A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY.
The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.
A plant species of the genus GYMNEMA that contains gymnemic acid (triterpene SAPONINS) which affects blood sugar level, and gurmarin protein. The common name of Gurmar should not be confused with Guar (CYAMOPSIS).
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(1/7501)


HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (2/7501)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease. (3/7501)

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (4/7501)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (5/7501)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

A multiple drug interaction study of stavudine with agents for opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (6/7501)

The effects of multiple opportunistic infection medications on stavudine pharmacokinetics were evaluated. Ten patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 received stavudine (40 mg twice daily) in combination with one to three other drugs used to treat opportunistic infections. Serial blood samples for stavudine concentrations were collected after 1 week of therapy on each regimen and assayed for stavudine by using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Although the maximum concentration of drug in serum was significantly decreased when the drug was given in combination with three opportunistic infection medications, the area under the concentration-time curve did not significantly differ across various treatment regimens. Stavudine exposure was not significantly altered by multiple concomitant medications. Side effects were minor throughout the 3-month study period. The tolerability of stavudine, combined with its lack of drug interactions, makes it an attractive agent for use as part of a combination regimen.  (+info)

Lack of absorption of didanosine after rectal administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (7/7501)

The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean +/- standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 +/- 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.9 mumol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 +/- 412 min.mumol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 mumol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application.  (+info)

Suppression of replication of multidrug-resistant HIV type 1 variants by combinations of thymidylate synthase inhibitors with zidovudine or stavudine. (8/7501)

The replication of recombinant multidrug-resistant HIV-1 clones modeled on clinically derived resistant HIV-1 strains from patients receiving long-term combination therapy with zidovudine (AZT) plus 2',3'-dideoxycytidine was found to regain sensitivity to AZT and stavudine (D4T) as a consequence of a pharmacologically induced decrease in de novo dTMP synthesis. The host-cell system used was phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells; dTMP and dTTP depletion were induced by single exposures to a low level of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its deoxynucleoside, 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine. The host-cell response to the latter was biphasic: a very rapid decrease in the rate of de novo dTMP formation and, consequently, in intracellular dTTP pools, followed by slower recovery in both indices over 3 to 24 h. With the additional presence of AZT or D4T, however, replication of the multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains remained inhibited, indicating dependence of HIV DNA chain termination by AZT-5'-monophosphate or 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate in these resistant strains on simultaneous inhibition of host-cell de novo synthesis of thymidine nucleotides. No effect on viability of control (uninfected) phytohemagglutinin-stimulated/peripheral blood mononuclear cells was noted on 6-day exposures to 5-FU or 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine alone or in combination with AZT or D4T, even at drug levels severalfold higher than those used in the viral inhibition studies. These studies may provide useful information for the potential clinical use of AZT/5-FU or D4T/5-FU combinations for the prevention or reversal of multidrug resistance associated with long-term dideoxynucleoside combination therapy.  (+info)

This study compared the efficacy of efavirenz versus ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor based initial antiretroviral therapy in patients with high plasma
The discovery of medicinal agents capable of specifically inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is urgently needed due to its globally widespread infection. Most of clinically useful anti-HIV agents are nucleosides but their use is limited due to their severe toxicity and emerging drug resistance. More than 50% of world marketed drugs have their origin of the nature. Natural products, of which structural diversity is so broad, are good sources for the effective discovery of anti-HIV agents with decreased toxicity. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in research on the natural products for the anti-HIV agents. New natural products that have potent anti-HIV activities with novel structures were reviewed in this article. These compounds, isolated mainly from medicinal plants, in this review have been classified as secondary metabolites such as terpenes, phenolics, and naturally scarce peptides and sugars. Especially, terpenes and phenol substances have gained much ...
HIV-1 infection is associated with B cell dysregulation and dysfunction. In HIV-1-infected patients, we previously reported preservation of intestinal lymphoid structures and dendritic cell maturation pathways after early combination antiretroviral therapy (e-ART), started during the acute phase of the infection, compared with late combination antiretroviral therapy started during the chronic phase. In this study, we investigated whether the timing of combination antiretroviral therapy initiation was associated with the development of the HIV-1-specific humoral response in the gut. The results showed that e-ART was associated with higher frequencies of functional resting memory B cells in the gut. These frequencies correlated strongly with those of follicular Th cells in the gut. Importantly, frequencies of HIV-1 Env gp140-reactive B cells were higher in patients given e-ART, in whom gp140-reactive IgG production by mucosal B cells increased after stimulation. Moreover, IL-21 release by PBMCs stimulated
Browsing by Title Early antiretroviral therapy reduces the incidence of otorrhea in a randomized study of early and deferred antiretroviral therapy : evidence from the Children with HIV Early antiretroviral therapy (CHER) Study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of class-specific therapy interruption on persistence of HIV type 1 antiretroviral resistance. AU - Campo, Rafael E.. AU - Rosa, Isabella. AU - Lichtenberger, Paola N.. AU - Suarez, German. AU - Rivera, Fernando A.. AU - Jayaweera, Dushyantha T.. AU - Rodriguez, Allan E.. AU - Wahlay, Natalie A.. AU - Kolber, Michael A.. PY - 2003/8/1. Y1 - 2003/8/1. N2 - Interruption of all antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection when therapy is failing and antiretroviral resistance has emerged is frequently associated with the disappearance of detectable resistance-associated protease and reverse transcriptase substitutions. However, the effect that discontinuation of treatment with a particular antiretroviral class has on resistance to that class when other antiretroviral therapy is continued is unknown. We investigated differences in detectable genotypic resistance to protease inhibitors (PI) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) among two populations: patients ...
OBJECTIVES: No randomized controlled trials have yet reported an individual patient benefit of initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at CD4 counts , 350 cells/muL. It is hypothesized that earlier initiation of cART in asymptomatic and otherwise healthy individuals may lead to poorer adherence and subsequently higher rates of resistance development. METHODS: In a large cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we investigated the emergence of new resistance mutations upon virological treatment failure according to the CD4 count at the initiation of cART. RESULTS: Of 7918 included individuals, 6514 (82.3%), 996 (12.6%) and 408 (5.2%) started cART with a CD4 count ...
The purpose of this study was to find a safe and tolerable dose of the protease inhibitor (PI) atazanavir (ATV), with or without a low-dose boost of the PI ritonavir (RTV), when taken with other anti-HIV drugs in HIV infected infants, children, and adolescents.. Advancements in anti-HIV drugs for HIV infected children and adolescents have been hard to make, in part because these patients often do not take the drugs as prescribed. ATV may be a better option because it is available in the form of powder which children and adolescents may be more willing to take regularly. Using a low dose of RTV as a boosting agent for ATV may also increase the chances of virologic response of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-experienced patients. This study aimed to find safe and tolerable doses of ATV with or without low-dose RTV boost in infants, children, and adolescents. For this study, participants were enrolled in the United States and South Africa. ...
The purpose of this study was to find a safe and tolerable dose of the protease inhibitor (PI) atazanavir (ATV), with or without a low-dose boost of the PI ritonavir (RTV), when taken with other anti-HIV drugs in HIV infected infants, children, and adolescents.. Advancements in anti-HIV drugs for HIV infected children and adolescents have been hard to make, in part because these patients often do not take the drugs as prescribed. ATV may be a better option because it is available in the form of powder which children and adolescents may be more willing to take regularly. Using a low dose of RTV as a boosting agent for ATV may also increase the chances of virologic response of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-experienced patients. This study aimed to find safe and tolerable doses of ATV with or without low-dose RTV boost in infants, children, and adolescents. For this study, participants were enrolled in the United States and South Africa. ...
Objectives: To determine HIV-1 RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of successfully treated patients and to evaluate if combination antiretroviral treatments with higher central nervous system penetration-effectiveness (CPE) achieve better CSF viral suppression. Methods: Viral loads (VLs) and drug concentrations of lopinavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz were measured in plasma and CSF. The CPE was calculated using 2 different methods. Results: The authors analyzed 87 CSF samples of 60 patients. In 4 CSF samples, HIV-1 RNA was detectable with 43-82 copies per milliliter. Median CPE in patients with detectable CSF VL was significantly lower compared with individuals with undetectable VL: CPE of 1.0 (range, 1.0-1.5) versus 2.3 (range, 1.0-3.5) using the method of 2008 (P = 0.011) and CPE of 6 (range, 6-8) versus 8 (range, 5-12) using the method of 2010 (P = 0.022). The extrapolated CSF trough levels for atazanavir (n = 12) were clearly above the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in only 25% of samples; ...
PRECLINICAL PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTITUMOR AND ANTI-HIV AGENTS NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 3, January 21, 1994 RFP AVAILABLE: NCI-CM-57199-12 P.T. 34 Keywords: Pharmacology Chemotherapeutic Agents National Cancer Institute The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP), Division of Cancer Treatment, is soliciting organizations having the necessary experience, scientific and technical personnel, and facilities to conduct a series of preclinical pharmacokinetic and other pharmacology studies in non-disease bearing animals on agents having demonstrated antitumor or anti-HIV activity and considered by DCT to merit further development. The studies to be performed will include: the development of methodology for the quantitative measurement of test agents and/or metabolites in animal body fluids and tissues; stability studies of test agents in biological fluids; plasma protein binding determinations; characterization of in vivo plasma concentration-time profiles and calculation of relevant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcomes of second-line antiretroviral therapy among children living with HIV. T2 - a global cohort analysis. AU - The Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER) Global Cohort Collaboration. AU - Patel, Kunjal. AU - Smith, Colette. AU - Collins, Intira Jeannie. AU - Goodall, Ruth. AU - Abrams, Elaine J.. AU - Sohn, Annette H.. AU - Mohamed, Thahira J.. AU - Van Dyke, Russell B.. AU - Rojo, Pablo. AU - Wools-Kaloustian, Kara. AU - Pinto, Jorge. AU - Edmonds, Andrew. AU - Marete, Irene. AU - Paul, Mary. AU - Nuwaqaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet. AU - Leroy, Valériane. AU - Davies, Mary Ann. AU - Vreeman, Rachel. AU - Maxwell, Nicky. AU - Timmerman, Venessa. AU - Duff, Charlotte. AU - Mofenson, Lynne. AU - Bekker, Linda Gail. AU - Vicari, Marissa. AU - Essajee, Shaffiq. AU - Penazzato, Martina. AU - Collins, Intira Jeannie. AU - Wools-Kaloustian, Kara. AU - Davies, Mary Ann. AU - Leroy, Valériane. AU - Goodall, Ruth. AU - Patel, Kunjal. AU - Smith, ...
A systematic review and meta-analysis from China finds that transmitted drug resistance (TDR) - when people who have never been on antiretroviral treatment (ART) before are already resistant to first-line ART - was found at 3% of cases overall, with significant regional variation. The analysis also found this type of drug-resistant HIV has been accelerating in China since 2012, mainly due to resistance to a class of ART known as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI).. The review, published in The Lancets E-Clinical Medicine, analysed 170 studies to assess the level, trend and geographical distribution of HIV drug resistance between 2001 and 2017, and the most common genetic mutations that cause it.. Studies included in this analysis, the most comprehensive of its kind to date, relate to 21,450 people living with HIV who had not been on antiretroviral treatment (ART) before (otherwise known as treatment or ART-naïve), and 30,475 people who had previously been on ...
Warning: Trizivir therapy should not be used without a NNRTI or PI unless circumstances dictate that this is the only practical therapy for a particular client. In particular patients with advanced disease or higher viral loads should be treated with an alternative regimen until further information becomes available. ...
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Atazanavir sulfate is a drug used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including all stages of HIV infection and acquired
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection. T2 - 2008 Recommendations of the international AIDS society-USA panel. AU - Hammer, Scott M.. AU - Eron, Joseph J.. AU - Reiss, Peter. AU - Schooley, Robert T.. AU - Thompson, Melanie A.. AU - Walmsley, Sharon. AU - Cahn, Pedro. AU - Fischl, Margaret A.. AU - Gatell, Jose M.. AU - Hirsch, Martin S.. AU - Jacobsen, Donna M.. AU - Montaner, Julio S.G.. AU - Richman, Douglas D.. AU - Yeni, Patrick G.. AU - Volberding, Paul A.. PY - 2008/8/6. Y1 - 2008/8/6. N2 - Context: The availability of new antiretroviral drugs and formulations, including drugs in new classes, and recent data on treatment choices for antiretroviral-naive and -experienced patients warrant an update of the International AIDS Society-USA guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Objectives: To summarize new data in the field and to provide current recommendations for the antiretroviral management and ...
BOSTON, Feb 11, 2003 (BUSINESS WIRE) --. 48-Week Data from Alize Trial Presented Today at 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. French researchers presented new 48-week data from a Phase III clinical trial today. These data demonstrate that emtricitabine (FTC), an investigational once-daily nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), suppresses HIV when taken as part of a once-daily, protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimen. Emtricitabine is being developed by Triangle Pharmaceuticals, which was acquired by Gilead Sciences (Nasdaq:GILD) in January 2003. Dr. Jean-Michel Molina presented the 48-week results of the ANRS 099 Alize trial (Abstract #551) at the 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston, Massachusetts. The ANRS 099 Alize trial is an ongoing three-year, open-label, multicenter study involving 355 patients who at baseline had to have HIV RNA less than 400 copies/mL while receiving PI-based antiretroviral therapy. ...
By several parameters known to be associated with HIV disease progression, children who are treated with protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy and reconstitute their CD4 T cells despite viral rebound have similar outcomes to those who optimally suppress viral replication. In our study, discordant viral and immune response outcome groups showed sustained increases in CD4 T-cell counts and displayed growth parameters, prevalence of HIV-associated illnesses, and levels of functional immunity that were equivalent to VS/IS children. The substantial restoration of CD4 T-cell counts in the VS/IS and VF/IS response groups during the initial 24 weeks of treatment was sustained over the subsequent 72 weeks in both outcome groups. The durability of CD4 reconstitution in VF/IS children who were enrolled in our study is in contrast to previous examinations of CD4 T-cell reconstitution in HIV-infected adults in which 30% to 40% of patients who displayed discordant viral and immune responses ...
The ARV Therapies and Therapeutic Strategies program is a comprehensive, independent review of the 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2018). This program consists of three components: (1) CME Internet Symposium: CROI 2018 Expert Review: a 1.5 hour Internet symposium that features an overview and discussion of key presentations and posters, selected by the expert faculty discussants; (2) Rapid-Fire Review of CROI 2018: a podcast that provides a brief, audio summary of the most essential data presented at the conference; and (3) From Conference to Clinic: Reviewing and Applying Data From CROI 2018: case-based dinner meetings during which the key data are reviewed, discussed and applied to patient care ...
