti-HIV drugs". Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24 (2): 113-22. doi:10.1016/ ... Agents Chemother. 31 (9): 1369-74. doi:10.1128/aac.31.9.1369. PMC 174944. PMID 2445282. Salvatori D, Vincenzetti S, Maury G, ... "HIV-1-associated central nervous system dysfunction." Krebs FC, Ross H, McAllister J, Wigdahl B. Frank KB, McKernan PA, Smith ... The relationship of visna and HIV as lentiviruses was first published in 1985 by visna researcher Janice E. Clements and ...
"Histone deacetylase inhibitors as anti-neoplastic agents". Cancer Letters. 280 (2): 192-200. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2009.03.013. ... Depletion of Latent HIV in CD4 Cells - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Batty N, Malouf GG, Issa JP (August 2009). " ... In addition, a clinical trial is studying valproic acid effects on the latent pools of HIV in infected persons. HDIs are ... Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) have a long history of use in psychiatry and neurology as mood stabilizers and anti- ...
Novel 3,28-Disubstituted Betulinic Acid Derivatives as Potent Anti-HIV Agents Aims/Hypothesis Out-licensing. iptechex ... The effects of betulinic acid as an anticancer agent in breast cancer is found to be cannabinoid receptor dependent. Betulinic ... C-3 esterification of betulinic acid led to the discovery of bevirimat, an HIV-1 maturation inhibitor patented by Rhone-Poulenc ... Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid which has antiretroviral, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory ...
Percudani R, Montanini B, Ottonello S (September 2005). "The anti-HIV cyanovirin-N domain is evolutionarily conserved and ... Agents Chemother. 47 (8): 2518-2525. doi:10.1128/aac.47.8.2518-2525.2003. PMC 166092. PMID 12878514. Wlodawer A, Botos I, Boyd ... "Structures of the complexes of a potent anti-HIV protein cyanovirin-N and high mannose oligosaccharides". J. Biol. Chem. 277 ( ... Mori T, O'keefe BR, Smee DF, Turpin JA, Saucedo CJ, Gustafson KR, Blakeslee D, Buckheit R, Boyd MR (2003). "Potent anti- ...
McMahon, Moira (21 June 2007). "The Anti-Hepatitis B Drug Entecavir Inhibits HIV-1 Replication and Can Select HIV-1 Variants ... "Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents" (PDF). Panel on Antiretroviral ... but is not recommended for use in HIV-HBV co-infected patients without a fully suppressive anti-HIV regimen as it may select ... 1992). "4-Hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylenecyclopentyl purines and pyrimidines, a new class of anti-herpesvirus agents". ...
... s have been investigated as possible anti-inflammatory agents and evaluated on their anti-cancer and anti-oxidant ... June 2021). "Penetrating the Blood-Brain Barrier with New Peptide-Porphyrin Conjugates Having anti-HIV Activity". Bioconjugate ... Several porphyrin-peptide conjugates were found to have antiviral activity against HIV in vitro. Although not commercialized, ... antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of porphyrins". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 23 (10): 2529-2537. doi:10.1016 ...
The discovery of FTC was first published in 1992 in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy as another new anti-HIV compound. The ... Schinazi is best known for his involvement in the discovery and/or development of innovative anti-HIV, HBV, and HCV drugs on ... This drug became one of the most successful antiviral agents used to combat HIV as part of fixed-dose combinations (including ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 36 (3): 672-6. doi:10.1128/AAC.36.3.672. PMC 190578. PMID 1320365. "At gathering of HIV/ ...
1990). "Anti-AIDS agents, 2: Inhibitory effects of tannins on HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte ... HPLC determination Tannins, including gallo and ellagic acid (epigallitannins), are inhibitors of HIV replication. 1,3,4-Tri-O- ... Two compounds, punicalin and punicacortein C, inhibited purified HIV reverse transcriptase. Hydrolysable tannins have shown ... galloylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-galloyl-shikimic acid, 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylshikimic acid, punicalin, punicalagin inhibited HIV ...
... a novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy, in HIV-infected adults". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 42 (9 ... For HIV-1 infection, tenofovir is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for people 2 years of age and older ... In 1997 researchers from Gilead and the University of California, San Francisco demonstrated that tenofovir exhibits anti-HIV ... It does not cure HIV/AIDS or hepatitis B. It is available by mouth as a tablet or powder. Common side effects include nausea, ...
Two years later the etiology agent for AIDS, the HIV was described. HIV is a retrovirus and has two major serotypes, HIV-1 and ... De Clercq E (April 2009). "Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV". International ... The perfect anti-HIV drug chemical should be effective against drug resistance mutation. Understanding the target RT enzyme and ... Bal TR, Anand B, Yogeeswari P, Sriram D (October 2005). "Synthesis and evaluation of anti-HIV activity of isatin beta- ...
Other agents that have been proposed to target polyomavirus BK, such as cidofovir, fluoroquinolones, leflunomide, and statins ... For example, in severely immunocompromised HIV-patients, previously called AIDS-patients, immunologic function can be restored ... by treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. In kidney transplant recipients who are treated with immunosuppressive ... Also, some of these agents may cause severe long-lasting side effects.[citation needed] Huang, Gang; Chen, Li-Zhong; Qiu, Jiang ...
A new class of potent anti-HIV agents". Tetrahedron Letters. 40 (15): 2969-2972. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(99)00339-1.{{cite ... It exhibits anti-HIV activity in vitro. Xie FG, Li CJ, Yang JZ, Luo YM, Zhang DM (2012). "[data unknown/missing]" [Study on ...
Unfortunately, cancers treated with a variety of anti-cancer drugs can develop resistance to other cytotoxic agents. Drug ... She has worked on new drugs for the treatment of HIV, which work by blocking the action of ZMPSTE24. Hrycyna studies the post- ... "New clue for HIV drug side effects: study". Reuters. 2007-07-17. Retrieved 2019-04-04. Hrycyna, Christine. "Structure, Function ... Whilst it is understood that P-glycoproteins are important in the movement of pharmalogical agents, their mechanism as a drug ...
The method has been applied in the combination of anti-cancer drugs, anti-HIV agents, drug-radiation, and traditional Chinese ... With colleagues, T.C. Chou is inventor/co-inventor of 40 U.S. Patents, mainly for anticancer agents. He was induced to Johns ... where Dm equals to the anti-log of the x-intercept. This unique theory holds true for all dose-effect curves that follows the ...
that inhibits HIV-1 replication in vitro. During phase II clinical trials there was some indication of a decreased mean viral ... Dexelvucitabine is a failed experimental agent for the management of human immunodeficiency virus infection. It is a cytidine ... Ryder, Neil S (2007-12-01). "Discontinued drugs in 2006: anti-infectives". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 16 (12): ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 51 (6): 2130-2135. doi:10.1128/aac.01543-06. ISSN 0066-4804. PMC 1891415. PMID 17403996 ...
