A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY.
The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.
A plant species of the genus GYMNEMA that contains gymnemic acid (triterpene SAPONINS) which affects blood sugar level, and gurmarin protein. The common name of Gurmar should not be confused with Guar (CYAMOPSIS).
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
Keto-pyrans.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.

Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(1/7501)

 (+info)

HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (2/7501)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease. (3/7501)

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (4/7501)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (5/7501)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

A multiple drug interaction study of stavudine with agents for opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (6/7501)

The effects of multiple opportunistic infection medications on stavudine pharmacokinetics were evaluated. Ten patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 received stavudine (40 mg twice daily) in combination with one to three other drugs used to treat opportunistic infections. Serial blood samples for stavudine concentrations were collected after 1 week of therapy on each regimen and assayed for stavudine by using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Although the maximum concentration of drug in serum was significantly decreased when the drug was given in combination with three opportunistic infection medications, the area under the concentration-time curve did not significantly differ across various treatment regimens. Stavudine exposure was not significantly altered by multiple concomitant medications. Side effects were minor throughout the 3-month study period. The tolerability of stavudine, combined with its lack of drug interactions, makes it an attractive agent for use as part of a combination regimen.  (+info)

Lack of absorption of didanosine after rectal administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (7/7501)

The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean +/- standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 +/- 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.9 mumol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 +/- 412 min.mumol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 mumol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application.  (+info)

Suppression of replication of multidrug-resistant HIV type 1 variants by combinations of thymidylate synthase inhibitors with zidovudine or stavudine. (8/7501)

The replication of recombinant multidrug-resistant HIV-1 clones modeled on clinically derived resistant HIV-1 strains from patients receiving long-term combination therapy with zidovudine (AZT) plus 2',3'-dideoxycytidine was found to regain sensitivity to AZT and stavudine (D4T) as a consequence of a pharmacologically induced decrease in de novo dTMP synthesis. The host-cell system used was phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells; dTMP and dTTP depletion were induced by single exposures to a low level of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its deoxynucleoside, 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine. The host-cell response to the latter was biphasic: a very rapid decrease in the rate of de novo dTMP formation and, consequently, in intracellular dTTP pools, followed by slower recovery in both indices over 3 to 24 h. With the additional presence of AZT or D4T, however, replication of the multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains remained inhibited, indicating dependence of HIV DNA chain termination by AZT-5'-monophosphate or 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate in these resistant strains on simultaneous inhibition of host-cell de novo synthesis of thymidine nucleotides. No effect on viability of control (uninfected) phytohemagglutinin-stimulated/peripheral blood mononuclear cells was noted on 6-day exposures to 5-FU or 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine alone or in combination with AZT or D4T, even at drug levels severalfold higher than those used in the viral inhibition studies. These studies may provide useful information for the potential clinical use of AZT/5-FU or D4T/5-FU combinations for the prevention or reversal of multidrug resistance associated with long-term dideoxynucleoside combination therapy.  (+info)

This study compared the efficacy of efavirenz versus ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor based initial antiretroviral therapy in patients with high plasma
The discovery of medicinal agents capable of specifically inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is urgently needed due to its globally widespread infection. Most of clinically useful anti-HIV agents are nucleosides but their use is limited due to their severe toxicity and emerging drug resistance. More than 50% of world marketed drugs have their origin of the nature. Natural products, of which structural diversity is so broad, are good sources for the effective discovery of anti-HIV agents with decreased toxicity. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in research on the natural products for the anti-HIV agents. New natural products that have potent anti-HIV activities with novel structures were reviewed in this article. These compounds, isolated mainly from medicinal plants, in this review have been classified as secondary metabolites such as terpenes, phenolics, and naturally scarce peptides and sugars. Especially, terpenes and phenol substances have gained much ...
HIV-1 infection is associated with B cell dysregulation and dysfunction. In HIV-1-infected patients, we previously reported preservation of intestinal lymphoid structures and dendritic cell maturation pathways after early combination antiretroviral therapy (e-ART), started during the acute phase of the infection, compared with late combination antiretroviral therapy started during the chronic phase. In this study, we investigated whether the timing of combination antiretroviral therapy initiation was associated with the development of the HIV-1-specific humoral response in the gut. The results showed that e-ART was associated with higher frequencies of functional resting memory B cells in the gut. These frequencies correlated strongly with those of follicular Th cells in the gut. Importantly, frequencies of HIV-1 Env gp140-reactive B cells were higher in patients given e-ART, in whom gp140-reactive IgG production by mucosal B cells increased after stimulation. Moreover, IL-21 release by PBMCs stimulated
Browsing by Title Early antiretroviral therapy reduces the incidence of otorrhea in a randomized study of early and deferred antiretroviral therapy : evidence from the Children with HIV Early antiretroviral therapy (CHER) Study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of class-specific therapy interruption on persistence of HIV type 1 antiretroviral resistance. AU - Campo, Rafael E.. AU - Rosa, Isabella. AU - Lichtenberger, Paola N.. AU - Suarez, German. AU - Rivera, Fernando A.. AU - Jayaweera, Dushyantha T.. AU - Rodriguez, Allan E.. AU - Wahlay, Natalie A.. AU - Kolber, Michael A.. PY - 2003/8/1. Y1 - 2003/8/1. N2 - Interruption of all antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection when therapy is failing and antiretroviral resistance has emerged is frequently associated with the disappearance of detectable resistance-associated protease and reverse transcriptase substitutions. However, the effect that discontinuation of treatment with a particular antiretroviral class has on resistance to that class when other antiretroviral therapy is continued is unknown. We investigated differences in detectable genotypic resistance to protease inhibitors (PI) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) among two populations: patients ...
OBJECTIVES: No randomized controlled trials have yet reported an individual patient benefit of initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at CD4 counts , 350 cells/muL. It is hypothesized that earlier initiation of cART in asymptomatic and otherwise healthy individuals may lead to poorer adherence and subsequently higher rates of resistance development. METHODS: In a large cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we investigated the emergence of new resistance mutations upon virological treatment failure according to the CD4 count at the initiation of cART. RESULTS: Of 7918 included individuals, 6514 (82.3%), 996 (12.6%) and 408 (5.2%) started cART with a CD4 count ...
The purpose of this study was to find a safe and tolerable dose of the protease inhibitor (PI) atazanavir (ATV), with or without a low-dose boost of the PI ritonavir (RTV), when taken with other anti-HIV drugs in HIV infected infants, children, and adolescents.. Advancements in anti-HIV drugs for HIV infected children and adolescents have been hard to make, in part because these patients often do not take the drugs as prescribed. ATV may be a better option because it is available in the form of powder which children and adolescents may be more willing to take regularly. Using a low dose of RTV as a boosting agent for ATV may also increase the chances of virologic response of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-experienced patients. This study aimed to find safe and tolerable doses of ATV with or without low-dose RTV boost in infants, children, and adolescents. For this study, participants were enrolled in the United States and South Africa. ...
The purpose of this study was to find a safe and tolerable dose of the protease inhibitor (PI) atazanavir (ATV), with or without a low-dose boost of the PI ritonavir (RTV), when taken with other anti-HIV drugs in HIV infected infants, children, and adolescents.. Advancements in anti-HIV drugs for HIV infected children and adolescents have been hard to make, in part because these patients often do not take the drugs as prescribed. ATV may be a better option because it is available in the form of powder which children and adolescents may be more willing to take regularly. Using a low dose of RTV as a boosting agent for ATV may also increase the chances of virologic response of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-experienced patients. This study aimed to find safe and tolerable doses of ATV with or without low-dose RTV boost in infants, children, and adolescents. For this study, participants were enrolled in the United States and South Africa. ...
PRECLINICAL PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTITUMOR AND ANTI-HIV AGENTS NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 3, January 21, 1994 RFP AVAILABLE: NCI-CM-57199-12 P.T. 34 Keywords: Pharmacology Chemotherapeutic Agents National Cancer Institute The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP), Division of Cancer Treatment, is soliciting organizations having the necessary experience, scientific and technical personnel, and facilities to conduct a series of preclinical pharmacokinetic and other pharmacology studies in non-disease bearing animals on agents having demonstrated antitumor or anti-HIV activity and considered by DCT to merit further development. The studies to be performed will include: the development of methodology for the quantitative measurement of test agents and/or metabolites in animal body fluids and tissues; stability studies of test agents in biological fluids; plasma protein binding determinations; characterization of in vivo plasma concentration-time profiles and calculation of relevant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcomes of second-line antiretroviral therapy among children living with HIV. T2 - a global cohort analysis. AU - The Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER) Global Cohort Collaboration. AU - Patel, Kunjal. AU - Smith, Colette. AU - Collins, Intira Jeannie. AU - Goodall, Ruth. AU - Abrams, Elaine J.. AU - Sohn, Annette H.. AU - Mohamed, Thahira J.. AU - Van Dyke, Russell B.. AU - Rojo, Pablo. AU - Wools-Kaloustian, Kara. AU - Pinto, Jorge. AU - Edmonds, Andrew. AU - Marete, Irene. AU - Paul, Mary. AU - Nuwaqaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet. AU - Leroy, Valériane. AU - Davies, Mary Ann. AU - Vreeman, Rachel. AU - Maxwell, Nicky. AU - Timmerman, Venessa. AU - Duff, Charlotte. AU - Mofenson, Lynne. AU - Bekker, Linda Gail. AU - Vicari, Marissa. AU - Essajee, Shaffiq. AU - Penazzato, Martina. AU - Collins, Intira Jeannie. AU - Wools-Kaloustian, Kara. AU - Davies, Mary Ann. AU - Leroy, Valériane. AU - Goodall, Ruth. AU - Patel, Kunjal. AU - Smith, ...
A systematic review and meta-analysis from China finds that transmitted drug resistance (TDR) - when people who have never been on antiretroviral treatment (ART) before are already resistant to first-line ART - was found at 3% of cases overall, with significant regional variation. The analysis also found this type of drug-resistant HIV has been accelerating in China since 2012, mainly due to resistance to a class of ART known as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI).. The review, published in The Lancets E-Clinical Medicine, analysed 170 studies to assess the level, trend and geographical distribution of HIV drug resistance between 2001 and 2017, and the most common genetic mutations that cause it.. Studies included in this analysis, the most comprehensive of its kind to date, relate to 21,450 people living with HIV who had not been on antiretroviral treatment (ART) before (otherwise known as treatment or ART-naïve), and 30,475 people who had previously been on ...
Warning: Trizivir therapy should not be used without a NNRTI or PI unless circumstances dictate that this is the only practical therapy for a particular client. In particular patients with advanced disease or higher viral loads should be treated with an alternative regimen until further information becomes available. ...
Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy ...
Atazanavir sulfate is a drug used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including all stages of HIV infection and acquired
Journalists may submit queries online for fastest response. Journalists can also mail [email protected] or call 212-305-3900 to reach a member of the CUMC news office team.. Patients, please visit ColumbiaDoctors. ...