The Original Study Several observational studies have reported that the early use of antiretroviral therapy by patients diagnosed with HIV decreases rates of HIV acquisition among their sexual partners. This study evaluates the impact of early antiretroviral therapy on HIV acquisition among serodiscordant couples from nine countries.
© 2020 The Author(s) Background: Early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the size of the viral reservoir in paediatric and adult HIV infection. Very early-treated children may have higher cure/remission potential. Methods: In an observational study of 151 in utero (IU)-infected infants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, whose treatment adhered strictly to national guidelines, 76 infants diagnosed via point-of-care (PoC) testing initiated cART at a median of 26 h (IQR 18-38) and 75 infants diagnosed via standard-of-care (SoC) laboratory-based testing initiated cART at 10 days (IQR 8-13). We analysed mortality, time to suppression of viraemia, and maintenance of aviraemia over the first 2 years of life. Findings: Baseline plasma viral loads were low (median 8000 copies per mL), with 12% of infants having undetectable viraemia pre-cART initiation. However, barely one-third (37%) of children achieved suppression of viraemia by 6 months that was maintained to |12 months. 24% had died or were
The annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) brings together top basic, translational, and clinical researchers from around the world to share the latest studies, important developments, and best research methods in the ongoing battle against HIV/AIDS and related infectious diseases. CROI is a global model of collaborative science and the premier international venue for bridging basic and clinical investigation into clinical practice in the field of HIV and related viruses.
The Botswana national treatment guidelines for adults recommend two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), zidovudine/lamivudine, and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Typically, the NNRTI is efavirenz or, for women of reproductive age, nevirapine. The regimen consisted of 200 mg of Combivir (lamzid, once available) twice daily. Nevirapine began with a two-week lead-in period of 200 mg once a day followed by a maintenance regimen of 200 mg twice a day. Efavirenz was dosed at 600 mg each day.. Patients experiencing virologic failure on first-line therapy were switched to a protease inhibitor-based regimen (lopinavir/ritonavir) coupled with two NRTIs (didanosine and stavudine or tenofovir or abacavir and lamivudine). When virologic failure occurred with second-line therapy or when there were complicated first-line therapy failures, genotypic resistance testing was undertaken.. At the initial visit, all patients underwent a comprehensive physical examination ...
Slide 1 of 11 New Guidelines, Strategies, and Drugs for Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy 2013 Charles B. Hicks, MD Professor of Medicine Duke University Medical Center Durham, North Carolina From CB Hicks, MD, at Chicago, IL: May 20, 2013, IAS-USA. IAS-USA Improving Practical Skills for Primary Care of HIV-Infected Patients Slide 2 of 11 clinicaloptions.com/hiv Goals of Antiretroviral Therapy  Reduce HIV-associated morbidity and prolong duration and quality of survival  Restore and preserve immunologic function  Maximally and durably suppress HIV-1 RNA - Persistently below level of detection (, 20-75 copies/mL, depending on the assay used) - Isolated blips not uncommon in successfully treated patients and not thought to predict virologic failure  Prevent HIV transmission DHHS Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults and Adolescents. March 2012. From CB Hicks, MD, at Chicago, IL: May 20, 2013, IAS-USA. Slide 3 of 11 Improving Practical Skills for Primary Care of ...
Objectives: To assess how developing knowledge surrounding combination antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV infection since mid-1 996 has altered how drugs are used in Australia. Methods: Time trends in use of antiretroviral treatment were calculated on patients recruited to the Australian HIV Observational Database. For each six month period, patients were on one or more antiretroviral drugs for at least two weeks. Other patients were in the no-treatment group. Patients receiving antiretrovirals for more than two weeks were allocated to the category of treatment (mono, double or triple-plus therapy) they received for the longest period. Results: 1476 patients were recruited by September 2000. Of patients currently receiving antiretroviral therapy, 32 per cent took three or more antiretrovirals including an HIV protease inhibitor (PI) and 27 per cent took triple-plus therapy including a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The proportion of patients receiving ...
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched a large international trial called IMPAACT 2010 or VESTED to evaluate three antiretroviral treatment regimens in HIV-infected pregnant women.. The trial aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of these regimens in the 639 participants who are 14 to 28 weeks into their pregnancies, along with safety for their infants.. It will compare the existing World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended, first-line maternal efavirenz (EFV) / emtricitabine (FTC) / tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) regimen with two other regimens containing newer antiretroviral drugs dolutegravir (DTG) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF).. The mothers viral load at delivery will be measured to compare the virologic efficacy of these three regimens. The viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood.. In addition, effectivity rates of the regimens on adverse pregnancy outcomes will be monitored such as preterm delivery and low infant birth weight, maternal and infant adverse ...
On December 31, 2012, FDA approved Fulyzaq (crofelemer) to relieve symptoms of diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy. ...
A series of neamine-heterocycle conjugates were designed and synthesized. All new compounds displayed more potent inhibitory effect on HIV replication than neamine, among them two compounds displayed stronger anti-HIV activity than neomycin B. The results suggested that it might be a promising approach to modify neamine for the discovery of new anti-HIV agents. (C) 2013 Xiao-Lian Zhang, Xin-Shan Ye. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved. ...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Structured interruptions of antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1 infected individuals are currently being tested in clinical trials to study the effect interruptions have on the immune responses and control of virus replication. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential risks and benefits of interrupted therapy using standard population dynamical models of HIV replication kinetics. METHODS: Standard population dynamical models were used to study the effect of structured therapy interruptions on the immune effector cells, the latent cell compartment and the emergence of drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The models suggest that structured therapy interruption only leads to transient or sustained virus control if the immune effector cells increase during therapy. This increase must more than counterbalance the increase in susceptible target cells induced by therapy. The risk of inducing drug resistance by therapy interruptions or the risk of repopulating the pool of latent cells during ...
During the last three decades, HIV/AIDS has become the threat to the world. Almost 75 million people have been infected, and about 36 million people have died of HIV [1]. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) changes HIV/AIDS from diseases with a high mortality rate to manageable chronic diseases by decreasing the progression of AIDS and reducing HIV-related illness and deaths. Researches revealed that improved access to ART is helping to drive a decline in HIV-related morbidity and mortality [2-5]. In the USA and Canada, a person in his or her 20s who contracts HIV can now expect to live into the 70s if initiated ART early [6].. The standard therapy consists of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) [7]. In 2010, these guidelines were revised and recommended less toxic drugs in first-line therapy by replacing stavudine (d4T) with tenofovir (TDF) [8]. In resource-limited countries, World Health ...
BACKGROUND: Etravirine (ETR), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) available in France since 2006, is indicated for antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected adults, in combination with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI). To assess its clinical impact in routine care, we compared hospitalization rates according to ETR + PI prescription or not, among heavily treated HIV-1 infected individuals on failing regimens between 2005 and 2011. METHODS: From the French Hospital Database on HIV (ANRS CO4), we selected heavily treated individuals (prior exposure to at least 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 2PI and 1 NNRTI) with viral load (VL) | 50 copies/mL who started a new antiretroviral (ARV) regimen between 2005 and 2011. Using an intention-to-continue-treatment approach, hospitalization rates were calculated for the individuals who received ETR + PI, during the months after initiating ETR + PI (ETR + PI) or for the individuals who received ETR + PI, in the
In 2013, WHO published the first consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV treatment and prevention across all age groups and populations. A comprehensive revision of these guidelines based on new scientific evidence and lessons from implementation is being undertaken in 2015.. This early-release guideline makes available two key recommendations that were developed during the revision process in 2015. First, antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated in everyone living with HIV at any CD4 cell count. Second, the use of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as a prevention choice for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination prevention approaches. The first of these recommendations is based on evidence from clinical trials and observational studies released since 2013 showing that earlier use of ART results in better clinical outcomes for people living with HIV compared with delayed treatment. The second ...
List of wholesalers , traders for antiretroviral arv drugs, 22 antiretroviral arv drugs manufacturers & antiretroviral arv drugs suppliers from China.
In previously untreated patients, combinations that include efavirenz compare favorably with regimens that include either other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or components from other antiretroviral classes.. Two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III studies in antiretroviral-naive adults compared efavirenz with rilpivirine, each in combination with 2 NRTIs (predominantly tenofovir + emtricitabine). By ITT analysis of pooled data from the 2 studies, 82% of efavirenz recipients and 84% of rilpivirine recipients had HIV RNA levels of ,50 copies/mL at 48 weeks; the difference was not statistically significant. In patients with HIV RNA ,100,000 copies/mL, the efavirenz regimen resulted in higher rates of virologic suppression. The mean increase in CD4 count was 176 cells/µL in the efavirenz group (compared with 192 cells/µL in the rilpivirine group).(13) A randomized trial comparing efavirenz with nevirapine, each given with lamivudine + stavudine in initial therapy, ...
Among 100 children on first-line cART followed for a median 49 months, 34% experienced virologic failure. Twenty-three (68%) of the 34 children with viral failure had detectable resistance mutations, of whom 14 (61%) had multi-class resistance. Fourteen (14%) children were switched to second-line regimens and followed for a median of 28 months. Retrospective analysis revealed that virologic failure had occurred a median of 12 months prior to the switch to second-line. During prolonged first-line treatment in the presence of viral failure, additional resistance mutations accumulated, however, only 1 (7%) of 14 children had persistent viremia during second-line treatment ...
Several studies intensively evaluated the effect of antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute HIV infection has on the size of the cellular reservoir. One such study compared the reservoir as measured by HIV DNA as total, integrated and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) in those treated during acute infection (n=9), chronic infection (n=26) and amongst elite controllers (n=37) (15). It was not surprising that HIV DNA was detectable regardless of how early therapy was initiated and amongst the elite controllers. Nevertheless, they did find that the levels were significantly lower in those treated during acute infection than during chronic. Moreover, the levels in the early treatment group were similar to the elite controller. While early treatment did not eliminate the reservoir, even amongst those with 10 years of follow-up, it is conceivable that the success of any future strategies to target the reservoir may be more successful in those with a smaller reservoir, such as those initiating therapy ...
We investigated the evolution of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT)- and protease-associated antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance mutations during the time taken to perform genotypic drug resistance testing. Thirty treatment-experienced patients who were adherent to therapy and who underwent genotypic drug resistance testing provided blood samples at randomization and when reviewing the test results (baseline). Patients remained on their existing therapy between randomization and baseline. The predominant HIV strains in 10 patients (33%) either lost and/or gained primary RT inhibitor (RTI) or protease inhibitor (PI) associated resistance mutations during the testing period. Of the 9 patients with RT mutations, 2 lost, 5 gained, and 2 both lost and gained RTI resistance mutations. One patient gained a significant PI-associated resistance mutation on an existing PI-resistant background. The evolution that occurred in the RT may have altered the effectiveness of subsequent ARV therapy in some patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Starr, Stuart E.. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Spector, Stephen A.. AU - Brundage, Richard C.. AU - Yong, Florence H.. AU - Douglas, Steven D.. AU - Flynn, Patrizia M.. AU - Kline, Mark W.. PY - 2002/7/23. Y1 - 2002/7/23. N2 - Background. This study determined the safety, pharmacokinetics, antiviral activity and immunologic effects of efavirenz liquid formulation, nelfinavir and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in HIV-infected children, 3 to 9 years of age. Methods. Plasma HIV-1 RNA and lymphocyte subsets were measured at various intervals after initiation of therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed at Week 2, and doses of efavirenz and nelfinavir were adjusted if area under the curve values fell outside specified target ranges. Results. This combination of antiretrovirals was well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetic values were similar to those observed in a previous study ...
Title: Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Giuseppe Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63,00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, metabolic syndome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk of HIVinfected patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines. ...
2015 Elsevier Ltd. Background Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate can cause renal and bone toxic effects related to high plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a novel tenofovir prodrug with a 90% reduction in plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide-containing regimens can have improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimens. Methods In these two controlled, double-blind phase 3 studies, we recruited treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with an estimated creatinine clearance of 50 mL per min or higher from 178 outpatient centres in 16 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily oral tablets containing 150 mg elvitegravir, 150 mg cobicistat, 200 mg emtricitabine, and 10 mg tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/tenofovir alafenamide) or 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) with matching placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Adenovirus viremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. by Ronald M. Ferdman et al.
Results: A total 307 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, 153 highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (who didnt take highly active antiretroviral therapy) and 154 on highly active antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in the study. The mean ( SD) age of the participants was 34.69 ( 8.86) years and about 61% were females. The prevalence of renal impairment in highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve and on highly active antiretroviral therapy individuals was 30.1% and 12.9% respectively. Proteinuria was found in 17.9 % of the participant. Low CD4 count (Adjusted odds ratio= 24.11; (95% CI 11.06, 52.56) and being highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (Adjusted odds ratio = 6.58; 95% CI 2.99, 14.47) showed significant association with the prevalence of renal impairment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural models. AU - Cole, Stephen R.. AU - Hernán, Miguel A.. AU - Robins, James M.. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Chmiel, Joan. AU - Detels, Roger. AU - Ervin, Carolyn. AU - Feldman, Joseph. AU - Greenblatt, Ruth. AU - Kingsley, Lawrence. AU - Lai, Shenghan. AU - Young, Mary. AU - Cohen, Mardge. AU - Muñoz, Alvaro. N1 - Funding Information: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with additional supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute (grants UO1-AI-35042, 5-MO1-RR-00722 (General Clinical Research Center), UO1-AI-35043, UO1-AI-37984, UO1-AI-35039, UO1-AI-35040, UO1-AI-37613, and UO1-AI-35041). The Womens Interagency HIV Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute, the National ...
Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate drug information: uses, indications, side effects, dosage. Compare prices for generic emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate substitutes: Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets, Tavin- EM, Tenof- EM
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of different antiretroviral treatment regimens on viral load, CD4 lymphocyte counts, and rates of progression to clinical acquired immunodeficiency syndrome events among treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients enrolled in a large community cohort study. METHODS: Based in 7 outpatient clinics, the Swiss HIV Cohort Study is a cohort with national coverage. Virological, immunologic, and clinical results of 755 treatment-naive patients (median age, 36 years; 28.2% female) who initiated antiretroviral therapy between July 1, 1995, and June 30, 1997, were analyzed. Patients started undergoing monotherapy with 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI), combination therapy with at least 2 RTIs, or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with RTIs and protease inhibitors. RESULTS: Antiretroviral treatment led to a mean reduction of viremia of 1.8 log10 copies per milliliter with HAART, 1.2 log10 copies per milliliter with RTI comb
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune Complexes in Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. AU - Ellaurie, Maadhava. AU - Calvelli, Theresa. AU - Rubinstein, Arye. PY - 1990/11. Y1 - 1990/11. N2 - Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were analyzed in a cohort of 30 children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Elevated CIC were detected by the C1 q assay in 70% (21/30) of all patients and by the Raji cell assay in 93% (28/30) of all patients. While only less than one third of patients with elevated CIC had free serum antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, 80% (16/20) of them had detectable antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus associated with CIC. Enriched CIC in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children contained low levels of complement. These findings document that, as an expression of the humoral immunodeficiency, CIC in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children are deficient in complement and can thus be underestimated if complement-precipitating methods are used for their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cervicovaginal HIV-1 shedding in women taking antiretroviral therapy in Burkina Faso. T2 - a longitudinal study. AU - Low, Andrea J. AU - Konate, Issouf. AU - Nagot, Nicolas. AU - Weiss, Helen A. AU - Kania, Dramane. AU - Vickerman, Peter. AU - Segondy, Michel. AU - Mabey, David. AU - Pillay, Deenan. AU - Meda, Nicolas. AU - van de Perre, Philippe. AU - Mayaud, Philippe. AU - Yerelon Study Group. PY - 2014/2/1. Y1 - 2014/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces transmission of HIV-1. However, genital HIV-1 can be detected in patients on ART. We analyzed factors associated with genital HIV-1 shedding among high-risk women on ART in Burkina Faso.METHODS: Plasma viral load (PVL) and enriched cervicovaginal lavage HIV-1 RNA were measured every 3-6 months for up to 8 years. Random-effects logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze associations of frequency and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA with behavioral and biological factors, adjusting for ...
Background: New WHO guidelines recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers have to decide whether to further expand eligibility for antiretroviral therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage.. Methods: We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), Zambia (generalised epidemic, high antiretroviral therapy coverage), India (concentrated epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), and Vietnam (concentrated epidemic, low antiretroviral therapy coverage)-to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy under ...
To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. Observational prospective cohort. HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 ...
Objective:To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland.Design:Retrospective molecular epidemiology analysis of all newly HIV-diagnosed individuals between 2008 and 2010.Methods:Phylogenet
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antidepressant treatment and adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among patients with AIDS and diagnosed depression. AU - Walkup, James. AU - Wei, Wenhui. AU - Sambamoorthi, Usha. AU - Crystal, Stephen. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements Support for this research was provided by funding from grants: MH 58984-03, MH 60831, MH076206-01 and HS 016097.. PY - 2008/3. Y1 - 2008/3. N2 - Background: The prevalence of depression is elevated among HIV-infected individuals and there is evidence that depression exerts a negative impact on HIV medication adherence. Methods: Merged HIV/AIDS surveillance data and Medicaid claims data from January 1996 to December 1998 were used to identify AIDS-infected patients with diagnosed depression, and filled prescriptions were used to identify their antidepressant use, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Chi-square tests and robust logistic regressions were used to examine antidepressant use after HAART initiation, and a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement in lipoatrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients switched from stavudine to abacavir or zidovudine. T2 - The results of the TARHEEL study. AU - Bartlett, John. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85026137152&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85026137152&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1097/01.idc.0000130889.35482.ee. DO - 10.1097/01.idc.0000130889.35482.ee. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:85026137152. VL - 12. JO - Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. JF - Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. SN - 1056-9103. IS - 4. ER - ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Compromised immunologic recovery in treatment-experienced patients with HIV infection receiving both tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and didanosine in the TORO studies. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Objective: Some HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) do not resolve their plasma viraemia or HIV RNA can reappear after a period of virological control. We investigate whether polymorphisms in cytokine genes affect the control of plasma HIV RNA over 5 years on HAART. Design: The study utilized adult HIV-infected patients in Western Australia. Plasma HIV-RNA levels were assessed from commencement of HAART in patients who had a CD4 T-cell count less than 100 cells/μl before HAART and achieved immune reconstitution assessed by CD4 T-cell counts. Results: Control of plasma viraemia could be predicted from carriage of allele 2 at position -889 in the IL1A gene (IL1A-889*2). This was significant when assessed by the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-RNA level of 400 copies/ml or less (P = 0.002). At 48 months post-HAART, proportions were approximately 0.76, 0.51 and 0.32 for IL1A (1,1), (1,2) and (2,2) patients, respectively. The outcome was independent of the ...
PubMed journal article: CD4+ cell count, viral load, and highly active antiretroviral therapy use are independent predictors of body composition alterations in HIV-infected adults: a longitudinal study. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Primary HIV-associated thrombocytopenia (PHAT) typically improves with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, cases continue to occur. Data comparing the epidemiology of PHAT between the pre-HAART and HAART eras are limited. We retrospectively examined the incidence of PHAT over 28 years in the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) from 1986 to 2013. Subjects had a nadir platelet count |100 × 109/l with no other identifiable cause. Time periods were categorized as pre-HAART (1986-1995), early HAART (1996-2001), and later HAART (2002-2013). Incidence, demographic data, and CD4 count were compared across the three eras. A generalized estimating equations model was used to assess any association of platelet count and HIV viral load in cases diagnosed during the HAART eras. 218 participants met the case definition. 86.2 % of cases occurred prior to 2002. The incidence of PHAT per 1000 person-years of follow-up was 16.3, 4.6, and 1.9 during pre-HAART, early HAART and later HAART eras
1. PerelsonAS, EssungerP, CaoY, VesanenM, HurleyA, et al. (1997) Decay characteristics of HIV-1-infected compartments during combination therapy. Nature 387: 188-191.. 2. GulickRM, MellorsJW, HavlirD, EronJJ, GonzalezC, et al. (1997) Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy. The New England journal of medicine 337: 734-739.. 3. WalenskyRP, PaltielAD, LosinaE, MercincavageLM, SchackmanBR, et al. (2006) The survival benefits of AIDS treatment in the United States. The Journal of infectious diseases 194: 11-19.. 4. HammerSM, SquiresKE, HughesMD, GrimesJM, DemeterLM, et al. (1997) A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team. The New England journal of medicine 337: 725-733.. 5. RichmanDD, MargolisDM, DelaneyM, GreeneWC, HazudaD, et ...
We analyzed the effect of age on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and tolerance in 639 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (99 of whom were aged ,50 years, and 540 of whom were aged ,50 years). Late testing, which was more frequent in the older age group, was the only independent factor associated with immunologic and clinical evolution of infection. Age ,50 years was associated with earlier treatment discontinuation.. ...
We next isolated highly purified populations of resting CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood of these donors. After depletion of monocytes by adherence, negative selection with monoclonal antibodies and magnetic beads was used to remove CD8+ T cells, B cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells. In addition, activated CD4+ T cells, which represented an average of 10% of the CD4+ T cell populations in these individuals (Table 1), were removed by bead depletion with antibodies to CD25, CD69, and human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-DR. Additional purification was achieved by flow cytometric sorting of small lymphocytes expressing CD4 but not HLA-DR, which is expressed on all activated T cells. This multistep purification gave populations of resting CD4+ HLA-DR− T cells that were, on average, 97% pure (Table 1). Most importantly, the sorted populations were typically contaminated with ,1% activated CD4+ T cells.. Specialized PCR approaches have shown that a low frequency of resting CD4+ T cells from ...
A pilot longitudinal study was conducted for 3 months on HIV positive and AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy, at a day care clinic at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon, between April and July 2008. A total of 223 HIV patients were recruited following initiation and each patient benefited from pretherapeutic tests. Social-demographic, clinical and biological data were recorded for each subject and finally analyzed using standard statistical procedures. Out of the 223 subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the study, 153 were females (68. 6%) and 70 were males (31. 6%). The age group that was most represented was 30 - 39 (37.7%). The mean age of patients was 39.34 ± 11.31 years. At initiation the highest administered antiretroviral (ARV) regimen was Zidulam N (34.10%). For hepatotoxicity evaluation, with aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) study, 5.8% of patients showed degree 1 and 1.3% of patients had degree 2 changes. In alanine amino transferase
Other diarylpyrimidine-analogues are currently being used as anti-HIV agents, notably rilpivirine. ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Department of Health and Human ... making it the 30th anti-HIV drug approved in the United States and the first to be approved in 2008.[3] It was also approved ... HIV-1) infection in antiretroviral treatment-experienced adult patients, who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 ...
Reviriego, C (July 2011). "Chemokine CCR2/CCR5 Receptor Antagonist Anti-HIV Agent". Drugs of the Future. 36 (7): 511-7. doi: ... CROI 2013: CCR5/CCR2 Inhibitor Cenicriviroc Has Both Anti-HIV and Anti-inflammatory Effects. Highleyman, Liz. HIVandHepatitis. ... HIV-infected patients taking cenicriviroc had significant reductions in viral load, with the effect persisting up to two weeks ... Cenicriviroc (INN, code names TAK-652, TBR-652) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of HIV infection and in ...
Jung M, Lee S, Kim H (June 2000). "Recent studies on natural products as anti-HIV agents". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 7 (6): ... This process has been proven through test on several envelop viruses such as HIV and HSV. Also, the isoforms of the fatty acid ... Activity-structure relationships to design new bioactive agents". Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening. 6 (6): ... anti-mycoplasma and hemolytic activities. The structure of the main congener consists of a peptide loop of seven amino acids (L ...
"Anti-HIV Agents That Selectively Target Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers without Affecting Cellular Zinc Finger ... "Biophysical Characterization of Zinc Ejection from HIV Nucleocapsid Protein by Anti-HIV 2,2'-Dithiobis[benzamides] and ... Zinc ejectors were patented in 2008 and some have entered Phase I/II trials as a HIV drug. The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein 7 ( ... Azodicarbonamide (ADA) was the first zinc ejector to go into clinical trial for treatment of HIV. ADA inhibits HIV by ...
Two years later the etiology agent for AIDS, the HIV was described. HIV is a retrovirus and has two major serotypes, HIV-1 and ... De Clercq E (April 2009). "Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV". International ... The perfect anti-HIV drug chemical should be effective against drug resistance mutation. Understanding the target RT enzyme and ... Bal TR, Anand B, Yogeeswari P, Sriram D (October 2005). "Synthesis and evaluation of anti-HIV activity of isatin beta- ...
... showed no detectable anti-HIV activity in clinical trials. Mifepristone showed initial promise in psychotic major ... Use of mifepristone as a cervical ripening agent has been described. The medication has been studied as an antiandrogen in the ... There is no evidence that the effects of mifepristone can be reversed, although some anti-abortion groups claim that it can be ... Religious and anti-abortion groups outside the United States have also protested mifepristone, especially in Germany and ...
New York: W.H. Freeman (1997). Cragg, G. M.; Newman, D. J. (2003). "Plants as a source of anti-cancer and anti-HIV agents". ... discovered the anti-HIV/AIDS properties of prostratin. He was elected as president of the Society for Economic Botany and ...
"Anti-AIDS Agents 69. Moronic Acid and Other Triterpene Derivatives as Novel Potent Anti-HIV Agents". Journal of Medicinal ... A particular moronic acid derivative showed potent anti-HIV activity with EC50 values of 0.0085 μM against NL4-3, 0.021 μM ... is under development as an anti-HIV drug; however, moronic acid has shown better antiviral profiles in vitro than bevirimat. ... "Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Activity of Moronic Acid Purified from Rhus javanica In Vitro and In Vivo". The Journal of ...
Since 2009, nelfinavir has been under investigation for potential use as an anti-cancer agent. When applied to cancer cells in ... Nelfinavir is a protease inhibitor: it inhibits HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases. HIV protease is an aspartate protease which splits ... Chow WA, Jiang C, Guan M (2009). "Anti-HIV drugs for cancer therapeutics: back to the future?". Lancet Oncol. 10 (1): 61-71. ... September 2007). "Nelfinavir, A lead HIV protease inhibitor, is a broad-spectrum, anticancer agent that induces endoplasmic ...
Trichostatin A (TSA) and others are being investigated as anti-inflammatory agents. After the successful initial round of in ... "Activation of HIV transcription with short-course vorinostat in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy". ... Adcock IM (April 2007). "HDAC inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents". British Journal of Pharmacology. 150 (7): 829-31. doi: ... The goal is for HDAC inhibitors to flush HIV from the reservoirs it builds within the DNA of infected cells, followed by a ...
... a model for in vitro testing of potential anti-HIV drugs". Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24 (2): 113-22. doi:10.1016/ ... Agents Chemother. 31 (9): 1369-74. doi:10.1128/aac.31.9.1369. PMC 174944. PMID 2445282. Salvatori D, Vincenzetti S, Maury G, ... "HIV-1-associated central nervous system dysfunction." Krebs FC, Ross H, McAllister J, Wigdahl B. Frank KB, McKernan PA, Smith ... The relationship of visna and HIV as lentiviruses was first published in 1985 by visna researcher Janice E. Clements and ...
Novel 3,28-Disubstituted Betulinic Acid Derivatives as Potent Anti-HIV Agents Aims/Hypothesis Out-licensing. iptechex ... The effects of betulinic acid as an anticancer agent in breast cancer is found to be cannabinoid receptor dependent. Betulinic ... C-3 esterification of betulinic acid led to the discovery of bevirimat, an HIV-1 maturation inhibitor patented by Rhone-Poulenc ... Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid which has antiretroviral, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory ...
Anti-AIDS agents--XIX. Neotripterifordin, a novel anti-HIV principle from Tripterygium wilfordii: isolation and structural ... Neotripterifordin is an anti-viral diterpene lactone isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii. ...
Copeland KF, Brooks JI (15 April 2010). "A Novel Use for an Old Drug: The Potential for Minocycline as Anti-HIV Adjuvant ... In ongoing research and trial minocycline demonstrated efficacy and seems a promising neuroprotective agent in acute stroke ... Minocycline significantly reduces concentrations of the anti-HIV drug atazanavir in the body. Minocycline is quickly and nearly ... Joks R, Durkin HG (December 2011). "Non-antibiotic properties of tetracyclines as anti-allergy and asthma drugs". Pharmacol. ...
Drug-resistant viruses are an inevitable consequence of prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to anti-HIV drugs. In the summer of 1981 ... This compound had been prepared in 1964 as a potential anti-cancer agent but was shown to be ineffective. In 1974 zidovudine ... The reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 has been the main foundation for the development of anti-HIV drugs. The first nucleoside ... "Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV", International Journal of Antimicrobial ...
McMahon, Moira (21 June 2007). "The Anti-Hepatitis B Drug Entecavir Inhibits HIV-1 Replication and Can Select HIV-1 Variants ... "Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents" (PDF). Panel on Antiretroviral ... but is not recommended for use in HIV-HBV co-infected patients without a fully suppressive anti-HIV regimen as it may select ... 1992). "4-Hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylenecyclopentyl purines and pyrimidines, a new class of anti-herpesvirus agents". ...