However, ingenol has been reported to encourage anti-HIV and anti-leukemia cellular activity that protects T-cells. In folk ... A 1961 study found that latex from various Euphorbia species, including E. candelabrum, is a potent tumor-promoting agent. ... Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Hak Sung; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Kim, Sung Soon (September 2011). "Ingenol Protects Human T Cells From HIV-1 ... malaria and HIV infections. It has the ability to be mixed with fat and applied topically to heal wounds, sores, and warts. E. ...
They were able to show that indinavir, when used with two other anti-HIV drugs, could significantly reduce the HIV viral load. ... 97 patients were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: indinavir monotherapy, AZT and lamivudine, or all three agents. ... Indinavir does not cure HIV/AIDS, but it can extend the length of a person's life for several years by slowing the progression ... Consequently, HIV viruses cannot reproduce, causing a decrease in the viral load. Commercially sold indinavir is indinavir ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X ... HIV in the WHO African Region Progress towards achieving Universal Access to priority health sector interventions: 2013 UPDATE ... Male circumcision for HIV prevention - implementing the 2017-2021 framework for voluntary medical male circumcision 27 February ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X ... HIV in the WHO African Region Progress towards achieving Universal Access to priority health sector interventions: 2013 UPDATE ... Male circumcision for HIV prevention - implementing the 2017-2021 framework for voluntary medical male circumcision 27 February ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X ... HIV in the WHO African Region Progress towards achieving Universal Access to priority health sector interventions: 2013 UPDATE ... Male circumcision for HIV prevention - implementing the 2017-2021 framework for voluntary medical male circumcision 27 February ...
The results of the in vitro tests showed that some of them were highly effective inhibitors of HIV-1 replication at 30-50 nM ... concentrations with minimal cytotoxicity, thereby acting as non-nucleoside HIV-1 r … ... 3-thiazolidin-4-ones were synthesized and evaluated as anti-HIV agents. ... Synthesis of new 2,3-diaryl-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones as anti-HIV agents Farmaco. 2004 Jan;59(1):33-9. doi: 10.1016/j.farmac. ...
... and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance. by UNAIDS , World Health Organization , International HIV/AIDS Alliance. ... Text; Format: print Publication details: Genève : ONUSIDA, 2003Title translated: Handbook on access to HIV/AIDS-related ... by UNAIDS , World Health Organization , International HIV/AIDS Alliance.. Series: ONUSIDA collection meilleures pratiques. ... Handbook on access to HIV/AIDS-related treatment : a collection of information, tools and other resources for NGOs, CBOs ...
of HIV/AIDS.. Series: Perspectives and practice in antiretroviral treatmentMaterial type: Text; Format: print Publication ... of HIV/AIDS.. Series: Traitements antirétroviraux : perspectives et réalitéMaterial type: Text; Format: print Publication ...
Founded in 2006, Affinity Biosciences is committed to providing the best quality primary antibody|secondary antibody|peptide|reagent kit|inhibitor|antibody customization|antibody query for the world, the phosphorylated antibody has become the name card of the affinity brand. - Affinity Biosciences,Cell Signal Transduction Research
Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. To Top ... HIV- negative test at time of enrollment (per testing algorithm). *No clinical symptoms of acute HIV infection including fever ... Proportion of men who have sex with men, female sex workers and young women at high risk of HIV enrolled into a HIV combination ... Demonstrating Effective Delivery of Daily Oral HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis as Part of HIV Combination Prevention Intervention ...
In: AIDS: anti-HIV agents, therapies and vaccines. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;616:287--98. ... Antiretroviral Agents for PEP Antiretroviral agents from three classes of drugs are available for the treatment of HIV ... Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected ... HIV p24 antigen EIA or tests for HIV RNA or HCV RNA) for routine HIV or HCV screening of source persons are not recommended. ...
Comparative study of the anti-HIV activities of ascorbate and thiol-containing reducing agents in chronically HIV-infected ... Comparative study of the anti-HIV activities of ascorbate and thiol-containing reducing ag ... and two thiol-based reducing agents [glutathione (GSH) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)] against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV ... had no effect on RT concentrations and did not potentiate the anti-HIV effect of AA. These results further support the potent ...
... excellent response to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS) ... Human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] (2 types occur, both with noninflammatory, sterile joint fluid) ... Staphylococcus aureus remains the most common infectious agent in people who abuse intravenous drugs. However, a high rate of ...
HIV disease is caused by infection with HIV-1 or HIV-2, which are retroviruses in the Retrovir... ... HIV) is a blood-borne virus typically transmitted via sexual intercourse, shared intravenous drug paraphernalia, and mother-to- ... This is the first agent in the new anti-HIV class called fusion inhibitors. Indicated for use in combination with other ... Antiretroviral Agent, Fusion Inhibitor. Class Summary. These agents disrupt the ability of HIV to fuse with and infect healthy ...
They do not cure HIV, but fight the infection. Learn more about these medicines. ... There are several different types of HIV medicines. ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Anti-HIV Agents (National Institutes of ... How do HIV medicines work?. HIV medicines reduce the amount of HIV (viral load) in your body, which helps by:. *Giving your ... What are HIV PrEP and PEP medicines?. HIV medicines are not just used for treatment. Some people take them to prevent HIV. PrEP ...
... patients agreed to begin appropriate second-line and third-line anti-TB treatment. All anti-TB treatment regimens were ... early drug susceptibility testing for first-line and second line agents; improvement in adherence for second-line TB drugs; ... For HIV, these include more rapid HIV testing for early initiation of ART, appropriate monitoring of CD4 T-cell counts, HIV ... HIV status was not associated with a higher mortality rate or culture conversion, but among HIV-infected XDR TB patients, ...
Anti-HIV Agents [‎3]‎. Anti-Retroviral Agents [‎3]‎. * * Browsing Publications by Subject * IRIS Home ...
... , Acute Retroviral Syndrome, Acute HIV Infection, HIV New Diagnosis, Primary HIV Infection. ... HIV related disease. *Occult infection (especially if CD4 Count, 200 cells). *Anti-microbial agents (Drug Reaction in HIV). * ... HIV Presentation. Aka: HIV Presentation, Acute Retroviral Syndrome, Acute HIV Infection, HIV New Diagnosis, Primary HIV ... Infezione acuta con HIV. Dutch. HIV-seroconversieziekte, acute infectie met HIV, Acuut HIV-infectiesyndroom, acute HIV-infectie ...
Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Health-Care Worker Exposures to HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure ... In: AIDS: anti-HIV agents, therapies and vaccines. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;100;616:287-98. * Tsai C-C, Follis KE, Sabo A, et al. ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) following occupational HIV exposure: findings from the HIV ... for reporting unusual or severe toxicity to anti- retroviral agents) CDC (for reporting HIV Telephone: (404)639-6425 ...
indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of HIV Infections, Genital Herpes, and Herpes Labialis ... Anti-Bacterial Agents, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antihypertensive Agents, Antioxidants, Antiviral Agents, Immunomodulatory ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Fibrotic, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antioxidants, NF-kappaB Inhibitor, Renoprotective ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Anticholesteremic Agents, Hypolipidemic, NF-kappaB Inhibitor, Tumor ...
239000002259 anti human immunodeficiency virus agent Substances 0.000 claims description 10 * 230000036436 anti-hiv Effects ... 102000000642 HIV Integrase Human genes 0.000 title description 4 * 108010002459 HIV Integrase Proteins 0.000 title description ... 239000003443 antiviral agent Substances 0.000 claims description 3 * 238000006243 chemical reaction Methods 0.000 description ... 239000007800 oxidant agent Substances 0.000 description 6 * KDLHZDBZIXYQEI-UHFFFAOYSA-N palladium Substances data:image/svg+xml ...
Anti-Infective Agents Medicine & Life Sciences 92% * HIV-1 Medicine & Life Sciences 78% ... Infectivity of HIV-1 and HIV-1 load in breast milk were determined after treatment. Results: SDS (≥0.1%) was virucidal against ... Infectivity of HIV-1 and HIV-1 load in breast milk were determined after treatment. Results: SDS (≥0.1%) was virucidal against ... Infectivity of HIV-1 and HIV-1 load in breast milk were determined after treatment. Results: SDS (≥0.1%) was virucidal against ...
We recommend that HIV programs urgently synergize with social protection sectors and address these children with HIV testing ... This paper estimates the country burden of HIV in older children and investigates the prevalence of HIV in orphans and ... The empirical data from almost 10,000 OVC under 18 years showed 11.9% were HIV-positive, the majority of whom were between 5 ... There is a large population of children living with HIV in Ethiopia, the magnitude of which has not been previously recognized ...
Drug therapies for these complications include anti-infective agents to treat maternal infection and prevent neonatal diseases ... antiretrovirals to reduce perinatal HIV-1 transmission from the mother to the fetus; corticosteroids to prevent fetal lung ... Oxytocin is a uterotonic agent, and it induces or augments labor. Pain is a frequent occurrence that requires drug therapy at ...
HIV, Anti-HIV Agents/standards, Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use, AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control, ... Seção da página Medical News Today que publica notícias sobre HIV e AIDS: medicamentos anti-retrovirais, medidas preventivas, ... It presents informations about the HIV and the transmission of leishmania and the change of the epidemiology of visceral ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections, HIV, Leishmaniasis/epidemiology, Epidemiology The identification and variability of the ...
... or anti-PD-L2 agent.. * Known history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies). ... Received prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, ... with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or ...
CytoDyn Announces Positive Interim Results From Its Treatment Substitution Study in Patients With HIV - read this article along ... CytoDyn intends to continue to develop PRO 140 as a therapeutic anti-viral agent in persons infected with HIV. For more ... HIV). The Company has one of the leading mAbs under development for HIV infection, PRO 140, which is a Late Stage 2 humanized ... As only HIV patients who have R5 virus exclusively can benefit from PRO 140, each patient is required to take a DNA Trofile ...
Mice treated with 120 mg/kg of geraniol for four weeks showed increased anti-oxidative defenses with no signs of liver toxicity ... Mice treated with 120 mg/kg of geraniol for 4 weeks showed increased anti-oxidati... ... Geraniol is a natural monoterpene showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer effects. No ... Geraniol is a natural monoterpene showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer effects. No ...
keywords = "Adolescent, Adult, Anti-HIV Agents, Atazanavir Sulfate, Australia, Europe, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate, HIV ... AU - Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study ... Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study, Zaccarelli, M., Antinori, A., Acinapura, R. A., & DOffizi, ... Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study, Zaccarelli, M, Antinori, A, Acinapura, RA & DOffizi, G 2016 ...
... gene expression and antioxidant and anti-pigmentation properties using cell proliferation assay, Western blotting analysis, ... numerous researchers have suggested that EGCG could be used as an anti-HIV agent, anti-inflammatory compound, or protector from ... epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea as a candidate anti-HIV agent. AIDS 2002, 16, 939-941. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [ ... but also as an anti-wrinkle agent.. When skin is exposed to UV, oxidative stress, or environmental pollutants, free radical and ...
DG03107 Anti-HIV agent. DG01656 HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Transporter substrate. DG02860 SLC22A8 substrate. ... DG03107 Anti-HIV agent. D01199 Emtricitabine. Antimicrobials [BR:br08307]. Antivirals. Genome replication inhibitor. HIV ... DG03107 Anti-HIV agent. DG01656 HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor. D01199 Emtricitabine. Transporter substrate. DG02860 ... Anti-HIV Agents, Nucleoside and Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI). Emtricitabine. D01199 Emtricitabine (JAN/ ...
