Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Camphor: A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action: Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY.Angiotensin Amide: The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.Gymnema sylvestre: A plant species of the genus GYMNEMA that contains gymnemic acid (triterpene SAPONINS) which affects blood sugar level, and gurmarin protein. The common name of Gurmar should not be confused with Guar (CYAMOPSIS).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Pyrones: Keto-pyrans.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Clinical Trial, Phase IIIConnecticutPatents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).Horseshoe Crabs: An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.

Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(1/7501)

 (+info)

HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (2/7501)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease. (3/7501)

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (4/7501)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (5/7501)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

A multiple drug interaction study of stavudine with agents for opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (6/7501)

The effects of multiple opportunistic infection medications on stavudine pharmacokinetics were evaluated. Ten patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 received stavudine (40 mg twice daily) in combination with one to three other drugs used to treat opportunistic infections. Serial blood samples for stavudine concentrations were collected after 1 week of therapy on each regimen and assayed for stavudine by using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Although the maximum concentration of drug in serum was significantly decreased when the drug was given in combination with three opportunistic infection medications, the area under the concentration-time curve did not significantly differ across various treatment regimens. Stavudine exposure was not significantly altered by multiple concomitant medications. Side effects were minor throughout the 3-month study period. The tolerability of stavudine, combined with its lack of drug interactions, makes it an attractive agent for use as part of a combination regimen.  (+info)

Lack of absorption of didanosine after rectal administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (7/7501)

The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean +/- standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 +/- 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.9 mumol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 +/- 412 min.mumol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 mumol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application.  (+info)

Suppression of replication of multidrug-resistant HIV type 1 variants by combinations of thymidylate synthase inhibitors with zidovudine or stavudine. (8/7501)

The replication of recombinant multidrug-resistant HIV-1 clones modeled on clinically derived resistant HIV-1 strains from patients receiving long-term combination therapy with zidovudine (AZT) plus 2',3'-dideoxycytidine was found to regain sensitivity to AZT and stavudine (D4T) as a consequence of a pharmacologically induced decrease in de novo dTMP synthesis. The host-cell system used was phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells; dTMP and dTTP depletion were induced by single exposures to a low level of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its deoxynucleoside, 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine. The host-cell response to the latter was biphasic: a very rapid decrease in the rate of de novo dTMP formation and, consequently, in intracellular dTTP pools, followed by slower recovery in both indices over 3 to 24 h. With the additional presence of AZT or D4T, however, replication of the multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains remained inhibited, indicating dependence of HIV DNA chain termination by AZT-5'-monophosphate or 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate in these resistant strains on simultaneous inhibition of host-cell de novo synthesis of thymidine nucleotides. No effect on viability of control (uninfected) phytohemagglutinin-stimulated/peripheral blood mononuclear cells was noted on 6-day exposures to 5-FU or 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine alone or in combination with AZT or D4T, even at drug levels severalfold higher than those used in the viral inhibition studies. These studies may provide useful information for the potential clinical use of AZT/5-FU or D4T/5-FU combinations for the prevention or reversal of multidrug resistance associated with long-term dideoxynucleoside combination therapy.  (+info)

*Michellamine

Zhang, Heping; Zembower, David; Chen, Zhidong (October 1997). "Structural analogues of the michellamine anti-HIV agents. ... The main use of Michellamines are in anti-HIV medications. They inhibit viral replication of the Protein kinase C and virus- ... Michellamine is an atropisomeric alkaloid which has been found to be a strong anti-HIV viral replication inhibitor. It was ... They have a broad range of effectiveness across most HIV strains, particularly the HIV-2 strain, which is found primarily in ...

*Cenicriviroc

Reviriego, C (July 2011). "Chemokine CCR2/CCR5 Receptor Antagonist Anti-HIV Agent". Drugs of the Future. 36 (7): 511-7. doi: ... CROI 2013: CCR5/CCR2 Inhibitor Cenicriviroc Has Both Anti-HIV and Anti-inflammatory Effects. Highleyman, Liz. HIVandHepatitis. ... HIV-infected patients taking cenicriviroc had significant reductions in viral load, with the effect persisting up to two weeks ... Cenicriviroc (INN, code names TAK-652, TBR-652) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of HIV infection. It is ...

*Moronic acid

"Anti-AIDS Agents 69. Moronic Acid and Other Triterpene Derivatives as Novel Potent Anti-HIV Agents". Journal of Medicinal ... A particular moronic acid derivative showed potent anti-HIV activity with EC50 values of 0.0085 μM against NL4-3, 0.021 μM ... is under development as an anti-HIV drug; however, moronic acid has shown better antiviral profiles in vitro than bevirimat. ... "Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Activity of Moronic Acid Purified from Rhus javanica In Vitro and In Vivo". The Journal of ...

*Etravirine

Other diarylpyrimidine-analogues are currently being used as anti-HIV agents, notably rilpivirine. In 2009, the prescribing ... making it the 30th anti-HIV drug approved in the United States and the first to be approved in 2008. It was also approved for ... Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Department of Health and Human ... HIV-1) infection in antiretroviral treatment-experienced adult patients, who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 ...

*Betulinic acid

Novel 3,28-Disubstituted Betulinic Acid Derivatives as Potent Anti-HIV Agents Aims/Hypothesis Out-licensing. iptechex ... C-3 esterification of betulinic acid led to the discovery of bevirimat, an HIV-1 maturation inhibitor patented by Rhone-Poulenc ... Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid which has antiretroviral, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory ... on two clones derived from the same human melanoma metastasis suggests the development of clones resistant to this agent will ...

*Zinc finger inhibitor

"Anti-HIV Agents That Selectively Target Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers without Affecting Cellular Zinc Finger ... "Biophysical Characterization of Zinc Ejection from HIV Nucleocapsid Protein by Anti-HIV 2,2'-Dithiobis[benzamides] and ... Zinc ejectors were patented in 2008 and some have entered Phase I/II trials as a HIV drug. The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein 7 ( ... Azodicarbonamide (ADA) was the first zinc ejector to go into clinical trial for treatment of HIV. ADA inhibits HIV by ...

*CCR5 receptor antagonist

"Antagonists of the human CCR5 receptor as anti-HIV-1 agents. Part 1: discovery and initial structure-activity relationships for ... Wood A, Armour D (2005). "The discovery of the CCR5 receptor antagonist, UK-427,857, a new agent for the treatment of HIV ... March 2008). "Molecular interactions of CCR5 with major classes of small-molecule anti-HIV CCR5 antagonists". Molecular ... They play an important role as co-receptors that HIV type 1 (HIV-1) uses to attach to cells before viral fusion and entry into ...

*Ting-Chao Chou

The method has been applied in the combination of anti-cancer drugs, anti-HIV agents, drug-radiation, and traditional Chinese ... mainly for anticancer agents.[5] Born in Chang-Ling Village, Hu-Kao Township, Hsin-Chu County, Taiwan on September 9, 1938 ( ... where Dm equals to the anti-log of the x-intercept. This unique theory holds true for all dose-effect curves that follows the ...

*Diethyl azodicarboxylate

Potential anti-HIV agents". Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly. 124: 37. doi:10.1007/BF00808508. Farquhar, David; Khan, ... DEAD is an aza-dienophile and an efficient dehydrogenating agent, converting alcohols to aldehydes, thiols to disulfides and ... Thus, in general DEAD is an aza-dienophile and dehydrogenating agent, converting alcohols to aldehydes, thiols to disulfides ... a potent antitumor agent; and procarbazine, a chemotherapy drug. DEAD is an orange-red liquid which weakens its color to yellow ...

*Carbocyclic nucleoside

The two guanine antivral carbocyclic nucleosides, the anti-HIV agent abacavir and the anti-hepatitis B agent entecavir, are ... as well as inefficient central nervous system penetration prevented it from further developing as an anti-HIV agent. These ... 1988: Review of Glaxo's synthesis of fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides 1988: (±)-Carbovir first reported with potent anti-HIV ... a potent new anti-herpetic agent". Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications (10): 656-658. doi:10.1039/ ...

*Surfactin

2001) Biophysical J 81(3):1547-54 Jung M, Lee S, Kim H, Kim H. Recent Studies on Natural Products as Anti-HIV Agents. (2000). ... This process has been proven through test on several envelop viruses such as HIV and HSV. Also, the isoforms of the fatty acid ... anti-mycoplasma and hemolytic activities. Surfactin's structure consists of a peptide loop of seven amino acids (L-aspartic ...

*Rudi Pauwels

... and obtained a PhD with a dissertation on Development of New Anti-HIV Agents. He did research on virology at the Rega Institute ... At Tibotec he continued his work on HIV. In 1999, he was elected as board member of the Flemish Institute for Biotechnology ( ... Potent and selective inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro by a novel series of TIBO derivatives, Nature. 1990 Feb 1;343( ...

*Micellar solubilization

Jain A, Ran Y, Yalkowsky S, "Effect of pH-Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Combination on Solubilization of PG-300995 (an Anti-HIV Agent ...

*Cytidine

For example, KP-1461 is an anti-HIV agent that works as a viral mutagen, and zebularine exists in E. coli and is being examined ...

*Trichosanthin

July 1999). "Anti-HIV agent trichosanthin enhances the capabilities of chemokines to stimulate chemotaxis and G protein ... Li MX, Yeung HW, Pan LP, Chan SI (November 1991). "Trichosanthin, a potent HIV-1 inhibitor, can cleave supercoiled DNA in vitro ...

*Leuckart reaction

... and anti-HIV agents. Researchers were able to synthesize tetrahydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-5-ones with excellent yields and purities ... Water hydrolyzes formamide to give ammonium formate, which acts as a reducing agent and adds on to the N-formyl derivative. ... Researchers performed the reaction via solid-phase synthesis and used formic acid as the reducing agent. Eschweiler-Clarke ... one using ammonium formate and the other using formamide as the reducing agent. It requires high temperatures, usually between ...

*Gramicidin

... a topical contraceptive and antimicrobial agent with anti-HIV activity, against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2 in vitro". ...