It is a potential antichagonistic agent and has shown to possess neuroprotective effects as well. It is also found to have anti ... It has shown significant antiviral activity against human hepatitis B virus, HIV and SARS-CoV. Cubebin Marcotullio, Maria; ... Cao, Xue-li; Xu, Jing; Bai, Ge; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yan; Xiang, Jun-feng; Tang, Ya-lin (June 2013). "Isolation of anti-tumor ... It has also shown to reduce LPS induced nitric oxide production from macrophages.The anti-inflammatory property of hinokinin is ...
"Potent anti-influenza activity of cyanovirin-N and interactions with viral hemagglutinin". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47 (8 ... "Structures of the complexes of a potent anti-HIV protein cyanovirin-N and high mannose oligosaccharides". J. Biol. Chem. 277 ( ... It is 10,000 times more toxic to HIV than it is to cells."[citation needed] This protein may use the morpheein model of ... Zappe H, Snell ME, Bossard MJ (2008). "PEGylation of cyanovirin-N, an entry inhibitor of HIV". Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 60 (1): 79 ...
Percudani R, Montanini B, Ottonello S (September 2005). "The anti-HIV cyanovirin-N domain is evolutionarily conserved and ... Agents Chemother. 47 (8): 2518-2525. doi:10.1128/aac.47.8.2518-2525.2003. PMC 166092. PMID 12878514. Wlodawer A, Botos I, Boyd ... "Structures of the complexes of a potent anti-HIV protein cyanovirin-N and high mannose oligosaccharides". J. Biol. Chem. 277 ( ... Mori T, O'keefe BR, Smee DF, Turpin JA, Saucedo CJ, Gustafson KR, Blakeslee D, Buckheit R, Boyd MR (2003). "Potent anti- ...
They also looked at how the substituent placement on the quinoline derivatives affected the primary anti-HIV inhibitory ... Quinoline and its derivatives are commonly used in antimalarial drugs, fungicides, antibiotics, dyes, and flavoring agents. ... Luo, Z.G; Zeng, C.C.; Wang, F.; HE; Wang, C.X. (2009). "Synthesis and biological activities of quinoline derivatives as HIV-1 ... and anti-inflammatory activities. Additionally, researchers, such as Luo Zai-gang et al., recently looked at the synthesis and ...
... and obtained a PhD with a dissertation on Development of New Anti-HIV Agents. He did research on virology at the Rega Institute ... At Tibotec he continued his work on HIV.[2] In 1999, he was elected as board member of the Flemish Institute for Biotechnology ... Potent and selective inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro by a novel series of TIBO derivatives, Nature. 1990 Feb 1;343( ...
The company was initially focused on the development of anti-HCV agents. Two protease inhibitors were thus developed and out- ... Halfon has a deep experience in infectious diseases, especially in HCV, HBV and HIV, and in liver diseases. As a renowned ... HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). He is a member of the Board of the doctoral school of medicine in the Aix-Marseille ... ". "HIV carriers can now have healthy children thanks to innovative treatment at Hadassah medical center". Hadassah University ...
In addition to being a anti-tumor agent, Camptothecin has also shown anti-HIV activity because it interrupts self-association ... Bennett, Ryan P. "Camptothecin derivatives as anti-HIV agents and methods of identifying agents that disrupt Vif self- ... M.E. Wall; M.C.Wani; C.E. Cook; K.H.Palmer; A.I.McPhail; G.A.Sim (1966). "Plant antitumor agents. I. The isolation and ... M. K. Chung; S. S. Han; J. C. Kim (2006). "Evaluation of the toxic potentials of a new camptothecin anticancer agent CKD-602 on ...
Li W.-H., Zhang X.-M., Tian R.-R., Zheng Y.-T., Zhao W.-M., Qiu M.-H. (2007). "A new anti-HIV lupane acid from Gleditsia ... Studies in mice suggest that Gleditsia sinensis ethanolic extract could be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of ... A lupane acid extracted from the thorns showed in vitro anti-HIV activity. The fruit extract of Gleditsia sinensis also has ... "Anti-cancer potential of traditional Chinese herbal medicines and microbial fermentation products." Minerva Biotecnologica. 17( ...
"Histone deacetylase inhibitors as anti-neoplastic agents". Cancer Letters. 280 (2): 192-200. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2009.03.013. ... Depletion of Latent HIV in CD4 Cells - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Batty N, Malouf GG, Issa JP (Aug 2009). " ... In addition, a clinical trial is studying valproic acid effects on the latent pools of HIV in infected persons. HDIs are ... Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) have a long history of use in psychiatry and neurology as mood stabilizers and anti- ...
The discovery of FTC was first published in 1992 in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy as another new anti-HIV compound. The ... Schinazi is best known for his involvement in the discovery and/or development of innovative anti-HIV, HBV, and HCV drugs on ... This drug became one of the most successful antiviral agents used to combat HIV as part of fixed-dose combinations (including ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 36 (3): 672-6. doi:10.1128/AAC.36.3.672. PMC 190578. PMID 1320365. "At gathering of HIV/ ...
1990). "Anti-AIDS agents, 2: Inhibitory effects of tannins on HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte ... HPLC determination Tannins, including gallo and ellagic acid (epigallitannins), are inhibitors of HIV replication. 1,3,4-Tri-O- ... Two compounds, punicalin and punicacortein C, inhibited purified HIV reverse transcriptase. Hydrolysable tannins have shown ... galloylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-galloyl-shikimic acid, 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylshikimic acid, punicalin, punicalagin inhibited HIV ...
Food requirements for anti-HIV medications, May 2019. "Abacavir Pharmacokinetics in Hepatic Dysfunction". David L. Wyles, John ... Abacavir tablets and oral solution, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, are indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 ... "How HIV Clinicians Acquire Representational Fluency: A Case Study of the HIV Resistance Preceptorship", University of ... Abacavir should always be used in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Abacavir should not be added as a single agent ...
"Merck Presents Early Evidence on Extended Delivery of Investigational Anti-HIV-1 Agent Islatravir (MK-8591) via Subdermal ... Islatravir has activity against HIV in animal models, and is being studied clinically for HIV treatment and prophylaxis. ... Nevertheless, there are HIV strains resistant to islatravir and research is ongoing. Kawamoto, A; Kodama, E; Sarafianos, SG; ... Grobler, Jay (February 22-25, 2016). Long-Acting Oral and Parenteral Dosing of MK-8591 for HIV Treatment or Prophylaxis. Boston ...
They were able to show that indinavir, when used with two other anti-HIV drugs, could significantly reduce the HIV viral load.[ ... 97 patients were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: indinavir monotherapy, AZT and lamivudine, or all three agents. ... Indinavir does not cure HIV/AIDS, but it can extend the length of a person's life for several years by slowing the progression ... It is normally used as one of the three drugs in a triple-combination therapy for the HIV virus.[1] ...
Competence in S. pneumoniae is induced by DNA-damaging agents such as mitomycin C, fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ... Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... and of septicemia in those infected with HIV. The organism also causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than ... "The persisting burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV patients: an observational cohort study". BMC Infectious ...
... virus is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease ... "African monkey meat that could be behind the next HIV". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. 25 people ... people to be careful of advertisements making unverified or fraudulent claims of benefits supposedly gained from various anti- ... Zubray G (2013). Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and Their Weaponization. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press. pp. ...
"Anti-vaxxers stopped the last Lyme disease vaccine. The FDA has just fast-tracked a new one". Newsweek. 25 July 2017. Archived ... After the identification of B. burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease, antibiotics were selected for testing, ... HIV, or other autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. As all people with later-stage infection will have a positive antibody ... generates antibodies against the OspA protein so a tick feeding on a vaccinated dog draws in blood full of anti-OspA antibodies ...
Spinal α2 and α3 containing GABAA receptors are responsible for the anti-hyperalgesic action of intrathecal diazepam. This was ... Sedative actions of benzodiazepines limit their usefulness as analgesic agents and they are therefore generally not considered ... Although barbiturates fell out of favor, they continue to serve as a short-acting anesthetic and anti-epileptic drugs. ... shown when the anti-hyperalgesic action was reduced when administered in α2 and α3 mice in inflammatory pain and in neuropathic ...
"Country Comparison :: HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate". The World Factbook. CIA.gov. Archived from the original on 21 December ... Also in 1887, Verdier's agent, Marcel Treich-Laplène, negotiated five additional agreements that extended French influence from ... interested in ensuring that the small but influential elite was sufficiently satisfied with the status quo to refrain from anti ... The HIV/AIDS rate was 19th-highest in the world, estimated in 2012 at 3.20% among adults aged 15-49 years.[105] ...
... has a number of purported uses including cancer prevention, treatment of diabetes, fever, HIV and AIDS, and ... anthelmintic agent, for the treatment of cough, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, wounds, ulcer, gout, and rheumatism.[8] ... "India-Tanzania-Thailand Scientists to Study 'Bitter Gourd' for anti-diabetes". zmescience.com. Retrieved 30 May 2017 ... HIV and AIDS, and treatment of infections, there is preliminary laboratory research, but no clinical studies in humans showing ...
It can be used to treat HIV-infected adults who have never taken HIV therapy (treatment-naïve) and HIV-infected adults who have ... In the European Union it is indicated, in combination with other anti-retroviral medicinal products, for the treatment of Human ... to treat HIV/AIDS.[4] It may also be used, as part of post exposure prophylaxis, to prevent HIV infection following potential ... "GSK wins priority status for new HIV drug in U.S". Reuters. 16 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.. [dead link] ...
Pasteur isolated the infectious agent from anthrax. He then derived a vaccine by altering the infectious agent so as to make it ... "Anti-vaccinationists past and present". BMJ. 325 (7361): 430-32. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7361.430. PMC 1123944 . PMID 12193361 ... Pasteur also isolated a crude preparation of the infectious agent for rabies. In a brave piece of rapid medicine development, ... Variolation had the disadvantage that the inoculating agent used was still an active form of smallpox and, although less potent ...
... long-acting agents are recommended.[2] Long-acting agents partly work by reducing hyperinflation.[74] If long-acting ... including HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.[9] Respiratory infections such as pneumonia do not appear to increase the risk of COPD, at ... and act as anti-inflammatories. They show promise in decreasing the rate of exacerbations, but do not appear to change a ... External agents/. occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. Baritosis. Bauxite fibrosis. Berylliosis. ...
In addition to the isolation of HIV-1 and HIV-2, in the recent past researchers at the Institut Pasteur have developed a test ... Calmette's and Guerin's anti-tuberculosis vaccineEdit. By the beginning of the 20th century, the improvement of the general ... Alphonse Laveran got the 1907 Nobel Prize for his research on the role of protozoans as disease agents (notably, his discovery ... The anti-diphtheria serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse ...
Dennison, James (2016). The Greens in British Politics: Protest, Anti-Austerity and the Divided Left. Palgrave.. ... the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other illnesses, as well as offering a place for drug users to access health and ... "Greens control Brighton council after 'anti-Semitic' resignations". BBC News. BBC. 23 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.. ... "Green Party Deputy Leader to speak at international anti-war conference. Archived 23 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine". ...
Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases: Annual numbers of new HIV infections and AIDS deaths have fallen, but the number ... The JUSTPAL Network includes representatives of judiciaries, ministries of justice, prosecutors, anti-corruption agencies and ... It aimed to inspire change agents and prepare them with essential tools that can help achieve development results. WBI had four ... of people living with HIV continues to grow. In the eight worst-hit southern African countries, prevalence is above 15 percent ...
Gankyrin is anti-apoptotic and has been shown to be overexpressed in some tumor cell types such as hepatocellular carcinoma.[81 ... The molecule ritonavir, marketed as Norvir, was developed as a protease inhibitor and used to target HIV infection. However, it ... is the first proteasome inhibitor to reach clinical use as a chemotherapy agent.[102] Bortezomib is used in the treatment of ... Due to its role in generating the activated form of NF-κB, an anti-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory regulator of cytokine ...
A number of common microfungi are important agents of post-harvest spoilage, notably members of the genera Aspergillus, ... Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 8 (8): 957-64. doi:10.1586/eri.10.72. PMID 20695750.. ... HIV/AIDS, other immune disease, heart defects, cystic fibrosis, depression, seizure disorders, Sickle Cell disease, kidney ... "Housing interventions and control of asthma-related indoor biologic agents: a review of the evidence". J Public Health Manag ...
Evidence for ascorbate's anti-tumor effects was limited to case reports and observational and uncontrolled studies."[44] ... Ascorbic acid is a common enzymatic cofactor in mammals used in the synthesis of collagen, as well as a powerful reducing agent ... who both have been accused of making unsubstantiated treatment claims for treating cancer and HIV infection. ... Oxidized forms of the molecule such as dehydroascorbic acid are converted back to ascorbic acid by reducing agents.[3] ...
"Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection" (PDF). The Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and ... Expert review of anti-infective therapy 8 (10): 1163-75. PMID 20954881. doi:10.1586/eri.10.94.. ... WHO case definitions of HIV for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV-related ... Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J. ...
Širom svijeta, najvažniji rizični čimbenik je HIV; 13% svih bolesnika od TBC zaraženo je virusom HIV-a.[5] Ovaj je problem čest ... "Antimicrob Agents Chemother. svezak 47 (broj 3): str. 833.-836. PMC 149338. PMID 12604509. doi:10.1128/AAC.47.3.833-836.2003. ... Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. svezak 3 (broj 6): str. 981.-993. PMID 16307510. doi:10.1586/14787210.3.6.981. ... Anthony, Harries (2005.). TB/HIV a Clinical Manual. (2. izdanje izd.). Geneva: World Health Organization. str. 75. ISBN 978-92- ...
"Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 38 (8): 1864-67. doi:10.1128/aac.38.8.1864. PMC 284652. PMID 7986023.. ... As many as 25 million may have been killed in the first 25 weeks; in contrast, HIV/AIDS has killed 25 million in its first 25 ... Wilson JC, von Itzstein M (July 2003). "Recent strategies in the search for new anti-influenza therapies". Current Drug Targets ... The first influenza virus to be isolated was from poultry, when in 1901 the agent causing a disease called "fowl plague" was ...
In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... outside of the field of HIV drugs, are not patented in the developing world, and that lack of widespread access to these ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ... Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors. *Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/ ...
... single-arm pilot study in patients with severe plaque-type psoriasis treated with an oral anti-inflammatory agent, apremilast ... HIV-associated wasting syndrome, Crohn's disease, Kaposi's sarcoma, myelodysplastic syndrome and hematopoietic stem cell ... The discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of thalidomide increased the interest of ... In vivo anti-tumor activity of thalidomide is believed to be due to the potent anti-angiogenic effect and also through changes ...
Abstr Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998, roč. 38, s. 555. Dostupné ... Koinfekce virem HIV je problémem hlavně v subsaharské Africe, kde je nákaza tímto virem velmi častá.[69][70] Kouření 20 a více ... Mutlu, G., Mutlu, E., Bellmeyer, A., Rubinstein, I. Pulmonary adverse events of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2003, roč. 47, čís. 3, s. 833-6. DOI:10.1128/AAC.47.3.833-836.2003. PMID 12604509.. ...