  • Handbook on access to HIV/AIDS-related treatment : a collection of information, tools and other resources for NGOs, CBOs andPLHA groups / produced by UNAIDS, WHO, and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance. (who.int)
  • International HIV/AIDS Alliance. (who.int)
  • Without treatment, HIV can gradually destroy the immune system and advance to AIDS. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Background: Reducing transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk is needed to help decrease the burden of pediatric HIV/AIDS in society. (elsevier.com)
  • Seção da página Medical News Today que publica notícias sobre HIV e AIDS: medicamentos anti-retrovirais, medidas preventivas, opções de tratamento e co-infecções, incluindo tuberculose. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dr. Nader Pourhassan, President and CEO, commented, "Currently, there are over 30 drugs approved for HIV/AIDS treatment, but all are believed to have common problems such as drug resistance, side effects with long-term morbidities and a requirement for daily, life-long adherence. (biospace.com)
  • Patients should be counseled that oral contraceptives do not protect against transmission of HIV (AIDS) and other sexually trans mitted diseases (STDs ) such as Chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, and syphilis. (nih.gov)
  • Brockmeyer NH, Mertins L, Goos M. Pharmacokinetic interaction of antimicrobial agents with levomethadone in drug-addicted AIDS patients. (adicciones.es)
  • He is a HIV/AIDS denialist [2] who believes nutritional deficiencies are the causative agents of all illnesses, and has accordingly promoted fringe, diet-based treatment regimes for curing AIDS and other illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study was to assess traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) utilization pattern among HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. (hindawi.com)
  • TCAM utilization among HIV/AIDS patients on ART was common and different sources and types were used alongside ART, with improvement reported by most. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients with HIV/AIDS commonly look for some kind of alternative or complementary therapy parallel to their conventional therapy. (hindawi.com)
  • Different CAM modalities are taken by HIV/AIDS patients in addition to the principal ART regimen. (hindawi.com)
  • TM practices are commonly employed in the management of HIV/AIDS and HIV related illnesses in Ethiopia either using plant medicines or faith healing. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the observed widespread use of TCAM in the management of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia, studies documenting this practice among patients on ART are almost nonexistent based on the literature review done. (hindawi.com)
  • While patients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) won't develop full-blown AIDS, lurking HIV can lead to more insidious effects such as accelerated aging, heart attacks or diabetes that start earlier in life than people without HIV and other inflammatory dysfunctions. (ucsf.edu)
  • The Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) is funding an ambitious effort based in San Francisco to eliminate HIV from those who are infected. (ucsf.edu)
  • The Foundation for AIDS Research's (amfAR) $20 million grant to seek a cure for HIV aims to accomplish four broad goals: chart, understand, record and eradicate elusive reservoirs of HIV-harboring T cells. (ucsf.edu)
  • Current HIV-AIDS treatments center on antiretroviral drugs that, when taken in combination for all of a patient's life, can prevent the growth of the virus but not kill or cure it. (sciencecodex.com)
  • The HIV-AIDS pandemic persists. (sciencecodex.com)
  • They integrated university-, government-, and industry-based researchers from the United States and Canada in a combined effort to define the testable prospects of this novel treatment strategy for HIV-AIDS. (sciencecodex.com)
  • According to the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) report, around 30.8 million adults and 3.4 million children were living with HIV at the end of 2010. (scirp.org)
  • The primary goal of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) is to prolong life, reduce HIV related mortality and morbidity in people living with HIV/AIDS. (scirp.org)
  • Eliminating HIV & AIDS in India: A roadmap to zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination & zero AIDS-related deaths. (edu.au)
  • Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • According to Dr. Dlamini, "AMR puts at risk decades of advances to control infectious diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted infections. (who.int)
  • Six infectious diseases -- pneumonia, tuberculosis, diarrheal diseases, malaria, measles and HIV/AIDS -- account for half of all premature deaths worldwide. (malaria.com)
  • Blood specimens are processed, stored, and shipped to the Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • An uncommon but potential y lized to act as an alkylating agent, Infection with HIV-1 is the cause of dangerous side effect of immuno- causes acute myeloid leukaemia and the acquired immune deficiency syn- suppression to support organ trans- carcinoma of the urinary bladder in drome (AIDS). (who.int)
  • The severe immune plants is that suppression of the patients in whom it has been used deficiency that is characteristic of immune response can allow occult as an antineoplastic agent ( IARC, AIDS results from a deficiency in tumours or metastatic tumour cel s 2012b ). (who.int)
  • This is a qualitative study based on the testimony of directors of organizations addressing HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although the manifestations of stigma and discrimination related to HIV/AIDS have decreased in the Dominican Republic in comparison to past decades, ignorance and lack of supervision from government authorities foster that people with HIV do not receive adequate health services and the protection of their right to employment. (bvsalud.org)
  • In any effort being made to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS it is evident that stigma and the associated discrimination are obstacles for prevention programs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Patients with HIV/AIDS are also at increased risk of developing Kaposi sarcoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this article is to present two cases of Kaposi sarcoma in the hard palate of HIV/AIDS male patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Kaposi sarcoma is one of the first recognized opportunistic diseases in HIV infection and is still the most common malignancy associated with AIDS 32 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Effective antiretroviral therapy is the most important intervention in terms of improving longevity and preventing opportunistic infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (medscape.com)
  • The loss of these cells makes it hard for your body to fight off infections and certain HIV-related cancers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Even though there is still some HIV in your body, your immune system should be strong enough to fight off infections and certain HIV-related cancers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The study also notes increases in HIV-1 infections in several U.S. cities in the U.S. and worldwide. (sciencecodex.com)
  • At the end of 2012, an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, including 156,300 (12.8 percent) whose infections were not diagnosed, according to the Centers for Disease Control. (sciencecodex.com)
  • These properties can lower susceptibility to infections associated to the formation of stomach ulcers, as well as viruses like HIV. (davidwolfe.com)
  • Encourages diagnostic testing for monkeypox, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections in every sexually active person for whom monkeypox is suspected. (cdc.gov)
  • As a result of drug resistance, antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents become ineffective, and infections become difficult or impossible to treat, increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness, and death. (who.int)
  • 4 It is being investigated for use in HIV-1 infections. (drugbank.com)
  • High mortality rates have been reported for patients co-infected with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and HIV, but treatment outcomes have not been reported. (cdc.gov)
  • It presents information on the concomitant therapy for HIV and tuberculosis with rifamycins. (bvsalud.org)
  • Achieving development goals for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through integrated antenatal care: barriers and challenges. (edu.au)
  • ADRs were high among HIV-positive patients (82.9%), mainly due to anti-tuberculosis drugs. (who.int)
  • M. tuberculosis kills more people than any other single infectious agent. (who.int)
  • Due to demographic factors, socio-economic trends, neglected tuberculosis control in many countries, and in addition, the HIV epidemic, there are many more smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases, often undiagnosed and/or untreated. (who.int)
  • Implementing Collaborative TB-HIV Activities: A Programmatic Guide, from the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. (cdc.gov)
