Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
A motility disorder characterized by biliary COLIC, absence of GALLSTONES, and an abnormal GALLBLADDER ejection fraction. It is caused by gallbladder dyskinesia and/or SPHINCTER OF ODDI DYSFUNCTION.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.
Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE that does not enter the central nervous system. It is often given with LEVODOPA in the treatment of parkinsonism to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, thereby increasing the amount that reaches the central nervous system and reducing the required dose. It has no antiparkinson actions when given alone.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.
A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
A condition marked by recurrent seizures that occur during the first 4-6 weeks of life despite an otherwise benign neonatal course. Autosomal dominant familial and sporadic forms have been identified. Seizures generally consist of brief episodes of tonic posturing and other movements, apnea, eye deviations, and blood pressure fluctuations. These tend to remit after the 6th week of life. The risk of developing epilepsy at an older age is moderately increased in the familial form of this disorder. (Neurologia 1996 Feb;11(2):51-5)
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A phenylethylamine derivative that acts as a calcium antagonist showing hemodynamic effects in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs), often referred to as "nortropanes," are a class of drugs that function by selectively binding to and partially blocking the α2-adrenergic receptors and 5-HT2 receptors, thereby increasing the concentration of norepinephrine and serotonin in the synaptic cleft, which helps alleviate symptoms of depression.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
A dopamine D2 agonist. It is used in the treatment of parkinson disease, particularly for alleviation of tremor. It has also been used for circulatory disorders and in other applications as a D2 agonist.
A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Abnormal thoracoabdominal VISCERA arrangement (visceral heterotaxy) or malformation that involves additional CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS (e.g., heart isomerism; DEXTROCARDIA) and/or abnormal SPLEEN (e.g., asplenia and polysplenia). Irregularities with the central nervous system, the skeleton and urinary tract are often associated with the syndrome.
Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that are specific for G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. They are regulatory proteins that play a role in G-protein-coupled receptor densensitization.
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. washington.edu/neuronames/ (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.

Early retreatment of infantile esotropia: comparison of reoperation and botulinum toxin. (1/98)

AIM: To compare the efficacy of reoperation and botulinum toxin injection in treating infantile esotropes early after unsatisfactory surgical alignment. METHODS: 55 strabismic children who had been unsuccessfully operated for infantile esotropia were randomised to reoperation (28 patients) or botulinum toxin injection (27 patients). The motor outcomes (percentage of successful motor outcome and percentage change in deviation) were compared at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years after retreatment, and the sensory outcomes (percentage with fusion ability and stereo perception) at the 3 year follow up visit. RESULTS: The motor and sensory outcomes and the stability of motor results were similar in patients reoperated and treated with botulinum injection. At the 3 year visit 67.8% and 59.2% of children were, respectively, within 8 prism dioptres of orthotropia (p=0.72). The frequency of fusion ability was, respectively, 60.7% and 51.8% (p=0.71), and the frequency of stereo perception (+info)

Early experience with intrasphincteric botulinum toxin in the treatment of achalasia. (2/98)

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested that intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin is effective and long-lasting in the treatment of achalasia. AIM: To report our experience of botulinum toxin injection in a prospective series of consecutive patients with achalasia. METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients with achalasia (eight male, mean age 55 years, range 20-87) were treated with 60 units of botulinum toxin (Dysport; Speywood Pharmaceuticals Ltd, UK) into each of four quadrants at the lower oesophageal sphincter. Patients were assessed pre-treatment and 1 month after treatment using a symptom score and oesophageal manometry. Median follow-up was 12 months (range 6-28). RESULTS: The injection procedure was simple to perform and free of adverse effects. Although treatment had a beneficial effect on dysphagia (median pre-treatment score 3 [interquartile range 3-3]; post-treatment score 2 [0-3]: P=0.03) 1 month following therapy, there was no significant improvement in chest pain or regurgitation scores. Similarly, no significant reduction in median lower oesophageal sphincter pressure was observed (29.5 mmHg [21-42] pre-treatment, 28.5 [17.5-55.5] post-treatment P=0.67). Four patients (36%) required further therapy within 3 months and the overall relapse rate was 73% (eight of 11) within 2 years. CONCLUSION: Although botulinum toxin injection was well tolerated, these results using Dysport at a dose of 240 mouse units question its efficacy as a treatment for achalasia.  (+info)

Tardive and idiopathic oromandibular dystonia: a clinical comparison. (3/98)

OBJECTIVE: Most patients with tardive dystonia have a focal onset involving the cranial-cervical region. Because of its resemblance to idiopathic cranial dystonia, a common form of dystonia, it often poses a diagnostic problem. To compare clinical features and response to botulinum toxin (BTX) injections between patients with tardive and idiopathic oromandibular dystonia (OMD). METHODS: Patients seen in a movement disorder clinic who satisfied the inclusion criteria for tardive or idiopathic OMD were studied. The clinical variables and responses to BTX between the two groups of patients were compared. In the tardive group, we also compared the clinical variables between those with oro-facial-lingual stereotypies, and those without. RESULTS: Twenty four patients with tardive OMD and 92 with idiopathic OMD were studied. There were no differences in the demographic characteristics. Most were women, with duration of symptoms longer than 8 years. The mean duration of neuroleptic exposure was 7.1 (SD 7.9) years. Jaw closure was the most frequent subtype of OMD (tardive=41.7%, idiopathic=51.1%). Idiopathic patients were more likely to have coexistent cervical dystonia (p<0.05), whereas isolated OMD was significantly higher in tardive patients (p<0.05). Limb stereotypies, akathisia, and respiratory dyskinesia were seen only in the tardive OMD. Frequency of oro-facial-lingual stereotypy was significantly higher in the tardive than the idiopathic group (75.0% v 31.5%, p<0.0001). The peak effect of BTX was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Oro-facial-lingual stereotypies were significantly more frequent in the tardive than the idiopathic group. Presence of stereotypic movements in the limbs, akathisia, and respiratory dyskinesias in patients with OMD strongly suggests prior neuroleptic exposure. Dystonia in tardive OMD is more likely to be restricted to the oromandibular region, whereas in patients with idiopathic OMD, there is often coexistent cervical dystonia. BTX is equally effective in both groups of patients.  (+info)

Tardive dystonia. (4/98)