*Bryostatin

They have been studied in clinical trials as anti-cancer agents, as anti-AIDS/HIV agents and in people with Alzheimer's disease ... Bryostatin has also been studied in people with HIV. Bryostatin 1 was first isolated in the 1960s by George Pettit from ... As of 2014 over thirty clinical trials had been conducting, using bryostatin alone and in combination with other agents, in ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: E: Enfuvirtide

Manufacturer Roche explains this class of anti-HIV agent, with details of indications and side-effects. Information in English ...

*Hydrolysable tannin

1990). "Anti-AIDS agents, 2: Inhibitory effects of tannins on HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte ... HPLC determination Tannins, including gallo and ellagic acid (epigallitannins), are inhibitors of HIV replication. 1,3,4-Tri-O- ... Two compounds, punicalin and punicacortein C, inhibited purified HIV reverse transcriptase. Hydrolysable tannins have shown ... galloylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-galloyl-shikimic acid, 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylshikimic acid, punicalin, punicalagin inhibited HIV ...

*Neotripterifordin

Anti-AIDS agents--XIX. Neotripterifordin, a novel anti-HIV principle from Tripterygium wilfordii: isolation and structural ... Neotripterifordin is an anti-viral diterpene lactone isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii. ...

*Chugai Pharmaceutical Co.

1996 anti-viral chemotherapeutic agent Hivid released (HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor) 1997 - HIV protease inhibitor ... If Mitemcinal can be shown to be as effective a prokinetic agent, it would represent a significant advance in the GI field as ... Produced an anti-influenza virus Tamiflu (Roche) 2015 - In March the company announced it would co-commercialise Athersys's ... Invirase released 1999 - immunosuppressive agent Cellcept released 2000 - Release of an antiemetic drug Kytril, developed to ...

*Discovery and development of HIV-protease inhibitors

Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents ... They are highly effective against HIV and have, since the 1990s, been a key component of anti-retroviral therapies for HIV/AIDS ... In common usage HIV usually implies HIV-1. HIV-1 protease is one of the best known aspartic proteases, and an attractive target ... The Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database (also called the "HIV Drug Resistance Database") was formed in 1998 with HIV ...

*Pyroptosis

These agents could form a new and exciting 'anti-AIDS' therapy for HIV-infected subjects in which the treatment targets the ... "Dissecting How CD4 T Cells Are Lost During HIV Infection". Cell Host Microbe. 19: 280-91. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2016.02.012. PMC ... Some examples of pyroptosis include salmonella-infected macrophages and abortively HIV-infected T helper cells. The initiation ... such as that elicited by HIV-1, this beneficial response does not eradicate the primary stimulus. In fact, it appears to create ...

*GB virus C

2012). Hepatitis G Virus or GBV-C: A Natural Anti-HIV Interfering Virus. In: Witzany, G. (Ed). Viruses. Essential Agents of ... "Effect of Early and Late GB Virus C Viraemia on Survival of HIV-infected Individuals: A Meta-analysis". HIV Med. 7 (3): 173-180 ... 2004). "Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by GB virus C infection through increases in RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and SDF-1 ... 2007). "HIV Entry Inhibition by the Envelope 2 Glycoprotein of GB Virus C". AIDS. 21 (5): 645-7. doi:10.1097/QAD. ...