  • HIV), tuberculosis and syphilis (REIS et al. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objectives of the study were to determine the AMR patterns of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates to antimicrobial agents in patients with HIV or high risk of HIV acquisition, to compare the concordance of disk diffusion and agar dilution as methods for determining AMR to N. gonorrhoeae, and to describe methodological challenges to carrying out AMR testing. (cam.ac.uk)
  • So, just like with virtually all antimicrobial agents, resistance developed to these same second-line drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • In this capacity, he coordinated agency efforts that addressed emerging resistance to antimicrobial agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Bell is also a clinical assistant professor of pediatric infectious diseases at Emory University School of Medicine, co-chairs the U.S. Federal Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, and is a member of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Anti-Infective Drug Advisory Committee, and the American Veterinary Medical Association's Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • AMR (Anti-Microbial Resistance) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites no longer respond to antimicrobial agents. (who.int)
  • Program and abstracts of the 42nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Diego, CA . Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 2002. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Daily oral PrEP will be delivered to men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs) and young women (YW) as part of a defined package of HIV combination prevention intervention for 12 months in 5 sites in Kenya. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The actual cost of delivering HIV combination prevention which includes PrEP will also be assessed and cost effectiveness modeled. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 5 sites (2 government and 3 non-governmental) have been purposively selected for the demonstration because they serve high risk populations, have existing HIV prevention services and have adequate cohort of HIV negative clients who are potential candidates for PrEP. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • HIV prevention packages, provider training, quality management and service delivery guidelines and standard operating guidelines will be developed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Introduction: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an evolving new approach to prevention of sexually transmitted HIV-1 that employs antiretroviral (ARV) agents prior to potential HIV-1 exposure in an attempt to reduce the likelihood of HIV-1 infection postexposure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A longitudinal cohort study of HIV 'treatment as prevention' in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: the Treatment with Antiretrovirals and their Impact on Positive And Negative men (TAIPAN) study protocol. (edu.au)
  • Allocative and implementation efficiency in HIV prevention and treatment for people who inject drugs. (edu.au)
  • A 'test and treat' prevention strategy in Australia requires innovative HIV testing models: a cohort study of repeat testing among 'high-risk' men who have sex with men. (edu.au)
  • Working Together with Businesses: Guidance on TB and TB/HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care in the Workplace, from the World Health Organization, UNAIDS, and the International Labour Organization. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, infection fector cells or from blockage of intra- of action associated with oncogenic with certain pathogens, such as hu- cel ular pathways essential for anti- viruses, may escape immune sur- man immunodeficiency virus type 1 gen recognition or of other elements veillance in immunosuppressed indi- (HIV-1) or malaria parasites, is per- of the immune response. (who.int)
  • This is a new technology: no adenovirus vector vaccines for other diseases are yet widely available, though vaccines for HIV, influenza, Ebola and malaria using this platform are in clinical trials and an Ebola vaccine has been briefly deployed. (allianceforscience.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus remains the most common infectious agent in people who abuse intravenous drugs. (medscape.com)
  • Many of the antiretroviral drugs that have been approved for HIV-infected adults and adolescents are gaining FDA approval for use in younger children. (medscape.com)
  • Recommendations for PEP have been modified to include a basic 4-week regimen of two drugs (zidovudine and lamivudine) for most HIV exposures and an expanded regimen that includes the addition of a protease inhibitor (indinavir or nelfinavir) for HIV exposures that pose an increased risk for transmission or where resistance to one or more of the antiretroviral agents recommended for PEP is known or suspected. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the provisional recommendations were released, several new antiretroviral drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and more information is available about the use and safety of antiretroviral agents in exposed HCWs (7-10). (cdc.gov)
  • Active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 2 years (i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs). (moffitt.org)
  • FICO P TABLET is a combination of Aceclofenac and Paracetamol, which belongs to the group of medicines called Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (netmeds.com)
  • The data demonstrate that CRF63_02A6 HIV-1 isolated strains and infectious molecular clones are relevant and complementary tools for assessing efficacy of developing drugs aimed at suppressing HIV- 1, including non-nucleoside-resistant virus reverse transcriptase inhibitors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Despite the absence of clinical evidences regarding some potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, preliminar information reported by researchers suggest anyhow further studies in order to evaluate the clinical effects as well as the possibility to synthesize derivatives with stronger antiretroviral properties. (thieme-connect.de)
  • By integrating into the genome of immune cells, known as memory T cells, HIV stays hidden as a piece of DNA in cellular reservoirs that drugs find difficult to destroy. (ucsf.edu)
  • The discovery raises the hope that HIV may not be able to develop resistance against this novel class of drugs," said study co-author Paul Palumbo of Dartmouth's Geisel School of Medicine. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Regulatory guidelines for developing new antiviral drugs for HIV focus on inhibiting viral production and avoid using agents that kill cells that are actively or latently HIV-infected. (sciencecodex.com)
  • That's why this group of researchers is focused on developing protocols for already approved drugs used for other medical treatments that show promise in eradicating HIV-infected cells, and on testing new combinations of those drugs for novel treatment protocols. (sciencecodex.com)
  • In addition, they are not only the targets of ~30% of all approved drugs but also the main coreceptors for HIV infection. (uni-ulm.de)
  • In Morocco, TDM is not routinely used, yet low levels of anti-TB drugs can be associated with poorer treatment outcomes.Methods: We retrospectively checked our archives for patients with active TB for whom TDM was performed during 2014. (bvsalud.org)
  • And since then, about 10 different classes of anti-TB drugs have been developed. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, in those outbreaks, death was strongly associated with drug-resistance to the two main, first-line anti-TB drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • So, the new definition of XDR TB is TB that's resistant to the 2 main first-line drugs - isoniazid and rifampin - and, in addition, is resistant to the two most important groups of second-line drugs - fluoroquinolones and injectable agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the traditional mainstay of therapy, data suggest that colchicine, administered at a dosage of 0.6 mg twice daily for 90 days, is more likely to prevent recurrent idiopathic pericarditis. (medscape.com)
  • The anti-infective drugs market will jump to $66 billion by 2013, according to a recently published report. (malaria.com)
  • Anti-infective drugs include: anti-viral therapeutics, antibiotics, anti-fungal agents and prophylactic treatments such as vaccines. (malaria.com)
  • Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) undergo extensive therapy with antiretroviral nucleoside analog drugs, among which Zidovudine (AZT) is used the most frequently. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the indictment, from at least May 2011 until February 2019, Lee wrote prescriptions for Serostim to HIV patients, who obtained the drugs and used their Medicare Part D benefits to pay for the drugs. (lawfuel.com)
  • 8. Previous administration of any antiretroviral drugs (e.g., antiretroviral drugs for HIV, HBV, or HCV) within 7 days before randomization. (who.int)
  • Prophylactic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) were initiated in 44 (79%) patients. (who.int)
  • 5,6] therapeutic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) use within the PICU. (who.int)