This paper provides an overview of the phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment of tardive dystonia. Tardive dystonia is one of the extrapyramidal syndromes that starts after long-term use of dopamine receptor antagonists. The diagnosis is based on the presence of chronic dystonia, defined as a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Furthermore, dystonia must develop either during or within 3 months of a course of antipsychotic treatment, and other causes such as Wilson's disease, acute dystonia, or a conversion reaction must be ruled out. Tardive dystonia occurs in about 3 percent of patients on long-term antipsychotic treatment. Some probable risk factors for tardive dystonia are younger age, male, and the presence of tardive dyskinesia. The treatment of tardive dystonia starts with an evaluation of the need for using the causative drug. If antipsychotics must be continued, a switch to an atypical antipsychotic, particularly clozapine, may be helpful. If the dystonia is relatively localized, botulinum toxin is an effective but not well-known treatment possibility. If tardive dystonia is more extensive, either dopamine-depleting drugs or high dosages of anticholinergics can be tried.  (+info)

A multicentre randomised study of intrasphincteric botulinum toxin in patients with oesophageal achalasia. GISMAD Achalasia Study Group. (5/98)

BACKGROUND: Intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin (Botx) has been proposed as treatment for oesophageal achalasia. However, the predictors of response and optimal dose remain unclear. AIMS: To compare the effect of different doses of Botx and to identify predictors of response. PATIENTS/METHODS: A total of 118 achalasic patients were randomised to receive one of three doses of Botx in a single injection: 50 U (n=40), 100 U (n=38), and 200 U (n=40). Of those who received 100 U, responsive patients were reinjected with an identical dose after 30 days. Clinical and manometric assessments were performed at baseline, 30 days after the initial injection of botulinum toxin, and at the end of follow up (mean 12 months; range 7-24 months). RESULTS: Thirty days after the initial injection, 82% of patients were considered responders without a clear dose related effect. At the end of follow up however, relapse of symptoms was evident in 19% of patients who received two injections of 100 U compared with 47% and 43% in the 50 U and 200 U groups, respectively. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients in the 100x2 U group were more likely to remain in remission at any time (p<0.04), with 68% (95% CI 59-83) still in remission at 24 months. In a multiple adjusted model, response to Botx was independently predicted by the occurrence of vigorous achalasia (odds ratio 3.3) and the 100x2 U regimen (odds ratio 3.2). CONCLUSIONS: Two injections of 100 U of Botx 30 days apart appeared to be the most effective therapeutic schedule. The presence of vigorous achalasia was the principal determinant of the response to Botx.  (+info)

Botulinum toxin injected in the gastric wall reduces body weight and food intake in rats. (6/98)

BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin is a powerful, long-acting inhibitor of muscular contractions in both voluntary and smooth muscle. It acts by blocking the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In the stomach, propulsive contractions of the antrum are necessary for the gastric contents to pass into the duodenum. AIMS: To investigate whether intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin type A into the gastric antrum of rats would cause a reduction in food intake and hence body weight, by inhibition of gastric emptying. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, 3-way parallel group study in rats. The first group was anaesthetized, laparotomized and given 20 U of botulinum toxin type A by intramuscular injection into the gastric antrum (botulinum toxin type A group, n=14). The second group was anaesthetized, laparotomized and injected with saline (sham group, n=14) and the third group did not have any intervention (control group, n=5). Food intake was measured daily for 7 weeks and body weight was measured daily for 10 weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in loss of body weight between the two treated groups (14.0 +/- 8.2% botulinum toxin type A group, 4.4 +/- 2.7% sham group; P < 0.001). Further, the time to reach the weight nadir was significantly longer in the botulinum toxin type A group (8.7 +/- 3.9 days) compared with the sham group (5.3 +/- 3.8 days; P < 0.04). There were no significant differences between the sham and control groups for any of the body weight parameters. The minimum dietary intake was significantly lower in the botulinum toxin type A group than in the sham group (37.8 +/- 21.8% of the basal value in the botulinum toxin type A group, vs. 65.5 +/- 32.0 in the sham group, P < 0.05). In addition, the time to reach the nadir was significantly prolonged (8.2 +/- 3.5 days, botulinum toxin type A group vs. 4.9 +/- 1.7 days, sham group, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The parallel reduction of body weight and food intake in botulinum toxin type A treated animals is consistent with a long lasting inhibition of the antral pump. This is probably due to slowed gastric emptying leading to early satiety. Patients with morbid obesity might benefit from endoscopic injections of botulinum toxin type A into the stomach wall.  (+info)

Two cases of severe non-specific oesophageal dysmotility showing different response to botulinum injection therapy. (7/98)

We report 2 cases where treatment of achalasia type symptoms due to severe non-specific oesophageal dysmotility have shown symptom resolution and manometric improvement to intrasphincteric botulinum injections either by itself or in combination with oesophageal dilatation.  (+info)

Serotonin facilitates AMPA-type responses in isolated siphon motor neurons of Aplysia in culture. (8/98)

1. Serotonin (5-HT) facilitates the connections between sensory and motor neurons in Aplysia during behavioural sensitization. The effect of 5-HT on sensorimotor synapses is believed to be primarily presynaptic. Here we tested whether 5-HT can have an exclusively postsynaptic facilitatory effect. 2. Siphon motor neurons were individually dissociated from the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia and placed into cell culture. Brief pulses of glutamate, the putative sensory neuron transmitter, were focally applied (0.1 Hz) to solitary motor neurons in culture, and the glutamate-evoked postsynaptic potentials (Glu-PSPs) were recorded. 3. When 5-HT was perfused over the motor neuron for 10 min, the amplitude of the Glu-PSPs was significantly increased. The 5-HT-induced enhancement of the Glu-PSPs persisted for at least 40 min after washout. 4. Prior injection into the motor neuron of the calcium chelator BAPTA, GDP-beta-S or GTP-gamma-S blocked the 5-HT-induced facilitation of the Glu-PSPs. However, the facilitation was not blocked when APV, an NMDA receptor antagonist, was applied together with the 5-HT. 5. The enhancement of the Glu-PSPs by 5-HT was reversed by the AMPA receptor antagonist DNQX, indicating that 5-HT increased the functional expression of AMPA-type receptors in the motor neuron. 6. The presence of botulinum toxin in the motor neuron blocked the 5-HT-induced enhancement of the Glu-PSPs. As botulinum toxin prevents exocytosis we hypothesize that during sensitization 5-HT causes the insertion of additional AMPA-type receptors into the postsynaptic membrane of sensorimotor synapses via exocytosis. This postsynaptic mechanism may contribute to facilitation of the synapses.  (+info)

Drug-induced dyskinesia is a movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary muscle movements or abnormal posturing of the body. It is a side effect that can occur from the long-term use or high doses of certain medications, particularly those used to treat Parkinson's disease and psychosis.

The symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia can vary in severity and may include rapid, involuntary movements of the limbs, face, or tongue; twisting or writhing movements; and abnormal posturing of the arms, legs, or trunk. These symptoms can be distressing and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

The exact mechanism by which certain medications cause dyskinesia is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating movement. In some cases, adjusting the dose or switching to a different medication may help alleviate the symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia. However, in severe cases, additional treatments such as deep brain stimulation or botulinum toxin injections may be necessary.

Kartagener Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is characterized by the triad of chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis (damage and widening of the airways in the lungs), and situs inversus totalis - a condition where the major visceral organs are mirrored or reversed from their normal positions.

In Kartagener Syndrome, the cilia (tiny hair-like structures) lining the respiratory tract are abnormal or dysfunctional, which impairs their ability to clear mucus and other particles. This leads to recurrent respiratory infections, bronchiectasis, and ultimately, progressive lung damage.

The condition is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the defective gene - one from each parent - to develop the syndrome. Kartagener Syndrome is a subtype of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a group of disorders affecting ciliary structure and function.

Dyskinesias are a type of movement disorder characterized by involuntary, erratic, and often repetitive muscle movements. These movements can affect any part of the body and can include twisting, writhing, or jerking motions, as well as slow, writhing contortions. Dyskinesias can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications (such as those used to treat Parkinson's disease), brain injury, stroke, infection, or exposure to toxins. They can also be a side effect of some medical treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Dyskinesias can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, making it difficult for them to perform routine tasks and affecting their overall quality of life. Treatment for dyskinesias depends on the underlying cause and may include medication adjustments, surgery, or physical therapy. In some cases, dyskinesias may be managed with the use of assistive devices or by modifying the person's environment to make it easier for them to move around.

Biliary dyskinesia is a medical condition characterized by abnormal or impaired motility of the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder and the bile ducts. This can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting, particularly after eating fatty foods.

In biliary dyskinesia, the gallbladder may not contract properly or may contract too much, leading to a backup of bile in the liver or bile ducts. This can cause inflammation and irritation of the biliary system and surrounding tissues.

The condition is often diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, nuclear medicine scans, or MRI, which can help assess gallbladder function and detect any abnormalities in the biliary system. Treatment for biliary dyskinesia may include medications to improve gallbladder motility, dietary modifications, or in some cases, surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Levodopa, also known as L-dopa, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is a direct precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and works by being converted into dopamine in the brain, helping to restore the balance between dopamine and other neurotransmitters. This helps alleviate symptoms such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control. Levodopa is often combined with carbidopa (a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor) to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, reducing side effects like nausea and vomiting.

Ciliary motility disorders are a group of rare genetic conditions that affect the function of cilia, which are tiny hair-like structures on the surface of cells in the body. Cilia play an important role in moving fluids and particles across the cell surface, including the movement of mucus and other substances in the respiratory system, the movement of eggs and sperm in the reproductive system, and the movement of fluid in the inner ear.

Ciliary motility disorders are caused by mutations in genes that are responsible for the proper functioning of cilia. These mutations can lead to abnormalities in the structure or function of cilia, which can result in a range of symptoms depending on the specific disorder and the parts of the body that are affected.

Some common symptoms of ciliary motility disorders include recurrent respiratory infections, chronic sinusitis, hearing loss, infertility, and situs inversus, a condition in which the major organs are reversed or mirrored from their normal positions. There are several different types of ciliary motility disorders, including primary ciliary dyskinesia, Kartagener syndrome, and immotile cilia syndrome.

Treatment for ciliary motility disorders typically involves addressing the specific symptoms and underlying causes of the disorder. This may include antibiotics to treat respiratory infections, surgery to correct structural abnormalities, or assisted reproductive technologies to help with infertility.

Antiparkinson agents are a class of medications used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. These agents work by increasing the levels or activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is responsible for regulating movement and coordination.

There are several types of antiparkinson agents, including:

1. Levodopa: This is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease. It is converted to dopamine in the brain and helps to replace the missing dopamine in people with Parkinson's.
2. Dopamine agonists: These medications mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can be used alone or in combination with levodopa. Examples include pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine.
3. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of dopamine in the brain and can help to increase its levels. Examples include selegiline and rasagiline.
4. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of levodopa in the body, allowing it to reach the brain in higher concentrations. Examples include entacapone and tolcapone.
5. Anticholinergic agents: These medications block the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to tremors and muscle stiffness in Parkinson's disease. Examples include trihexyphenidyl and benztropine.

It is important to note that antiparkinson agents can have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare professional. The choice of medication will depend on the individual patient's symptoms, age, overall health, and other factors.

Axonemal dyneins are motor proteins that are located in the axoneme of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. The axoneme is the internal structure of these cellular appendages, and it is composed of nine microtubule doublets arranged in a ring around two central single microtubules.

Dyneins are large protein complexes that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, generating force and motion. Axonemal dyneins are responsible for the sliding of the microtubule doublets relative to each other, which leads to the bending and movement of cilia and flagella.

There are several types of axonemal dyneins, classified based on their structure and function. The outer dynein arms are larger complexes that generate the power stroke for ciliary beating, while the inner dynein arms are smaller complexes involved in regulating the beat pattern and frequency.

Defects in axonemal dyneins can lead to a variety of genetic disorders known as ciliopathies, which affect the structure and function of cilia and flagella. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including respiratory problems, infertility, and developmental abnormalities.

Chorea is a medical term that describes an involuntary movement disorder characterized by brief, irregular, and abrupt jerky movements. These movements often occur randomly and can affect any part of the body. Chorea can also cause difficulty with coordination and balance, and can sometimes be accompanied by muscle weakness or rigidity.

The term "chorea" comes from the Greek word "χορεία" (khoréia), which means "dance," reflecting the graceful, dance-like movements that are characteristic of this condition. Chorea can occur as a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, including neurological disorders such as Huntington's disease, Sydenham's chorea, and cerebral palsy, as well as metabolic disorders, infections, and certain medications.