A new dual-therapy option, rilpivirine and darunavir (boosted by cobicistat) was tested as a switch regimen in virologically suppressed people in the randomised PROBE 2 trial conducted in Italy.. The study enrolled 160 people living with HIV who had viral load suppressed below 50 copies/ml for at least six months prior to enrolment, and no known resistance to protease inhibitors or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI). Participants were randomised to receive rilpivirine (25mg) and darunavir/cobicistat (800/100mg) once daily or to continue their existing three-drug regimen for 24 weeks, after which the three-drug group also switched to the investigational regimen.. Sixty-two per cent of the rilpivirine+darunavir group and 70% of the control group were male, participants had had undetectable viral load for a median of seven years and were taking their third antiretroviral therapy regimen at the time of randomisation. Approximately two-thirds were taking NNRTI-based therapy at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection. T2 - 2008 Recommendations of the international AIDS society-USA panel. AU - Hammer, Scott M.. AU - Eron, Joseph J.. AU - Reiss, Peter. AU - Schooley, Robert T.. AU - Thompson, Melanie A.. AU - Walmsley, Sharon. AU - Cahn, Pedro. AU - Fischl, Margaret A.. AU - Gatell, Jose M.. AU - Hirsch, Martin S.. AU - Jacobsen, Donna M.. AU - Montaner, Julio S.G.. AU - Richman, Douglas D.. AU - Yeni, Patrick G.. AU - Volberding, Paul A.. PY - 2008/8/6. Y1 - 2008/8/6. N2 - Context: The availability of new antiretroviral drugs and formulations, including drugs in new classes, and recent data on treatment choices for antiretroviral-naive and -experienced patients warrant an update of the International AIDS Society-USA guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Objectives: To summarize new data in the field and to provide current recommendations for the antiretroviral management and ...
BOSTON, Feb 11, 2003 (BUSINESS WIRE) --. 48-Week Data from Alize Trial Presented Today at 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. French researchers presented new 48-week data from a Phase III clinical trial today. These data demonstrate that emtricitabine (FTC), an investigational once-daily nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), suppresses HIV when taken as part of a once-daily, protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimen. Emtricitabine is being developed by Triangle Pharmaceuticals, which was acquired by Gilead Sciences (Nasdaq:GILD) in January 2003. Dr. Jean-Michel Molina presented the 48-week results of the ANRS 099 Alize trial (Abstract #551) at the 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston, Massachusetts. The ANRS 099 Alize trial is an ongoing three-year, open-label, multicenter study involving 355 patients who at baseline had to have HIV RNA less than 400 copies/mL while receiving PI-based antiretroviral therapy. ...
By several parameters known to be associated with HIV disease progression, children who are treated with protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy and reconstitute their CD4 T cells despite viral rebound have similar outcomes to those who optimally suppress viral replication. In our study, discordant viral and immune response outcome groups showed sustained increases in CD4 T-cell counts and displayed growth parameters, prevalence of HIV-associated illnesses, and levels of functional immunity that were equivalent to VS/IS children. The substantial restoration of CD4 T-cell counts in the VS/IS and VF/IS response groups during the initial 24 weeks of treatment was sustained over the subsequent 72 weeks in both outcome groups. The durability of CD4 reconstitution in VF/IS children who were enrolled in our study is in contrast to previous examinations of CD4 T-cell reconstitution in HIV-infected adults in which 30% to 40% of patients who displayed discordant viral and immune responses ...
The ARV Therapies and Therapeutic Strategies program is a comprehensive, independent review of the 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2018). This program consists of three components: (1) CME Internet Symposium: CROI 2018 Expert Review: a 1.5 hour Internet symposium that features an overview and discussion of key presentations and posters, selected by the expert faculty discussants; (2) Rapid-Fire Review of CROI 2018: a podcast that provides a brief, audio summary of the most essential data presented at the conference; and (3) From Conference to Clinic: Reviewing and Applying Data From CROI 2018: case-based dinner meetings during which the key data are reviewed, discussed and applied to patient care ...
The Original Study Several observational studies have reported that the early use of antiretroviral therapy by patients diagnosed with HIV decreases rates of HIV acquisition among their sexual partners. This study evaluates the impact of early antiretroviral therapy on HIV acquisition among serodiscordant couples from nine countries.
© 2020 The Author(s) Background: Early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the size of the viral reservoir in paediatric and adult HIV infection. Very early-treated children may have higher cure/remission potential. Methods: In an observational study of 151 in utero (IU)-infected infants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, whose treatment adhered strictly to national guidelines, 76 infants diagnosed via point-of-care (PoC) testing initiated cART at a median of 26 h (IQR 18-38) and 75 infants diagnosed via standard-of-care (SoC) laboratory-based testing initiated cART at 10 days (IQR 8-13). We analysed mortality, time to suppression of viraemia, and maintenance of aviraemia over the first 2 years of life. Findings: Baseline plasma viral loads were low (median 8000 copies per mL), with 12% of infants having undetectable viraemia pre-cART initiation. However, barely one-third (37%) of children achieved suppression of viraemia by 6 months that was maintained to |12 months. 24% had died or were
The annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) brings together top basic, translational, and clinical researchers from around the world to share the latest studies, important developments, and best research methods in the ongoing battle against HIV/AIDS and related infectious diseases. CROI is a global model of collaborative science and the premier international venue for bridging basic and clinical investigation into clinical practice in the field of HIV and related viruses.
The Botswana national treatment guidelines for adults recommend two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), zidovudine/lamivudine, and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Typically, the NNRTI is efavirenz or, for women of reproductive age, nevirapine. The regimen consisted of 200 mg of Combivir (lamzid, once available) twice daily. Nevirapine began with a two-week lead-in period of 200 mg once a day followed by a maintenance regimen of 200 mg twice a day. Efavirenz was dosed at 600 mg each day.. Patients experiencing virologic failure on first-line therapy were switched to a protease inhibitor-based regimen (lopinavir/ritonavir) coupled with two NRTIs (didanosine and stavudine or tenofovir or abacavir and lamivudine). When virologic failure occurred with second-line therapy or when there were complicated first-line therapy failures, genotypic resistance testing was undertaken.. At the initial visit, all patients underwent a comprehensive physical examination ...
Slide 1 of 11 New Guidelines, Strategies, and Drugs for Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy 2013 Charles B. Hicks, MD Professor of Medicine Duke University Medical Center Durham, North Carolina From CB Hicks, MD, at Chicago, IL: May 20, 2013, IAS-USA. IAS-USA Improving Practical Skills for Primary Care of HIV-Infected Patients Slide 2 of 11 clinicaloptions.com/hiv Goals of Antiretroviral Therapy  Reduce HIV-associated morbidity and prolong duration and quality of survival  Restore and preserve immunologic function  Maximally and durably suppress HIV-1 RNA - Persistently below level of detection (, 20-75 copies/mL, depending on the assay used) - Isolated blips not uncommon in successfully treated patients and not thought to predict virologic failure  Prevent HIV transmission DHHS Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults and Adolescents. March 2012. From CB Hicks, MD, at Chicago, IL: May 20, 2013, IAS-USA. Slide 3 of 11 Improving Practical Skills for Primary Care of ...
Objectives: To assess how developing knowledge surrounding combination antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV infection since mid-1 996 has altered how drugs are used in Australia. Methods: Time trends in use of antiretroviral treatment were calculated on patients recruited to the Australian HIV Observational Database. For each six month period, patients were on one or more antiretroviral drugs for at least two weeks. Other patients were in the no-treatment group. Patients receiving antiretrovirals for more than two weeks were allocated to the category of treatment (mono, double or triple-plus therapy) they received for the longest period. Results: 1476 patients were recruited by September 2000. Of patients currently receiving antiretroviral therapy, 32 per cent took three or more antiretrovirals including an HIV protease inhibitor (PI) and 27 per cent took triple-plus therapy including a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The proportion of patients receiving ...
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched a large international trial called IMPAACT 2010 or VESTED to evaluate three antiretroviral treatment regimens in HIV-infected pregnant women.. The trial aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of these regimens in the 639 participants who are 14 to 28 weeks into their pregnancies, along with safety for their infants.. It will compare the existing World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended, first-line maternal efavirenz (EFV) / emtricitabine (FTC) / tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) regimen with two other regimens containing newer antiretroviral drugs dolutegravir (DTG) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF).. The mothers viral load at delivery will be measured to compare the virologic efficacy of these three regimens. The viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood.. In addition, effectivity rates of the regimens on adverse pregnancy outcomes will be monitored such as preterm delivery and low infant birth weight, maternal and infant adverse ...
On December 31, 2012, FDA approved Fulyzaq (crofelemer) to relieve symptoms of diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy. ...
A series of neamine-heterocycle conjugates were designed and synthesized. All new compounds displayed more potent inhibitory effect on HIV replication than neamine, among them two compounds displayed stronger anti-HIV activity than neomycin B. The results suggested that it might be a promising approach to modify neamine for the discovery of new anti-HIV agents. (C) 2013 Xiao-Lian Zhang, Xin-Shan Ye. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved. ...
During the last three decades, HIV/AIDS has become the threat to the world. Almost 75 million people have been infected, and about 36 million people have died of HIV [1]. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) changes HIV/AIDS from diseases with a high mortality rate to manageable chronic diseases by decreasing the progression of AIDS and reducing HIV-related illness and deaths. Researches revealed that improved access to ART is helping to drive a decline in HIV-related morbidity and mortality [2-5]. In the USA and Canada, a person in his or her 20s who contracts HIV can now expect to live into the 70s if initiated ART early [6].. The standard therapy consists of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) [7]. In 2010, these guidelines were revised and recommended less toxic drugs in first-line therapy by replacing stavudine (d4T) with tenofovir (TDF) [8]. In resource-limited countries, World Health ...
BACKGROUND: Etravirine (ETR), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) available in France since 2006, is indicated for antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected adults, in combination with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI). To assess its clinical impact in routine care, we compared hospitalization rates according to ETR + PI prescription or not, among heavily treated HIV-1 infected individuals on failing regimens between 2005 and 2011. METHODS: From the French Hospital Database on HIV (ANRS CO4), we selected heavily treated individuals (prior exposure to at least 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 2PI and 1 NNRTI) with viral load (VL) | 50 copies/mL who started a new antiretroviral (ARV) regimen between 2005 and 2011. Using an intention-to-continue-treatment approach, hospitalization rates were calculated for the individuals who received ETR + PI, during the months after initiating ETR + PI (ETR + PI) or for the individuals who received ETR + PI, in the
In 2013, WHO published the first consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV treatment and prevention across all age groups and populations. A comprehensive revision of these guidelines based on new scientific evidence and lessons from implementation is being undertaken in 2015.. This early-release guideline makes available two key recommendations that were developed during the revision process in 2015. First, antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated in everyone living with HIV at any CD4 cell count. Second, the use of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as a prevention choice for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination prevention approaches. The first of these recommendations is based on evidence from clinical trials and observational studies released since 2013 showing that earlier use of ART results in better clinical outcomes for people living with HIV compared with delayed treatment. The second ...