  • Anticholinergic agents may potentially alter the absorption of some concomitantly administered drugs due to effects of gastrointestinal motility. (nih.gov)
  • These results further support the potent antiviral activity of ascorbate and suggest its therapeutic value in controlling HIV infection in combination with thiols . (bvsalud.org)
  • Major aim of the Institute of Molecular Virology, headed by Jan Münch and Frank Kirchhoff, is achieving a better understanding of the molecular properties of HIV-1 and other pathogenic viruses with the ultimate aim to improve preventive and therapeutic strategies. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. (researchgate.net)
  • as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. (researchgate.net)
  • The results of the in vitro tests showed that some of them were highly effective inhibitors of HIV-1 replication at 30-50 nM concentrations with minimal cytotoxicity, thereby acting as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). (nih.gov)
  • Attachment inhibitors bind to a specific protein on the outer surface of HIV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to screen a number of relevant polyphenols to develop a rational approach for designing PAP 248-286 aggregation inhibitors as potential anti-HIV agents. (simulations-plus.com)
  • Some arylpyridodiazepine and thidiazepine derivatives are highly selective HIV-1 inhibitors [ 13 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • However, limited evidence exists for other clinically approved anti-retroviral protease inhibitors that may bind more efficiently to Mpro from SARS-CoV-2 and block its replication. (openaire.eu)
  • Ca-ascorbate reduced extracellular HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) activity by about the same magnitude as the equivalent dose of AA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Increasing Prevalence of Synonymous Mutations K65K and K66K in HIV-1 subtype B reverse transcriptase. (edu.au)
  • Qualilife diagnostic operates under the medical guidance of Dr. Roopa Viswanathan, who is responsible for study interpretations in accordance to the current CLSI, IDSA and BSAC guidelines for diagnosis of infectious diseases and anti-microbial testing. (qualilifediagnostics.com)
  • At Qualilife Diagnostics, a state- of- the- art centre has been developed which caters not only to the diagnosis of culprit infectious agent, but also suggests the appropriate patient management option. (qualilifediagnostics.com)
  • In addition, this report outlines several special circumstances (e.g., delayed exposure report, unknown source person, pregnancy in the exposed person, resistance of the source virus to antiretroviral agents, or toxicity of the PEP regimen) when consultation with local experts and/or the National Clinicians' Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Hotline ([PEPline] 1-888-448-4911) is advised. (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) has published previous guidelines for the management of HIV exposures that included considerations for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) ( 3 -- 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) is for people who don't already have HIV but are at very high risk of getting it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) is for people who have possibly been exposed to HIV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • it includes recommendations for HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) and discusses the scientific rationale for PEP. (cdc.gov)
  • The decision to recommend HIV postexposure prophylaxis must take into account the nature of the exposure (e.g., needlestick or potentially infectious fluid that comes in contact with a mucous membrane) and the amount of blood or body fluid involved in the exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • In January 1990, CDC issued a statement on the management of HIV exposures that included considerations for zidovudine (ZDV) use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) (1). (cdc.gov)
  • There was considerable variation in the approach to both prophylaxis and maintenance therapy of PTS in terms of choice of agent, dosage, frequency of drug monitoring and approach to subtherapeutic levels. (who.int)
  • At that time, data were insufficient to assess the efficacy of ZDV as a prophylactic agent in humans or the toxicity of this drug in persons not infected with HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • The major protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is considered a promising target for drug interventions, based on results from related CoVs with lopinavir (LPV) an HIV protease inhibitor, that that can inhibit the Mpro of 2002 SARS-CoV. (openaire.eu)
  • Since publication of the 1998 HIV exposure guidelines ( 5 ), several new antiretroviral agents have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and more information is available about the use and safety of HIV PEP ( 6--11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, questions exist regarding considerations about PEP regimens when the source person's virus is known or suspected to be resistant to one or more of the antiretroviral agents that might be used for PEP. (cdc.gov)
  • Antiretroviral agents with long-acting properties have potential to improve treatment outcomes substantially for people living with HIV. (elsevier.com)
  • Inopha is supplier of Bictegravir API powder, raw material of drug to treat HIV infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents. (inopha.net)
  • Is currently participating and receiving study therapy or has participated in a study of an investigational agent and received study therapy or used an investigational device within 4 weeks of the first dose of treatment. (mountsinai.org)
  • 6. Allergic to the investigational agent or any components of the formulation. (who.int)
  • and six exclusion requirements: energetic CNS disease, leptomeningeal seeding (LMS), prior usage of docetaxel, autoimmune disease, steroid make use of above a particular dose described in the trial, and encounter with an investigational agent. (ecologicalsgardens.com)
  • In August 2019, Nektar Therapeutics and Bristol-Myers Squibb announced that the US FDA has granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation for investigational agent bempegaldesleukin (NKTR-214) in combination with Bristol-Myers Squibb's Opdivo® (nivolumab) for the treatment of patients with previously untreated unresectable or metastatic melanoma. (secunderabadchronicle.in)
  • Occupational exposures should be considered urgent medical concerns to ensure timely postexposure management and administration of HBIG, hepatitis B vaccine, and/or HIV PEP. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the founding of the American colonies, anti-vaccine sentiments have been widely expressed," notes Dr. Peter J. Hotez, co-director of the Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development. (nbcnews.com)
  • Dr. Paul Offit, director of the Vaccine Education Center at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, pinpoints the birth of the modern American anti-vaccine movement in 1982 with the release of the production, which he says led to a flood of lawsuits against pharmaceutical companies and advocacy groups spreading misinformation that vaccines do more harm than good. (nbcnews.com)
  • Medications have been discovered that slow down the HIV virus, but neither a cure or a vaccine for HIV has been discovered that worked. (tribulation101.com)
  • Safety and immunogenicity of a polyvalent peptide C4-V3 HIV vaccine in conjunction with IL-12. (rush.edu)
  • A sound rationale needed for phase III HIV-1 vaccine trials. (rush.edu)
  • The project will be undertaken in 3 counties of Kenya (Nairobi, Kisumu and Homa Bay) that have high HIV prevalence. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This paper estimates the country burden of HIV in older children and investigates the prevalence of HIV in orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) households. (msh.org)
  • After Haiti, the Dominican Republic has the highest numbers in HIV prevalence in the Caribbean and Latin American region. (bvsalud.org)
  • According to the demographic and health survey of 2002 carried out by ENDESA (Spanish acronym for the Demographic and Health Survey), HIV prevalence is of 1% between the ages of 15-49. (bvsalud.org)
  • The findings, published May 18 in the scientific journal PLOS ONE , point to development of a promising HIV treatment that could destroy the HIV DNA harbored in HIV-infected cells. (sciencecodex.com)
  • A higher number of deaths occurred among HIV-positive patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy and among patients who did not show sputum culture conversion. (cdc.gov)
  • Pharmacokinetic interactions of zidovudine and methadone on intravenous drug-using patients with HIV infection. (adicciones.es)
  • VBDS is rare in patients with HIV infection, and only one case has been reported in the literature, that of an HIV patient with advanced disease and cytomegalovirus infection. (health.am)
  • Dotting the Three I's for collaborative TB-HIV activities: evaluation of a pilot programme in Kathmandu, Nepal. (edu.au)