Treatment for chorea depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications to help control the involuntary movements, physical therapy to improve coordination and balance, and lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of injury from falls or other accidents. In some cases, surgery may be recommended as a last resort for severe or refractory chorea.

Benserazide is a type of medication called an inhibitor of peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. It is often used in combination with levodopa to treat Parkinson's disease. Benserazide works by preventing the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, which helps to reduce the side effects of levodopa and increase the amount of dopamine that reaches the brain. This can help to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as stiffness, tremors, and difficulty with movement.

Benserazide is available in combination with levodopa under the brand name Madopar. It is taken orally, usually in the form of tablets. The specific dosage of benserazide will depend on the individual's needs and should be determined by a healthcare professional.

It is important to note that benserazide can interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor about all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with benserazide. Additionally, benserazide may cause side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, and dry mouth. If you experience any severe or persistent side effects while taking benserazide, you should contact your healthcare provider.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the control and coordination of voluntary movements. These disorders can result from damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, or other parts of the brain that regulate movement. Symptoms may include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akathisia (restlessness and inability to remain still), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures), chorea (rapid, unpredictable movements), tics, and gait disturbances. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and dystonic disorders.

Parkinsonian disorders are a group of neurological conditions characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia (slowness of movement), rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. These symptoms are caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

The most common Parkinsonian disorder is Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. However, there are also several other secondary Parkinsonian disorders, including:

1. Drug-induced parkinsonism: This is caused by the use of certain medications, such as antipsychotics and metoclopramide.
2. Vascular parkinsonism: This is caused by small vessel disease in the brain, which can lead to similar symptoms as PD.
3. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): This is a type of dementia that shares some features with PD, such as the presence of alpha-synuclein protein clumps called Lewy bodies.
4. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): This is a rare brain disorder that affects movement, gait, and eye movements.
5. Multiple system atrophy (MSA): This is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects multiple systems in the body, including the autonomic nervous system, motor system, and cerebellum.
6. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD): This is a rare neurological disorder that affects both movement and cognition.

It's important to note that while these disorders share some symptoms with PD, they have different underlying causes and may require different treatments.

Cilia are tiny, hair-like structures that protrude from the surface of many types of cells in the body. They are composed of a core bundle of microtubules surrounded by a protein matrix and are covered with a membrane. Cilia are involved in various cellular functions, including movement of fluid or mucus across the cell surface, detection of external stimuli, and regulation of signaling pathways.

There are two types of cilia: motile and non-motile. Motile cilia are able to move in a coordinated manner to propel fluids or particles across a surface, such as those found in the respiratory tract and reproductive organs. Non-motile cilia, also known as primary cilia, are present on most cells in the body and serve as sensory organelles that detect chemical and mechanical signals from the environment.

Defects in cilia structure or function can lead to a variety of diseases, collectively known as ciliopathies. These conditions can affect multiple organs and systems in the body, including the brain, kidneys, liver, and eyes. Examples of ciliopathies include polycystic kidney disease, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Meckel-Gruber syndrome.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It is characterized by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, specifically in an area called the substantia nigra. The loss of these cells leads to a decrease in dopamine levels, which results in the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms can include tremors at rest, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (impaired balance and coordination). In addition to these motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances are also common in people with Parkinson's disease. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and therapies can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

Oxidopamine is not a recognized medical term or a medication commonly used in clinical practice. However, it is a chemical compound that is often used in scientific research, particularly in the field of neuroscience.

Oxidopamine is a synthetic catecholamine that can be selectively taken up by dopaminergic neurons and subsequently undergo oxidation, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species. This property makes it a useful tool for studying the effects of oxidative stress on dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders.

In summary, while not a medical definition per se, oxidopamine is a chemical compound used in research to study the effects of oxidative stress on dopaminergic neurons.

Situs Inversus is a congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are situated in mirror-image positions to their normal locations. Instead of being on the left side, the heart and its large blood vessels are on the right side, while the liver is on the left side and the lungs are reversed. The stomach, spleen, and pancreas may also be affected. It's important to note that this condition is generally asymptomatic and often goes unnoticed unless there are complications or associated abnormalities.

There are two types of Situs Inversus: total (complete reversal of all organs) and partial (reversal of only some organs). Total Situs Inversus is also sometimes referred to as "mirror-image dextrocardia" because the heart, which is usually on the left side, is located on the right side in a mirrored position.

While Situs Inversus itself does not typically cause health problems, people with this condition may have an increased risk for certain medical conditions, such as congenital heart defects or primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), which can lead to chronic respiratory infections and infertility.

Secondary Parkinson's disease, also known as acquired or symptomatic Parkinsonism, is a clinical syndrome characterized by the signs and symptoms of classic Parkinson's disease (tremor at rest, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability) but caused by a known secondary cause. These causes can include various conditions such as brain injuries, infections, drugs or toxins, metabolic disorders, and vascular damage. The underlying pathology of secondary Parkinson's disease is different from that of classic Parkinson's disease, which is primarily due to the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in a specific area of the brain called the substantia nigra pars compacta.

Drug-induced akathisia is a type of movement disorder that is a side effect of certain medications. The term "akathisia" comes from the Greek words "a-," meaning "without," and "kathisia," meaning "sitting." It is characterized by a subjective feeling of restlessness and an uncontrollable urge to be in constant motion, accompanied by objective motor symptoms such as fidgeting, rocking, or pacing.

Drug-induced akathisia is most commonly associated with the use of antipsychotic medications, particularly those that block dopamine receptors in the brain. Other drugs that have been linked to akathisia include certain antidepressants, anti-nausea medications, and some beta blockers used to treat heart conditions.

The symptoms of drug-induced akathisia can range from mild to severe and may include:

* A subjective feeling of inner restlessness or anxiety
* An uncontrollable urge to move, such as fidgeting, rocking, or pacing
* Difficulty sitting still or lying down
* Agitation and irritability
* Sleep disturbances
* Depression or dysphoria
* Suicidal thoughts or behaviors (in severe cases)

The symptoms of drug-induced akathisia can be distressing and may contribute to noncompliance with medication treatment. In some cases, the symptoms may resolve on their own after a period of time, but in other cases, they may persist or worsen, requiring a change in medication or the addition of other medications to manage the symptoms. It is important for individuals who are taking medications that have been associated with akathisia to report any new or worsening symptoms to their healthcare provider as soon as possible.