List of wholesalers , traders for antiretroviral arv drugs, 22 antiretroviral arv drugs manufacturers & antiretroviral arv drugs suppliers from China.
In previously untreated patients, combinations that include efavirenz compare favorably with regimens that include either other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or components from other antiretroviral classes.. Two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III studies in antiretroviral-naive adults compared efavirenz with rilpivirine, each in combination with 2 NRTIs (predominantly tenofovir + emtricitabine). By ITT analysis of pooled data from the 2 studies, 82% of efavirenz recipients and 84% of rilpivirine recipients had HIV RNA levels of ,50 copies/mL at 48 weeks; the difference was not statistically significant. In patients with HIV RNA ,100,000 copies/mL, the efavirenz regimen resulted in higher rates of virologic suppression. The mean increase in CD4 count was 176 cells/µL in the efavirenz group (compared with 192 cells/µL in the rilpivirine group).(13) A randomized trial comparing efavirenz with nevirapine, each given with lamivudine + stavudine in initial therapy, ...
Among 100 children on first-line cART followed for a median 49 months, 34% experienced virologic failure. Twenty-three (68%) of the 34 children with viral failure had detectable resistance mutations, of whom 14 (61%) had multi-class resistance. Fourteen (14%) children were switched to second-line regimens and followed for a median of 28 months. Retrospective analysis revealed that virologic failure had occurred a median of 12 months prior to the switch to second-line. During prolonged first-line treatment in the presence of viral failure, additional resistance mutations accumulated, however, only 1 (7%) of 14 children had persistent viremia during second-line treatment ...
Several studies intensively evaluated the effect of antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute HIV infection has on the size of the cellular reservoir. One such study compared the reservoir as measured by HIV DNA as total, integrated and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) in those treated during acute infection (n=9), chronic infection (n=26) and amongst elite controllers (n=37) (15). It was not surprising that HIV DNA was detectable regardless of how early therapy was initiated and amongst the elite controllers. Nevertheless, they did find that the levels were significantly lower in those treated during acute infection than during chronic. Moreover, the levels in the early treatment group were similar to the elite controller. While early treatment did not eliminate the reservoir, even amongst those with 10 years of follow-up, it is conceivable that the success of any future strategies to target the reservoir may be more successful in those with a smaller reservoir, such as those initiating therapy ...
We investigated the evolution of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT)- and protease-associated antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance mutations during the time taken to perform genotypic drug resistance testing. Thirty treatment-experienced patients who were adherent to therapy and who underwent genotypic drug resistance testing provided blood samples at randomization and when reviewing the test results (baseline). Patients remained on their existing therapy between randomization and baseline. The predominant HIV strains in 10 patients (33%) either lost and/or gained primary RT inhibitor (RTI) or protease inhibitor (PI) associated resistance mutations during the testing period. Of the 9 patients with RT mutations, 2 lost, 5 gained, and 2 both lost and gained RTI resistance mutations. One patient gained a significant PI-associated resistance mutation on an existing PI-resistant background. The evolution that occurred in the RT may have altered the effectiveness of subsequent ARV therapy in some patients ...
The median age at first treatment interruption was 10.1 years (IQR: 6.4-13.6) after being on ART for 5.5 years. The median treatment interruption was 9.0 months (IQR: 3.5-22.5). The primary reason for treatment interruption was the patients decision and/or non-compliance (49%), followed by treatment failure (22%), doctors decision (17%) and side-effects (9%). A third had more than one treatment interruption. The second, third and fourth treatment interruptions happened at 13.8, 14.8 and 15.8 years of age, respectively. The children had a relatively good immunological status at the first treatment interruption with a mean CD4 percentage of 27.3% (standard deviation 11%). However, only 27% had a suppressed viral load (, 400 copies/mL).. At the end of treatment interruption the mean CD4 percentage was 19.2% (95% CI: 18.3-20.1%). Two years after restarting ART, it rose to 27.1% (95% CI: 26.2-27.9%), therefore reaching the pre-treatment interruption value, with half the increase in the first six ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Starr, Stuart E.. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Spector, Stephen A.. AU - Brundage, Richard C.. AU - Yong, Florence H.. AU - Douglas, Steven D.. AU - Flynn, Patrizia M.. AU - Kline, Mark W.. PY - 2002/7/23. Y1 - 2002/7/23. N2 - Background. This study determined the safety, pharmacokinetics, antiviral activity and immunologic effects of efavirenz liquid formulation, nelfinavir and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in HIV-infected children, 3 to 9 years of age. Methods. Plasma HIV-1 RNA and lymphocyte subsets were measured at various intervals after initiation of therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed at Week 2, and doses of efavirenz and nelfinavir were adjusted if area under the curve values fell outside specified target ranges. Results. This combination of antiretrovirals was well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetic values were similar to those observed in a previous study ...
Title: Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Giuseppe Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63,00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, metabolic syndome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk of HIVinfected patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines. ...
2015 Elsevier Ltd. Background Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate can cause renal and bone toxic effects related to high plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a novel tenofovir prodrug with a 90% reduction in plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide-containing regimens can have improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimens. Methods In these two controlled, double-blind phase 3 studies, we recruited treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with an estimated creatinine clearance of 50 mL per min or higher from 178 outpatient centres in 16 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily oral tablets containing 150 mg elvitegravir, 150 mg cobicistat, 200 mg emtricitabine, and 10 mg tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/tenofovir alafenamide) or 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) with matching placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Adenovirus viremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. by Ronald M. Ferdman et al.
Results: A total 307 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, 153 highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (who didnt take highly active antiretroviral therapy) and 154 on highly active antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in the study. The mean ( SD) age of the participants was 34.69 ( 8.86) years and about 61% were females. The prevalence of renal impairment in highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve and on highly active antiretroviral therapy individuals was 30.1% and 12.9% respectively. Proteinuria was found in 17.9 % of the participant. Low CD4 count (Adjusted odds ratio= 24.11; (95% CI 11.06, 52.56) and being highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (Adjusted odds ratio = 6.58; 95% CI 2.99, 14.47) showed significant association with the prevalence of renal impairment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural models. AU - Cole, Stephen R.. AU - Hernán, Miguel A.. AU - Robins, James M.. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Chmiel, Joan. AU - Detels, Roger. AU - Ervin, Carolyn. AU - Feldman, Joseph. AU - Greenblatt, Ruth. AU - Kingsley, Lawrence. AU - Lai, Shenghan. AU - Young, Mary. AU - Cohen, Mardge. AU - Muñoz, Alvaro. N1 - Funding Information: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with additional supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute (grants UO1-AI-35042, 5-MO1-RR-00722 (General Clinical Research Center), UO1-AI-35043, UO1-AI-37984, UO1-AI-35039, UO1-AI-35040, UO1-AI-37613, and UO1-AI-35041). The Womens Interagency HIV Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute, the National ...
Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate drug information: uses, indications, side effects, dosage. Compare prices for generic emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate substitutes: Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets, Tavin- EM, Tenof- EM
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune Complexes in Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. AU - Ellaurie, Maadhava. AU - Calvelli, Theresa. AU - Rubinstein, Arye. PY - 1990/11. Y1 - 1990/11. N2 - Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were analyzed in a cohort of 30 children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Elevated CIC were detected by the C1 q assay in 70% (21/30) of all patients and by the Raji cell assay in 93% (28/30) of all patients. While only less than one third of patients with elevated CIC had free serum antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, 80% (16/20) of them had detectable antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus associated with CIC. Enriched CIC in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children contained low levels of complement. These findings document that, as an expression of the humoral immunodeficiency, CIC in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children are deficient in complement and can thus be underestimated if complement-precipitating methods are used for their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cervicovaginal HIV-1 shedding in women taking antiretroviral therapy in Burkina Faso. T2 - a longitudinal study. AU - Low, Andrea J. AU - Konate, Issouf. AU - Nagot, Nicolas. AU - Weiss, Helen A. AU - Kania, Dramane. AU - Vickerman, Peter. AU - Segondy, Michel. AU - Mabey, David. AU - Pillay, Deenan. AU - Meda, Nicolas. AU - van de Perre, Philippe. AU - Mayaud, Philippe. AU - Yerelon Study Group. PY - 2014/2/1. Y1 - 2014/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces transmission of HIV-1. However, genital HIV-1 can be detected in patients on ART. We analyzed factors associated with genital HIV-1 shedding among high-risk women on ART in Burkina Faso.METHODS: Plasma viral load (PVL) and enriched cervicovaginal lavage HIV-1 RNA were measured every 3-6 months for up to 8 years. Random-effects logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze associations of frequency and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA with behavioral and biological factors, adjusting for ...
Background: New WHO guidelines recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers have to decide whether to further expand eligibility for antiretroviral therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage.. Methods: We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), Zambia (generalised epidemic, high antiretroviral therapy coverage), India (concentrated epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), and Vietnam (concentrated epidemic, low antiretroviral therapy coverage)-to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy under ...
To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. Observational prospective cohort. HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 ...
Objective:To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland.Design:Retrospective molecular epidemiology analysis of all newly HIV-diagnosed individuals between 2008 and 2010.Methods:Phylogenet
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement in lipoatrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients switched from stavudine to abacavir or zidovudine. T2 - The results of the TARHEEL study. AU - Bartlett, John. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85026137152&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85026137152&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1097/01.idc.0000130889.35482.ee. DO - 10.1097/01.idc.0000130889.35482.ee. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:85026137152. VL - 12. JO - Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. JF - Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. SN - 1056-9103. IS - 4. ER - ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Compromised immunologic recovery in treatment-experienced patients with HIV infection receiving both tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and didanosine in the TORO studies. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Objective: Some HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) do not resolve their plasma viraemia or HIV RNA can reappear after a period of virological control. We investigate whether polymorphisms in cytokine genes affect the control of plasma HIV RNA over 5 years on HAART. Design: The study utilized adult HIV-infected patients in Western Australia. Plasma HIV-RNA levels were assessed from commencement of HAART in patients who had a CD4 T-cell count less than 100 cells/μl before HAART and achieved immune reconstitution assessed by CD4 T-cell counts. Results: Control of plasma viraemia could be predicted from carriage of allele 2 at position -889 in the IL1A gene (IL1A-889*2). This was significant when assessed by the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-RNA level of 400 copies/ml or less (P = 0.002). At 48 months post-HAART, proportions were approximately 0.76, 0.51 and 0.32 for IL1A (1,1), (1,2) and (2,2) patients, respectively. The outcome was independent of the ...