  • We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which EGCG promotes skin hydration by measuring hyaluronic acid synthase ( HAS ) and hyaluronidase ( HYAL ) gene expression and antioxidant and anti-pigmentation properties using cell proliferation assay, Western blotting analysis, luciferase assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. (mdpi.com)
  • Quantifying adaptive and innate immune responses in HIV-infected participants using a novel high throughput assay. (edu.au)
  • The VITROS Anti-HBs Quantitative assay is performed using the VITROS Anti-HBs Quantitative Reagent Pack and VITROS Immunodiagnostic Products Anti-HBs Calibrators on the VITROS ECi/ECiQ Immunodiagnostic System. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC guidelines recommend testing for HIV infection with a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antigen/antibody immunoassay that detects HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and the HIV-1 p24 antigen, with supplemental testing after a reactive assay result to differentiate between HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Known history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies). (moffitt.org)
  • If supplemental testing for HIV-1/HIV-2 antibodies shows nonreactive or indeterminant results (or if acute HIV infection or recent exposure is suspected or reported), an HIV-1 nucleic acid test is recommended to differentiate acute HIV-1 infection from a false-positive test result. (medscape.com)
  • Zhai Y, Zhong Z, Zariffard M, Spear GT, Qiao L. Bovine papillomavirus-like particles presenting conserved epitopes from membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 gp41 induced mucosal and systemic antibodies. (rush.edu)
  • It has been studied and shown to possess antiviral activity against HIV, CMV, RSV, H1N1 and SARS-CoV . (dadamo.com)
  • In addition, acetylcysteine has inhibited viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates, thereby producing antiviral activity in HIV patients. (wellnesscenter.net)
  • Nowhere is this threat more pressing than in South Africa, where drug-resistant TB and HIV have converged in a deadly syndemic defined by increased incidences of TB and HIV ( 4 ), endemic transmission of drug-resistant TB strains ( 5 ), high mortality rates ( 6 ), and poor treatment outcomes ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Frequency and Env determinants of HIV-1 subtype C strains from antiretroviral therapy-naive subjects that display incomplete inhibition by maraviroc. (edu.au)
  • TMC-310911 has shown marked activity against a variety of HIV-1 strains, including multi-PI-resistant strains, and may be less likely to generate resistance, making it a potentially desirable therapy for both treatment-naive and PI-experienced patients. (drugbank.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Whether or not the association between some antiretrovirals used in HIV infection and chronic kidney disease is cumulative is a controversial topic, especially in patients with initially normal renal function. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, VBDS should be considered in all HIV patients with chronic cholestasis, especially those with a history of nevirapine use. (health.am)
  • As elsewhere, due to scarcity of data and limited awareness of HIV infection, especially in older children, the HIV epidemic among Ethiopian children appears neglected in national programs (children ART coverage is of only 12% in 2013). (msh.org)
  • In response to the epidemic, tremendous efforts have been done to control the infection starting from the first HIV case. (scirp.org)
  • Facing the changes in the spread of the epidemic I propose some reflections on gender and HIV, and suggest how to reinforce existing positive initiatives and the adoption of new ones. (bvsalud.org)
  • HIV stigma and discrimination are a constant reason for pain and sadness for HIV positive people and they contribute to silence, and as a consequence, the expansion of the epidemic. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this paper is to present two cases of Kaposi sarcoma in its epidemic form in HIV positive patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • LOS ANGELES - Powered by LawFuel - A doctor who operates a medical clinic in West Hollywood where he specializes in treating HIV patients has been taken into custody pursuant to federal charges that allege he engaged in a long-running scheme to defraud health insurance companies in connection with the brand-name human growth hormone Serostim. (lawfuel.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Voriconazole (VRZ) is a second-generation triazole antifungal agent with broad-spectrum activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • It presents informations about the HIV and the transmission of leishmania and the change of the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Interestingly, the points anti-vaxxers made in the 1800s are not much different from points being made today," notes Elizabeth Jacobs, a professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at the University of Arizona. (nbcnews.com)
  • Epidemiology of HPV Genotypes among HIV Positive Women in Kenya: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (edu.au)
  • Resistance commonly develops when treating HIV with widely used antiretrovirals. (sciencecodex.com)
  • The anti-HIV effect of deferiprone persisted after the drug was stopped - "an effect quite different from all current antiretrovirals," the researchers said. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Despite the invention of several chemotherapeutic agents, still treatment of cancer is a major challenge, because of multi-drug resistance, toxicity or poor bioavailability. (researchsquare.com)
  • Immune globulin and antiviral agents (e.g., interferon with or without ribavirin) are not recommended for PEP of hepatitis C. For HCV postexposure management, the HCV status of the source and the exposed person should be determined, and for HCP exposed to an HCV positive source, follow-up HCV testing should be performed to determine if infection develops. (cdc.gov)
  • Although preventing blood exposures is the primary means of preventing occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, appropriate postexposure management is an important element of workplace safety. (cdc.gov)
  • In cases of HIV -associated pericarditis, appropriate antibiotics or antivirals for targeting the infection should be used. (medscape.com)
  • TMC-310911 is currently being investigated, in combination with other HIV therapies and antivirals, as a potential treatment for COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. (drugbank.com)
  • The treatment of HIV with medicines is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). (medlineplus.gov)
  • 82 (73%) were HIV positive and 50 (61%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • The global epicenter of the XDR TB and HIV syndemic is KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa, where nearly 400 XDR TB patients, 70% co-infected with HIV, were admitted to a provincial TB referral hospital for initiation of therapy during 2003-2008 ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Received prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-PD-L2 agent. (moffitt.org)
  • In a patient on suppressive anti-retroviral therapy, it's very hard to even find the virus. (ucsf.edu)
  • Given the significant cross talk between angiogenesis and the immune response, combined therapy with lenvatinib and pemrolizumab in advanced gastroesophageal cancer patient will provide improved outcomes compared to standard treatment with currently approved agents. (mountsinai.org)
  • She was diagnosed with HIV infection in 2000 and had not been on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) since 2003, but recently started triple drug therapy to minimize risk of vertical transmission with zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine 4 wk prior to presentation. (health.am)
  • Typically, symptoms improve within days of initiation of anti-inflammatory therapy. (medscape.com)
  • If chest pain persists after 2 weeks of treatment, a different agent or combination therapy should be considered. (medscape.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration has approved Serostim for use only by HIV patients with wasting or cachexia who are also receiving antiretroviral therapy. (lawfuel.com)
  • 5. With any serious infection requiring systemic anti-infective therapy within 14 days before randomization. (who.int)
  • A patient with impaired immune system like HIV, or one who is undergoing radiation therapy has higher chances of SJS. (targetwoman.com)
  • This is an open label single-arm phase II study to evaluate the combination therapy of the antibody drug conjugate, sacituzumab govitecan, and the anti-PD-L1 antibody, atezolizumab, in patients with triple negative breast cancer . (survivornet.com)
  • A New York Times Article says that 12 people of 75 who began combination antiretroviral therapy soon after becoming infected may have been "functionally cured" of HIV according to a French study. (tribulation101.com)
  • The pivotal study evaluated the combination of KEYTRUDA, Merck's anti-PD-1 therapy, plus LENVIMA, the orally available multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovered by Eisai, versus chemotherapy (treatment of physician's choice of doxorubicin or paclitaxel) for patients with advanced endometrial carcinoma following at least one prior platinum-based regimen in any setting. (merck.com)