An axoneme is the microtubular structure that forms the core of a cilium or flagellum in eukaryotic cells. It is composed of nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, known as doublets, surrounding two central single microtubules, forming a "9+2" arrangement. The axoneme is anchored to the cell membrane through a basal body and provides the structural framework for the movement of cilia and flagella. It is composed of tubulin proteins and accessory structures such as dynein arms, which are responsible for generating the force required for ciliary or flagellar movement.

The corpus striatum is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in movement, learning, and cognition. It consists of two structures called the caudate nucleus and the putamen, which are surrounded by the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus. Together, these structures form the basal ganglia, a group of interconnected neurons that help regulate voluntary movement.

The corpus striatum receives input from various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and other brainstem nuclei. It processes this information and sends output to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, which then project to the thalamus and back to the cerebral cortex. This feedback loop helps coordinate and fine-tune movements, allowing for smooth and coordinated actions.

Damage to the corpus striatum can result in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. These conditions are characterized by abnormal involuntary movements, muscle stiffness, and difficulty initiating or controlling voluntary movements.

Carbidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It works by preventing the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, allowing more levodopa to reach the brain and reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Carbidopa is often combined with levodopa in medication formulations and is available under various brand names, such as Sinemet.

Here are some key points about carbidopa:

* It is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor that prevents the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain.
* Carbidopa is often combined with levodopa in medication formulations for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
* By preventing the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, more levodopa can reach the brain and reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
* Common side effects of carbidopa include nausea, vomiting, and orthostatic hypotension.
* Carbidopa should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and dosed appropriately to minimize side effects and maximize therapeutic benefit.

Dopamine agents are medications that act on dopamine receptors in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and other areas of the body. It plays important roles in many functions, including movement, motivation, emotion, and cognition.

Dopamine agents can be classified into several categories based on their mechanism of action:

1. Dopamine agonists: These medications bind to dopamine receptors and mimic the effects of dopamine. They are used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, restless legs syndrome, and certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. Examples include pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine.
2. Dopamine precursors: These medications provide the building blocks for the body to produce dopamine. Levodopa is a commonly used dopamine precursor that is converted to dopamine in the brain. It is often used in combination with carbidopa, which helps to prevent levodopa from being broken down before it reaches the brain.
3. Dopamine antagonists: These medications block the action of dopamine at its receptors. They are used to treat conditions such as schizophrenia and certain types of nausea and vomiting. Examples include haloperidol, risperidone, and metoclopramide.
4. Dopamine reuptake inhibitors: These medications increase the amount of dopamine available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) by preventing its reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. They are used to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Examples include bupropion and nomifensine.
5. Dopamine release inhibitors: These medications prevent the release of dopamine from presynaptic neurons. They are used to treat conditions such as Tourette's syndrome and certain types of chronic pain. Examples include tetrabenazine and deutetrabenazine.

It is important to note that dopamine agents can have significant side effects, including addiction, movement disorders, and psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, they should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Benign neonatal epilepsy is a rare and specific type of epilepsy that affects newborns within the first few days of life. The term "benign" in this context refers to the relatively favorable prognosis compared to other forms of neonatal epilepsy, rather than the severity of the seizures themselves.

The condition is typically characterized by the presence of brief, recurrent seizures that may appear as repetitive jerking movements, staring spells, or subtle changes in muscle tone or behavior. These seizures are often triggered by routine handling or stimulation and can be difficult to distinguish from normal newborn behaviors, making diagnosis challenging.

Benign neonatal epilepsy is typically associated with specific genetic mutations that affect the electrical activity of brain cells. The most common form of this condition, known as Benign Familial Neonatal Epilepsy (BFNE), is caused by mutations in genes such as KCNQ2 or KCNQ3, which encode potassium channels in neurons.

While the seizures associated with benign neonatal epilepsy can be alarming, they are generally not harmful to the developing brain and tend to resolve on their own within a few months. Treatment is often focused on managing the seizures with antiepileptic medications to reduce their frequency and severity, although some infants may require no treatment at all.

Overall, while benign neonatal epilepsy can be a concerning condition for parents and caregivers, its favorable prognosis and relatively mild impact on long-term neurological development make it one of the more manageable forms of neonatal epilepsy.

Dyneins are a type of motor protein that play an essential role in the movement of cellular components and structures within eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for generating force and motion along microtubules, which are critical components of the cell's cytoskeleton. Dyneins are involved in various cellular processes, including intracellular transport, organelle positioning, and cell division.

There are several types of dyneins, but the two main categories are cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins. Cytoplasmic dyneins are responsible for moving various cargoes, such as vesicles, organelles, and mRNA complexes, toward the minus-end of microtubules, which is usually located near the cell center. Axonemal dyneins, on the other hand, are found in cilia and flagella and are responsible for their movement by sliding adjacent microtubules past each other.

Dyneins consist of multiple subunits, including heavy chains, intermediate chains, light-intermediate chains, and light chains. The heavy chains contain the motor domain that binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force. Dysfunction in dynein proteins has been linked to various human diseases, such as neurodevelopmental disorders, ciliopathies, and cancer.

Methyl-phenyl-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) poisoning is a rare neurological disorder that occurs due to the accidental exposure or intentional intake of MPTP, a chemical compound that can cause permanent parkinsonian symptoms. MPTP is metabolized into MPP+, which selectively destroys dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the brain, leading to Parkinson's disease-like features such as rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremors, and postural instability. MPTP poisoning can be a model for understanding Parkinson's disease pathophysiology and developing potential treatments.

Dopamine agonists are a class of medications that mimic the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and reinforcement of rewarding behaviors. These medications bind to dopamine receptors in the brain and activate them, leading to an increase in dopaminergic activity.

Dopamine agonists are used primarily to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. By increasing dopaminergic activity in the brain, dopamine agonists can help alleviate some of these symptoms.

Examples of dopamine agonists include:

1. Pramipexole (Mirapex)
2. Ropinirole (Requip)
3. Rotigotine (Neupro)
4. Apomorphine (Apokyn)

Dopamine agonists may also be used off-label to treat other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome or certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. However, these medications can have significant side effects, including nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, compulsive behaviors (such as gambling, shopping, or sexual addiction), and hallucinations. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

Tranquilizing agents, also known as major tranquilizers or antipsychotic drugs, are a class of medications used primarily to manage psychosis, including schizophrenia, and other mental health disorders. These agents work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.