*CYP2B6

2010). "Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic study of nevirapine in HIV-infected Cambodian patients". Antimicrob. Agents ... The enzyme is known to metabolize some xenobiotics, such as the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Transcript ... 2010). "Long-term efavirenz autoinduction and its effect on plasma exposure in HIV patients". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 88 (5): ... 2010). "Influence of host genetic factors on efavirenz plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-infected patients". ...
The discovery of medicinal agents capable of specifically inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is urgently needed due to its globally widespread infection. Most of clinically useful anti-HIV agents are nucleosides but their use is limited due to their severe toxicity and emerging drug resistance. More than 50% of world marketed drugs have their origin of the nature. Natural products, of which structural diversity is so broad, are good sources for the effective discovery of anti-HIV agents with decreased toxicity. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in research on the natural products for the anti-HIV agents. New natural products that have potent anti-HIV activities with novel structures were reviewed in this article. These compounds, isolated mainly from medicinal plants, in this review have been classified as secondary metabolites such as terpenes, phenolics, and naturally scarce peptides and sugars. Especially, terpenes and phenol substances have gained much ...
PI-containing antiretroviral combination therapies have been shown to significantly reduce plasma HIV-RNA levels, increase CD4 cell counts, and prolong life in adults25,,26 and children.17,,18,27 However, their use has been associated with metabolic and morphologic complications in adults,28,,29 and their effect on other clinical outcomes in children has not been widely studied. In this large observational study of 906 HIV-infected children, we observed small mean increases in height z score of 0.13 per year (3.7 percentiles) and in weight z score of 0.05 (1.9 percentiles) per year, associated with the use of PIs relative to the growth before initiation of PIs. These changes translate to small improvements in the actual height and weight measures for both genders and across the spectrum of ages. For example, for a 6-year-old boy with height z score of −0.9 and weight z score of −0.4 (mean baseline population values in Table 1), the estimated annual gains inz scores associated with PI use ...
OBJECTIVES: No randomized controlled trials have yet reported an individual patient benefit of initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at CD4 counts , 350 cells/muL. It is hypothesized that earlier initiation of cART in asymptomatic and otherwise healthy individuals may lead to poorer adherence and subsequently higher rates of resistance development. METHODS: In a large cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we investigated the emergence of new resistance mutations upon virological treatment failure according to the CD4 count at the initiation of cART. RESULTS: Of 7918 included individuals, 6514 (82.3%), 996 (12.6%) and 408 (5.2%) started cART with a CD4 count ...
Jennifer Johnsen, MD, MPH, Managing Editor The annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) took place in Boston, Massachusetts from March 3 through March 6, 2014. Thousands of scientists, policy makers, advocates, and health care providers convened to learn about the latest developments and research questions related to HIV. Highlights of the conference are presented below, by topic:
The primary objective of this study is to compare the virological efficacy, as measured by the time-weighted mean change from baseline plasma HIV-RNA, and safety, of three strategic regimens of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing a fixed dose formulation of tenofovir and emtricitabine, with either efavirenz or ritonavir boosted atazanavir or zidovudine plus abacavir. (Primary comparisons are regimen I versus II and I versus III as described below).. I. tenofovir (TDF) + emtricitabine (FTC) + efavirenz (EFV) II. tenofovir (TDF) + emtricitabine (FTC) + ritonavir/atazanavir (r/ATV) III. tenofovir (TDF) + emtricitabine (FTC) + zidovudine (ZDV) + abacavir (ABC). Secondary objectives of this study will be to undertake a range of analyses including but not limited to the following,. ...
The purpose of this study was to find a safe and tolerable dose of the protease inhibitor (PI) atazanavir (ATV), with or without a low-dose boost of the PI ritonavir (RTV), when taken with other anti-HIV drugs in HIV infected infants, children, and adolescents.. Advancements in anti-HIV drugs for HIV infected children and adolescents have been hard to make, in part because these patients often do not take the drugs as prescribed. ATV may be a better option because it is available in the form of powder which children and adolescents may be more willing to take regularly. Using a low dose of RTV as a boosting agent for ATV may also increase the chances of virologic response of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-experienced patients. This study aimed to find safe and tolerable doses of ATV with or without low-dose RTV boost in infants, children, and adolescents. For this study, participants were enrolled in the United States and South Africa. ...
PRECLINICAL PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTITUMOR AND ANTI-HIV AGENTS NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 3, January 21, 1994 RFP AVAILABLE: NCI-CM-57199-12 P.T. 34 Keywords: Pharmacology Chemotherapeutic Agents National Cancer Institute The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP), Division of Cancer Treatment, is soliciting organizations having the necessary experience, scientific and technical personnel, and facilities to conduct a series of preclinical pharmacokinetic and other pharmacology studies in non-disease bearing animals on agents having demonstrated antitumor or anti-HIV activity and considered by DCT to merit further development. The studies to be performed will include: the development of methodology for the quantitative measurement of test agents and/or metabolites in animal body fluids and tissues; stability studies of test agents in biological fluids; plasma protein binding determinations; characterization of in vivo plasma concentration-time profiles and calculation of relevant ...
Explanatory variables comprised gender, first visit age, infection of HIV via intravenous drug use and, for variables of time dependent, past AIDS diagnosis, antiretroviral combination therapy, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, CD4 cell count, plasma HIV RNA, and statin treatment are considered.ResultsIn French prospective hospital-based cohort, 4365 patients were enrolled, who were seen minimum for one time in 2000-2007. Out of 4365 patients, 3336 (76 percent) were involved in the study. 20 percent or 855 individuals had no information available on status of tobacco smoking, 1 percent or 30 patients showed a bacterial pneumonia in the initial appointment and 3 percent or 144 had just one appointment in the period 2000-2007 (Benard et al., 2010). The 1029 not-included individuals did not vary considerably from the available 3336 individuals for the examination with respect to Age forty years old normal in both the groupsProportion of antiretroviral combination therapy treated patients 64 percent vs. 67 ...
Warning: Trizivir therapy should not be used without a NNRTI or PI unless circumstances dictate that this is the only practical therapy for a particular client. In particular patients with advanced disease or higher viral loads should be treated with an alternative regimen until further information becomes available. ...
Treatment. Disease management and treatment may require the coordinated efforts of a team of medical professionals, including obstetricians, pediatricians, specialists in HIV infection, and additional health care professionals.. If pregnant women are infected with HIV, certain preventive measures may help to decrease the rate of transmission to their children. Such measures may include administration of the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (ZDV) by mouth (orally) during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy; intravenously during labor and delivery; and orally to the newborn during the first six weeks of life. Research has shown that, for selected HIV-infected pregnant women, this regimen may decrease the rate of perinatal HIV transmission by more than two-thirds. (ZDV is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.). HIV-infected women may have already been taking or may be offered standard antiretroviral combination therapy as currently recommended for non-pregnant adults (two nucleoside ...
Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy ...
ClinicalTrials.gov summary of T-20 With Anti-HIV Combination Therapy for Patients With Prior Anti-HIV Drug Treatment and/or Drug Resistance to Each of the Three Classes of Approved Anti-HIV Drugs
Journalists may submit queries online for fastest response. Journalists can also mail [email protected] or call 212-305-3900 to reach a member of the CUMC news office team.. Patients, please visit ColumbiaDoctors. ...
Both baseline CD4+ as well as HIV-1 RNA levels appeared to be strong predictors of WC change, with higher RNA levels and lower CD4+ levels being associated with higher increases in waist circumference......When examining effect measure modification by sex, the treatment difference for change in WC for ATV/r versus RAL was significantly larger for females than for males.....For modification of treatment by race/ethnicity: We found a significantly larger difference in WC change for DRV/r versus RAL for black individuals compared to all other race/ethnicities; For black individuals - larger wc increase for raltegravir (green) compared to darunavir (red); In addition, black individuals experienced a significantly smaller increase in WC for DRV/r compared to ATV/r`" ...
Mylan-Nevirapine: Nevirapine belongs to the class of antiretroviral medications called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). It is used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to treat the infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
By default, all articles on GreenMedInfo.com are sorted based on the content type which best reflects the data which most users are searching for. For instance, people viewing substances are generally most interested in viewing diseases that these substances have shown to have positive influences. This section is for allowing more advanced sorting methods. Currently, these advanced sorting methods are available for members only. If you are already a member, you can sign in by clicking here. If you do not currently have a user account, and would like to create one/become a member, click here to begin the singup process ...
High Prevalence of Drug Resistance Mutations Among Patients Failing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy and Predictors of Virological Response 24 Weeks After Switch to Second-Line Therapy in S o Paulo State, Brazil. ...
High Prevalence of Drug Resistance Mutations Among Patients Failing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy and Predictors of Virological Response 24 Weeks After Switch to Second-Line Therapy in S o Paulo State, Brazil. ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Dr. Erik De Clercq on Prospects of anti-HIV therapy and prophylaxis, part of a collection of online lectures.
Deciding when to start anti-HIV therapy and what treatments to start with can leave many people feeling overwhelmed with choices. The discussion ...
Author: Lengauer, Thomas et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006; Title: Bioinformatics-assisted anti-HIV therapy
Tenofovir is a new nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor recently approved in the United States for the treatment of HIV-1 infection when taken in combination with other antiretrovirals.
ATLANTA -- For treatment-naive HIV patients with an opportunistic infection, the benefits of immediate antiretroviral therapy outweigh the risks, according to new guidelines from the CDC.
Research with human tissue and cells suggests that genetic variations, in addition to failure to comply with treatment regimens, may account for some failures of an anti-HIV drug to treat and prevent HIV infection.
The next new anti-HIV drug to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is likely to be darunavir (previously known as TMC-114 and soon to ...
Despite effective combination therapies that can suppress viral infection, there is an urgent need for the discovery of a new class of anti-HIV drugs...
Objective 1. To study the cumulative incidence of dyslipidemia 2. Evaluate factor relation to dyslipidemia status of patients using antiretroviral drug in Phibonmunsahan Hospital
The findings of a recent study may quiet concerns that the babies of women who are HIV-positive during pregnancy will be more prone to birth defects if the mother takes antiretroviral drugs.
hasnt fallen to undetectable levels within three to six months of starting HIV treatment, then your doctor will talk to you about your current treatment. They may ask some detailed questions about how and when you take your anti-HIV drugs and whether you have taken any other drugs - including prescription, over-the-counter, herbal or recreational drugs --- at the same time. This is because not taking treatment regularly, or interactions with other drugs, can cause the levels of anti-HIV drugs in your body to be too low to work. You may have a blood test to look at the level of anti-HIV drugs in your blood and to see if your HIV has developed resistance ...
Researchers from Munich and Naples have shown that minimal modification of a synthetic peptide with anti-HIV activity results in a new compound with more than two orders of magnitude higher binding affinity to the chemokine ...
ART regimens in patients that are virologically suppressed confers risks including emergence of resistance (i.e. risk of virologic failure), or new toxicities. A central goal of switching ART regimens is to maintain viral suppression, without jeopardizing future treatment options [bib]127[/bib]. One should consider prior documented resistance mutations, which are likely to
The inhibitor is designed to bind the HIV envelope at sites that attach to CD4 and CCR5 molecules on CD4 T cells; blocking this interaction prevents HIV ...
You searched for: Author Abrams, Elaine J. Remove constraint Author: Abrams, Elaine J. Author Broyles, Laura N. Remove constraint Author: Broyles, Laura N. Academic Unit Epidemiology Remove constraint Academic Unit: Epidemiology Type Articles Remove constraint Type: Articles Date Published 2017 Remove constraint Date Published: 2017 Subject Antiretroviral agents Remove constraint Subject: Antiretroviral agents ...
Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. You may take this medicine with or without food. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. For your anti-HIV therapy to work as well as possible, take each dose exactly as prescribed. Do not skip doses or stop your medicine even if you feel better. Skipping doses may make the HIV virus resistant to this medicine and other medicines. Do not stop taking except on your doctors advice ...