The choice of the antihypertensive agent is open as long as the blood pressure is controlled to desired level. However, ... Cyclophosphamide ( traded as endoxan & cytoxan )and Isotretinoin have commonly been used, often with anti-platelet/ ... ankylosing spondylitis and HIV. Diagnosis of Berger's disease and a search for any associated disease occasionally reveals such ... This, too, suggests an immune pathology rather than direct interference by outside agents. ...
Anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen, naproxen or other NSAIDs can be used as part of treating sprains and strains ... Hemostatic agents may be included in first aid kits, especially military or tactical kits, to promote clotting for severe ... to assist in CPR and to help prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens such as HIV. ... Anti-fungal cream. *Tincture of benzoin - often in the form of an individually sealed swabstick or ampule, protects the skin ...
... infected persons who are HIV positive are more likely to shed and transmit HIV to uninfected partners during an episode of ... Resistance to cefixime has reached a level such that it is no longer recommended as a first-line agent in the United States, ... and gonococci and commensal Neisseria species can coexist for long time periods in the pharynx and share anti-microbial ... People diagnosed with gonorrhea infection have a fivefold increase risk of HIV transmission.[40] Additionally, ...
Anti-vaccine movement. *Vaccines causing autism. *GMO conspiracy theories. *HIV/AIDS origins ... Talalay, P; Talalay, P (2001). "The importance of using scientific principles in the development of medicinal agents from ... One idea is that the yin-yang balance, at least with regard to herbs, corresponds to the pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant balance. ... and there is generally an absence of high-quality scientific research on product composition or effectiveness for anti-disease ...
Agents. s. 105944. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105944.. *^ Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, Liu W, Wang J, Fan G, Ruan L, Song B, Cai Y ... "Coronavirus, via libera dell'Aifa al farmaco anti-artrite efficace su 3 pazienti e a un antivirale: test in 5 centri" [ ... "Coronavirus, Aifa gives go-ahead to effective anti-arthritis drug on 3 patients and an antiviral: test in 5 centers]. Il ... International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. s. 105933. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105933.. ...
"Topping the EU Fat Stats, Germany Plans Anti-Obesity Drive". Deutsche Welle. 20 April 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2010.. ... Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, about 24,000 Germans have died from the disease. ... it must adhere to the Occupational Safety and Health Act involving Biological Agents.[18] In the event of vaccination related ... HIV/AIDS). In the first half of 2005, German health authorities registered 1,164 new infections; about 60 percent of the cases ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929-1950". J. Hist. Med. Allied ... HIV/AIDS and potential medical emergencies such as infection, thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm,[15] while inhalation may be ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ...
It is a derivative of amantadine which was first an anti-influenza agent but was later discovered by coincidence to have ... Common agents in which NMDA receptor antagonism is the primary or a major mechanism of action: *4-Chlorokynurenine (AV-101) - ... Some common agents in which weak NMDA receptor antagonism is a secondary or additional action include: *Amantadine - an ... Tramadol - an atypical opioid analgesic and serotonin releasing agent. Nitromemantine[edit]. The NMDA receptor is regulated via ...
Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... Drug Interactions Among Anti-HIV Agents. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Unique intracellular activation of the potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus agent 1592U89. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. ... Current or anticipated therapy with other agents with documented activity against HIV-1 in vitro (other than stable maintenance ...
HIV) is urgently needed due to its globally widespread infection. Most of clinically useful anti-HIV agents are nucleosides but ... Keywords: Alkaloids; Anti HIV Agents; Carbohydrates; Trikendiol; allanthus altissima; anolignan A; artemisinin; batzelladines A ... Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in research on the natural products for the anti-HIV agents. New ... Natural products, of which structural diversity is so broad, are good sources for the effective discovery of anti-HIV agents ...
Anti-HIV Agents, Anti-Retroviral Agents. Additional Keywords : Anti-HIV Agents, Anti-Retroviral Agents, HIV Infections, ... Diseases : HIV Infections. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-HIV Agents, Antiviral Agents, Enzyme Inhibitors, HIV Protease ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-HIV Agents, Antioxidants, HIV Protease Inhibitors. Additional Keywords : Drug: Zidovudine, Plant ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-HIV Agents, Antineoplastic Agents, Antiproliferative , Apoptotic. Additional Keywords : Fungal ...
PRECLINICAL PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTITUMOR AND ANTI-HIV AGENTS NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 3, January 21, 1994 RFP ... pharmacology studies in non-disease bearing animals on agents having demonstrated antitumor or anti-HIV activity and considered ... The Government will supply all animals (mice, rats, dogs, non-human primates), test agents, and radiolabeled test agents. ... The studies to be performed will include: the development of methodology for the quantitative measurement of test agents and/or ...
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or ... Anti-HIV Agents. Known as: Agents, Anti-AIDS, aid drug, Anti AIDS Drugs Expand. ... Myelosuppression is the dose-limiting side effect for most anti-cancer and many anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents, which ... Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or ...
These agents could allow for comparatively lower dosages, and also for prophylactic anti-HIV treatment, he said. Importantly, ... This illustration shows a new anti-HIV agent developed at Yale bound to an enzyme essential for the virus replication. Two ... The new agents work by inhibiting the function of an enzyme essential for HIVs replication. That enzyme is called HIV-1 ... Two of the new agents are extraordinarily potent against the predominant, "wild-type" form of HIV, which is highly adept at ...
HIV) infection, including all stages of HIV infection and acquired ... HIV-related disease. It does not directly kill the HIV, so it cannot cure HIV infection. It also does not prevent the HIV from ... Atazanavir sulfate belongs to a class of antiviral drugs known as HIV protease inhibitors. Protease is an enzyme that the HIV ... Atazanavir sulfate is a drug used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including all stages of HIV ...
This chapter is an update of our contribution on the topic of peptide-derived anti-HIV agents with a focus on mid-size drugs. ... We have produced several anti-HIV agents including fusion inhibitors, coreceptor antagonists, integrase inhibitors, CD4 mimics ... Peptide-derived mid-sized anti-HIV agents. Nami Ohashi and Hirokazu Tamamura ... To date, several anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs such as reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors ...
Researchers find HIV PrEP use less than optimal among men in three large Canadian cities ... CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other infections, are ... Study uncovers health issues and concerns of some aging HIV-positive people ...
Anti-AIDS agents, 11. Betulinic acid and platanic acid as anti-HIV principles from Syzigium claviflorum, and the anti-HIV ... since a correlation between anti-HIV and anti-PKC activities has been suggested. However, there was no apparent correlation ... Evaluation of anti-HIV activity with eight derivatives of 1 revealed that dihydrobetulinic acid [3] was also a potent inhibitor ... The C-3 hydroxy group and C-17 carboxylic acid group, as well as the C-19 substituents, contribute to enhanced anti-HIV ...
HIGH RESOLUTION STRUCTURE OF RECOMBINANT DIANTHIN ANTIVIRAL PROTEIN-POTENT ANTI-HIV AGENT. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1LP8/pdb ... High resolution X-ray structure and potent anti-HIV activity of recombinant dianthin antiviral protein.. Kurinov, I.V., ... with a single-stranded RNA heptamer predicted a more potent anti-HIV activity for rDAP due to its unique surface topology and ... capable of depurinating HIV-1 RNA and inhibiting HIV-1 replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherich ... ...
An Anti-Inflammatory Diet PlanDiabetes Smart TipsLiving Well with Rheumatoid ArthritisLiving Well with Colitis or CrohnsManage ... An Anti-Inflammatory Diet PlanDiabetes Smart TipsLiving Well with Rheumatoid ArthritisLiving Well with Colitis or CrohnsManage ...
HIV Infections. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Anti-HIV Agents. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. ... HIV-negative people with a possible exposure to HIV are instructed to take 28 days of a combination anti-HIV medication regimen ... Body Compartment Pharmacokinetics of Anti- Retroviral Agents That May be Used for Future HIV Post- Exposure Prophylaxis. (PEP2) ... Body Compartment Pharmacokinetics of Anti-retroviral Agents That May be Used for Future HIV Post-exposure Prophylaxis Regimens. ...
Scripps Florida Scientists Announce Anti-HIV Agent So Powerful It Can Work in a Vaccine. ... When HIV infects a cell, it targets the CD4 lymphocyte, an integral part of the bodys immune system. HIV fuses with the cell ... The study shows that the new drug candidate blocks every strain of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) that ... "When antibodies try to mimic the receptor, they touch a lot of other parts of the viral envelope that HIV can change with ease ...
Mechanism studies revealed that mangiferin might inhibit the HIV-1 protease, but is still effective against HIV peptidic ... Mangiferin can inhibit HIV-1ⅢB induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with a 50% effective concentration ... A combination of docking and pharmacophore methods clarified possible binding modes of mangiferin in the HIV-1 protease. The ... Mangiferin also showed good activities in other laboratory-derived strains, clinically isolated strains and resistant HIV-1 ...
"Anti-HIV Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Anti-HIV Agents" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Anti-HIV Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Anti-HIV Agents*Anti-HIV Agents. *Agents, Anti-HIV. *Anti HIV Agents ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Anti-HIV Agents" by people in Profiles. ...
... ... HIV Drug Resistance The HIV-1 virus acquires HIV drug resistance after sub-optimal exposure to antiretroviral therapy, which ... Resistance to currently available anti-HIV drugs is an increasingly prevalent concern for highly treatment-experienced HIV- ... VIRAMUNE was the first member of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) class of anti-HIV drugs. Boehringer ...
This unit presents an assay that has proven useful as an initial screening test is an HIV cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition ... strains of HIV are utilized as target cells. Additional protocols assess the antiHIV activity of certain candidate agents by ... In Vitro Evaluation of Experimental Agents for AntiHIV Activity. Douglas D. Richman1, Victoria A. Johnson2, Douglas M. Mayers3 ... In vitro inhibition of HIV‐1 replication by C2 symmetry‐based HIV protease inhibitors as single agents or in combinations. ...
... anti-HIV,agent,to,Oncolys,BioPharma,of,Japan,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current ... Ed4T is a thymidine analogue that blocks HIV-1 reverse transcriptas... This license agreement was possible because Yale has ... a compound with a new and potentially effective anti-HIV clinical treatment. Ed4T is a thymidine analogue that blocks HIV-1 ... of Tokyo the global exclusive right for clinical and business development of a novel compound for the treatment of HIV.. A ...
Bioactive prenylated coumarins as potential anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV agents from Clausena lenis.. Mar 9, 2020 ... lenis could be of great significance to the development of new anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV agents and their potential ... All isolated prenylated coumarins were assessed for their anti-inflammatory effects together with anti-HIV activities in vitro ... Meanwhile, prenylated coumarins 1-12 exhibited considerable anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activities possessing EC ...
Synthesis of a highly active new anti-HIV agent 2′,3′-didehydro-3′-deoxy-4′-ethynylthymidine. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 13:3775- ... The anti-HIV activity profiles for 4′-Ed4T and AZT in donors 23 and 15 were similar. The anti-HIV activity was also analog ... Antiviral Agents. Determinants of Individual Variation in Intracellular Accumulation of Anti-HIV Nucleoside Analog Metabolites ... the fixed cells were exposed to monoclonal anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA) or anti-thymidine kinase 1 (anti ...
The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope Shinji Harada ... Shinji Harada; The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope. ... especially pro-HIV-1 action. One mechanism was found to fully explain the anti- and pro-HIV-1 phenomena: direct modulation of ... Order parameters were evaluated after HIV-1 C-2 (●) or GL-pretreated HIV-1 C-2 (■) were labelled with 5-DSA. GL-pretreated HIV- ...
MOTS CLÉS: synthetic anti-HIV drugs, protease inhibitors, potent natural anti-HIV agents ... In the search of the most suitable and potent anti-HIV agents, researchers have explored the anti-HIV activity of different ... limited the scope of activity of currently existing anti-HIV agents. Quite often severe side effects and lifelong dependency ... Antiretroviral Agents: Looking for the Best Possible Chemotherapeutic Options to Conquer HIV. Tahir Farooq Department of ...
Polyphenols: A Diverse Class of Multi-Target Anti-HIV-1 Agents. Author(s): Kerstin Andrae-Marobela, Fotso Wabo Ghislain, ... Additionally, this review discusses polyphenols as multi-target anti-HIV agents and provides the context of in-vivo and ... Additionally, this review discusses polyphenols as multi-target anti-HIV agents and provides the context of in-vivo and ... Title:Polyphenols: A Diverse Class of Multi-Target Anti-HIV-1 Agents ...
A lot of anti-latency agents are screened, as well as immuno-modulatory drugs. ... active reserach is ongoing to find an HIV cure. ... hiv eradication HIV reservoirs hiv cure HIV latency hiv ... reservoirs eradication HIV eradication HIV workshop reservoirs hiv persistence reservoir cure HIV HIV cure ISHEID HIV ... Key words: HDAC inhibitors, HIV Gilead, HIV Janssen, HIV cure, HIV cure research, HIV latency, HIV reservoirs ...
The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope. Shinji Harada ... The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope ... The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope ... The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope ...