Tranquilizing agents can be further divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). FGAs, also known as typical antipsychotics, were developed earlier and have a higher risk of side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which include involuntary movements, stiffness, and tremors. SGAs, also known as atypical antipsychotics, were developed more recently and have a lower risk of EPS but may have other side effects such as weight gain and metabolic issues.

It's important to note that tranquilizing agents should only be prescribed and monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, as they can have significant risks and benefits.

Adrenergic agents are a class of drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors, which are cell surface receptors found in the nervous system and other tissues. These receptors are activated by neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), which are released by the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress or excitement.

Adrenergic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and the specific receptors they bind to. There are two main types of adrenergic receptors: alpha and beta receptors, each with several subtypes. Some adrenergic agents bind to both alpha and beta receptors, while others are selective for one or the other.

Adrenergic agents have a wide range of therapeutic uses, including the treatment of asthma, cardiovascular diseases, glaucoma, and neurological disorders. They can also be used as diagnostic tools to test the function of the sympathetic nervous system. Some examples of adrenergic agents include:

* Alpha-agonists: These drugs bind to alpha receptors and cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), which can be useful in the treatment of hypotension (low blood pressure) or nasal congestion. Examples include phenylephrine and oxymetazoline.
* Alpha-antagonists: These drugs block the action of alpha receptors, leading to vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) and a decrease in blood pressure. Examples include prazosin and doxazosin.
* Beta-agonists: These drugs bind to beta receptors and cause bronchodilation (opening of the airways), increased heart rate, and increased force of heart contractions. They are used in the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory disorders. Examples include albuterol and salmeterol.
* Beta-antagonists: These drugs block the action of beta receptors, leading to a decrease in heart rate, blood pressure, and bronchodilation. They are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina (chest pain), and heart failure. Examples include metoprolol and atenolol.
* Nonselective alpha- and beta-antagonists: These drugs block both alpha and beta receptors and are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina, and heart failure. Examples include labetalol and carvedilol.

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a chemical compound that can cause permanent parkinsonian symptoms. It is not a medication or a treatment, but rather a toxin that can damage the dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, leading to symptoms similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease.

MPTP itself is not harmful, but it is metabolized in the body into a toxic compound called MPP+, which accumulates in and damages dopaminergic neurons. MPTP was discovered in the 1980s when a group of drug users in California developed parkinsonian symptoms after injecting a heroin-like substance contaminated with MPTP.

Since then, MPTP has been used as a research tool to study Parkinson's disease and develop new treatments. However, it is not used clinically and should be handled with caution due to its toxicity.

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, leading to repetitive or twisting movements. These movements can be painful and may affect one part of the body (focal dystonia) or multiple parts (generalized dystonia). The exact cause of dystonia varies, with some cases being inherited and others resulting from damage to the brain. Treatment options include medications, botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation surgery.

Basal ganglia diseases are a group of neurological disorders that affect the function of the basal ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located deep within the brain. The basal ganglia play a crucial role in controlling movement and coordination. When they are damaged or degenerate, it can result in various motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and difficulty with balance and walking.

Some examples of basal ganglia diseases include:

1. Parkinson's disease - a progressive disorder that affects movement due to the death of dopamine-producing cells in the basal ganglia.
2. Huntington's disease - an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that causes uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and cognitive decline.
3. Dystonia - a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
4. Wilson's disease - a rare genetic disorder that causes excessive copper accumulation in the liver and brain, leading to neurological and psychiatric symptoms.
5. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) - a rare brain disorder that affects movement, gait, and balance, as well as speech and swallowing.
6. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) - a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive loss of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia, leading to stiffness, rigidity, and difficulty with movement and coordination.

Treatment for basal ganglia diseases varies depending on the specific diagnosis and symptoms but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists are a class of compounds that bind to and activate the serotonin 5-HT1 receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors play important roles in regulating various physiological functions, including neurotransmission, vasoconstriction, and hormone secretion.

Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists are used in medical therapy to treat a variety of conditions, such as migraines, cluster headaches, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Some examples of Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists include sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, and frovatriptan, which are used to treat migraines and cluster headaches by selectively activating the 5-HT1B/1D receptors in cranial blood vessels and sensory nerves.

Other Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists, such as buspirone, are used to treat anxiety disorders and depression by acting on the 5-HT1A receptors in the brain. These drugs work by increasing serotonergic neurotransmission, which helps to regulate mood, cognition, and behavior.

Overall, Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists are a valuable class of drugs that have shown efficacy in treating various neurological and psychiatric conditions. However, like all medications, they can have side effects and potential drug interactions, so it is important to use them under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Mucociliary clearance is a vital defense mechanism of the respiratory system that involves the coordinated movement of tiny hair-like structures called cilia, which are present on the surface of the respiratory epithelium, and the mucus layer. This mechanism helps to trap inhaled particles, microorganisms, and other harmful substances and move them away from the lungs towards the upper airways, where they can be swallowed or coughed out.

The cilia beat in a coordinated manner, moving in a wave-like motion to propel the mucus layer upwards. This continuous movement helps to clear the airways of any debris and maintain a clean and healthy respiratory system. Mucociliary clearance plays an essential role in preventing respiratory infections and maintaining lung function. Any impairment in this mechanism, such as due to smoking or certain respiratory conditions, can increase the risk of respiratory infections and other related health issues.

Phenothiazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a phenothiazine nucleus, which consists of a pair of benzene rings fused to a thiazine ring. They have been widely used in medicine as antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of various mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Phenothiazines work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. They also have sedative and antiemetic (anti-nausea) effects. However, they can cause a range of side effects including extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), tardive dyskinesia (irreversible movement disorder), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic drugs).

Examples of phenothiazine drugs include chlorpromazine, thioridazine, and promethazine. While they have been largely replaced by newer atypical antipsychotics, phenothiazines are still used in some cases due to their lower cost and effectiveness in treating certain symptoms.

The Globus Pallidus is a structure in the brain that is part of the basal ganglia, a group of nuclei associated with movement control and other functions. It has two main subdivisions: the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments. The GPe receives input from the striatum and sends inhibitory projections to the subthalamic nucleus, while the GPi sends inhibitory projections to the thalamus, which in turn projects to the cerebral cortex. These connections allow for the regulation of motor activity, with abnormal functioning of the Globus Pallidus being implicated in various movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.