  • Oral FTC-TDF provided protection against the acquisition of HIV infection among the subjects and Detectable blood levels strongly correlated with the prophylactic effect. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The identification of new ARV agents with potent activity against multidrug-resistant HIV remains an unmet and urgent challenge in the field of PrEP. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is used to treat HIV disease. (reference.md)
  • This 1993 photograph depicted Dr. James Hughes (Lt), former head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) former National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID), and Dr. William L. Roper (Rt), former Director of the CDC (1990 - 1993), presenting a CDC Achievement Award to Dr. David M. Bell, who was former Chief of what had been the HIV Information Branch. (cdc.gov)
  • For most patients with intact immune systems, monkeypox is a self-limited illness that does not require anti-viral treatment to clear disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of the ongoing pandemic of 2019 CoV disease (COVID-19), which is already responsible for far more deaths than were reported during the previous public health emergencies of international concern provoked by two related pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs) from 2002 and 2012. (openaire.eu)
  • HIV disease is caused by infection with HIV-1 or HIV-2, which are retroviruses in the Retroviridae family, Lentivirus genus. (medscape.com)
  • Around 1980's another infectious disease raised its ugly head, HIV-Human Immunodeficiency Virus! (qualilifediagnostics.com)
  • Development of Kaposi sarcoma in the oral cavity also has prognostic implications for untreated HIV patients, who are found to have higher death rates than patients affected only by cutaneous disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • Six percent of children with HIV (+) develop the disease, and 8% of seropositive women. (bvsalud.org)
  • Three research teams involved in the Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study, supported by NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), responded to this need. (nih.gov)
  • This report updates and consolidates all previous U.S. Public Health Service recommendations for the management of health-care personnel (HCP) who have occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids that might contain hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cdc.gov)
  • Avoiding occupational blood exposures is the primary way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health-care settings ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of nevirapine induced cholestatic hepatitis in a patient with HIV leading to severe ductopenia and VBDS. (health.am)
  • To elucidate the action of vitamin C on pathogenic human retroviruses , we investigated and compared the effects of noncytoxic concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), its calcium salt (Ca-ascorbate), and two thiol -based reducing agents [ glutathione (GSH) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)] against human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV )-1 replication in chronically infected T lymphocytes . (bvsalud.org)
  • HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this report, human milk was artificially infected by adding to it HIV-1 (cell-free or cell-associated) and treated with ≤1% SDS (≤10 mg /ml). (elsevier.com)
  • SDS was virucidal against HIV-1 in human milk and could be removed from breast milk if necessary. (elsevier.com)
  • VANCOUVER, Wash., July 31, 2014 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- CytoDyn Inc. (OTCQB:CYDY), a biotechnology company focused on the development of new therapies for combating infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), today announced positive interim results from its Phase 2b treatment substitution study. (biospace.com)
  • Compounds reported in our paper have shown a safety profile for human and a potential anti-SARS-CoV2 activity. (thieme-connect.de)
  • Treatment that targets the DNA in HIV-infected cells has been challenging because the persistent, incurable human immunodeficiency virus is able to insert its own DNA into the DNA of any infected cell while disabling that cell's ability to die to save other cells from a viral invasion. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Human semen is principal vehicle for transmission of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses. (simulations-plus.com)
  • For example, the US Department of Health and Human Services and British HIV Association Treatment Guidelines list EFV as the preferred agent over NVP. (scirp.org)
  • Lee allegedly engaged in a scheme to divert Serostim - an injectable human growth hormone that is FDA-approved for HIV-positive patients - from legitimate HIV patients to other people who purchased the drug for its purported anti-aging properties. (lawfuel.com)
  • Lee allegedly re-sold the Serostim for a significant profit to other patients who were not HIV-positive, and who used the human growth hormone to build muscle and for other cosmetic purposes. (lawfuel.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a blood-borne virus typically transmitted via sexual intercourse, shared intravenous drug paraphernalia, and during the birth process or via human milk (vertical transmission). (medscape.com)
  • Electron microscopy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virions. (medscape.com)
  • Pharmacokinetic variability of zidovudine in HIV-infected individuals: subgroup analysis and drug interactions. (adicciones.es)
  • The PHS working group decided to issue updated recommendations for the management of occupational exposure to HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • This report updates and consolidates the previous PHS guidelines and recommendations for occupational HBV, HCV, and HIV exposure management for HCP. (cdc.gov)
  • This information, along with data on ZDV efficacy in preventing perinatal transmission (3) and evidence that PEP prevented or ameliorated retroviral infection in some studies in animals (4), prompted a Public Health Service (PHS) interagency working group *, with expert consultation (5), in June 1996 to issue provisional recommendations for PEP for HCWs after occupational HIV exposure (6). (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to the direct-acting DNA damaging agent bleomycin indicated that these responses were specific for the AZT exposures and not general responses to DNA damage. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the five patients who demonstrated a rebound in their viral load, one patient has been retested and the test results concluded the patient had a "Dual/Mixed Tropic" HIV-1 virus and should have been excluded from the study. (biospace.com)
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) a rapidly progressing malignancy mostly arising in HIV-infected patients. (biotech2012.org)
  • from any individual except oneself and solar radiation, and most of the leukaemia by a genotoxic mech- or an identical twin will provoke an chemical alkylating agents used in anism after its use in anticancer immune reaction against the graft- anticancer chemotherapy. (who.int)
  • This report describes treatment outcomes, adverse events, and risk factors for death among patients in South Africa with XDR TB, most of whom were co-infected with HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • A cohort of 2100 PrEP users (female sex workers aged 18 and above, men who have sex with men aged 18 and above, young women at high HIV risk aged 15 -29) will be followed over 12 months to assess biological and behavioral outcomes through laboratory and survey assessments. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To our knowledge there are no published reports of outcomes for patients co-infected with XDR TB and HIV at the end of TB treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Her research focuses on clinical outcomes of transplantation in people living with HIV and older adults. (yale.edu)
  • Rifamycins and Anti-Diabetic Agents: Drug-Drug Interactions, from the Heartland National TB Center. (cdc.gov)
  • We have previously reported that alkyl sulfates (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, are biodegradable, have little/no toxicity and are inexpensive. (elsevier.com)
  • Mice treated with 120 mg/kg of geraniol for 4 weeks showed increased anti-oxidative defenses with no signs of liver toxicity. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are four types: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and HIV-associated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Two sets of blood cultures and a urine culture, immunological tests, syphilis, and HIV serologies are drawn. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The patient was HIV positive since 2008 and was initially diagnosed with tertiary syphilis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Has had a prior anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) within 4 weeks prior to study Day 1 or who has not recovered (i.e. (mountsinai.org)
  • His current role is Global Products Manager and Global Alliance Manager for Tralokinumab, an anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of patients with severe asthma presently undergoing phase III clinical trials. (eurekaselect.com)