PubMed journal article: CD4+ cell count, viral load, and highly active antiretroviral therapy use are independent predictors of body composition alterations in HIV-infected adults: a longitudinal study. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Primary HIV-associated thrombocytopenia (PHAT) typically improves with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, cases continue to occur. Data comparing the epidemiology of PHAT between the pre-HAART and HAART eras are limited. We retrospectively examined the incidence of PHAT over 28 years in the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) from 1986 to 2013. Subjects had a nadir platelet count |100 × 109/l with no other identifiable cause. Time periods were categorized as pre-HAART (1986-1995), early HAART (1996-2001), and later HAART (2002-2013). Incidence, demographic data, and CD4 count were compared across the three eras. A generalized estimating equations model was used to assess any association of platelet count and HIV viral load in cases diagnosed during the HAART eras. 218 participants met the case definition. 86.2 % of cases occurred prior to 2002. The incidence of PHAT per 1000 person-years of follow-up was 16.3, 4.6, and 1.9 during pre-HAART, early HAART and later HAART eras
1. PerelsonAS, EssungerP, CaoY, VesanenM, HurleyA, et al. (1997) Decay characteristics of HIV-1-infected compartments during combination therapy. Nature 387: 188-191.. 2. GulickRM, MellorsJW, HavlirD, EronJJ, GonzalezC, et al. (1997) Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy. The New England journal of medicine 337: 734-739.. 3. WalenskyRP, PaltielAD, LosinaE, MercincavageLM, SchackmanBR, et al. (2006) The survival benefits of AIDS treatment in the United States. The Journal of infectious diseases 194: 11-19.. 4. HammerSM, SquiresKE, HughesMD, GrimesJM, DemeterLM, et al. (1997) A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team. The New England journal of medicine 337: 725-733.. 5. RichmanDD, MargolisDM, DelaneyM, GreeneWC, HazudaD, et ...
We analyzed the effect of age on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and tolerance in 639 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (99 of whom were aged ,50 years, and 540 of whom were aged ,50 years). Late testing, which was more frequent in the older age group, was the only independent factor associated with immunologic and clinical evolution of infection. Age ,50 years was associated with earlier treatment discontinuation.. ...
We next isolated highly purified populations of resting CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood of these donors. After depletion of monocytes by adherence, negative selection with monoclonal antibodies and magnetic beads was used to remove CD8+ T cells, B cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells. In addition, activated CD4+ T cells, which represented an average of 10% of the CD4+ T cell populations in these individuals (Table 1), were removed by bead depletion with antibodies to CD25, CD69, and human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-DR. Additional purification was achieved by flow cytometric sorting of small lymphocytes expressing CD4 but not HLA-DR, which is expressed on all activated T cells. This multistep purification gave populations of resting CD4+ HLA-DR− T cells that were, on average, 97% pure (Table 1). Most importantly, the sorted populations were typically contaminated with ,1% activated CD4+ T cells.. Specialized PCR approaches have shown that a low frequency of resting CD4+ T cells from ...
New York: W.H. Freeman (1997). Cragg, G. M.; Newman, D. J. (2003). "Plants as a source of anti-cancer and anti-HIV agents". ... discovered the anti-HIV/AIDS properties of prostratin. He was elected as president of the Society for Economic Botany and ...
Other diarylpyrimidine-analogues are currently being used as anti-HIV agents, notably rilpivirine. In 2009, the prescribing ... "Appendix A: Key to Acronyms". Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. ... making it the 30th anti-HIV drug approved in the United States and the first to be approved in 2008. It was also approved for ... HIV-1) infection in antiretroviral treatment-experienced adult patients, who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 ...
Since 2009, nelfinavir has been under investigation for potential use as an anti-cancer agent. When applied to cancer cells in ... Nelfinavir is a protease inhibitor: it inhibits HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases. HIV protease is an aspartate protease which splits ... Chow WA, Jiang C, Guan M (2009). "Anti-HIV drugs for cancer therapeutics: back to the future?". Lancet Oncol. 10 (1): 61-71. ... September 2007). "Nelfinavir, A lead HIV protease inhibitor, is a broad-spectrum, anticancer agent that induces endoplasmic ...
... showed no detectable anti-HIV activity in clinical trials. Mifepristone showed initial promise in psychotic major ... Use of mifepristone as a cervical ripening agent has been described. The medication has been studied as an antiandrogen in the ... There is no evidence that the effects of mifepristone can be reversed, although some anti-abortion groups claim that it can be ... Religious and anti-abortion groups outside the United States have also protested mifepristone, especially in Germany and ...
The company was initially focused on the development of anti-HCV agents. Two protease inhibitors were thus developed and out- ... Halfon has a deep experience in infectious diseases, especially in HCV, HBV and HIV, and in liver diseases. As a renowned ... HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). He is a member of the Board of the doctoral school of medicine in the Aix-Marseille ... ". "HIV carriers can now have healthy children thanks to innovative treatment at Hadassah medical center". Hadassah University ...
The discovery of FTC was first published in 1992 in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy as another new anti-HIV compound. The ... Schinazi is best known for his involvement in the discovery and/or development of innovative anti-HIV, HBV, and HCV drugs on ... This drug became one of the most successful antiviral agents used to combat HIV as part of fixed-dose combinations (including ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 36 (3): 672-6. doi:10.1128/AAC.36.3.672. PMC 190578. PMID 1320365. "At gathering of HIV/ ...
1990). "Anti-AIDS agents, 2: Inhibitory effects of tannins on HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte ... HPLC determination Tannins, including gallo and ellagic acid (epigallitannins), are inhibitors of HIV replication. 1,3,4-Tri-O- ... Two compounds, punicalin and punicacortein C, inhibited purified HIV reverse transcriptase. Hydrolysable tannins have shown ... galloylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-galloyl-shikimic acid, 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylshikimic acid, punicalin, punicalagin inhibited HIV ...
They also looked at how the substituent placement on the quinoline derivatives affected the primary anti-HIV inhibitory ... Quinoline and its derivatives are commonly used in antimalarial drugs, fungicides, antibiotics, dyes, and flavoring agents. ... Luo, Z.G; Zeng, C.C.; Wang, F.; HE; Wang, C.X. (2009). "Synthesis and biological activities of quinoline derivatives as HIV-1 ... and anti-inflammatory activities. Additionally, researchers, such as Luo Zai-gang et al., recently looked at the synthesis and ...
Potential anti-HIV agents". Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly. 124: 37-53. doi:10.1007/BF00808508. Farquhar, David; ... DEAD is an aza-dienophile and an efficient dehydrogenating agent, converting alcohols to aldehydes, thiols to disulfides and ... Thus, in general DEAD is an aza-dienophile and dehydrogenating agent, converting alcohols to aldehydes, thiols to disulfides ... a potent antitumor agent; and procarbazine, a chemotherapy drug. DEAD is an orange-red liquid which weakens its color to yellow ...
Other agents that have been proposed to target polyomavirus BK, such as cidofovir, fluoroquinolones, leflunomide, and statins ... For example, in severely immunocompromised HIV-patients, previously called AIDS-patients, immunologic function can be restored ... by treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. In kidney transplant recipients who are treated with immunosuppressive ... Also, some of these agents may cause severe long-lasting side effects.[citation needed] Huang, Gang; Chen, Li-Zhong; Qiu, Jiang ...
The method has been applied in the combination of anti-cancer drugs, anti-HIV agents, drug-radiation, and traditional Chinese ... where Dm equals to the anti-log of the x-intercept. This unique theory holds true for all dose-effect curves that follows the ... mainly for anticancer agents. Chou was born in Changgangling Village, Hukou Township, Hsinchu County, Taiwan on September 9, ...
... reduces proliferation of colon cancer cells and has been tested as an anti-obesity agent in mice. Limonin has been ... Citrus seed extracts reportedly have antiviral properties, inhibiting replication of retroviruses like HIV-1 and HTLV-I. ... Ono, E.; Inoue, J.; Hashidume, T.; Shimizu, M.; Sato, R. (2011). "Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of the dietary ...
... a novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy, in HIV-infected adults". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 42 (9 ... For HIV-1 infection, tenofovir is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for people 2 years of age and older ... In 1997 researchers from Gilead and the University of California, San Francisco demonstrated that tenofovir exhibits anti-HIV ... It does not cure HIV/AIDS or hepatitis B. It is available by mouth as a tablet or powder. Common side effects include nausea, ...
The two guanine antiviral carbocyclic nucleosides, the anti-HIV agent abacavir and the anti-hepatitis B agent entecavir, are ... as well as inefficient central nervous system penetration prevented it from further developing as an anti-HIV agent. These ... 1988: Review of Glaxo's synthesis of fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides 1988: (±)-Carbovir first reported with potent anti-HIV ... a potent new anti-herpetic agent". Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications (10): 656-658. doi:10.1039/ ...
... that a plausible mechanism for HIV's action has been proposed, and that anti-HIV medication decreases mortality and ... Placebo-controlled studies have found that AZT as a single agent produces modest and short-lived improvements in survival and ... Use of potent anti-HIV combination therapies has contributed to dramatic reductions in the incidence of AIDS and AIDS-related ... Moreover, in addition to recreational drugs, Duesberg argues that anti-HIV drugs such as zidovudine (AZT) can cause AIDS. ...
... is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1-infected patients (adults and ... When administered at the initially tested higher doses effective for anti-HIV therapy, the side effects of ritonavir are those ... "HIV Surveillance-United States, 1981-2008". Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013. The CDC, ... HIV-associated death rate fell from over 50,000 to about 18,000 over a period of two years. In 2003, Abbott (now AbbVie, Inc.) ...
... a new class of anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents. First papers on the discovery of a new category of inhibitors of HIV: ... First paper on the discovery of the anti-HIV activity of a new class of inhibitors that laid the foundation for the anti-HIV ... a new class of anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 32 (7): 1025-1030. doi:10.1128 ... The methods he published were widely used by fellow scientists that joined the search for new anti-AIDS (HIV) treatments. In ...
... cobicistat has no anti-HIV activity of its own. Cobicistat is a component of three four-drug, fixed-dose combination HIV ... including HIV protease inhibitors and GS-7340, in vitro". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 56 (10): 5409-13. doi:10.1128/ ... These changes effectively eliminate the anti-HIV activity of ritonavir while preserving its inhibitory effects on the CYP3A ... Cobicistat is therefore able to increase plasma concentration of other coadministered anti-HIV drugs without the risk of ...
They have been studied in clinical trials as anti-cancer agents, as anti-AIDS/HIV agents and in people with Alzheimer's disease ... Bryostatin has also been studied in people with HIV. Bryostatin 1 was first isolated in the 1960s by George Pettit from ... As of 2014 over thirty clinical trials had been conducted, using bryostatin alone and in combination with other agents, in both ... adjuvant leads against latent HIV". Science. 358 (6360): 218-223. doi:10.1126/science.aan7969. PMC 5714505. PMID 29026042. ...