Haloperidol is an antipsychotic medication, which is primarily used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, or disordered thought. It may also be used to manage Tourette's disorder, tics, agitation, aggression, and hyperactivity in children with developmental disorders.

Haloperidol works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to regulate mood and behavior. It is available in various forms, including tablets, liquid, and injectable solutions. The medication can cause side effects such as drowsiness, restlessness, muscle stiffness, and uncontrolled movements. In rare cases, it may also lead to more serious neurological side effects.

As with any medication, haloperidol should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will consider the individual's medical history, current medications, and other factors before prescribing it.

Bronchiectasis is a medical condition characterized by permanent, abnormal widening and thickening of the walls of the bronchi (the airways leading to the lungs). This can lead to recurrent respiratory infections, coughing, and the production of large amounts of sputum. The damage to the airways is usually irreversible and can be caused by various factors such as bacterial or viral infections, genetic disorders, immune deficiencies, or exposure to environmental pollutants. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. Treatment typically includes chest physiotherapy, bronchodilators, antibiotics, and sometimes surgery.

Amantadine is an antiviral medication that is primarily used to prevent and treat certain types of influenza (flu). It works by stopping the virus from multiplying in your body. In addition to its antiviral properties, amantadine also has central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and dopaminergic effects, which make it useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and various movement disorders.

The medical definition of Amantadine is:

A synthetic symmetrical tricyclic amine used as an antiviral agent to treat and prevent influenza A infection and as an anti-parkinsonian drug to control extrapyramidal symptoms caused by neuroleptic agents. The antiviral effect may be due to interference with viral uncoating or replication. The anti-parkinsonian effect may be due to a combination of dopamine agonist and NMDA receptor antagonist properties. (Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th edition)

Please note that the use of Amantadine for various medical conditions should always be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they will consider potential benefits and risks and provide appropriate guidance.

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small, lens-shaped structure located in the basal ganglia of the brain. It plays a crucial role in motor control and has been identified as a key target for deep brain stimulation surgery in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.

The STN is involved in the regulation of movement, balance, and posture, and helps to filter and coordinate signals that are sent from the cerebral cortex to the thalamus and then on to the motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. In Parkinson's disease, abnormal activity in the STN can contribute to symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and difficulty initiating movements.

Deep brain stimulation of the STN involves implanting electrodes into the nucleus and delivering electrical impulses that help to regulate its activity. This can lead to significant improvements in motor function and quality of life for some people with Parkinson's disease.

Dynorphins are a type of opioid peptide that is naturally produced in the body. They bind to specific receptors in the brain, known as kappa-opioid receptors, and play a role in modulating pain perception, emotional response, and reward processing. Dynorphins are derived from a larger precursor protein called prodynorphin and are found throughout the nervous system, including in the spinal cord, brainstem, and limbic system. They have been implicated in various physiological processes, as well as in the development of certain neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, depression, and substance use disorders.

The nasal cavity is the air-filled space located behind the nose, which is divided into two halves by the nasal septum. It is lined with mucous membrane and is responsible for several functions including respiration, filtration, humidification, and olfaction (smell). The nasal cavity serves as an important part of the upper respiratory tract, extending from the nares (nostrils) to the choanae (posterior openings of the nasal cavity that lead into the pharynx). It contains specialized structures such as turbinate bones, which help to warm, humidify and filter incoming air.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT1A subtype, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, neuronal excitability, and neuroendocrine function.

The 5-HT1A receptor is widely distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, where it is involved in modulating mood, anxiety, cognition, memory, and pain perception. Activation of this receptor can have both inhibitory and excitatory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and type of neuron involved.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. As a result, drugs that target this receptor have been developed for the treatment of these conditions. These drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which increase the availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft and enhance 5-HT1A receptor activation, as well as direct agonists of the 5-HT1A receptor, such as buspirone, which is used to treat anxiety disorders.

Benzothiazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a thiazole ring. They have the chemical formula C7H5NS. Benzothiazoles and their derivatives have a wide range of applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes, and materials science.

In the medical field, benzothiazoles have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties. Some benzothiazole derivatives have shown promising results as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medical potential of these compounds and to develop safe and effective drugs based on them.

It's important to note that while benzothiazoles themselves have some biological activity, most of the medical applications come from their derivatives, which are modified versions of the basic benzothiazole structure. These modifications can significantly alter the properties of the compound, leading to new therapeutic possibilities.

Apomorphine is a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist, which means that it activates dopamine receptors in the brain. It has a high affinity for D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and is used medically to treat Parkinson's disease, particularly in cases of severe or intractable motor fluctuations.

Apomorphine can be administered subcutaneously (under the skin) as a solution or as a sublingual (under the tongue) film. It works by stimulating dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, and difficulty with movement.

In addition to its use in Parkinson's disease, apomorphine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic benefits in other neurological disorders, including alcohol use disorder and drug addiction. However, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in these conditions.

Dopamine D1 receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter dopamine. They are classified as D1-like receptors, along with D5 receptors, and are activated by dopamine through a stimulatory G protein (Gs).

D1 receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system, including the striatum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. They play important roles in various physiological functions, such as movement control, motivation, reward processing, working memory, and cognition.

Activation of D1 receptors leads to increased levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which in turn modulate the activity of various downstream signaling pathways. Dysregulation of dopamine D1 receptor function has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and drug addiction.

Callithrix is a genus of New World monkeys, also known as marmosets. They are small, active primates found in the forests of South and Central America. The term "Callithrix" itself is derived from the Greek words "kallis" meaning beautiful and "thrix" meaning hair, referring to their thick, vibrantly colored fur.

Marmosets in the genus Callithrix are characterized by their slender bodies, long, bushy tails, and specialized dental structures that allow them to gouge tree bark to extract sap and exudates, which form a significant part of their diet. They also consume fruits, insects, and small vertebrates.

Some well-known species in this genus include the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), the white-headed marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi), and the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita). Marmosets are popular subjects of research due to their small size, short gestation period, and ease of breeding in captivity.

Dopamine D3 receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter dopamine. They are classified as part of the D2-like family of dopamine receptors, which also includes the D2 and D4 receptors. The D3 receptor is primarily expressed in the limbic areas of the brain, including the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens, where it plays a role in regulating motivation, reward, and cognition.