BOSTON, Feb 11, 2003 (BUSINESS WIRE) --. 48-Week Data from Alize Trial Presented Today at 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. French researchers presented new 48-week data from a Phase III clinical trial today. These data demonstrate that emtricitabine (FTC), an investigational once-daily nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), suppresses HIV when taken as part of a once-daily, protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimen. Emtricitabine is being developed by Triangle Pharmaceuticals, which was acquired by Gilead Sciences (Nasdaq:GILD) in January 2003. Dr. Jean-Michel Molina presented the 48-week results of the ANRS 099 Alize trial (Abstract #551) at the 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston, Massachusetts. The ANRS 099 Alize trial is an ongoing three-year, open-label, multicenter study involving 355 patients who at baseline had to have HIV RNA less than 400 copies/mL while receiving PI-based antiretroviral therapy. ...
By several parameters known to be associated with HIV disease progression, children who are treated with protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy and reconstitute their CD4 T cells despite viral rebound have similar outcomes to those who optimally suppress viral replication. In our study, discordant viral and immune response outcome groups showed sustained increases in CD4 T-cell counts and displayed growth parameters, prevalence of HIV-associated illnesses, and levels of functional immunity that were equivalent to VS/IS children. The substantial restoration of CD4 T-cell counts in the VS/IS and VF/IS response groups during the initial 24 weeks of treatment was sustained over the subsequent 72 weeks in both outcome groups. The durability of CD4 reconstitution in VF/IS children who were enrolled in our study is in contrast to previous examinations of CD4 T-cell reconstitution in HIV-infected adults in which 30% to 40% of patients who displayed discordant viral and immune responses ...
Bee Venom: The Next Anti-HIV Agent? A Proof-of-Concept Study Says Yes from poz.com March 13, 2013 Bee Venom: The Next Anti-HIV Agent? A Proof-of-Concept Study Says Yes Nano, team37262board
The Original Study Several observational studies have reported that the early use of antiretroviral therapy by patients diagnosed with HIV decreases rates of HIV acquisition among their sexual partners. This study evaluates the impact of early antiretroviral therapy on HIV acquisition among serodiscordant couples from nine countries.
The annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) brings together top basic, translational, and clinical researchers from around the world to share the latest studies, important developments, and best research methods in the ongoing battle against HIV/AIDS and related infectious diseases. CROI is a global model of collaborative science and the premier international venue for bridging basic and clinical investigation into clinical practice in the field of HIV and related viruses.
The Botswana national treatment guidelines for adults recommend two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), zidovudine/lamivudine, and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Typically, the NNRTI is efavirenz or, for women of reproductive age, nevirapine. The regimen consisted of 200 mg of Combivir (lamzid, once available) twice daily. Nevirapine began with a two-week lead-in period of 200 mg once a day followed by a maintenance regimen of 200 mg twice a day. Efavirenz was dosed at 600 mg each day.. Patients experiencing virologic failure on first-line therapy were switched to a protease inhibitor-based regimen (lopinavir/ritonavir) coupled with two NRTIs (didanosine and stavudine or tenofovir or abacavir and lamivudine). When virologic failure occurred with second-line therapy or when there were complicated first-line therapy failures, genotypic resistance testing was undertaken.. At the initial visit, all patients underwent a comprehensive physical examination ...
Slide 1 of 11 New Guidelines, Strategies, and Drugs for Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy 2013 Charles B. Hicks, MD Professor of Medicine Duke University Medical Center Durham, North Carolina From CB Hicks, MD, at Chicago, IL: May 20, 2013, IAS-USA. IAS-USA Improving Practical Skills for Primary Care of HIV-Infected Patients Slide 2 of 11 clinicaloptions.com/hiv Goals of Antiretroviral Therapy  Reduce HIV-associated morbidity and prolong duration and quality of survival  Restore and preserve immunologic function  Maximally and durably suppress HIV-1 RNA - Persistently below level of detection (, 20-75 copies/mL, depending on the assay used) - Isolated "blips" not uncommon in successfully treated patients and not thought to predict virologic failure  Prevent HIV transmission DHHS Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults and Adolescents. March 2012. From CB Hicks, MD, at Chicago, IL: May 20, 2013, IAS-USA. Slide 3 of 11 Improving Practical Skills for Primary Care of ...
Objectives: To assess how developing knowledge surrounding combination antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV infection since mid-1 996 has altered how drugs are used in Australia. Methods: Time trends in use of antiretroviral treatment were calculated on patients recruited to the Australian HIV Observational Database. For each six month period, patients were on one or more antiretroviral drugs for at least two weeks. Other patients were in the no-treatment group. Patients receiving antiretrovirals for more than two weeks were allocated to the category of treatment (mono, double or triple-plus therapy) they received for the longest period. Results: 1476 patients were recruited by September 2000. Of patients currently receiving antiretroviral therapy, 32 per cent took three or more antiretrovirals including an HIV protease inhibitor (PI) and 27 per cent took triple-plus therapy including a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The proportion of patients receiving ...
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched a large international trial called IMPAACT 2010 or VESTED to evaluate three antiretroviral treatment regimens in HIV-infected pregnant women.. The trial aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of these regimens in the 639 participants who are 14 to 28 weeks into their pregnancies, along with safety for their infants.. It will compare the existing World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended, first-line maternal efavirenz (EFV) / emtricitabine (FTC) / tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) regimen with two other regimens containing newer antiretroviral drugs dolutegravir (DTG) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF).. The mothers viral load at delivery will be measured to compare the virologic efficacy of these three regimens. The viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood.. In addition, effectivity rates of the regimens on adverse pregnancy outcomes will be monitored such as preterm delivery and low infant birth weight, maternal and infant adverse ...
A series of neamine-heterocycle conjugates were designed and synthesized. All new compounds displayed more potent inhibitory effect on HIV replication than neamine, among them two compounds displayed stronger anti-HIV activity than neomycin B. The results suggested that it might be a promising approach to modify neamine for the discovery of new anti-HIV agents. (C) 2013 Xiao-Lian Zhang, Xin-Shan Ye. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved. ...
During the last three decades, HIV/AIDS has become the threat to the world. Almost 75 million people have been infected, and about 36 million people have died of HIV [1]. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) changes HIV/AIDS from diseases with a high mortality rate to manageable chronic diseases by decreasing the progression of AIDS and reducing HIV-related illness and deaths. Researches revealed that improved access to ART is helping to drive a decline in HIV-related morbidity and mortality [2-5]. In the USA and Canada, a person in his or her 20s who contracts HIV can now expect to live into the 70s if initiated ART early [6].. The standard therapy consists of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) [7]. In 2010, these guidelines were revised and recommended less toxic drugs in first-line therapy by replacing stavudine (d4T) with tenofovir (TDF) [8]. In resource-limited countries, World Health ...
In 2013, WHO published the first consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV treatment and prevention across all age groups and populations. A comprehensive revision of these guidelines based on new scientific evidence and lessons from implementation is being undertaken in 2015.. This early-release guideline makes available two key recommendations that were developed during the revision process in 2015. First, antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated in everyone living with HIV at any CD4 cell count. Second, the use of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as a prevention choice for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination prevention approaches. The first of these recommendations is based on evidence from clinical trials and observational studies released since 2013 showing that earlier use of ART results in better clinical outcomes for people living with HIV compared with delayed treatment. The second ...
List of wholesalers , traders for antiretroviral arv drugs, 22 antiretroviral arv drugs manufacturers & antiretroviral arv drugs suppliers from China.
In previously untreated patients, combinations that include efavirenz compare favorably with regimens that include either other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or components from other antiretroviral classes.. Two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III studies in antiretroviral-naive adults compared efavirenz with rilpivirine, each in combination with 2 NRTIs (predominantly tenofovir + emtricitabine). By ITT analysis of pooled data from the 2 studies, 82% of efavirenz recipients and 84% of rilpivirine recipients had HIV RNA levels of ,50 copies/mL at 48 weeks; the difference was not statistically significant. In patients with HIV RNA ,100,000 copies/mL, the efavirenz regimen resulted in higher rates of virologic suppression. The mean increase in CD4 count was 176 cells/µL in the efavirenz group (compared with 192 cells/µL in the rilpivirine group).(13) A randomized trial comparing efavirenz with nevirapine, each given with lamivudine + stavudine in initial therapy, ...
Among 100 children on first-line cART followed for a median 49 months, 34% experienced virologic failure. Twenty-three (68%) of the 34 children with viral failure had detectable resistance mutations, of whom 14 (61%) had multi-class resistance. Fourteen (14%) children were switched to second-line regimens and followed for a median of 28 months. Retrospective analysis revealed that virologic failure had occurred a median of 12 months prior to the switch to second-line. During prolonged first-line treatment in the presence of viral failure, additional resistance mutations accumulated, however, only 1 (7%) of 14 children had persistent viremia during second-line treatment ...
Several studies intensively evaluated the effect of antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute HIV infection has on the size of the cellular reservoir. One such study compared the reservoir as measured by HIV DNA as total, integrated and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) in those treated during acute infection (n=9), chronic infection (n=26) and amongst elite controllers (n=37) (15). It was not surprising that HIV DNA was detectable regardless of how early therapy was initiated and amongst the elite controllers. Nevertheless, they did find that the levels were significantly lower in those treated during acute infection than during chronic. Moreover, the levels in the early treatment group were similar to the elite controller. While early treatment did not eliminate the reservoir, even amongst those with 10 years of follow-up, it is conceivable that the success of any future strategies to target the reservoir may be more successful in those with a smaller reservoir, such as those initiating therapy ...
The median age at first treatment interruption was 10.1 years (IQR: 6.4-13.6) after being on ART for 5.5 years. The median treatment interruption was 9.0 months (IQR: 3.5-22.5). The primary reason for treatment interruption was the patients decision and/or non-compliance (49%), followed by treatment failure (22%), doctors decision (17%) and side-effects (9%). A third had more than one treatment interruption. The second, third and fourth treatment interruptions happened at 13.8, 14.8 and 15.8 years of age, respectively. The children had a relatively good immunological status at the first treatment interruption with a mean CD4 percentage of 27.3% (standard deviation 11%). However, only 27% had a suppressed viral load (, 400 copies/mL).. At the end of treatment interruption the mean CD4 percentage was 19.2% (95% CI: 18.3-20.1%). Two years after restarting ART, it rose to 27.1% (95% CI: 26.2-27.9%), therefore reaching the pre-treatment interruption value, with half the increase in the first six ...
Study 907 was a 48-week Phase III, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial of Viread 300 mg added to a stable background regimen of antiretroviral agents in 550 treatment-experienced HIV patients in North America, Europe and Australia. To be eligible for the study, patients had to have an HIV RNA level of 400 to 10,000 copies/mL (a measure of the amount of HIV in their blood) and have received stable antiretroviral therapy for at least eight weeks prior to entering the study. At baseline, patients had a mean HIV RNA level of 3.36 log(10) copies/mL, a mean CD4 cell count of 427 cells/mm(3) and had received a mean of 5.4 years of prior antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic analysis of resistance mutations at baseline revealed a high prevalence of existing antiretroviral resistance, with 94 percent of patients exhibiting resistance to nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 58 percent to protease inhibitors (PIs) and 48 percent to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase ...
Immediate ART initiation may bring earlier benefits in personal health, and earlier reductions in the risk of onward transmission of HIV. For persons with acute infection, immediate ART may limit the HIV viral reservoir.. In pilot studies in the United States and in randomized controlled trials in resource-limited settings, rapid ART initiation has been shown to reduce time to linkage to care and viral load suppression. Immediate ART protocols have been piloted in various U.S. clinics,(1, 2, 3) and initiating ART on the first clinic visit after HIV diagnosis has become standard of care in a number of clinics and jurisdictions, including the city of San Francisco (under the municipal "Getting to Zero" initiative [4, 5]) and New York City (in the Department of Health Sexual Health Clinics).. Immediate ART is supported by the International AIDS Society-USA (IAS-USA) guidelines, which state that "ART should be initiated as soon as possible after diagnosis, including immediately after diagnosis, ...