For example, KP-1461 is an anti-HIV agent that works as a viral mutagen, and zebularine exists in E. coli and is being examined ...
However, recent data shows that leptomycin causes G1 cell cycle arrest in mammalian cells and is a potent anti-tumor agent ... At low nM concentrations, leptomycin B blocks the nuclear export of many proteins including HIV-1 Rev, MAPK/ERK, and NF-κB/IκB ... leptomycin B blocks the cell cycle and is a potent anti-tumor agent. ...
"Diaromatic substituted compounds as anti-HIV-1 agents", published 8 October 1996, assigned to Upjohn Company Romero DL, Morge ... Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents (May 4, 2006). (Available for download ... It is used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type ... WO 9109849, Romero DL, Mitchell MA, Thomas RC, Palmer JR, Tarpley WG, Aristoff PA, Smith HW, "Diaromatic Substituted Anti-AIDS ...
Contrast agents used in imaging studies as well as transplantation of bone marrow or organs have also been linked to TEN ... Risk factors include HIV/AIDS and systemic lupus erythematosus. Diagnosis is based on a skin biopsy and involvement of more ... nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs allopurinol antimetabolites (methotrexate) antiretroviral drugs (nevirapine) ... HIV-positive individuals have 1000 times the risk of developing SJS/TEN compared to the general population. The reason for this ...
... antifungal and anti-HIV evaluations, and furthermore, have shown potential usefulness because of their potent antibacterial ... Streptolydigin, an analogue of the tirandamycins, is known to function as an antibacterial agent through inhibiting the chain ...
Liotta has also co-invented other clinical agents for treating HIV (elvucitabine, currently in Phase 2 clinical trials) and hot ... which developed the breakthrough anti-hepatitis C drug, Sovaldi (sofosbuvir) and was subsequently acquired by Gilead Sciences. ... It is estimated that >90% of HIV infected patients in the US take or have taken drug combinations that include either Emtriva ... Woo-Baeg Choi of Emory, he invented Emtricitabine, which is a breakthrough HIV drug. Emory University sold its royalties on the ...
... who spread misinformation about HIV tests and even alleged of anti-retroviral therapy to be the causative agent of AIDS; the ... He is a HIV/AIDS denialist who believes nutritional deficiencies are the causative agents of all illnesses, and has accordingly ... "The origin of HIV and AIDS: An enigma of evolution." Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, vol. 9, no. 1, 2006. Gale General ... As of 1999, his position was reported to be that the role that HIV played in AIDS was not as great as scientists generally ...
... and anti-HIV agents. Researchers were able to synthesize tetrahydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-5-ones with excellent yields and purities ... Water hydrolyzes formamide to give ammonium formate, which acts as a reducing agent and adds on to the N-formyl derivative. ... The reaction, named after Rudolf Leuckart, uses either ammonium formate or formamide as the nitrogen donor and reducing agent. ... Researchers performed the reaction via solid-phase synthesis and used formic acid as the reducing agent. Eschweiler-Clarke ...
... the use of anti-diabetic agents, the treatment of gout, the treatment of peptic ulcers, anxiolytic drugs, and the therapy of ... Kemron only reversed the symptoms of the HIV disease for a short period of time. Because of this, people were quick to purchase ... Obel wrote a book called "Curbing the HIV/AIDS Menace Effectively" in 1995. Although Obel is most known for his work on Kemron ... Pearl Omega, a herb, was found to have very few positive outcomes when combatting HIV. Obel claimed that Pearl Omega was a ...
... an anti-HIV drug), ravuconazole (antifungal agent), meloxicam and fentiazac (anti-inflammatory agents) and nizatidine (anti- ... A couple of the compounds that were analysed for in vivo anti-cancer activity contained thiazole derivatives that had been ... Thiazoles are found in a number of pharmacological compounds such as tiazofurin and dasatinib (antineoplastic agents), ... ulcer agent). Consequently, understanding and applying a range of approaches to synthesize thiazoles facilitates greater ...
They were able to show that indinavir, when used with two other anti-HIV drugs, could significantly reduce the HIV viral load.[ ... 97 patients were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: indinavir monotherapy, AZT and lamivudine, or all three agents. ... Indinavir does not cure HIV/AIDS, but it can extend the length of a person's life for several years by slowing the progression ... It is normally used as one of the three drugs in a triple-combination therapy for the HIV virus.[1] ...
Competence in S. pneumoniae is induced by DNA-damaging agents such as mitomycin C, fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ... Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... and of septicemia in those infected with HIV. The organism also causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than ... "The persisting burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV patients: an observational cohort study". BMC Infectious ...
... virus is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease ... "African monkey meat that could be behind the next HIV". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. 25 people ... people to be careful of advertisements making unverified or fraudulent claims of benefits supposedly gained from various anti- ... Zubray G (2013). Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and Their Weaponization. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press. pp. ...
Spinal α2 and α3 containing GABAA receptors are responsible for the anti-hyperalgesic action of intrathecal diazepam. This was ... Sedative actions of benzodiazepines limit their usefulness as analgesic agents and they are therefore generally not considered ... Although barbiturates fell out of favor, they continue to serve as a short-acting anesthetic and anti-epileptic drugs. ... shown when the anti-hyperalgesic action was reduced when administered in α2 and α3 mice in inflammatory pain and in neuropathic ...
"Country Comparison :: HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate". The World Factbook. CIA.gov. Archived from the original on 21 December ... Also in 1887, Verdier's agent, Marcel Treich-Laplène, negotiated five additional agreements that extended French influence from ... interested in ensuring that the small but influential elite was sufficiently satisfied with the status quo to refrain from anti ... The HIV/AIDS rate was 19th-highest in the world, estimated in 2012 at 3.20% among adults aged 15-49 years.[105] ...
... has a number of purported uses including cancer prevention, treatment of diabetes, fever, HIV and AIDS, and ... anthelmintic agent, for the treatment of cough, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, wounds, ulcer, gout, and rheumatism.[8] ... "India-Tanzania-Thailand Scientists to Study 'Bitter Gourd' for anti-diabetes". zmescience.com. Retrieved 30 May 2017 ... HIV and AIDS, and treatment of infections, there is preliminary laboratory research, but no clinical studies in humans showing ...
It can be used to treat HIV-infected adults who have never taken HIV therapy (treatment-naïve) and HIV-infected adults who have ... In the European Union it is indicated, in combination with other anti-retroviral medicinal products, for the treatment of Human ... to treat HIV/AIDS.[4] It may also be used, as part of post exposure prophylaxis, to prevent HIV infection following potential ... "GSK wins priority status for new HIV drug in U.S". Reuters. 16 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.. [dead link] ...
Pasteur isolated the infectious agent from anthrax. He then derived a vaccine by altering the infectious agent so as to make it ... "Anti-vaccinationists past and present". BMJ. 325 (7361): 430-32. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7361.430. PMC 1123944 . PMID 12193361 ... Pasteur also isolated a crude preparation of the infectious agent for rabies. In a brave piece of rapid medicine development, ... Variolation had the disadvantage that the inoculating agent used was still an active form of smallpox and, although less potent ...
... long-acting agents are recommended.[2] Long-acting agents partly work by reducing hyperinflation.[74] If long-acting ... including HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.[9] Respiratory infections such as pneumonia do not appear to increase the risk of COPD, at ... and act as anti-inflammatories. They show promise in decreasing the rate of exacerbations, but do not appear to change a ... External agents/. occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. Baritosis. Bauxite fibrosis. Berylliosis. ...
In addition to the isolation of HIV-1 and HIV-2, in the recent past researchers at the Institut Pasteur have developed a test ... Calmette's and Guerin's anti-tuberculosis vaccineEdit. By the beginning of the 20th century, the improvement of the general ... Alphonse Laveran got the 1907 Nobel Prize for his research on the role of protozoans as disease agents (notably, his discovery ... The anti-diphtheria serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse ...
Dennison, James (2016). The Greens in British Politics: Protest, Anti-Austerity and the Divided Left. Palgrave.. ... the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other illnesses, as well as offering a place for drug users to access health and ... "Greens control Brighton council after 'anti-Semitic' resignations". BBC News. BBC. 23 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.. ... "Green Party Deputy Leader to speak at international anti-war conference. Archived 23 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine". ...
Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases: Annual numbers of new HIV infections and AIDS deaths have fallen, but the number ... The JUSTPAL Network includes representatives of judiciaries, ministries of justice, prosecutors, anti-corruption agencies and ... It aimed to inspire change agents and prepare them with essential tools that can help achieve development results. WBI had four ... of people living with HIV continues to grow. In the eight worst-hit southern African countries, prevalence is above 15 percent ...
Gankyrin is anti-apoptotic and has been shown to be overexpressed in some tumor cell types such as hepatocellular carcinoma.[81 ... The molecule ritonavir, marketed as Norvir, was developed as a protease inhibitor and used to target HIV infection. However, it ... is the first proteasome inhibitor to reach clinical use as a chemotherapy agent.[102] Bortezomib is used in the treatment of ... Due to its role in generating the activated form of NF-κB, an anti-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory regulator of cytokine ...
A number of common microfungi are important agents of post-harvest spoilage, notably members of the genera Aspergillus, ... Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 8 (8): 957-64. doi:10.1586/eri.10.72. PMID 20695750.. ... HIV/AIDS, other immune disease, heart defects, cystic fibrosis, depression, seizure disorders, Sickle Cell disease, kidney ... "Housing interventions and control of asthma-related indoor biologic agents: a review of the evidence". J Public Health Manag ...
Evidence for ascorbate's anti-tumor effects was limited to case reports and observational and uncontrolled studies."[44] ... Ascorbic acid is a common enzymatic cofactor in mammals used in the synthesis of collagen, as well as a powerful reducing agent ... who both have been accused of making unsubstantiated treatment claims for treating cancer and HIV infection. ... Oxidized forms of the molecule such as dehydroascorbic acid are converted back to ascorbic acid by reducing agents.[3] ...
"Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection" (PDF). The Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and ... Expert review of anti-infective therapy 8 (10): 1163-75. PMID 20954881. doi:10.1586/eri.10.94.. ... WHO case definitions of HIV for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV-related ... Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J. ...
Širom svijeta, najvažniji rizični čimbenik je HIV; 13% svih bolesnika od TBC zaraženo je virusom HIV-a.[5] Ovaj je problem čest ... "Antimicrob Agents Chemother. svezak 47 (broj 3): str. 833.-836. PMC 149338. PMID 12604509. doi:10.1128/AAC.47.3.833-836.2003. ... Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. svezak 3 (broj 6): str. 981.-993. PMID 16307510. doi:10.1586/14787210.3.6.981. ... Anthony, Harries (2005.). TB/HIV a Clinical Manual. (2. izdanje izd.). Geneva: World Health Organization. str. 75. ISBN 978-92- ...
"Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 38 (8): 1864-67. doi:10.1128/aac.38.8.1864. PMC 284652. PMID 7986023.. ... As many as 25 million may have been killed in the first 25 weeks; in contrast, HIV/AIDS has killed 25 million in its first 25 ... Wilson JC, von Itzstein M (July 2003). "Recent strategies in the search for new anti-influenza therapies". Current Drug Targets ... The first influenza virus to be isolated was from poultry, when in 1901 the agent causing a disease called "fowl plague" was ...
In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... outside of the field of HIV drugs, are not patented in the developing world, and that lack of widespread access to these ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ... Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors. *Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/ ...
... single-arm pilot study in patients with severe plaque-type psoriasis treated with an oral anti-inflammatory agent, apremilast ... HIV-associated wasting syndrome, Crohn's disease, Kaposi's sarcoma, myelodysplastic syndrome and hematopoietic stem cell ... The discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of thalidomide increased the interest of ... In vivo anti-tumor activity of thalidomide is believed to be due to the potent anti-angiogenic effect and also through changes ...
Abstr Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998, roč. 38, s. 555. Dostupné ... Koinfekce virem HIV je problémem hlavně v subsaharské Africe, kde je nákaza tímto virem velmi častá.[69][70] Kouření 20 a více ... Mutlu, G., Mutlu, E., Bellmeyer, A., Rubinstein, I. Pulmonary adverse events of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2003, roč. 47, čís. 3, s. 833-6. DOI:10.1128/AAC.47.3.833-836.2003. PMID 12604509.. ...
The choice of the antihypertensive agent is open as long as the blood pressure is controlled to desired level. However, ... Cyclophosphamide ( traded as endoxan & cytoxan )and Isotretinoin have commonly been used, often with anti-platelet/ ... ankylosing spondylitis and HIV. Diagnosis of Berger's disease and a search for any associated disease occasionally reveals such ... This, too, suggests an immune pathology rather than direct interference by outside agents. ...
Anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen, naproxen or other NSAIDs can be used as part of treating sprains and strains ... Hemostatic agents may be included in first aid kits, especially military or tactical kits, to promote clotting for severe ... to assist in CPR and to help prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens such as HIV. ... Anti-fungal cream. *Tincture of benzoin - often in the form of an individually sealed swabstick or ampule, protects the skin ...
Anti-vaccine movement. *Vaccines causing autism. *GMO conspiracy theories. *HIV/AIDS origins ... Talalay, P; Talalay, P (2001). "The importance of using scientific principles in the development of medicinal agents from ... One idea is that the yin-yang balance, at least with regard to herbs, corresponds to the pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant balance. ... and there is generally an absence of high-quality scientific research on product composition or effectiveness for anti-disease ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929-1950". J. Hist. Med. Allied ... HIV/AIDS and potential medical emergencies such as infection, thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm,[15] while inhalation may be ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ...
Anti inflammatory agents in breast milk. *Areola. *Areolar gland (gland of Montgomery) ...
Additionally, some notoriously treatment-resistant infectious diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis C have now become manageable ( ... to discuss the price/value ratio of anti-cancer drugs between physicians and patients and on a societal level.[78][80] A 2017 ... patients who have failed previous agents for the same indication). ... review of anti-cancer drugs approved by the FDA between 2000 and 2015 found no relationship between their price and their value ...
"Anti-HIV Agents That Selectively Target Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers without Affecting Cellular Zinc Finger ... "Biophysical Characterization of Zinc Ejection from HIV Nucleocapsid Protein by Anti-HIV 2,2'-Dithiobis[benzamides] and ... Zinc ejectors were patented in 2008 and some have entered Phase I/II trials as a HIV drug. The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein 7 ( ... Azodicarbonamide (ADA) was the first zinc ejector to go into clinical trial for treatment of HIV. ADA inhibits HIV by ...
The most studied chemotheraputic agent in PCNSL is methotrexate (a folate analogue that interferes with DNA repair). ... of all cases of lymphomas in HIV infections (other types are Burkitt's lymphomas and immunoblastic lymphomas). Primary CNS ... perhaps the most important factor with respect to treatment is the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), which ... probably due to poor penetration of the agents through the blood brain barrier.[11] ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
HIV) is urgently needed due to its globally widespread infection. Most of clinically useful anti-HIV agents are nucleosides but ... Keywords: Alkaloids; Anti HIV Agents; Carbohydrates; Trikendiol; allanthus altissima; anolignan A; artemisinin; batzelladines A ... Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in research on the natural products for the anti-HIV agents. New ... Natural products, of which structural diversity is so broad, are good sources for the effective discovery of anti-HIV agents ...
Anti-HIV Agents, Anti-Retroviral Agents. Additional Keywords : Anti-HIV Agents, Anti-Retroviral Agents, HIV Infections, ... Diseases : HIV Infections. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-HIV Agents, Antiviral Agents, Enzyme Inhibitors, HIV Protease ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-HIV Agents, Antioxidants, HIV Protease Inhibitors. Additional Keywords : Drug: Zidovudine, Plant ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-HIV Agents, Antineoplastic Agents, Antiproliferative , Apoptotic. Additional Keywords : Fungal ...
PRECLINICAL PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTITUMOR AND ANTI-HIV AGENTS NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 3, January 21, 1994 RFP ... pharmacology studies in non-disease bearing animals on agents having demonstrated antitumor or anti-HIV activity and considered ... The Government will supply all animals (mice, rats, dogs, non-human primates), test agents, and radiolabeled test agents. ... The studies to be performed will include: the development of methodology for the quantitative measurement of test agents and/or ...
HIV) infection, including all stages of HIV infection and acquired ... HIV-related disease. It does not directly kill the HIV, so it cannot cure HIV infection. It also does not prevent the HIV from ... Atazanavir sulfate belongs to a class of antiviral drugs known as HIV protease inhibitors. Protease is an enzyme that the HIV ... Atazanavir sulfate is a drug used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including all stages of HIV ...
Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... Have not previously taken anti-HIV medications. People who have taken anti-HIV medications for post-exposure prophylaxis or ... Have not previously taken anti-HIV medications. Children who have taken anti-HIV medications for post-exposure prophylaxis or ... Strategies for Delivering Anti-HIV Therapy in South Africa. This study has been completed. ...
Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ... Drug Interactions Among Anti-HIV Agents. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Unique intracellular activation of the potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus agent 1592U89. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. ... Current or anticipated therapy with other agents with documented activity against HIV-1 in vitro (other than stable maintenance ...
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or ... Anti-HIV Agents. Known as: Agents, Anti-AIDS, aid drug, Anti AIDS Drugs Expand. ... Myelosuppression is the dose-limiting side effect for most anti-cancer and many anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents, which ... Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or ...
These agents could allow for comparatively lower dosages, and also for prophylactic anti-HIV treatment, he said. Importantly, ... This illustration shows a new anti-HIV agent developed at Yale bound to an enzyme essential for the virus replication. Two ... The new agents work by inhibiting the function of an enzyme essential for HIVs replication. That enzyme is called HIV-1 ... Two of the new agents are extraordinarily potent against the predominant, "wild-type" form of HIV, which is highly adept at ...
This chapter is an update of our contribution on the topic of peptide-derived anti-HIV agents with a focus on mid-size drugs. ... We have produced several anti-HIV agents including fusion inhibitors, coreceptor antagonists, integrase inhibitors, CD4 mimics ... Peptide-derived mid-sized anti-HIV agents. Nami Ohashi and Hirokazu Tamamura ... To date, several anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs such as reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors ...
Anti-AIDS agents, 11. Betulinic acid and platanic acid as anti-HIV principles from Syzigium claviflorum, and the anti-HIV ... since a correlation between anti-HIV and anti-PKC activities has been suggested. However, there was no apparent correlation ... Evaluation of anti-HIV activity with eight derivatives of 1 revealed that dihydrobetulinic acid [3] was also a potent inhibitor ... The C-3 hydroxy group and C-17 carboxylic acid group, as well as the C-19 substituents, contribute to enhanced anti-HIV ...
HIGH RESOLUTION STRUCTURE OF RECOMBINANT DIANTHIN ANTIVIRAL PROTEIN-POTENT ANTI-HIV AGENT. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1LP8/pdb ... High resolution X-ray structure and potent anti-HIV activity of recombinant dianthin antiviral protein.. Kurinov, I.V., ... with a single-stranded RNA heptamer predicted a more potent anti-HIV activity for rDAP due to its unique surface topology and ... capable of depurinating HIV-1 RNA and inhibiting HIV-1 replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherich ... ...
An Anti-Inflammatory Diet PlanDiabetes Smart TipsLiving Well with Rheumatoid ArthritisLiving Well with Colitis or CrohnsManage ... An Anti-Inflammatory Diet PlanDiabetes Smart TipsLiving Well with Rheumatoid ArthritisLiving Well with Colitis or CrohnsManage ...
HIV Infections. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Anti-HIV Agents. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. ... HIV-negative people with a possible exposure to HIV are instructed to take 28 days of a combination anti-HIV medication regimen ... Body Compartment Pharmacokinetics of Anti- Retroviral Agents That May be Used for Future HIV Post- Exposure Prophylaxis. (PEP2) ... Body Compartment Pharmacokinetics of Anti-retroviral Agents That May be Used for Future HIV Post-exposure Prophylaxis Regimens. ...
Scripps Florida Scientists Announce Anti-HIV Agent So Powerful It Can Work in a Vaccine. ... When HIV infects a cell, it targets the CD4 lymphocyte, an integral part of the bodys immune system. HIV fuses with the cell ... The study shows that the new drug candidate blocks every strain of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) that ... "When antibodies try to mimic the receptor, they touch a lot of other parts of the viral envelope that HIV can change with ease ...
Mechanism studies revealed that mangiferin might inhibit the HIV-1 protease, but is still effective against HIV peptidic ... Mangiferin can inhibit HIV-1ⅢB induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with a 50% effective concentration ... A combination of docking and pharmacophore methods clarified possible binding modes of mangiferin in the HIV-1 protease. The ... Mangiferin also showed good activities in other laboratory-derived strains, clinically isolated strains and resistant HIV-1 ...
"Anti-HIV Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Anti-HIV Agents" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Anti-HIV Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Anti-HIV Agents*Anti-HIV Agents. *Agents, Anti-HIV. *Anti HIV Agents ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Anti-HIV Agents" by people in Profiles. ...
... ... HIV Drug Resistance The HIV-1 virus acquires HIV drug resistance after sub-optimal exposure to antiretroviral therapy, which ... Resistance to currently available anti-HIV drugs is an increasingly prevalent concern for highly treatment-experienced HIV- ... VIRAMUNE was the first member of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) class of anti-HIV drugs. Boehringer ...