... styrene oxide an asymmetric synthesis is described of the naturally occurring anti-HIV spirolactone (-)-hyperolactone C, which ... synthesis of the anti-HIV agent hyperolactone C.. *D. Hodgson, D. Angrish, Stephanie P. Erickson, J. Kloesges, Caroline H. Lee ... Synthesis of the anti-HIV agent (-)-hyperolactone C by using oxonium ylide formation-rearrangement.. @article{ ... Synthesis of the anti-HIV agent (-)-hyperolactone C by using oxonium ylide formation-rearrangement.}, author={D. Hodgson and S ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ... Report of the Workshop to Strengthen Monitoring of HIV Care and Antiretroviral Therapy in the Western Pacific Region, Vientiane ... Biregional Informal Technical Consultation on the Development of Clinical Protocols on HIV Treatment and Care for Injecting ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ... WHO expands recommendation on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV infection (PrEP)]  世界卫生组织西太平洋区域办事处 (马尼拉:世
  • This study examined the interactions of various drugs used to treat HIV infection in order to design larger studies of possible combinations for people who continue to have high viral levels despite combination therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The discovery of medicinal agents capable of specifically inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is urgently needed due to its globally widespread infection. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Acetyl L-carnitine has a therapeutic effect in the symptomatic treatment of antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in patients with HIV-1 infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Bitter melon appears to have therapeutic activity in the treatment of HIV infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Classed as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the compounds prevent HIV from converting its genetic material into DNA, a necessary step for the infection of human cells. (yale.edu)
  • Atazanavir sulfate is a drug used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including all stages of HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (sharecare.com)
  • It may also be given to people immediately after they are exposed to the HIV to help prevent an HIV infection from becoming established. (sharecare.com)
  • It does not directly kill the HIV, so it cannot cure HIV infection. (sharecare.com)
  • Post-exposure-prophylaxis (PEP) is an intervention that is used to prevent HIV infection soon (72 hours) after a potential exposure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The new study builds on previous discoveries by the Farzan laboratory, which show that a co-receptor called CCR5 contains unusual modifications in its critical HIV-binding region, and that proteins based on this region can be used to prevent infection. (scripps.edu)
  • Luzuriaga K, Persaud D. Treatment interruption after early-treated perinatal HIV-1 infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • RIDGEFIELD, Conn., Feb. 6 /PRNewswire/ -- Boehringer Ingelheim today announced the launch of the Phase III RESIST clinical trial program designed to further study the efficacy and safety of tipranavir for use in combination therapy for HIV-1 infection. (natap.org)
  • Tipranavir is the first non-peptidic protease inhibitor (NPPI) in development for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. (natap.org)
  • In the present study, GL (glycyrrhizin) is reported to lower membrane fluidity, thus suppressing infection by HIV, influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, but not by poliovirus. (portlandpress.com)
  • GL also inhibited cell-to-cell fusion induced by HIV-1 and HTLV-I (human T-cell leukaemia virus type I). However, when cells treated with 1 mg/ml GL were placed in GL-free medium, they showed increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and HTLV-I fusion due to enhancement of membrane fluidity. (portlandpress.com)
  • HIV/AIDS remains prevalent in many parts of the world as acute infection and as anti-retroviral drug (ARV)-managed chronic disease. (eurekaselect.com)
  • For use, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Since the advent of the first AIDS drug, AZT or zidovudine, a number of agents acting on different drug targets, such as HIV enzymes (e.g. reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase) and host cell factors critical for HIV infection (e.g. (currenttopicsinmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • Nowadays, the success of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART), combined with recently-developed powerful but nonetheless less toxic drugs has transformed HIV/AIDS from an inevitably fatal disease into a manageable chronic infection. (currenttopicsinmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • Patients should be informed that VIRACEPT is not a cure for HIV infection and that they may continue to acquire illnesses associated with advanced HIV infection, including opportunistic infections. (pharmacycode.com)
  • AIDS is the most severe stage of HIV infection. (thebody.com)
  • It decreases the ability of HIV to infect the T cells (a special type of cell that helps fight infection). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The current optimal clinical management of HIV infection involves therapy with combinations of nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and HIV protease inhibitors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Like α-defensin-1, the PKC isoform-selective inhibitor Go6976 blocked HIV-1 infection in a dose-dependent manner. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, kinetic studies and analysis of HIV-1 products indicated that α-defensin-1 and Go6976 blocked HIV-1 infection at similar stages in its life cycle, including nuclear import and transcription. (jci.org)
  • The long-term goal of this research is to develop a drug that is safe and effective against drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (sbir.gov)
  • Using humanized myeloid-only mice (MoM), we demonstrate that HIV infection of tissue macrophages is rapidly suppressed by ART, as reflected by a rapid drop in plasma viral load and a dramatic decrease in the levels of cell-associated viral RNA and DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. (drugs.com)
  • Although preventing blood exposures is the primary means of preventing occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, appropriate postexposure management is an important element of workplace safety. (cdc.gov)
  • This information, along with data on ZDV efficacy in preventing perinatal transmission (3) and evidence that PEP prevented or ameliorated retroviral infection in some studies in animals (4), prompted a Public Health Service (PHS) interagency working group *, with expert consultation (5), in June 1996 to issue provisional recommendations for PEP for HCWs after occupational HIV exposure (6). (cdc.gov)
  • Immune globulin and antiviral agents (e.g., interferon with or without ribavirin) are not recommended for PEP of hepatitis C. For HCV postexposure management, the HCV status of the source and the exposed person should be determined, and for HCP exposed to an HCV positive source, follow-up HCV testing should be performed to determine if infection develops. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the approval of AZT for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, twenty-three additional therapeutic agents have been approved for use in humans [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The first drugs approved in the United States to treat HIV-1 infection inhibit the specific activity of the virally encoded reverse transcriptase, the viral enzyme essential for conversion of the viral RNA genome into a DNA provirus that integrates itself into the host genome. (hindawi.com)
  • A third class of HIV-1 therapeutics inhibits viral infection by preventing virus attachment to the host cell CCR5 chemokine receptor or prevents the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Proliferative responses to HIV antigens are either absent or of small magnitude in HIV-infected patients, even in the early stages of infection when vigorous proliferative responses to recall antigens are still seen. (nih.gov)
  • Have an active opportunistic (HIV-related) infection. (nih.gov)
  • Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. (mdpi.com)
  • In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. (mdpi.com)
  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of HIV infection. (who.int)
  • Prunella vulgaris has potent anti-Ebola virus activity and may be developed as a novel antiviral approach against EBOV infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • To determine the effects of EGCG on HIV infection, peripheral blood lymphocytes were incubated with either LAI/IIIB or Bal HIV strains and increasing concentrations of EGCG. (lww.com)
  • 10 6 cells/ml, resuspended in RPMI plus 10% FCS, were added with 20 U/ml IL-2 and infected with either HIV-1 LAI/IIIB or HIV-1Bal strains at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1, in 96-well flat-bottom multiwell plates. (lww.com)
  • EGCG (0.1-50 μM) was added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells 30 min before HIV infection. (lww.com)
  • Influence of mother and infant zidovudine treatment duration on the age at which HIV infection can be detected by polymerase chain reaction in infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Knowledge of the mechanisms of drug interactions has also identified useful interactions with therapeutic benefits, such as in the development of feasible dosing regimens for protease inhibitors in the treatment of HIV and hepatitis C infection. (springer.com)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection represents one of the biggest challenges of current years. (eurekaselect.com)
  • A prominent feature of this e-book is the focus on interaction between innate immunity and HIV infection. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Hence, inhibition of the HIV protease is one of the most important approaches for the therapeutic intervention in HIV infection and their development is regarded as major success of structure-based drug design. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV infection was first described in 1981 in San Francisco and New York City. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-2 carries a slightly lower risk of transmission than HIV-1 and infection tends to progress more slowly to AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cenicriviroc (INN, code names TAK-652, TBR-652) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of HIV infection and in combination with Tropifexor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other infections, are written and reviewed by health experts for content accuracy. (catie.ca)
  • For the last thirty years, ongoing efforts have revolutionized the antiretroviral therapy, which changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from terrifying lethal diseases to chronic conditions. (begellhouse.com)
  • In response to this global concern, medicinal chemists and pharmaceutical scientists have put in solid efforts to search for or develop novel, more effective, safer, and affordable antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infections. (begellhouse.com)
  • The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a pandemic disease spreading very rapidly all over the world, causing approximately 15,000 or more new infections every day and the community acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is prone to easily acquire this HIV infections. (ijddr.in)
  • The new FDA-approved test detects nucleic acid from HIV-2 and from HIV-1 Group O. HIV-2 infections and HIV-1 Group O infections are predominantly found on the African. (thebody.com)
  • One of the major problems in defining the immunopathogenic changes in HIV infections has been the inability to correlate the extent of loss of immunologic function with the number of HIV-infected CD4+ cells in the peripheral blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 1. HIV infections - prevention and control. (who.int)
  • In particular, we focus on potential strategies exploiting DNA vectors to elicit protective localized CD8 + T cell immunity in the liver for HCV and in the cervicovaginal mucosa for HIV-1 as localized immunity will be an important, if not critical component, of an efficacious vaccine against these viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • At present, these two novel factors are the subject of very intense research on HIV infections. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Recent studies also showed that several polysaccharides are effective inhibitors of HIV replication. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • P. amarus) inhibits HIV replication in vitro and in vivo. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This illustration shows a new anti-HIV agent developed at Yale bound to an enzyme essential for the virus' replication. (yale.edu)
  • The new agents work by inhibiting the function of an enzyme essential for HIV's replication. (yale.edu)
  • The compound that we call JLJ494 is, I believe, one of the most potent compounds ever reported for inhibiting replication of wild-type HIV," Jorgensen said. (yale.edu)
  • They then synthesized the most promising compounds and measured how they affected replication of the virus using live HIV and human T-cells. (yale.edu)
  • Betulinic acid [1] and platanic acid [2], isolated from the leaves of Syzigium claviforum, were found to be inhibitors of HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte cells. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of anti-HIV activity with eight derivatives of 1 revealed that dihydrobetulinic acid [3] was also a potent inhibitor of HIV replication. (nih.gov)
  • Dianthin antiviral protein (DAP) is a naturally occurring antiviral protein from the leaves of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) capable of depurinating HIV-1 RNA and inhibiting HIV-1 replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (rcsb.org)
  • Ed4T is a thymidine analogue that blocks HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that is essential for viral replication. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The basic challenge that still persists is to develop viral replication-targeted therapy using novel anti-HIV compounds with new mode of action, accepted toxicity and less resistance profile. (fiu.edu)
  • Since some plant substances are also known to modulate several cellular factors which are also involved in the replication of HIV and hence their role as potential candidates will be discussed. (fiu.edu)
  • The long term goals of this project involve the synthesis and gp120 binding evaluation of novel carbohydrate-based materials to serve as entry inhibitors of the HIV replication process. (openrepository.com)
  • The polysaccharide MAR-10 (polysaccharides are chains of sugars) isolated from Hyssop officinali s was found to inhibit HIV-1 replication by inhibiting HIV-1 p24 antigen and syncytia formation. (optimalhealthnetwork.com)
  • Inhibition of HIV replication by Hyssop officinalis extracts. (optimalhealthnetwork.com)
  • Interferon-alfa inhibits HIV replication in vitro, and HIV-infected patients appear to have reduced production of interferons. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Immunopathogenesis objectives: To compare and quantitatively determine HIV burden and HIV replication in peripheral blood (PB) and lymphoid tissue (LT). To determine the degree to which antiretroviral therapy alters HIV replication in LT. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CD4, beta-2 microglobulin) as compared to measures of HIV replication in PB and LT. To assess changes in PB and LT viral burden after antiretroviral therapy and to determine its ability to predict an antiviral response. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We have previously shown that α-defensin-1 can inhibit HIV-1 replication following viral entry. (jci.org)
  • Taken together, our studies demonstrate that, in the absence of serum, α-defensin-1 may act directly on the virus, but, in the presence of serum, its effects are on the cell, where it inhibits HIV-1 replication. (jci.org)
  • We evaluated the cumulative effect of exposure to HIV replication on mortality following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). (nih.gov)
  • Viremia copy-years predicted all-cause mortality independent of traditional, cross-sectional VL measures and time-updated CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in ART-treated patients, suggesting cumulative HIV replication causes harm independent of its effect on the degree of immunodeficiency. (nih.gov)
  • The high turnover rate of virus replication along with the highly error prone HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, with its lack of proofreading capability, generates significant heterogeneity within the highly related but nonidentical populations (or quasispecies) of viruses circulating in a patient [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In much of the developing world, antiretroviral therapy has successfully suppressed HIV-1 replication in patients, allowing significant delays to the progression of AIDS and in some cases completely normal life spans. (hindawi.com)
  • The viral replication strategy is highly similar to that of HIV, and is initiated by interaction of the viral Env glycoprotein with CD134, a molecule up-regulated on activated CD4 + T cells [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • All new compounds displayed more potent inhibitory effect on HIV replication than neamine, among them two compounds displayed stronger anti-HIV activity than neomycin B. The results suggested that it might be a promising approach to modify neamine for the discovery of new anti-HIV agents. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • 5-Hydroxytyrosol inhibits HIV-1 replication in primary cells of the lower and upper female reproductive tract. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Curcumin may offer a viable alternative for the prevention or control of HIV replication in the female genital tract. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Here we report that EGCG acts as a strong inhibitor of HIV (LAI/IIIB and Bal strains) replication in cultured peripheral blood cells of healthy donors. (lww.com)
  • Because of the comprehensive coverage, as well as the eminence of the authors, this e-book provides a detailed and high quality description about the role of innate immune responses regulating HIV replication. (eurekaselect.com)
  • There are several steps in the HIV life cycle that may be interfered with, thus stopping the replication of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, several anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs such as reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors and integrase inhibitors have been developed, and the use in combination of these drugs has brought great success in the treatment of HIV-infected and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. (rsc.org)
  • We have designed a clinically relevant Phase III trial program that includes resistance testing for all patients, allows the use of other expanded access HIV/AIDS therapies, and provides access to a significant number of triple class-experienced patients worldwide. (natap.org)
  • HIV/AIDS healthcare providers interested in finding a local RESIST trial site can access a list of U.S. sites at http://us.boehringer-ingelheim.com or http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. (natap.org)
  • As the threat of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) persists to rise, effective drug treatments are required to treat the infected people. (fiu.edu)
  • The present therapy finds its limitations in the emergence of multidrug resistance and accordingly finding new drugs and novel targets is the need of the hour to treat the infected persons and further to attack HIV reservoirs in the body like brain, lymph nodes to achieve the ultimate goal of complete eradication of HIV and AIDS. (fiu.edu)
  • Against this backdrop, the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested the need to evaluate ethno-medicines for the management of HIV/AIDS. (fiu.edu)
  • Although there are a good number of reports on traditional uses of plants to treat various diseases, knowledge of herbal remedies used to manage HIV/AIDS and HAND are scanty, vague and not well documented. (fiu.edu)