Two randomized trials were identified which were in abstract form only. Two cohort studies (both published) with comparators were identified. Of the evidence available, three comparisons were studied: clinical versus immunologic and clinical monitoring; clinical versus virologic, immunologic, and clinical monitoring; and immunologic and clinical monitoring versus virologic, immunologic, and clinical monitoring. Clinical vs. Immunologic and Clinical Monitoring: Based upon two randomized trials, clinical monitoring alone results in increased mortality (low-quality evidence), increased AIDS-defining illnesses and mortality as a composite endpoint (moderate), no difference in serious adverse events (low), increased numbers of unnecessary switches (low), and no difference in switches to second-line (low) compared to immunological and clinical monitoring. Clinical vs. Virologic, Immunologic, and Clinical Monitoring: Based upon a single randomized trial, clinical monitoring alone results in a trend ...
Lu, H.K., Gray, L.R., Wightman, F., Ellenberg, P, Khoury, G, Cheng, W.J., Mota, T.M., Wesselingh, S., Gorry, P.R., Cameron, P.U., Churchill, M.J., Lewin, S.R. (2014). Ex Vivo Response to Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors of the HIV Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Derived from HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy. PLoS One, 9(11): e113341 ...
ClinicalTrials.gov summary of Safety, Tolerability, Drug Interactions, and Antiviral Activity of Rilpivirine in Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Children Less Than 12 Years of Age
Hammer SM, Saag MS, Schechter M, Montaner JS, Schooley RT, Jacobsen DM, Thompson MA, Carpenter CC, Fischl MA, Gazzard BG, Gatell JM, Hirsch MS, Katzenstein DA, Richman DD, Vella S, Yeni PG, Volberding PA; International AIDS Society-USA panel. Treatment for adult HIV infection: 2006 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. JAMA. 2006;296:827-843. (Prior recommendations published in 2004, 2002, 2000, 1998, 1997, 1996 ...
To determine the association between individual substances of abuse and antiretroviral adherence, analyses require a large sample assessed using electronic data monitoring (EDM). In this analysis, EDM data from 1,636 participants in 12 US adherence-focused studies were analyzed to determine the associations between recent use of various substances and adherence during the preceding 4 weeks. In bivariate analyses comparing adherence among patients who had used a specific substance to those who had not, adherence was significantly lower among those who had recently used cocaine, other stimulants or heroin but not among those who had used cannabis or alcohol. In multivariate analyses controlling for sociodemographics, amount of alcohol use and recent use of any alcohol, cocaine, other stimulants and heroin each was significantly negatively associated with adherence. The significant associations of cocaine, other stimulants, heroin, and alcohol use with adherence suggest that these are important ...
Clinical monitoring of pediatric HIV treatment remains a major challenge in settings where drug resistance genotyping is not routinely available. As a result, our understanding of drug resistance, and its impact on subsequent therapeutic regimens available in these settings, remains limited. We investigate the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1 drug resistance among 94 participants of the Ethiopia Pediatric HIV Cohort failing first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) using dried blood spot-based genotyping. Overall, 81% (73/90) of successfully genotyped participants harbored resistance mutations. Strikingly, 42% of resistant participants harbored resistance to all four nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors recommended for second-line use in this setting, meaning that there are effectively no remaining cART options for these children. Longer cART duration and prior regimen changes were significantly associated with detection of drug resistance mutations. Replicate genotyping ...
The study supports the use of drug resistance testing before starting antiretroviral therapy, especially in recently infected persons who were found to have high rates of drug resistance in this study.. "This is most true for patients located in places like San Francisco where anti-retroviral therapy is widely used," he said. Widespread use of antiretroviral drugs means that the virus passed on to a newly infected person is more likely to have developed resistance to one or more of those drugs.. The researchers studied 225 newly infected and untreated patients from June 1996 to June 2001. One way of testing for drug resistance against the three classes of drugs is to study the genetic sequence of the virus. This genotypic test reveals genetic mutations that cause drug resistance.. Most alarming was the increase in transmission of virus resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nnRTIs). The nnRTIs are one of three major classes of anti-HIV drugs and are an important weapon in ...
The criteria for third-line includes one year or longer on PI-based ART with virological failure, despite adherence optimisation, and a genotypic antiretroviral resistance test showing PI resistance. Between August 2013 and July 2014, 144 people were approved and enrolled into the third-line ART programme for which at least one viral load test was done at least six months after third line approval. Their median age was 41 years, 60% were women and 40% men (a ratio of women to men similar to most cohorts in sub-Saharan Africa). The median CD4 count and viral load were 172 cells/mm3 and 14,759 copies/ml respectively. Two-thirds of the patients started ART before 2008 and 45% started second-line ART before 2012, while the start date was unknown for 49%.. There was a high proportion of people with resistance to the drugs used in first- and second-line ART regimens, probably due to delayed switching to second-line ART after first-line failure. Of the 144 patients, 97% and 98% had resistance to ...
Research suggests AIDS drug guidelines eliminate nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
It remains controversial whether current antiretroviral therapy (ART) fully suppresses the cycles of HIV replication and viral evolution in vivo. If replication persists in sanctuary sites such as the lymph nodes, a high priority should be placed on improving ART regimes to target these sites. To investigate the question of ongoing viral replication on current ART regimens, we analyzed HIV populations in longitudinal samples from 10 HIV-1-infected children who initiated ART when viral diversity was low. Eight children started ART at less than ten months of age and showed suppression of plasma viremia for seven to nine years. Two children had uncontrolled viremia for fifteen and thirty months, respectively, before viremia suppression, and served as positive controls for HIV replication and evolution. These latter 2 children showed clear evidence of virus evolution, whereas multiple methods of analysis bore no evidence of virus evolution in any of the 8 children with viremia suppression on ART. ...
What do you think of the Edinburgh Infectious Diseases website? We would be very grateful if you could spare 2 minutes to help us improve the useability and look of our pages. Thank you for your help !. ...
High level of virologic failure was observed in HIV patients receiving combinations of tenofovir (TFV), lamivudine (3TC) combined with either abacavir (ABC) or didanosine (ddI). To investigate the pharmacologic mechanisms involve with the virologic failures, a comprehensive study was undertaken to evaluate the intracellular concentration of the active moiety (ddNTP) of these respective nucleoside analogs.; Triple nucleoside combinations were tested at physiological concentrations revealed reductions of 5 to 33% of the respective ddNTP. In vitro studies evaluating TFV and ABC in a concentration dependent manner showed a reduction of 40% and 30% in intracellular CBV-TP and TFV-DP. Similar findings were demonstrated with TFV and ddI, where 40% and 25% reduction in ddATP and TFV-DP, respectively, was detected. The level of dATP and dGTP, endogenous nucleotides, were increased by 2.4- and 2.7-fold, respectively, when cells were treated with 20 µM TFV, which can dilute the effect of ddNTP.; The ...
Use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) during pregnancy has been associated with higher risk of preterm birth. The Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study networks Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities study is a US-based cohort of human immunodefici
Boyd MA, Amin J, Mallon PW, Kumarasamy N, Lombaard J, Wood R, Chetchotisakd P, Phanuphak P, Mohapi L, Azwa I, Belloso WH, Molina JM, Hoy J, Moore CL, Emery S, Cooper DA; SECOND-LINE Study Group. Body composition and metabolic outcomes after 96 weeks of treatment with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus either nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors or raltegravir in patients with HIV with virological failure of a standard first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen: a substudy of the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority SECOND-LINE study. Lancet HIV. 2017 Jan;4(1):e13-e20. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30189-8. Epub 2016 Nov 1 ...
An HIV-1 p24 antigen test involving signal amplification-boosted ELISA of heat-denatured plasma was evaluated prospectively in 55 patients whose viral RNA in plasma had previously been suppressed for at least 6 months under antiretroviral combination therapy. During a median follow-up of 504 days, CD4 counts increased by a median of 62 cells per year. By univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, the level of p24 antigen as expressed by the absorbance/cutoff ratio was a significant inverse correlate of both the CD4 count in a sample (p =.013) and its annual change in a patient (p ,.0001). The p24 antigen retained significance even among 48 individuals whose HIV-1 RNA, apart from occasional blips, remained below 400 copies/mL. Batch-wise retesting of 70 samples from 5 such patients with a further improved procedure showed measurable p24 antigen in all but 1 sample and an inverse correlation with both the CD4 count (p =.0331) and percentage (p ,.0001), thus confirming the ...
SEATTLE-The number of HIV-infected patients that a physician has treated independently predicts HIV-related mortality in patients starting anti-retroviral therapy for the first time, Robert S. Hogg, PhD, said at the 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (abstract 749W). 1
Purpose of review: Surveillance for transmitted HIV drug resistance is essential to assessing the longer term sustainability and durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Over time, as new copies of HIV are made in the body, the virus changes its structure. These changes are called mutations and can cause HIV to resist the effects of anti-HIV drugs, which means those drugs will no longer work for you. Combining etravirine with at least two other anti-HIV drugs delays the development of drug resistance.. To reduce the risk of developing drug resistance, all anti-HIV drugs should be taken every day exactly as prescribed. If doses are delayed, missed or not taken as prescribed, levels of etravirine in the blood may fall too low. If this happens, resistant virus can develop. If you find you are having problems taking your medications as directed, speak to your doctor and nurse about this. They can find ways to help you.. When HIV becomes resistant to one drug in a class, it sometimes becomes resistant to other drugs in that class. This is called cross-resistance. Feel free to talk with your doctor about your current and future treatment options. To help you decide ...
The 40 mice in the experiment were bioengineered to have a human immune system. They were infected with HIV for several months and then given a combination of antiretroviral drugs for four weeks. Half of the animals subsequently received a two-week dose of a genetically designed, HIV-specific poison, or immunotoxin, to complement the antiretrovirals, while the other half continued receiving antiretrovirals alone. The scientists found that, compared to antiretrovirals alone, the addition of the immunotoxin significantly reduced both the number of HIV-infected cells producing the virus in multiple organs and the level of HIV in the blood.. According to the researchers, these findings, coupled with results from previous studies, suggest that treating certain HIV-infected people with a combination of antiretrovirals and an immunotoxin might help achieve sustained disease remission, in which HIV can be controlled or eliminated without a lifetime of antiretroviral therapy. However, further study is ...
Truvada: This is a combination medication that contains fixed doses of two medications in one tablet: emtricitabine and tenofovir. Emtricitabine and tenofovir both belong to a class of medications called antiretrovirals, and more specifically nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). They are used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
Science Speaks is in Atlanta, Georgia this week and will be live-blogging from the 20th CROI - Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections from Sunday to Wednesday, covering breaking developments from investigators on cure research, new antiretroviral agents, hepatitis, tuberculosis and treatment as prevention. ATLANTA, GA - To put this in perspective, about 70 million […]. ...
Science Speaks is in Atlanta, Georgia this week and will be live-blogging from the 20th CROI - Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections from Sunday to Wednesday, covering breaking developments from investigators on cure research, new antiretroviral agents, hepatitis, tuberculosis and treatment as prevention. ATLANTA, GA - Robert Grant from University of California at San […]. ...
ordering abacavir online is it real Forrest County, buy abacavir generic, generic abacavir no prescription cheapest price U.S., cheapest abacavir prices no prescription, abacavir online safe order Kenner, buy abacavir generic walmart, buy abacavir online reviews Lake Park, NC, purchase genuine abacavir online, abacavir buy pill United States of America, best place to buy abacavir online yahoo answers, cheapest abacavir capsule United States of ...
it is best to do it after bathing and drying. To probe the structure of DNA in solution, The drunk must want to get rid of his habit. The doctors may suggest the patient to drink plenty of water, abacavir buy shops USA, buy abacavir sales, buying abacavir off internet Keansburg, order abacavir online compare, abacavir wants cheapest price Plandome, cheap abacavir at tesco, cheap abacavir com on line America, cheap abacavir forums, buy abacavir vs abacavir U.S., abacavir order on- ...
The use of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in tremendous improvements in morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients. However, ...
Unscramble zidovudine, Unscramble letters zidovudine, Point value for zidovudine, Word Decoder for zidovudine, Word generator using the letters zidovudine, Word Solver zidovudine, Possible Scrabble words with zidovudine, Anagram of zidovudine