This unit presents an assay that has proven useful as an initial screening test is an HIV cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition ... strains of HIV are utilized as target cells. Additional protocols assess the antiHIV activity of certain candidate agents by ... In Vitro Evaluation of Experimental Agents for AntiHIV Activity. Douglas D. Richman1, Victoria A. Johnson2, Douglas M. Mayers3 ... In vitro inhibition of HIV‐1 replication by C2 symmetry‐based HIV protease inhibitors as single agents or in combinations. ...
... anti-HIV,agent,to,Oncolys,BioPharma,of,Japan,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current ... Ed4T is a thymidine analogue that blocks HIV-1 reverse transcriptas... This license agreement was possible because Yale has ... a compound with a new and potentially effective anti-HIV clinical treatment. Ed4T is a thymidine analogue that blocks HIV-1 ... of Tokyo the global exclusive right for clinical and business development of a novel compound for the treatment of HIV.. A ...
The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope Shinji Harada ... Shinji Harada; The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope. ... especially pro-HIV-1 action. One mechanism was found to fully explain the anti- and pro-HIV-1 phenomena: direct modulation of ... Order parameters were evaluated after HIV-1 C-2 (●) or GL-pretreated HIV-1 C-2 (■) were labelled with 5-DSA. GL-pretreated HIV- ...
MOTS CLÉS: synthetic anti-HIV drugs, protease inhibitors, potent natural anti-HIV agents ... In the search of the most suitable and potent anti-HIV agents, researchers have explored the anti-HIV activity of different ... limited the scope of activity of currently existing anti-HIV agents. Quite often severe side effects and lifelong dependency ... Antiretroviral Agents: Looking for the Best Possible Chemotherapeutic Options to Conquer HIV. Tahir Farooq Department of ...
... carboxamide derivatives in the treatment of HIV infections, pharmaceutical compositions containing these derivatives as active ... EN) USE OF 2-OXO-2H-PYRROL-1(5H)-CARBOXAMIDE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-HIV AGENTS AND PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF. (FR) ... 1. (WO2017149511) USE OF 2-OXO-2H-PYRROL-1(5H)-CARBOXAMIDE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-HIV AGENTS AND PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION ... UTILISATION DE DÉRIVÉS DE 2-OXO-2H-PYRROL-L(5H)-CARBOXAMIDE EN TANT QUAGENTS ANTI-VIH ET PROCÉDÉ DE PRODUCTION ASSOCIÉ. ...
A lot of anti-latency agents are screened, as well as immuno-modulatory drugs. ... active reserach is ongoing to find an HIV cure. ... hiv eradication HIV reservoirs hiv cure HIV latency hiv ... reservoirs eradication HIV eradication HIV workshop reservoirs hiv persistence reservoir cure HIV HIV cure ISHEID HIV ... Key words: HDAC inhibitors, HIV Gilead, HIV Janssen, HIV cure, HIV cure research, HIV latency, HIV reservoirs ...
The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope. Shinji Harada ... The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope ... The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope ... The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope ...
... styrene oxide an asymmetric synthesis is described of the naturally occurring anti-HIV spirolactone (-)-hyperolactone C, which ... synthesis of the anti-HIV agent hyperolactone C.. *D. Hodgson, D. Angrish, Stephanie P. Erickson, J. Kloesges, Caroline H. Lee ... Synthesis of the anti-HIV agent (-)-hyperolactone C by using oxonium ylide formation-rearrangement.. @article{ ... Synthesis of the anti-HIV agent (-)-hyperolactone C by using oxonium ylide formation-rearrangement.}, author={D. Hodgson and S ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ... Report of the Workshop to Strengthen Monitoring of HIV Care and Antiretroviral Therapy in the Western Pacific Region, Vientiane ... Biregional Informal Technical Consultation on the Development of Clinical Protocols on HIV Treatment and Care for Injecting ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ... WHO expands recommendation on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV infection (PrEP)]  世界卫生组织西太平洋区域办事处 (马尼拉:世
In this review, plant substances showing a promising action that is anti-HIV and HAND will be explored along with what they ... Accordingly, many research groups are exploring the biodiversity of the plant kingdom to find new and better anti-HIV drugs ... The basic challenge that still persists is to develop viral replication-targeted therapy using novel anti-HIV compounds with ... HIV/AIDS being an exceptional epidemic, demands an exceptional approach and that forms very much focus for the current review. ...
1. Development of a novel ELISA for the testing of glycobioconjugates as anti-HIV agents 2. Synthesis of potential inhibitors ... 1. Development of a novel ELISA for the testing of glycobioconjugates as anti-HIV agents 2. Synthesis of potential inhibitors ... 1. Development of a novel ELISA for the testing of glycobioconjugates as anti-HIV agents 2. Synthesis of potential inhibitors ... AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a retrovirus that is ...
MAR-10 also has broad spectrum anti-glycosidase activity (inhibits HIV from replicating and inhibits HIV-mediated syncytium ... 1) In one study, extracts of dried leaves of Hyssop officinalis showed strong anti-HIV properties. *Hyssop officinalis inhibits ... 2) In another study, a polysaccharide isolated from Hyssop officinalis also showed strong anti-HIV activity.. *The ... This study shows that the polysaccharide MAR-10 has strong anti-HIV-1 activity and can be considered potent in treating people ...
Anti-HIV Agents. indinavir, ritonavir. *This list is not all-inclusive.. † For information on parenterally administered ... Anti-HIV Agents. Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI) such as nevirapine and efavirenz are inducers of ... Oral Hypoglycemic Agents. Severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients concomitantly receiving azole antifungal agents and ... Polyenes Antifungal Agents. Prior treatment with itraconazole, like other azoles, may reduce or inhibit the activity of ...
  • Atazanavir sulfate is a drug used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including all stages of HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (sharecare.com)
  • It may also be given to people immediately after they are exposed to the HIV to help prevent an HIV infection from becoming established. (sharecare.com)
  • It does not directly kill the HIV, so it cannot cure HIV infection. (sharecare.com)
  • This study will evaluate new strategies for delivering anti-HIV medications to people in South Africa. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These strategies include using specially trained nurses to administer therapy (rather than doctors), treating all HIV infected members of a household at the same time, and having community members observe patients taking their medications. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • By blocking the action of this enzyme, protease inhibitors prevent the HIV from multiplying, which slows the progression of HIV-related disease. (sharecare.com)
  • Protease is an enzyme that the HIV requires to reproduce. (sharecare.com)
  • This review will highlight the recent notable developments for the discovery of antiretroviral agents. (begellhouse.com)
  • Recommendations for PEP have been modified to include a basic 4-week regimen of two drugs (zidovudine and lamivudine) for most HIV exposures and an expanded regimen that includes the addition of a protease inhibitor (indinavir or nelfinavir) for HIV exposures that pose an increased risk for transmission or where resistance to one or more of the antiretroviral agents recommended for PEP is known or suspected. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the provisional recommendations were released, several new antiretroviral drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and more information is available about the use and safety of antiretroviral agents in exposed HCWs (7-10). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, this report outlines several special circumstances (e.g., delayed exposure report, unknown source person, pregnancy in the exposed person, resistance of the source virus to antiretroviral agents, or toxicity of the PEP regimen) when consultation with local experts and/or the National Clinicians' Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Hotline ([PEPline] 1-888-448-4911) is advised. (cdc.gov)
  • Since publication of the 1998 HIV exposure guidelines ( 5 ), several new antiretroviral agents have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and more information is available about the use and safety of HIV PEP ( 6--11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, questions exist regarding considerations about PEP regimens when the source person's virus is known or suspected to be resistant to one or more of the antiretroviral agents that might be used for PEP. (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence is mounting to support the observation that antiretroviral agents may be able to play an important role in reducing the risk for HIV transmission. (who.int)
  • Dr. Friedland's major research interests are in the provision of HIV care to vulnerable populations and clinical trials of anti-retroviral agents, including adherence to HIV therapies and pharmacologic interaction studies between methadone and buprenorphine and antiretroviral agents. (yale.edu)
  • 3/2/00: from the arm the patient was originally randomized to] and combine with other approved antiretroviral agents. (knowcancer.com)
  • Mechanism studies revealed that mangiferin might inhibit the HIV-1 protease, but is still effective against HIV peptidic protease inhibitor resistant strains. (mdpi.com)
  • Atazanavir (ATV) is an azapeptide HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI). (pharmacycode.com)
  • It is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). (pharmacycode.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the polypeptide is conjugated to a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, an HIV protease inhibitor or an in-vivo half-time elongating substance. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 18. The method of claim 13, wherein the polypeptide is conjugated to a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, an HIV protease inhibitor or an in-vivo half-time elongating substance. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Burger DM, Hugen PW, Kroon FP, Groeneveld P, Brinkman K, Foudraine NA et al (1998) Pharmacokinetic interaction between the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir. (springer.com)
  • Sumac (Rhus chinensis) contains compounds with anti-HIV activity - Article 3. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Researchers at Yale University have discovered new chemical compounds that prevent HIV from replicating in human T-cells. (yale.edu)
  • These compounds could result in new, highly effective HIV treatments that are 10 to 2000 times more potent than HIV drugs now on the market. (yale.edu)
  • We are excited about continuing the development of this new class of anti-HIV compounds. (yale.edu)
  • The inhibitory activity of these compounds against protein kinase C (PKC) was also examined, since a correlation between anti-HIV and anti-PKC activities has been suggested. (nih.gov)
  • However, there was no apparent correlation between anti-HIV activity and the inhibition of PKC among these compounds. (nih.gov)
  • In the search of the most suitable and potent anti-HIV agents, researchers have explored the anti-HIV activity of different classes of compounds originating from plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms. (begellhouse.com)
  • By using HIV latency Jurkat cells, Janssen has already screened more than 35,000 compounds and selected some acting as HDAC inhibitors, others as PKC agonists and others with unknown modes of action (figure 6). (hiv-reservoir.net)
  • Natural products such as plant-originated compounds and plant extracts have enormous potential to become drug leads with anti-HIV and neuroprotective activity. (fiu.edu)
  • Overall, Hyssop officinalis contains caffeic acid, unidentified tannins (a class of phytochemicals), and other compounds that show strong anti-HIV activity. (optimalhealthnetwork.com)
  • Among of all the reported analogues, eight compounds exhibited significant anti- HIV-1 activity, especially N-(3-nitro)phenylsulfonyl-3-acetylindole benzoyl hydrazone (18) and N-(3-nitro)phenylsulfonyl-3-acetyl-6-methylindole benzoyl hydrazone (23) displayed the most potent anti- HIV-1 activity with EC50 values of 0.26 and 0.31 µg/mL, and TI values of >769.23 and >645.16, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Both compounds were characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses and their in vitro anti-HIV activities were also confirmed. (epo.org)
  • Most recently, compounds which prevent the integration of the HIV-1 proviral precursor into cellular DNA have been successfully developed and utilized. (hindawi.com)
  • Unlike antibodies, which fail to neutralize a large fraction of HIV-1 strains, our protein has been effective against all strains tested, raising the possibility it could offer an effective HIV vaccine alternative. (scripps.edu)
  • Mangiferin also showed good activities in other laboratory-derived strains, clinically isolated strains and resistant HIV-1 strains. (mdpi.com)
  • Wang R-R, Gao Y-D, Ma C-H, Zhang X-J, Huang C-G, Huang J-F, Zheng Y-T. Mangiferin, an Anti-HIV-1 Agent Targeting Protease and Effective against Resistant Strains. (mdpi.com)
  • Available clinical and in vitro data suggest that tipranavir may be active against strains of HIV-1 that are resistant to currently available peptidic protease inhibitors (PIs), offering hope for patients with multi-drug resistant virus. (natap.org)