  • HIV/AIDS being an exceptional epidemic, demands an exceptional approach and that forms very much focus for the current review. (fiu.edu)
  • AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (openrepository.com)
  • The scientific research on hyssop coupled with the ample scientific evidence that exists that the colon is an effective delivery system for therapeutic agents suggests that the hyssop enema and the hyssop suppository are powerful additions to the therapeutic tools in assisting people with AIDS. (optimalhealthnetwork.com)
  • The history of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS therapy, which spans over 30 years, is one of the most dramatic stories of science and medicine leading to the treatment of a disease. (currenttopicsinmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • CD4 and CCR5), have been added to our armamentarium to combat HIV/AIDS. (currenttopicsinmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • Patients should be counseled that oral contraceptives do not protect against transmission of HIV (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as Chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, and syphilis. (nih.gov)
  • Neither etravirine nor any other anti-HIV medication is a cure for HIV/AIDS. (catie.ca)
  • Results from a phase 1 study evaluating the pharmacokinetics and safety of a prototype subdermal drug-eluting implant for extended administration of Islatravir, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor ( NRTTI ), in healthy volunteers, were presented at the 10th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Science ( IAS 2019 ) in Mexico City. (virologynews.net)
  • People infected with HIV are diagnosed with AIDS when their CD4 count falls below 200 cells/mm 3 or if they develop an. (thebody.com)
  • PEG-Intron has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat hepatitis C in adults, but in this study, it is being used as an investigational agent for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We included treatment-naive HIV-infected patients starting ART from 2000 to 2008 at 8 Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems sites. (nih.gov)
  • In spite of the success of AIDS therapies and the existence of inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease, entry and fusion, and integrase, HIV-1 therapies still have a variety of problems which require continued development efforts to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity, while making drugs that can be used throughout both the developed and developing world, in pediatric populations, and in pregnant women. (hindawi.com)
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAARTs) have significantly delayed the progression to AIDS, and in the developed world HIV-1-infected individuals might be expected to live normal life spans while on lifelong therapies. (hindawi.com)
  • HIV-associated RT is considered to be one of the best targets for chemoterapeutic approaches to AIDS, but most RT inhibitors are toxic or not selective enough. (lww.com)
  • A number of other 2′,3′-dideoxynucleoside analogues [among them stavudine (2′,3′-didehydro-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine, D4T), 2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine (3TC), 2′,3′-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3′-thiacytidine (FTC) and the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA)] are currently under clinical investigation and are candidate compounds for eventual licensing as anti-AIDS drugs. (springer.com)
  • However, it has been clearly demonstrated that the potency of early immune responses profoundly regulates levels of HIV, and hence also the generation of virus mutants as well as the velocity of disease progression to AIDS. (eurekaselect.com)
  • They are highly effective against HIV and have, since the 1990s, been a key component of anti-retroviral therapies for HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1985, HIV was identified as the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its complete genome was immediately available. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 protease is one of the best known aspartic proteases, and an attractive target for the treatment of AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism studies revealed that mangiferin might inhibit the HIV-1 protease, but is still effective against HIV peptidic protease inhibitor resistant strains. (mdpi.com)
  • Atazanavir (ATV) is an azapeptide HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI). (pharmacycode.com)
  • It is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). (pharmacycode.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the polypeptide is conjugated to a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, an HIV protease inhibitor or an in-vivo half-time elongating substance. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 18. The method of claim 13, wherein the polypeptide is conjugated to a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, an HIV protease inhibitor or an in-vivo half-time elongating substance. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Recommendations for PEP have been modified to include a basic 4-week regimen of two drugs (zidovudine and lamivudine) for most HIV exposures and an expanded regimen that includes the addition of a protease inhibitor (indinavir or nelfinavir) for HIV exposures that pose an increased risk for transmission or where resistance to one or more of the antiretroviral agents recommended for PEP is known or suspected. (cdc.gov)
  • Burger DM, Hugen PW, Kroon FP, Groeneveld P, Brinkman K, Foudraine NA et al (1998) Pharmacokinetic interaction between the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir. (springer.com)
  • Phase I trials of saquinavir began in 1989 and it was the first HIV protease inhibitor to be approved for prescription use in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, ten protease inhibitors have reached the market for treatment against HIV but one protease inhibitor, amprenavir, was withdrawn from the market in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sumac (Rhus chinensis) contains compounds with anti-HIV activity - Article 3. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Researchers at Yale University have discovered new chemical compounds that prevent HIV from replicating in human T-cells. (yale.edu)
  • These compounds could result in new, highly effective HIV treatments that are 10 to 2000 times more potent than HIV drugs now on the market. (yale.edu)
  • We are excited about continuing the development of this new class of anti-HIV compounds. (yale.edu)
  • The inhibitory activity of these compounds against protein kinase C (PKC) was also examined, since a correlation between anti-HIV and anti-PKC activities has been suggested. (nih.gov)
  • However, there was no apparent correlation between anti-HIV activity and the inhibition of PKC among these compounds. (nih.gov)
  • In the search of the most suitable and potent anti-HIV agents, researchers have explored the anti-HIV activity of different classes of compounds originating from plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms. (begellhouse.com)
  • By using HIV latency Jurkat cells, Janssen has already screened more than 35,000 compounds and selected some acting as HDAC inhibitors, others as PKC agonists and others with unknown modes of action (figure 6). (hiv-reservoir.net)
  • Natural products such as plant-originated compounds and plant extracts have enormous potential to become drug leads with anti-HIV and neuroprotective activity. (fiu.edu)
  • Overall, Hyssop officinalis contains caffeic acid, unidentified tannins (a class of phytochemicals), and other compounds that show strong anti-HIV activity. (optimalhealthnetwork.com)
  • The objective of the current review is to describe the comprehensiveness of the various advanced anti-HIV drug delivery systems and compounds that have been developed for targeting drugs to the macrophages, gastric mucosa and brain. (ijddr.in)
  • Among of all the reported analogues, eight compounds exhibited significant anti- HIV-1 activity, especially N-(3-nitro)phenylsulfonyl-3-acetylindole benzoyl hydrazone (18) and N-(3-nitro)phenylsulfonyl-3-acetyl-6-methylindole benzoyl hydrazone (23) displayed the most potent anti- HIV-1 activity with EC50 values of 0.26 and 0.31 µg/mL, and TI values of >769.23 and >645.16, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Both compounds were characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses and their in vitro anti-HIV activities were also confirmed. (epo.org)
  • Most recently, compounds which prevent the integration of the HIV-1 proviral precursor into cellular DNA have been successfully developed and utilized. (hindawi.com)
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cell and functional HIV Gag p55-specific T cells before treatment interruption can inform set-point plasma HIV viral load after treatment interruption in chronically suppressed HIV-1(+) patients. (umassmed.edu)
  • For many people with HIV, the use of HIV drug treatment has increased their CD4 counts and decreased the amount of HIV in their blood (viral load). (catie.ca)
  • The purpose of this study is to see if PEG-Intron is safe and tolerated when given to children, to see how much gets into the blood and how long it stays in the blood, and to see how well it works to reduce viral load (level of HIV in the blood). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cross-sectional plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load (VL) measures have proven invaluable for clinical and research purposes. (nih.gov)
  • Intensive etravirine PK and HIV-1 viral load in breast milk and plasma in HIV+ women receiving HAART. (drugs.com)
  • Open-label stage of the study continued evaluation of viral load and immunological and safety parameters in HIV-1 patients receiving VM-1500 up to Week 96 and additional PK up to Week 100. (nih.gov)
  • Over the 12 months post-intervention, the ACCEPT group was associated with an odds ratio of 2.33 greater likelihood of self-reported use of HIV medications compared to the HEALTH group (OR = 2.33 95% CI 1.29-4.21, p = 0.005) as well as declining viral load over time (- 0.14 (0.07), p = 0.041). (nih.gov)
  • HIV-infected patients taking cenicriviroc had significant reductions in viral load, with the effect persisting up to two weeks after discontinuation of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike antibodies, which fail to neutralize a large fraction of HIV-1 strains, our protein has been effective against all strains tested, raising the possibility it could offer an effective HIV vaccine alternative. (scripps.edu)
  • Mangiferin also showed good activities in other laboratory-derived strains, clinically isolated strains and resistant HIV-1 strains. (mdpi.com)
  • Wang R-R, Gao Y-D, Ma C-H, Zhang X-J, Huang C-G, Huang J-F, Zheng Y-T. Mangiferin, an Anti-HIV-1 Agent Targeting Protease and Effective against Resistant Strains. (mdpi.com)
  • Available clinical and in vitro data suggest that tipranavir may be active against strains of HIV-1 that are resistant to currently available peptidic protease inhibitors (PIs), offering hope for patients with multi-drug resistant virus. (natap.org)
  • ATH8 or MT2) that are profoundly sensitive to the cytopathic effect of certain strains of HIV are utilized as target cells. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Due to the nature of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and an increased use of ARVs many drug-resistant HIV strains have emerged and continue to do so. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Continue to practice safer sex and take other precautions so to not pass HIV on to other people and protect yourself from different strains of HIV and other germs. (catie.ca)
  • The new IASs 8-37 showed potent inhibition of the HIV-1 WT NL4-3 strain and of the mutant K103N, Y181C, Y188L, and K103N-Y181C HIV-1 strains. (elsevier.com)
  • The present results highlight the chiral IASs as new NNRTIs with improved resistance profile against the mutant HIV-1 strains and reduced neurotoxic effects. (elsevier.com)
  • These reservoirs, which exist even when patients take all of their pills diligently, stand in the way of a cure for HIV and may incubate resistant viral strains. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The selection of drug-resistant strains as well as side-effects, represent common problems encountered in all anti-viral therapies. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Two such agents discovered at Yale could result in HIV drugs that are 10 to 2000 times more potent than those now on the market. (yale.edu)
  • Atazanavir sulfate belongs to a class of antiviral drugs known as HIV protease inhibitors. (sharecare.com)
  • This chapter is an update of our contribution on the topic of peptide-derived anti-HIV agents with a focus on mid-size drugs. (rsc.org)
  • Resistance to currently available anti-HIV drugs is an increasingly prevalent concern for highly treatment-experienced HIV-positive patients worldwide, creating an urgent need for new treatments that are effective against multi-drug resistant virus. (natap.org)
  • In the first part of his talk, the Gilead scientist described the in vitro system they have adapted from Bosque and Planelles (2009) for the screening of drugs capable of acting on HIV latency (figure 1). (hiv-reservoir.net)
  • Accordingly, many research groups are exploring the biodiversity of the plant kingdom to find new and better anti-HIV drugs with novel mechanisms of action and for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). (fiu.edu)
  • Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs. (pharmacycode.com)
  • In this review article, we first discuss the history of the development of anti-HIV drugs, during which several problems such as drug-induced side effects and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses became apparent and had to be overcome. (currenttopicsinmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • However, even with such potent cART, it is impossible to eradicate HIV because none of the currently available HIV drugs are effective in eliminating occult 'dormant' HIV cell reservoirs. (currenttopicsinmedicinalchemistry.com)
  • Used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Etravirine, sold under the brand name Intelence, belongs to a class of anti-HIV drugs called non-nukes or NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors). (catie.ca)
  • Etravirine is used in combination with other anti-HIV drugs (or antiretrovirals) to treat, but not cure, HIV. (catie.ca)
  • Etravirine is used in combination with anti-HIV drugs from other classes, usually nukes (nucleoside analogues), and protease inhibitors or integrase inhibitors. (catie.ca)
  • Since the provisional recommendations were released, several new antiretroviral drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and more information is available about the use and safety of antiretroviral agents in exposed HCWs (7-10). (cdc.gov)
  • Additional issues involving drug resistance, reactogenicity associated with life-long ART and the lack of universal access to testing and cost-subsidized therapies minimize the ability of effective anti-viral drugs to end the HIV-1 and HCV epidemics. (frontiersin.org)
  • These drugs prevent proteolytic cleavage of HIV Gag and Pol polyproteins that include essential structural and enzymatic components of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of the anti-HIV agent (-)-hyperolactone C by using oxonium ylide formation-rearrangement. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Starting from readily available (S)-styrene oxide an asymmetric synthesis is described of the naturally occurring anti-HIV spirolactone (-)-hyperolactone C, which possesses adjacent fully substituted stereocenters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Synthesis of potential inhibitors of the HIV entry mechanism 3. (openrepository.com)
  • Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Thiol-Activated Sources of Sulfur Dioxide (SO(2)) as Antimycobacterial Agents. (google.com)
  • The synthesis and biological evaluation of a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexene nucleoside designed as a conformational mimic of the anti-HIV agent stavudine (1, D4T) is described. (elsevier.com)
  • Consequently, there is need to evaluate traditional medicine, particularly medicinal plants and other natural products that may yield effective and affordable therapeutic agents. (fiu.edu)
  • Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry aims to contribute to the growth of scientific knowledge and insight, and facilitate the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents to treat debilitating human disorders. (benthamscience.com)
  • Anti-HIV Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • The study shows that the new drug candidate blocks every strain of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) that has been isolated from humans or rhesus macaques, including the hardest-to-stop variants. (scripps.edu)
  • At that time, data were insufficient to assess the efficacy of ZDV as a prophylactic agent in humans or the toxicity of this drug in persons not infected with HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • During the past three decades, over thirty-five anti-HIV-1 therapies have been developed for use in humans and the progression from monotherapeutic treatment regimens to today's highly active combination antiretroviral therapies has had a dramatic impact on disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals. (hindawi.com)
  • That enzyme is called HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. (yale.edu)
  • Protease is an enzyme that the HIV requires to reproduce. (sharecare.com)
  • By blocking the action of this enzyme, protease inhibitors prevent the HIV from multiplying, which slows the progression of HIV-related disease. (sharecare.com)
  • HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursors into the individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV-1. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Etravirine interferes with an enzyme called reverse transcriptase, which is used by HIV-infected cells to make new viruses. (catie.ca)
  • Because etravirine inhibits or reduces the activity of this enzyme, this drug causes HIV-infected cells to produce less HIV. (catie.ca)
  • Another approved and marketed class of HIV-1 antiviral therapeutics inhibits the HIV-1 protease, a viral enzyme required to process newly synthesized viral polyproteins into the mature viral gene products, enabling the virus to assemble itself into new infectious virus particles [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • EGCG inhibits the biochemical activity of HIV-RT measured as cellular protein or enzyme activity in in-vitro assays [ 1,2 ], but not on the viral packaging. (lww.com)
  • The mRNA is then translated into viral proteins and the third virally encoded enzyme, namely HIV protease, is required to cleave a viral polyprotein precursor into individual mature proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiological and limited clinical studies suggest that demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, and ethnicity) and the HIV disease state of an individual may be partly responsible for the variation in efficacy and toxicity observed with treatment by nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). (asm.org)
  • Especially, terpenes and phenol substances have gained much interest due to their significant anti-HIV activities along with their structural diversity. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In this review, plant substances showing a promising action that is anti-HIV and HAND will be explored along with what they interact. (fiu.edu)
  • A pine cone extract from Pinus yunnanensis has potent inhibitory activities against HIV. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 2][3] Etravirine is excreted in breastmilk in concentrations exceeding the maternal plasma HIV inhibitory concentration. (drugs.com)
  • It has also been reported that some plant extracts have an inhibitory effect on the activity of Rauscher murine leukemia virus and HIV-reverse transcriptases (RT). (lww.com)