The International Antiviral Society-USA Panel has provided recommendations for management of HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Evidence has shown that ART for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is effective in preventing transmission among couples. Additionally, newer ART medications have greater effectiveness and tolerability and lower toxicity, making treatment for longer timeframes more easily achievable.
The number of HIV-positive people by the end of 2015 was estimated by adding the total estimated number of people living with undiagnosed HIV to the observed number of diagnosed HIV patients living in Amsterdam, based on the first four digits of their most recent home address postal code. The number of undiagnosed people by the end of 2015 was estimated with a back-calculation method based on the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) HIV Modelling Tool, using annual data on new HIV diagnoses stratified by CD4 count at the time of diagnosis or a concurrent AIDS diagnosis. This method reconstructed the number of annual newly acquired HIV infections and the distribution of time between infection and diagnosis, and subsequently determined the proportion still undiagnosed. Retention in care was defined as at least one clinic visit, or a CD4 or RNA measurement in 2015. People were considered to be on antiretroviral treatment whenever they started combination antiretroviral ...
In a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging Phase II study conducted in Hamburg, Germany, thirty-six HIV-infected individuals, not yet taking antiretroviral drugs, received one of three DermaVir doses, or the placebo, every six weeks. The treatments were very well-tolerated and CD4+ cell counts did not decrease, explained the studys Principle Investigator, Jan van Lunzen, MD of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Infectious Diseases Unit. At 24 weeks, the individuals HIV viral loads were compared to their baseline values. A statistically significant reduction of 0.5 log10 copies/mL, a 70 percent reduction equivalent to that produced by several anti-HIV drugs, was seen in the cohort receiving 0.4 mg DermaVir vaccinations. Also in this group, HIV gag-specific precursor/memory T cells increased by 97 percent as the viral load decreased, a result not seen with antiretroviral drugs. Based upon our study the immune boosting and antiviral activity of DermaVir immunizations may ...
The impact of drug side-effects on retention in HIV care is probably being underestimated, according to an interview-based study of people taking antiretroviral treatment and health care workers in six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, published in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.. Although antiretroviral treatment has become easier to tolerate over the past decade as drugs with fewer serious side-effects have become more widely available, many people report some side-effects of treatment.. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tiredness, lack of energy, rash and difficulties in sleeping are common side-effects of many of the drugs now used in antiretroviral drug combinations.. Although these side-effects are usually classified as mild or moderate in clinical studies, health care workers and patients frequently differ in their assessments of the impact of these side-effects on quality of life and on adherence to antiretroviral treatment.. To find out more about the differing ...
Our research into HIV. Recent research includes a study on new patients not on HIV treatment and patients on antiretroviral treatment for at least six months.
Purpose of Review As access to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands globally, a decline in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality has been complicated by rising rates of noncommunicable...
These assays are usually performed during therapy to assist in the determination of which antiretroviral components in a failing or incompletely suppressive regimen may be losing or have lost virologic suppression due to mutationally-mediated resistance. Except for prior to initiation of therapy, the assay should be performed while the patient is on the failing or suboptimal regimen. This assay should be strongly considered at the earliest time that a particular regimen is found to be less than fully suppressive and other causes of virologic failure (nonadherence, etc.) have been ruled-out or are thought to be much less contributory. However, most assays require at least 1000 copies/cc of HIV to detect resistance mutations. ...
ATLANTA At the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Atlanta, the international medical humanitarian organization Doctors Without Borders/M decins Sans Fronti res (M...
So if you value an opinion, formed as a result of participating in many ME activities, for example being bed bound for years, you have come to the right BLOG. All these activities have allowed me to form an opinion as a Doctor and as a Patient. And that is important as the voice of the latter is discarded by many including NICE ...
Rakhmanina, N. Y., Neely, M. N., & Capparelli, E. V. (2012). High dose of darunavir in treatment-experienced hiv-infected adolescent results in virologic suppression and improved CD4 cell count. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 34(3), 237-241.. ...
... s are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral
If you believe that digital publication of certain material infringes any of your rights or (privacy) interests, please let the Library know, stating your reasons. In case of a legitimate complaint, the Library will make the material inaccessible and/or remove it from the website. Please Ask the Library, or send a letter to: Library of the University of Amsterdam, Secretariat, Singel 425, 1012 WP Amsterdam, The Netherlands. You will be contacted as soon as possible. ...
Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: recommendations for a public health ...
Antiretroviral drugs that are being used to prolong the lives of patients infected with HIV/AIDS could also be greatly effective in slowing its spread, epidemiologist Brian Williams said.
As soon as you test positive for HIV, look for an HIV care and treatment program. These programs can provide you with the resources you need to stay healthy. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) medicines can help your body strengthen its immune system to fight HIV infection, but small amounts of the HIV virus will always remain hidden in the body. Using ART means taking a combination of at least 3 anti-retroviral medicines every day. The medicines available may differ depending on where you live. They might be combined into one pill, or they might come in 3 separate pills. But what is the same everywhere is that once you begin taking ART, the medicines must be taken every day and at the same time. A person taking ART will gain weight, and look and feel healthier. But if he stops taking ART, or misses doses of the medicine, or takes it at the wrong times, then the HIV can become stronger and make him sick again. Women with HIV who are pregnant should also take ART. It will help them be healthier and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Starr, Stuart E.. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Spector, Stephen A.. AU - Brundage, Richard C.. AU - Yong, Florence H.. AU - Douglas, Steven D.. AU - Flynn, Patrizia M.. AU - Kline, Mark W.. PY - 2002/7/23. Y1 - 2002/7/23. N2 - Background. This study determined the safety, pharmacokinetics, antiviral activity and immunologic effects of efavirenz liquid formulation, nelfinavir and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in HIV-infected children, 3 to 9 years of age. Methods. Plasma HIV-1 RNA and lymphocyte subsets were measured at various intervals after initiation of therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed at Week 2, and doses of efavirenz and nelfinavir were adjusted if area under the curve values fell outside specified target ranges. Results. This combination of antiretrovirals was well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetic values were similar to those observed in a previous study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Polack, Fernando P.. AU - Flayhart, Diane C.. AU - Zahurak, Marianna L.. AU - Dick, James D.. AU - Willoughby, Rodney E.. PY - 2000/7. Y1 - 2000/7. N2 - Objective. Children with HIV infection are particularly susceptible to invasive pneumococcal disease, yet the effect of HIV infection and its medical management on colonization and resistance to antibiotics are poorly described. To provide a basis for medical practice, we determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with HIV infection. Methods. Cross- sectional prevalence sample of children attending the pediatric HIV and pulmonary clinics to examine nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae and antibiotic resistance to beta-lactams and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (T/S). Subjects were matched by age and date of clinic visit. Results. The colonization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurobehavioral effects in HIV-Positive individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Gaborone, Botswana. AU - Lawler, Kathy. AU - Jeremiah, Kealeboga. AU - Mosepele, Mosepele. AU - Ratcliffe, Sarah J.. AU - Cherry, Catherine. AU - Seloilwe, Esther. AU - Steenhoff, Andrew P.. PY - 2011/2/18. Y1 - 2011/2/18. N2 - Objective: To explore the prevalence and features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDS) in Botswana, a sub-Saharan country at the center of the HIV epidemic. Design and Methods: A cross sectional study of 60 HIV-positive individuals, all receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 80 demographically matched HIV-seronegative control subjects. We administered a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and structured psychiatric interview. The lowest 10th percentile of results achieved by control subjects was used to define the lower limit of normal performance on cognitive measures. Subjects who scored abnormal on ...
BACKGROUND: Effective two-drug regimens could decrease long-term drug exposure and toxicity with HIV-1 antiretroviral therapy (ART). We therefore aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a two-drug regimen compared with a three-drug regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in ART-naive adults.. METHODS: We conducted two identically designed, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trials: GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2. Both studies were done at 192 centres in 21 countries. We included participants (≥18 years) with HIV-1 infection and a screening HIV-1 RNA of 500 000 copies per mL or less, and who were naive to ART. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to receive a once-daily two-drug regimen of dolutegravir (50 mg) plus lamivudine (300 mg) or a once-daily three-drug regimen of dolutegravir (50 mg) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg). Both drug regimens were administered orally. We masked participants and investigators to treatment ...
To identify virological and immunological correlates of microbial-specific immune reconstitution in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, Candida- and tetanus-specific lymphocyte proliferation was measured in 165 children initiating a new highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. During the study, the proportions of children with immunity to Candida and tetanus increased from 53% to 66% and 19% to 22%, respectively. Tetanus immunity was associated with an HIV load ⩽400 RNA copies/mL and with Candida immunity. At the end of the study, 23% of the patients with baseline negative lymphocyte proliferation had tetanus immunity, and 65% had Candida immunity. Reconstitution of tetanus immunity correlated with lower end-of-study HIV loads and activated CD8+ cell percentages and higher baseline and in-study CD4+ cell percentages, but not with a gain of CD4+ cells. Reconstitution of Candida immunity showed similar trends. In conclusion, children with advanced ...
RESULTS: Antiretroviral therapy is recommended for all adults with HIV infection. Evidence for benefits of treatment and quality of available data increase at lower CD4 cell counts. Recommended initial regimens include 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs; abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine) and a third single or boosted drug, which should be an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (dolutegravir, elvitegravir, or raltegravir), a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (efavirenz or rilpivirine) or a boosted protease inhibitor (darunavir or atazanavir). Alternative regimens are available. Boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy is generally not recommended, but NRTI-sparing approaches may be considered. New guidance for optimal timing of monitoring of laboratory parameters is provided. Suspected treatment failure warrants rapid confirmation, performance of resistance testing while the patient is receiving the failing regimen, and evaluation of ...
Viral suppression at the time of immunisation is the most important determinant of long-term response to yellow fever vaccination among people with HIV, Swiss investigators report in Clinical Infectious Diseases. Every person with an undetectable viral load at the time of first yellow fever vaccination continued to have a protective response ten years after vaccination, they found.. "Persons infected with HIV demonstrated good short-term immune response to YFV [yellow fever vaccination], which decreased to 75% ten years p.v. [post vaccination," comment the authors. "The long-term immune response of patients with HIV RNA suppressed at vaccination remained unimpaired for up to ten years.". The investigators believe their findings have implications for vaccination strategies, writing: "HIV-infected patients mount a long-standing protective immune response to YFV up to at least ten years if they are vaccinated while remaining on successful cART [combination antiretroviral therapy]…until further ...
The patient was taken by neurosurgery service to the operating room where a biopsy was taken, which was positive for Toxoplasmosis gondii. The patient was then found to be positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with subsequent testing. While in the intensive care unit the patient required mannitol, steroids, and hypertonic saline for cerebral edema, and his neurologic status improved with treatment. The patient was treated for cerebral toxoplasmosis, subsequent Pneumocystis carini pneumonia, oral thrush, and was started on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).. Toxoplasmosis gondii is an opportunistic intracellular pathogen that has long been recognized as the most frequent cause of brain lesions in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.1,2 Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis gondii is estimated at 22.5% within the United States (U.S.) and may be higher within the general populous in Europe and tropical countries.3,4 Infection with Toxoplasmosis gondii in adults ...