  • ATH8 or MT2) that are profoundly sensitive to the cytopathic effect of certain strains of HIV are utilized as target cells. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Continue to practice safer sex and take other precautions so to not pass HIV on to other people and protect yourself from different strains of HIV and other germs. (catie.ca)
  • The new IASs 8-37 showed potent inhibition of the HIV-1 WT NL4-3 strain and of the mutant K103N, Y181C, Y188L, and K103N-Y181C HIV-1 strains. (elsevier.com)
  • The present results highlight the chiral IASs as new NNRTIs with improved resistance profile against the mutant HIV-1 strains and reduced neurotoxic effects. (elsevier.com)
  • These reservoirs, which exist even when patients take all of their pills diligently, stand in the way of a cure for HIV and may incubate resistant viral strains. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Because etravirine inhibits or reduces the activity of this enzyme, this drug causes HIV-infected cells to produce less HIV. (catie.ca)
  • Amprenavir inhibits the HIV viral proteinase enzyme which prevents cleavage of the gag-pol polyprotein, resulting in noninfectious, immature viral particles. (rcsb.org)
  • Another approved and marketed class of HIV-1 antiviral therapeutics inhibits the HIV-1 protease, a viral enzyme required to process newly synthesized viral polyproteins into the mature viral gene products, enabling the virus to assemble itself into new infectious virus particles [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • EGCG inhibits the biochemical activity of HIV-RT measured as cellular protein or enzyme activity in in-vitro assays [ 1,2 ], but not on the viral packaging. (lww.com)
  • 3′-Azido-3′-deoxythymidine (BW A509U): an antiviral agent that inhibits the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in vitro . (springer.com)
  • Most of clinically useful anti-HIV agents are nucleosides but their use is limited due to their severe toxicity and emerging drug resistance. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • However, many challenges, like emergence of drug resistance, limited the scope of activity of currently existing anti-HIV agents. (begellhouse.com)
  • Anti-HIV drug regimens can fail for a number of reasons including virological resistance, difficulties of adherence and poor tolerability. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the high levels of resistance possible to single agents, each of the anti-HIV-1 agents employed to date has had significant dose limiting and long-term toxicities that render successful long term therapy for HIV-1 disease difficult to achieve [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Unlike the currently available agents in the class, resistance to other NNRTIs does not seem to confer resistance to etravirine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Etravirine is a second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), designed to be active against HIV with mutations that confer resistance to the two most commonly prescribed first-generation NNRTIs, mutation K103N for efavirenz and Y181C for nevirapine . (wikipedia.org)
  • He also develops programs to educate health care providers in HIV care and studies transmission of antiretroviral resistance. (yale.edu)
  • This conference will include presentations on the most virulent human viruses, including: HIV, Hepatitis, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Herpes and SARS. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • This report updates and consolidates all previous U.S. Public Health Service recommendations for the management of health-care personnel (HCP) who have occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids that might contain hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational exposures should be considered urgent medical concerns to ensure timely postexposure management and administration of HBIG, hepatitis B vaccine, and/or HIV PEP. (cdc.gov)
  • Avoiding occupational blood exposures is the primary way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health-care settings ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Many other T-cell-dependent responses are also impaired in HIV-infected patients, such as after vaccination with hepatitis A or B vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major contributors to the global disease burden with many experts recognizing the requirement of an effective vaccine to bring a durable end to these viral epidemics. (frontiersin.org)
  • A pine cone extract from Pinus yunnanensis has potent inhibitory activities against HIV. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 2][3] Etravirine is excreted in breastmilk in concentrations exceeding the maternal plasma HIV inhibitory concentration. (drugs.com)
  • It has also been reported that some plant extracts have an inhibitory effect on the activity of Rauscher murine leukemia virus and HIV-reverse transcriptases (RT). (lww.com)
  • Neamine-heterocycle conjugates as potential anti-HIV agents[J]. CHINESE CHEMICAL LETTERS,2013,24(4):273-278. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • 2013).Neamine-heterocycle conjugates as potential anti-HIV agents. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • Anti-HIV Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Adipocytes targets and actors in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic alte. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite enormous advances in the understanding of HIV pathogenesis and the design of effective therapeutic regimens, the remaining knowledge gaps represent major barriers to development of long-range intervention strategies. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Synthesis of the anti-HIV agent (-)-hyperolactone C by using oxonium ylide formation-rearrangement. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Starting from readily available (S)-styrene oxide an asymmetric synthesis is described of the naturally occurring anti-HIV spirolactone (-)-hyperolactone C, which possesses adjacent fully substituted stereocenters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Synthesis of potential inhibitors of the HIV entry mechanism 3. (openrepository.com)
  • Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Thiol-Activated Sources of Sulfur Dioxide (SO(2)) as Antimycobacterial Agents. (google.com)
  • The study shows that the new drug candidate blocks every strain of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) that has been isolated from humans or rhesus macaques, including the hardest-to-stop variants. (scripps.edu)
  • At that time, data were insufficient to assess the efficacy of ZDV as a prophylactic agent in humans or the toxicity of this drug in persons not infected with HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • The C-3 hydroxy group and C-17 carboxylic acid group, as well as the C-19 substituents, contribute to enhanced anti-HIV activity. (nih.gov)
  • Especially, terpenes and phenol substances have gained much interest due to their significant anti-HIV activities along with their structural diversity. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In this review, plant substances showing a promising action that is anti-HIV and HAND will be explored along with what they interact. (fiu.edu)
  • Body Compartment Pharmacokinetics of Anti- Retroviral Agents That May be Used for Future HIV Post- Exposure Prophylaxis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The majority of MSM acquire HIV after exposure to the rectal mucosa through unprotected receptive anal intercourse. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • HIV-negative people with a possible exposure to HIV are instructed to take 28 days of a combination anti-HIV medication regimen, Truvada® + Raltegravir. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • I also had specific HIV-2 EIA done at 55 weeks of last exposure and was negative. (thebody.com)
  • Viremia copy-years, a time-varying measure of cumulative plasma HIV exposure, were determined for each patient using the area under the VL curve. (nih.gov)
  • The decision to recommend HIV postexposure prophylaxis must take into account the nature of the exposure (e.g., needlestick or potentially infectious fluid that comes in contact with a mucous membrane) and the amount of blood or body fluid involved in the exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • This document addresses the management of occupational exposure to HIV, including guidance in assessing and treating exposed HCWs, updates previous recommendations for occupational postexposure chemoprophylaxis, and updates and replaces all previous PHS guidelines and recommendations for occupational HIV exposure management for HCWs. (cdc.gov)
  • The PHS working group decided to issue updated recommendations for the management of occupational exposure to HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • This report updates and consolidates the previous PHS guidelines and recommendations for occupational HBV, HCV, and HIV exposure management for HCP. (cdc.gov)
  • PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) is for people who don't already have HIV but are at very high risk of getting it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) is for people who have possibly been exposed to HIV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mangiferin can inhibit HIV-1 Ⅲ B induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with a 50% effective concentration (EC 50 ) at 16.90 μM and a therapeutic index (TI) above 140. (mdpi.com)
  • This study will utilize a rising multiple-dose design to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of PEG-Intron in HIV-infected children. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • abstract = "We designed and synthesized a series of chiral indolyarylsulfones (IASs) as new HIV-1 NNRTIs. (elsevier.com)
  • it includes recommendations for HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) and discusses the scientific rationale for PEP. (cdc.gov)
  • In January 1990, CDC issued a statement on the management of HIV exposures that included considerations for zidovudine (ZDV) use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) (1). (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) has published previous guidelines for the management of HIV exposures that included considerations for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) ( 3 -- 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Consequently, there is need to evaluate traditional medicine, particularly medicinal plants and other natural products that may yield effective and affordable therapeutic agents. (fiu.edu)
  • Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry aims to contribute to the growth of scientific knowledge and insight, and facilitate the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents to treat debilitating human disorders. (benthamscience.com)
  • A combination of docking and pharmacophore methods clarified possible binding modes of mangiferin in the HIV-1 protease. (mdpi.com)
  • Luzuriaga K. Early Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Limits HIV-1 Persistence in Children. (umassmed.edu)
  • structural determination of metabolites and/or degradation products of parent agents produced in animals and in model in vitro systems (e.g., animal and/or human liver slices, S9 fractions, and microsomal preparations). (nih.gov)
  • Cell-to- cell fusion, by co-cultivation of HIV-1- or HTLV-I (human T-cell leukaemia virus type I)-infected cells with target CD4-positive cells, also requires the recruitment of viral envelope proteins and receptors to the interface as a virological synapse [ 8 , 9 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • antigens p17 and p24 are proteins found in human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV). (optimalhealthnetwork.com)
  • Intro The design of antigens that are able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against the human being immunodeficiency disease 1 (HIV-1) is one of the major Hematoxylin difficulties in vaccine development. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Investigation of Efavirenz Discontinuation in Multi-ethnic Populations of HIV-positive Individuals by Genetic Analysis. (umassmed.edu)
  • The class I model pertains to influenza haemagglutinin, HIV-1 gp120 and the F-proteins from paramyxoviridae [ 2 ], and class II involves E proteins of the flaviviridae and the E1 protein of Semliki Forest virus [ 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursors into the individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV-1. (pharmacycode.com)
  • We have produced several anti-HIV agents including fusion inhibitors, coreceptor antagonists, integrase inhibitors, CD4 mimics and matrix peptides, and vaccines. (rsc.org)
  • When antibodies try to mimic the receptor, they touch a lot of other parts of the viral envelope that HIV can change with ease," said TSRI Research Associate Matthew Gardner, the first author of the study with Lisa M. Kattenhorn of Harvard Medical School. (scripps.edu)
  • Data from the new study showed the drug candidate binds to the envelope of HIV-1 more potently than the best broadly neutralizing antibodies against the virus. (scripps.edu)
  • The transmembrane envelope (TM) protein gp41 of HIV-1 is an attractive target when designing a vaccine to induce neutralizing antibodies. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • HIV-1 neutralizing MPER-specific antibodies but not with broad neutralizing capacity. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • When HIV infects a cell, it takes control of that cell. (catie.ca)
  • One major barrier to eradication is that the virus infects multiple cell types that may individually contribute to HIV persistence. (nih.gov)