  • This study is being conducted to determine if the uptake of anti-HIV medications called Genvoya® and darunavir is different at several body sites, including mucosal tissues. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PEG-Intron is an experimental drug that works differently than other anti-HIV medications. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will evaluate new strategies for delivering anti-HIV medications to people in South Africa. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These strategies include using specially trained nurses to administer therapy (rather than doctors), treating all HIV infected members of a household at the same time, and having community members observe patients taking their medications. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Toxicities associated with current HIV medications often result in the discontinuation of these therapies. (sbir.gov)
  • Called nano-antiretroviral therapy (nano-ART), the approach turns macrophages-one of the very cell types that HIV uses to replicate and spread through the body-into carriers for anti-HIV medications. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The study also indicated that nano-ART might more effectively attack HIV in viral reservoirs into which current medications do not penetrate. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The approach aims to manufacture nano-formulations made of particles with optimum excipients, shape, size, and charge to facilitate the uptake of HIV medications into immunocytes (cells of the immune system). (drugabuse.gov)
  • A patent application has been submitted by Yale for 2',3'-Didehydro-3'-Deoxy-4'-Ethynylthymidine, or Ed4T, a compound with a new and potentially effective anti-HIV clinical treatment. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Additionally, this review discusses polyphenols as multi-target anti-HIV agents and provides the context of in-vivo and clinical data. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These regimens, though effective, do not completely eliminate HIV and the development of drug resistance is a major clinical problem. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Previous short-term clinical studies in adults showed anti-HIV activity, although there were safety and tolerability problems associated with the higher dose regimens used. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Clinical objectives: To gain insight into the degree of correlation between immunologic surrogate markers for HIV disease (e.g. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Clinical experience with all HIV-1 agents has clearly demonstrated the ability of HIV-1 to easily evade the antiviral effects of any monotherapeutic drug administration strategy through the rapid accumulation of amino acid changes in the targeted proteins-reverse transcriptase, protease, envelope, and integrase [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This project is an international, multicenter, randomized, partially blind clinical study to evaluate efficacy and safety of two different doses of VM-1500 in comparison with Efavirenz added to standard antiretroviral therapy including two NRTIs in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (mdpi.com)
  • Clinical experience for HIV treatment has established that adherence is a significant factor in the success of HIV treatment regimens. (nih.gov)
  • Neamine-heterocycle conjugates as potential anti-HIV agents[J]. CHINESE CHEMICAL LETTERS,2013,24(4):273-278. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • 2013).Neamine-heterocycle conjugates as potential anti-HIV agents. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • This conference will include presentations on the most virulent human viruses, including: HIV, Hepatitis, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Herpes and SARS. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • This report updates and consolidates all previous U.S. Public Health Service recommendations for the management of health-care personnel (HCP) who have occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids that might contain hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational exposures should be considered urgent medical concerns to ensure timely postexposure management and administration of HBIG, hepatitis B vaccine, and/or HIV PEP. (cdc.gov)
  • Avoiding occupational blood exposures is the primary way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health-care settings ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Many other T-cell-dependent responses are also impaired in HIV-infected patients, such as after vaccination with hepatitis A or B vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major contributors to the global disease burden with many experts recognizing the requirement of an effective vaccine to bring a durable end to these viral epidemics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Body Compartment Pharmacokinetics of Anti- Retroviral Agents That May be Used for Future HIV Post- Exposure Prophylaxis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will utilize a rising multiple-dose design to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of PEG-Intron in HIV-infected children. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When HIV infects a cell, it targets the CD4 lymphocyte, an integral part of the body's immune system. (scripps.edu)
  • When HIV infects a cell, it takes control of that cell. (catie.ca)
  • The class I model pertains to influenza haemagglutinin, HIV-1 gp120 and the F-proteins from paramyxoviridae [ 2 ], and class II involves E proteins of the flaviviridae and the E1 protein of Semliki Forest virus [ 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Cell-to- cell fusion, by co-cultivation of HIV-1- or HTLV-I (human T-cell leukaemia virus type I)-infected cells with target CD4-positive cells, also requires the recruitment of viral envelope proteins and receptors to the interface as a virological synapse [ 8 , 9 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • antigens p17 and p24 are proteins found in human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV). (optimalhealthnetwork.com)
  • A very critical step is the proteolytic cleavage of the polypeptide precursors into mature enzymes and structural proteins catalyzed by HIV protease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-3 hydroxy group and C-17 carboxylic acid group, as well as the C-19 substituents, contribute to enhanced anti-HIV activity. (nih.gov)
  • Most of clinically useful anti-HIV agents are nucleosides but their use is limited due to their severe toxicity and emerging drug resistance. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • However, many challenges, like emergence of drug resistance, limited the scope of activity of currently existing anti-HIV agents. (begellhouse.com)
  • Anti-HIV drug regimens can fail for a number of reasons including virological resistance, difficulties of adherence and poor tolerability. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, this report outlines several special circumstances (e.g., delayed exposure report, unknown source person, pregnancy in the exposed person, resistance of the source virus to antiretroviral agents, or toxicity of the PEP regimen) when consultation with local experts and/or the National Clinicians' Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Hotline ([PEPline] 1-888-448-4911) is advised. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to the high levels of resistance possible to single agents, each of the anti-HIV-1 agents employed to date has had significant dose limiting and long-term toxicities that render successful long term therapy for HIV-1 disease difficult to achieve [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Plasma samples were obtained to HIV-1 genotypic resistance test. (usp.br)
  • Non-adherence can lead to emergence of drug-resistance and loss of therapeutic effectiveness, which can be amplified by the unique challenges of treating HIV in vulnerable populations such as children, adolescents, pregnant women, intravenous drug users, individuals with mental health issues and when HIV disclosure is associated with risk of stigma and/or violence. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers hope to find out whether the amount of HIV virus or markers for the virus in the body's lymph tissue is a better measure of disease progression than the amount of virus or markers for the virus in the blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. (mdpi.com)
  • In HIV-infected persons, low serum concentrations of vitamins and minerals, termed micronutrients, are associated with an increased risk of HIV disease progression and mortality. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Micronutrient supplements can delay HIV disease progression and reduce mortality in HIV-positive persons not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nine HIV-positive women had etravirine added to their existing antiretroviral regimens between postpartum days 1 and 14 postpartum. (drugs.com)
  • In addition, questions exist regarding considerations about PEP regimens when the source person's virus is known or suspected to be resistant to one or more of the antiretroviral agents that might be used for PEP. (cdc.gov)
  • This report is part of a series of focused summaries from the "5 th International Workshop on HIV Persistence, Reservoirs & Eradication Strategies" held in St Maarten, December 6-9, 2011. (hiv-reservoir.net)
  • It relates oral presentations given by Romas Geleziunas, on behalf of Gilead, and Roger Sutmuller, on behalf of Janssen on the search for new therapeutic strategies targeting latent HIV reservoirs. (hiv-reservoir.net)
  • ACCEPT is a gender-specific, group-based intervention aimed at addressing factors that impact engagement in care for youth newly diagnosed with HIV, including stigma, disclosure, healthy relationships, substance use, and future life planning. (nih.gov)
  • The group-based ACCEPT intervention can improve engagement in care with corresponding positive health outcomes among HIV + youth. (nih.gov)
  • Natural products, of which structural diversity is so broad, are good sources for the effective discovery of anti-HIV agents with decreased toxicity. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • abstract = "We designed and synthesized a series of chiral indolyarylsulfones (IASs) as new HIV-1 NNRTIs. (elsevier.com)
  • Most of chemotherapeutic targets reviewed in this article are found to be HIV reverse transcriptase (RT). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • New anti-HIV agents and targets. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Adipocytes targets and actors in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic alte. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Systems should be in place for the timely evaluation and management of exposed HCWs and for consultation with experts in the treatment of HIV when using PEP. (cdc.gov)
  • Neem has antimalarial and anti-HIV activity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Croton tiglium, Cynomorium songaricum, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, and oleanolic acid derivates exhibit anti-HIV activity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Molecular modeling studies of the interactions of DAP and the structurally similar pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) with a single-stranded RNA heptamer predicted a more potent anti-HIV activity for rDAP due to its unique surface topology and more favorable charge distribution in its 20 A-long RNA binding active center cleft. (rcsb.org)
  • Cytotoxicity and Pro-Apoptotic Activity of 2,2´-Bis[4,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclopent-4-en-1,3-dione], a Phenolic Cyclopentenedione Isolated from the Cyanobacterium Strain Nostoc sp. (mdpi.com)
  • The anti-HIV-1 activity of mangiferin was evaluated. (mdpi.com)
  • Additional protocols assess the anti‐HIV activity of certain candidate agents by measuring inhibition of syncytium formation or p24 gag protein production by ELISA. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The in vitro and in vivo anti‐retrovirus activity, and intracellular metabolism of 3′‐azido‐2′,3′‐dideoxythymidine and 2′,3′‐dideoxycytidine are highly dependent on the cell species. (currentprotocols.com)
  • But when these two acids from commercial products were tested, they showed high to moderate activity against HIV-1. (optimalhealthnetwork.com)
  • 2) In another study, a polysaccharide isolated from Hyssop officinalis also showed strong anti-HIV activity. (optimalhealthnetwork.com)
  • When the activity of these enzymes is reduced the production of HIV slows. (catie.ca)
  • Potent and selective anti-HTLV-III/LAV activity of 2′,3′-dideoxycytidinene, the 2′,3′-unsaturated derivative of 2′,3′-dideoxycytidine. (springer.com)
  • The anti-HTLV-III (anti-HIV) and cytotoxic activity of 2′,3′-didehydro-2′,3′-dideoxyribonucleosides: a comparison with their parental 2′,3′-dideoxyribonucleosides. (springer.com)
  • Mangiferin can inhibit HIV-1 Ⅲ B induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with a 50% effective concentration (EC 50 ) at 16.90 μM and a therapeutic index (TI) above 140. (mdpi.com)
  • HIV infects T cells that carry the CD4 antigen on their surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural determination of metabolites and/or degradation products of parent agents produced in animals and in model in vitro systems (e.g., animal and/or human liver slices, S9 fractions, and microsomal preparations). (nih.gov)
  • Intro The design of antigens that are able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against the human being immunodeficiency disease 1 (HIV-1) is one of the major Hematoxylin difficulties in vaccine development. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • INTRODUCTION: Changes in guidelines for antiretroviral introduction and difficulties in maintaining Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy have lead some physicians in Brazil to interrupt for long periods of time the treatment in some Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients. (usp.br)
  • 3′-Azido-3′-deoxythymidine (BW A509U): an antiviral agent that inhibits the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in vitro . (springer.com)
  • A new pharmacological approach being developed by NIDA-supported scientists has the potential to make treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease easier and more effective. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that has two major species, HIV-1 which causes the majority of the epidemic, and HIV-2, a close relative whose distribution is concentrated in western Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients are evaluated with the same safety criteria as Cohort I. Patients in both cohorts who have at least a 0.5 log reduction in HIV RNA at 28 days of treatment are offered continued treatment for a total of 60 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To make stavudine (d4T) available to patients with advanced HIV disease for whom no alternative antiretroviral is satisfactory. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study involves patients who have received at least 60 weeks of anti-HIV therapy, either alone or in combination with IL-2, while enrolled in ACTG 328. (nih.gov)
  • Remune has been reported to increase lymphocyte proliferative responses to HIV antigens in patients with high CD4 cell counts. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, patients with moderately advanced HIV disease who have already received 52 weeks of either HAART or HAART plus IL-2 are vaccinated with Remune and a control recall immunogen, tetanus toxoid (TT), to evaluate whether these patients can develop new CD4 T-cell and CD8 T-cell responses to HIV-related antigens. (nih.gov)
  • The proportion of patients who develop study therapy-resistant HIV-1 from Baseline to Week 48 in VM-1500 group with the selected dose and Efavirenz group. (nih.gov)
  • A lead in course with intravenous silibinin prior to the initiation of triple therapy resulted in a 63% sustained virologic response rate in 10/16 HIV/HCV coinfected patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • METHODS: A total of 150 patients, previously treated with antiretroviral therapy and under treatment interruption TI for at least 6 months, were recruited from two HIV outpatients clinics in São Paulo city. (usp.br)
  • To optimize anti-HIV therapy and guide antiretroviral drug discovery, determinants that cause variable responses to therapy need to be evaluated. (asm.org)
  • This review will highlight the recent notable developments for the discovery of antiretroviral agents. (begellhouse.com)
  • Based on the presented data, a three-pronged approach for further anti-HIV drug discovery is suggested applying methods of combinatorial medicinal chemistry on the diverse and sometimes unique scaffolds of polyphenols. (eurekaselect.com)
  • After the discovery of HIV protease it only took 10 years for its first inhibitor to reach the market. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are infected, your immune system will make antibodies against HIV. (thebody.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of an HIV vaccine (Remune) on the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • Remune consists of an inactivated, gp120-depleted virus intended to stimulate HIV-specific immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the precise recognition of the 2F5 epitope no or very fragile neutralization of HIV-1NL4-3 from the immune sera was shown. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The majority of MSM acquire HIV after exposure to the rectal mucosa through unprotected receptive anal intercourse. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • HIV-negative people with a possible exposure to HIV are instructed to take 28 days of a combination anti-HIV medication regimen, Truvada® + Raltegravir. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • I also had specific HIV-2 EIA done at 55 weeks of last exposure and was negative. (thebody.com)
  • Viremia copy-years, a time-varying measure of cumulative plasma HIV exposure, were determined for each patient using the area under the VL curve. (nih.gov)
  • The decision to recommend HIV postexposure prophylaxis must take into account the nature of the exposure (e.g., needlestick or potentially infectious fluid that comes in contact with a mucous membrane) and the amount of blood or body fluid involved in the exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • This document addresses the management of occupational exposure to HIV, including guidance in assessing and treating exposed HCWs, updates previous recommendations for occupational postexposure chemoprophylaxis, and updates and replaces all previous PHS guidelines and recommendations for occupational HIV exposure management for HCWs. (cdc.gov)
  • Since publication of the 1998 HIV exposure guidelines ( 5 ), several new antiretroviral agents have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and more information is available about the use and safety of HIV PEP ( 6--11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The PHS working group decided to issue updated recommendations for the management of occupational exposure to HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • This report updates and consolidates the previous PHS guidelines and recommendations for occupational HBV, HCV, and HIV exposure management for HCP. (cdc.gov)
  • A highly potent and selective anti-HIV agent. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to solicit applications from single institutions, or consortia of institutions, to identify existing anti-HIV molecules, or discover new highly potent and selective anti-HIV small molecules, with the potential for development as sustained release products (SRP) with a dosing interval from once a week to once every three months or longer. (nih.gov)
  • We have produced several anti-HIV agents including fusion inhibitors, coreceptor antagonists, integrase inhibitors, CD4 mimics and matrix peptides, and vaccines. (rsc.org)
  • When antibodies try to mimic the receptor, they touch a lot of other parts of the viral envelope that HIV can change with ease," said TSRI Research Associate Matthew Gardner, the first author of the study with Lisa M. Kattenhorn of Harvard Medical School. (scripps.edu)
  • Data from the new study showed the drug candidate binds to the envelope of HIV-1 more potently than the best broadly neutralizing antibodies against the virus. (scripps.edu)
  • The transmembrane envelope (TM) protein gp41 of HIV-1 is an attractive target when designing a vaccine to induce neutralizing antibodies. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • HIV-1 neutralizing MPER-specific antibodies but not with broad neutralizing capacity. (exposed-skin-care.net)