Anti-HIV Agents | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | NaturalAnti-HIV Agents | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | Natural

Anti-HIV Agents, Anti-Retroviral Agents. Additional Keywords : Anti-HIV Agents, Anti-Retroviral Agents, HIV Infections, ... Diseases : HIV Infections. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-HIV Agents, Antiviral Agents, Enzyme Inhibitors, HIV Protease ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-HIV Agents, Antioxidants, HIV Protease Inhibitors. Additional Keywords : Drug: Zidovudine, Plant ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-HIV Agents, Antineoplastic Agents, Antiproliferative , Apoptotic. Additional Keywords : Fungal ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/pharmacological-action/anti-hiv-agents

Drug Interactions Among Anti-HIV Agents - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govDrug Interactions Among Anti-HIV Agents - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... Drug Interactions Among Anti-HIV Agents. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Unique intracellular activation of the potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus agent 1592U89. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. ... Current or anticipated therapy with other agents with documented activity against HIV-1 in vitro (other than stable maintenance ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00001766

Recent Studies on Natural Products as Anti-HIV Agents: Ingenta ConnectRecent Studies on Natural Products as Anti-HIV Agents: Ingenta Connect

HIV) is urgently needed due to its globally widespread infection. Most of clinically useful anti-HIV agents are nucleosides but ... Keywords: Alkaloids; Anti HIV Agents; Carbohydrates; Trikendiol; allanthus altissima; anolignan A; artemisinin; batzelladines A ... Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in research on the natural products for the anti-HIV agents. New ... Natural products, of which structural diversity is so broad, are good sources for the effective discovery of anti-HIV agents ...
more infohttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/cmc/2000/00000007/00000006/art00004

Yale researchers discover promising anti-HIV agents | YaleNewsYale researchers discover promising anti-HIV agents | YaleNews

These agents could allow for comparatively lower dosages, and also for prophylactic anti-HIV treatment, he said. Importantly, ... This illustration shows a new anti-HIV agent developed at Yale bound to an enzyme essential for the virus replication. Two ... The new agents work by inhibiting the function of an enzyme essential for HIVs replication. That enzyme is called HIV-1 ... Two of the new agents are extraordinarily potent against the predominant, "wild-type" form of HIV, which is highly adept at ...
more infohttps://news.yale.edu/2011/11/18/yale-researchers-discover-promising-anti-hiv-agents

NIH Guide: PRECLINICAL PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTITUMOR AND ANTI-HIV AGENTSNIH Guide: PRECLINICAL PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTITUMOR AND ANTI-HIV AGENTS

PRECLINICAL PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTITUMOR AND ANTI-HIV AGENTS NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 3, January 21, 1994 RFP ... pharmacology studies in non-disease bearing animals on agents having demonstrated antitumor or anti-HIV activity and considered ... The Government will supply all animals (mice, rats, dogs, non-human primates), test agents, and radiolabeled test agents. ... The studies to be performed will include: the development of methodology for the quantitative measurement of test agents and/or ...
more infohttps://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not94-035.html

Anti-HIV Agents | Profiles RNSAnti-HIV Agents | Profiles RNS

"Anti-HIV Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Anti-HIV Agents" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Anti-HIV Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Anti-HIV Agents*Anti-HIV Agents. *Agents, Anti-HIV. *Anti HIV Agents ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Anti-HIV Agents" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/116030

Peptide-derived mid-sized anti-HIV agents
    -
    Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins
    (RSC Publishing)Peptide-derived mid-sized anti-HIV agents - Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins (RSC Publishing)

This chapter is an update of our contribution on the topic of peptide-derived anti-HIV agents with a focus on mid-size drugs. ... We have produced several anti-HIV agents including fusion inhibitors, coreceptor antagonists, integrase inhibitors, CD4 mimics ... Peptide-derived mid-sized anti-HIV agents. Nami Ohashi and Hirokazu Tamamura ... To date, several anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs such as reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/chapter/bk9781782625377-00001/978-1-78262-537-7

Are there any risks in taking adefovir dipivoxil? | Anti-HIV Agent - SharecareAre there any risks in taking adefovir dipivoxil? | Anti-HIV Agent - Sharecare

HIV or AIDS drugs; methotrexate; niacin; or rifampin.. Using adefovir can make an untreated HIV infection more difficult to ... An Anti-Inflammatory Diet PlanDiabetes Smart TipsLiving Well with Rheumatoid ArthritisLiving Well with Colitis or CrohnsManage ... An Anti-Inflammatory Diet PlanDiabetes Smart TipsLiving Well with Rheumatoid ArthritisLiving Well with Colitis or CrohnsManage ... Tell your doctor if you have HIV or AIDS, or if you have unprotected sex with more than one partner or use injectable street ...
more infohttps://www.sharecare.com/health/anti-hiv-agent/any-risks-taking-adefovir-dipivoxil

Boehringer Ingelheim Launches Global Phase III Clinical Trials For New Anti-HIV Agent TipranavirBoehringer Ingelheim Launches Global Phase III Clinical Trials For New Anti-HIV Agent Tipranavir

... ... HIV Drug Resistance The HIV-1 virus acquires HIV drug resistance after sub-optimal exposure to antiretroviral therapy, which ... Resistance to currently available anti-HIV drugs is an increasingly prevalent concern for highly treatment-experienced HIV- ... VIRAMUNE was the first member of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) class of anti-HIV drugs. Boehringer ...
more infohttp://www.natap.org/2003/feb/020703_4.htm

Scripps Florida Scientists Announce Anti-HIV Agent So Powerful It Can Work in a Vaccine | Scripps ResearchScripps Florida Scientists Announce Anti-HIV Agent So Powerful It Can Work in a Vaccine | Scripps Research

Scripps Florida Scientists Announce Anti-HIV Agent So Powerful It Can Work in a Vaccine. ... When HIV infects a cell, it targets the CD4 lymphocyte, an integral part of the bodys immune system. HIV fuses with the cell ... The study shows that the new drug candidate blocks every strain of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) that ... "When antibodies try to mimic the receptor, they touch a lot of other parts of the viral envelope that HIV can change with ease ...
more infohttps://www.scripps.edu/news-and-events/press-room/2015/20150218farzan.html

What should I do if I miss a dose of Viread? | Anti-HIV Agent - SharecareWhat should I do if I miss a dose of Viread? | Anti-HIV Agent - Sharecare

Continue Learning about Anti-HIV Agent. Anti-HIV Agent Learn more about Anti-HIV Agent ... An Anti-Inflammatory Diet PlanDiabetes Smart TipsLiving Well with Rheumatoid ArthritisLiving Well with Colitis or CrohnsManage ... Dont let your supply of Viread run out, and dont miss doses, because if you stop taking Viread for even a short time HIV may ...
more infohttps://www.sharecare.com/health/anti-hiv-agent/what-should-miss-dose-viread

Yale licenses potential anti-HIV agent to Oncolys BioPharm...( New Haven Conn. - Yale University toda...)Yale licenses potential anti-HIV agent to Oncolys BioPharm...( New Haven Conn. - Yale University toda...)

... anti-HIV,agent,to,Oncolys,BioPharma,of,Japan,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current ... Ed4T is a thymidine analogue that blocks HIV-1 reverse transcriptas... This license agreement was possible because Yale has ... a compound with a new and potentially effective anti-HIV clinical treatment. Ed4T is a thymidine analogue that blocks HIV-1 ... of Tokyo the global exclusive right for clinical and business development of a novel compound for the treatment of HIV.. A ...
more infohttp://news.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-3/Yale-licenses-potential-anti-HIV-agent-to-Oncolys-BioPharma-of-Japan-6163-1/

Scripps Florida Scientists Announce Anti-HIV Agent So Powerful It Can Work in a Vaccine | Infection Control TodayScripps Florida Scientists Announce Anti-HIV Agent So Powerful It Can Work in a Vaccine | Infection Control Today

Scripps Florida Scientists Announce Anti-HIV Agent So Powerful It Can Work in a Vaccine. ... When HIV infects a cell, it targets the CD4 lymphocyte, an integral part of the bodys immune system. HIV fuses with the cell ... The study shows that the new drug candidate blocks every strain of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) that ... "When antibodies try to mimic the receptor, they touch a lot of other parts of the viral envelope that HIV can change with ease ...
more infohttps://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/viral/scripps-florida-scientists-announce-anti-hiv-agent-so-powerful-it-can-work-vaccine

HIV anti Latency Agents PipelineHIV anti Latency Agents Pipeline

A lot of anti-latency agents are screened, as well as immuno-modulatory drugs. ... active reserach is ongoing to find an HIV cure. ... hiv eradication HIV reservoirs hiv cure HIV latency hiv ... reservoirs eradication HIV eradication HIV workshop reservoirs hiv persistence reservoir cure HIV HIV cure ISHEID HIV ... Key words: HDAC inhibitors, HIV Gilead, HIV Janssen, HIV cure, HIV cure research, HIV latency, HIV reservoirs ...
more infohttp://www.hiv-reservoir.net/index.php/the-news/193-hiv-anti-latency-agents-pipeline.html

WO2017149511 USE OF 2-OXO-2H-PYRROL-1(5H)-CARBOXAMIDE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-HIV AGENTS AND PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOFWO2017149511 USE OF 2-OXO-2H-PYRROL-1(5H)-CARBOXAMIDE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-HIV AGENTS AND PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF

... carboxamide derivatives in the treatment of HIV infections, pharmaceutical compositions containing these derivatives as active ... EN) USE OF 2-OXO-2H-PYRROL-1(5H)-CARBOXAMIDE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-HIV AGENTS AND PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF. (FR) ... 1. (WO2017149511) USE OF 2-OXO-2H-PYRROL-1(5H)-CARBOXAMIDE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-HIV AGENTS AND PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION ... UTILISATION DE DÉRIVÉS DE 2-OXO-2H-PYRROL-L(5H)-CARBOXAMIDE EN TANT QUAGENTS ANTI-VIH ET PROCÉDÉ DE PRODUCTION ASSOCIÉ. ...
more infohttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017149511

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Mangiferin, an Anti-HIV-1 Agent Targeting Protease and Effective against Resistant StrainsMolecules | Free Full-Text | Mangiferin, an Anti-HIV-1 Agent Targeting Protease and Effective against Resistant Strains

Mechanism studies revealed that mangiferin might inhibit the HIV-1 protease, but is still effective against HIV peptidic ... Mangiferin can inhibit HIV-1ⅢB induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with a 50% effective concentration ... A combination of docking and pharmacophore methods clarified possible binding modes of mangiferin in the HIV-1 protease. The ... Mangiferin also showed good activities in other laboratory-derived strains, clinically isolated strains and resistant HIV-1 ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/16/5/4264

Browsing Meeting reports by Subject Anti-HIV AgentsBrowsing Meeting reports by Subject "Anti-HIV Agents"

... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ... Report of the Workshop to Strengthen Monitoring of HIV Care and Antiretroviral Therapy in the Western Pacific Region, Vientiane ... Biregional Informal Technical Consultation on the Development of Clinical Protocols on HIV Treatment and Care for Injecting ...
more infohttps://iris.wpro.who.int/handle/10665.1/1278/browse?authority=Anti-HIV+Agents&type=mesh&locale-attribute=en

Browsing Information products by Subject Anti-HIV AgentsBrowsing Information products by Subject "Anti-HIV Agents"

... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ... WHO expands recommendation on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV infection (PrEP)]  世界卫生组织西太平洋区域办事处 (马尼拉:世
more infohttps://iris.wpro.who.int/handle/10665.1/1280/browse?authority=Anti-HIV+Agents&type=mesh&locale-attribute=en

Anti-HIV Agents | Profiles RNSAnti-HIV Agents | Profiles RNS

"Anti-HIV Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Anti-HIV Agents" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Anti-HIV Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Anti-HIV Agents*Anti-HIV Agents. *Agents, Anti-HIV. *Anti HIV Agents ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Anti-HIV Agents" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://profiles.rush.edu/display/26703

Hyssop Plant Extracts Found to Be Potent Anti-HIV AgentsHyssop Plant Extracts Found to Be Potent Anti-HIV Agents

MAR-10 also has broad spectrum anti-glycosidase activity (inhibits HIV from replicating and inhibits HIV-mediated syncytium ... 1) In one study, extracts of dried leaves of Hyssop officinalis showed strong anti-HIV properties. *Hyssop officinalis inhibits ... 2) In another study, a polysaccharide isolated from Hyssop officinalis also showed strong anti-HIV activity.. *The ... This study shows that the polysaccharide MAR-10 has strong anti-HIV-1 activity and can be considered potent in treating people ...
more infohttps://blog.optimalhealthnetwork.com/2014/02/extracts-from-hyssop-officinalis-have.html

In Vitro Evaluation of Experimental Agents for Anti‐HIV Activity - Current ProtocolsIn Vitro Evaluation of Experimental Agents for AntiHIV Activity - Current Protocols

This unit presents an assay that has proven useful as an initial screening test is an HIV cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition ... strains of HIV are utilized as target cells. Additional protocols assess the antiHIV activity of certain candidate agents by ... In Vitro Evaluation of Experimental Agents for AntiHIV Activity. Douglas D. Richman1, Victoria A. Johnson2, Douglas M. Mayers3 ... In vitro inhibition of HIV‐1 replication by C2 symmetry‐based HIV protease inhibitors as single agents or in combinations. ...
more infohttp://www.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-im1209.html?quicktabs_cp=cited

ATZ
        -
        Anti-HIV Agents,  Protease Inhibitors,  ATC:J05AE08ATZ - Anti-HIV Agents, Protease Inhibitors, ATC:J05AE08

HIV-1). Protease inhibitors block the part of HIV called protease. HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic ... Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs. ... For use, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. ... Atazanavir (ATV) is an azapeptide HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI). It is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/ATZ.html

NF
        -
        Anti-HIV Agents,  HIV Protease Inhibitors,  ATC:J05AE04NF - Anti-HIV Agents, HIV Protease Inhibitors, ATC:J05AE04

Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs. ... Protease inhibitors block the part of HIV called protease. HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of ... Patients should be informed that VIRACEPT is not a cure for HIV infection and that they may continue to acquire illnesses ... the risk of transmitting HIV to others through sexual contact or blood contamination. Patients should be advised to take ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/NF.html

1. Development of a novel ELISA for the testing of glycobioconjugates as anti-HIV agents 2. Synthesis of potential inhibitors...1. Development of a novel ELISA for the testing of glycobioconjugates as anti-HIV agents 2. Synthesis of potential inhibitors...

1. Development of a novel ELISA for the testing of glycobioconjugates as anti-HIV agents 2. Synthesis of potential inhibitors ... 1. Development of a novel ELISA for the testing of glycobioconjugates as anti-HIV agents 2. Synthesis of potential inhibitors ... 1. Development of a novel ELISA for the testing of glycobioconjugates as anti-HIV agents 2. Synthesis of potential inhibitors ... AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a retrovirus that is ...
more infohttp://arizona.openrepository.com/arizona/handle/10150/283988

Novel polypeptide anti-HIV agent containing the same - Patent applicationNovel polypeptide anti-HIV agent containing the same - Patent application

... and an anti-HIV compound: 3-azido-2,3-dideoxythymidine (AZT) used as a medicine as a control anti-HIV agent. TABLE-US-00007 ... it can be considered to have an anti-HIV virus activity. It can be also considered, in addition to anti-HIV virus agent, to ... Anti-HIV Activity and Cytotoxicity, [0138]HIV-1 (IIIB) strain obtained from MOLT/HIV-1 (IIIB) cell previously infected by HIV-1 ... Patent application title: Novel polypeptide anti-HIV agent containing the same. Inventors: Nobutaka Fujii Agents: JORDAN AND ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100222256
  • The in vitro and in vivo anti‐retrovirus activity, and intracellular metabolism of 3′‐azido‐2′,3′‐dideoxythymidine and 2′,3′‐dideoxycytidine are highly dependent on the cell species. (currentprotocols.com)
  • This report is part of a series of focused summaries from the "5 th International Workshop on HIV Persistence, Reservoirs & Eradication Strategies" held in St Maarten, December 6-9, 2011. (hiv-reservoir.net)
  • Investigation of Efavirenz Discontinuation in Multi-ethnic Populations of HIV-positive Individuals by Genetic Analysis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Thompson M, Saag M, DeJesus E, Gathe J, Lalezari J, Landay AL, Cade J, Enejosa J, Lefebvre E, Feinberg J. A 48-week randomized phase 2b study evaluating cenicriviroc versus efavirenz in treatment-naive HIV-infected adults with C-C chemokine receptor type 5-tropic virus. (rush.edu)
  • HIV is a retrovirus that is capable of rapid genetic mutation, which makes the virus and the disease difficult to treat. (openrepository.com)
  • Natural products, of which structural diversity is so broad, are good sources for the effective discovery of anti-HIV agents with decreased toxicity. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • HIV-infected patients taking cenicriviroc had significant reductions in viral load, with the effect persisting up to two weeks after discontinuation of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains to be determined if this kind of agent is able to enhance immunity to help eliminate HIV-infected cells (figure 5). (hiv-reservoir.net)
  • Especially, terpenes and phenol substances have gained much interest due to their significant anti-HIV activities along with their structural diversity. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • structural determination of metabolites and/or degradation products of parent agents produced in animals and in model in vitro systems (e.g., animal and/or human liver slices, S9 fractions, and microsomal preparations). (nih.gov)
  • Structural analogues of the michellamine anti-HIV agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this knowledge, Farzan and his team developed the new drug candidate so that it binds to two sites on the surface of the virus simultaneously, preventing entry of HIV into the host cell. (scripps.edu)
  • Data from the new study showed the drug candidate binds to the envelope of HIV-1 more potently than the best broadly neutralizing antibodies against the virus. (scripps.edu)
  • It relates oral presentations given by Romas Geleziunas, on behalf of Gilead, and Roger Sutmuller, on behalf of Janssen on the search for new therapeutic strategies targeting latent HIV reservoirs. (hiv-reservoir.net)
  • The study shows that the new drug candidate blocks every strain of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) that has been isolated from humans or rhesus macaques, including the hardest-to-stop variants. (scripps.edu)
  • There are 3 michellamines represented as A, B, and C, however, Michellamine B is the most active against the NID-DZ strain of HIV-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Don't let your supply of Viread run out, and don't miss doses, because if you stop taking Viread for even a short time HIV may become resistant to treatment. (sharecare.com)
  • A second, closely related compound, JLJ506, is also highly effective against wild-type HIV, as well as against two common mutant forms of the virus. (yale.edu)
  • Once injected into muscle tissue, like HIV itself, the vehicle turns those cells into "factories" that could produce enough of the new protective protein to last for years, perhaps decades, Farzan said. (scripps.edu)
  • HIV fuses with the cell and inserts its own genetic material-in this case, single-stranded RNA-and transforms the host cell into a HIV manufacturing site. (scripps.edu)
  • The discoveries mark another major achievement by Yale scientists in fighting HIV. (yale.edu)
  • The 2 talks given in a row during this Thursday December 7 afternoon, in front of an audience of more than 210 HIV scientists, contained the same message: some of the major pharmaceutical companies are addressing the search of an HIV cure very seriously. (hiv-reservoir.net)
  • HIV symptom burden and anemia among HIV-positive individuals: cross-sectional results of a community-based positive living with HIV (POLH) study in Nepal. (umassmed.edu)
  • When antibodies try to mimic the receptor, they touch a lot of other parts of the viral envelope that HIV can change with ease," said TSRI Research Associate Matthew Gardner, the first author of the study with Lisa M. Kattenhorn of Harvard Medical School. (scripps.edu)
  • When HIV infects a cell, it targets the CD4 lymphocyte, an integral part of the body's immune system. (scripps.edu)