D3 receptors have been found to be involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In Parkinson's disease, the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra results in a decrease in dopamine levels and an increase in D3 receptor expression. This increase in D3 receptor expression has been linked to the development of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia and rigidity.

In schizophrenia, antipsychotic medications that block D2-like receptors, including D3 receptors, are used to treat positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. However, selective D3 receptor antagonists have also been shown to have potential therapeutic effects in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as apathy and anhedonia.

In drug addiction, D3 receptors have been found to play a role in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Selective D3 receptor antagonists have shown promise in reducing drug-seeking behavior and preventing relapse in animal models of addiction.

Overall, dopamine D3 receptors play an important role in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, and further research is needed to fully understand their functions and potential therapeutic uses.

The neostriatum is a component of the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain that are involved in motor control, procedural learning, and other cognitive functions. It is composed primarily of two types of neurons: medium spiny neurons and aspiny interneurons. The neostriatum receives input from various regions of the cerebral cortex and projects to other parts of the basal ganglia, forming an important part of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop.

In medical terminology, the neostriatum is often used interchangeably with the term "striatum," although some sources reserve the term "neostriatum" for the caudate nucleus and putamen specifically, while using "striatum" to refer to the entire structure including the ventral striatum (also known as the nucleus accumbens).

Damage to the neostriatum has been implicated in various neurological conditions, such as Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease.

Tropaeolaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly known as nasturtiums. It consists of one genus, Tropaeolum, with around 80 species. These plants are native to South and Central America, and some species are widely cultivated as ornamentals and for their edible leaves and flowers. The name "nasturtium" is derived from the Latin words "nasus tortus," which means "twisted nose," referring to the mustard oil's pungent effect on the nasal passages when the plant is consumed. Despite its common name, Tropaeolaceae is not related to the watercress family (Brassicaceae), which also includes plants with the common name "nasturtium."

Dopamine receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine. There are five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5), which are classified into two families based on their structure and function: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).

Dopamine receptors play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including movement, motivation, reward, cognition, emotion, and neuroendocrine regulation. They are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, with high concentrations found in the basal ganglia, limbic system, and cortex.

Dysfunction of dopamine receptors has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug addiction, and depression. Therefore, drugs targeting dopamine receptors have been developed for the treatment of these conditions.

Tiapamil Hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker, which is a type of medication that is used to treat various cardiovascular conditions. It works by blocking the influx of calcium ions into the muscle cells of the heart and blood vessels, leading to relaxation of the blood vessels and decreased workload on the heart.

Tiapamil Hydrochloride is primarily used in the management of chronic stable angina (chest pain due to reduced blood flow to the heart) and certain types of arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms). It may also be used to lower blood pressure in some patients.

Like other calcium channel blockers, Tiapamil Hydrochloride can have side effects such as dizziness, headache, constipation, and peripheral edema (swelling of the legs and ankles). It is important for patients taking this medication to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any bothersome or persistent side effects promptly.

The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected nuclei, or clusters of neurons, located in the base of the brain. They play a crucial role in regulating motor function, cognition, and emotion. The main components of the basal ganglia include the striatum (made up of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum), globus pallidus (divided into external and internal segments), subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra (with its pars compacta and pars reticulata).

The basal ganglia receive input from various regions of the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. They process this information and send output back to the thalamus and cortex, helping to modulate and coordinate movement. The basal ganglia also contribute to higher cognitive functions such as learning, decision-making, and habit formation. Dysfunction in the basal ganglia can lead to neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia.

Metoclopramide is a medication that is primarily used to manage gastrointestinal disorders. It is classified as a dopamine antagonist and a prokinetic agent, which means it works by blocking the action of dopamine, a chemical in the brain that can slow down stomach and intestine function.

The medical definition of Metoclopramide is:
A synthetic congener of procainamide, used as an antiemetic and to increase gastrointestinal motility. It has a antidopaminergic action, binding to D2 receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone and stomach, and it may also block 5HT3 receptors at intrapyloric and central levels. Its actions on the gut smooth muscle are mediated via cholinergic muscarinic receptors. (Source: Dorland's Medical Dictionary)

Metoclopramide is commonly used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, and gastroparesis, which is a condition that affects the normal movement of food through the digestive tract. It can also be used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Like any medication, Metoclopramide can have side effects, including drowsiness, restlessness, and muscle spasms. In some cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as tardive dyskinesia, a condition characterized by involuntary movements of the face, tongue, or limbs. It is important to use Metoclopramide only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

The Substantia Nigra is a region in the midbrain that plays a crucial role in movement control and reward processing. It is composed of two parts: the pars compacta and the pars reticulata. The pars compacta contains dopamine-producing neurons, whose loss or degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease, leading to motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia.

In summary, Substantia Nigra is a brain structure that contains dopamine-producing cells and is involved in movement control and reward processing. Its dysfunction or degeneration can lead to neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease.

Serotonin agents are a class of drugs that work on the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They include several types of medications such as:

1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): These drugs block the reabsorption (reuptake) of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the availability of serotonin in the synapse to interact with postsynaptic receptors. SSRIs are commonly used as antidepressants and include medications such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram.
2. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): These drugs block the reabsorption of both serotonin and norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the availability of these neurotransmitters in the synapse. SNRIs are also used as antidepressants and include medications such as venlafaxine and duloxetine.
3. Serotonin Receptor Agonists: These drugs bind to and activate serotonin receptors, mimicking the effects of serotonin. They are used for various indications, including migraine prevention (e.g., sumatriptan) and Parkinson's disease (e.g., pramipexole).
4. Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: These drugs block serotonin receptors, preventing the effects of serotonin. They are used for various indications, including nausea and vomiting (e.g., ondansetron) and as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder (e.g., olanzapine).
5. Serotonin Synthesis Inhibitors: These drugs block the enzymatic synthesis of serotonin, reducing its availability in the brain. They are used as antidepressants and include medications such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) like phenelzine and tranylcypromine.

It's important to note that while these drugs all affect serotonin, they have different mechanisms of action and are used for various indications. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting any new medication.

There is no medical definition for the term "Amish." The Amish are a group of traditional, Christian communities primarily located in North America, known for their simple living, plain dress, and reluctance to adopt modern technology. While there may be health studies or observations related to the Amish community due to their unique lifestyle, culture, or genetic characteristics, the term "Amish" itself does not have a medical definition.

A neurological examination is a series of tests used to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system, including both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body). It is typically performed by a healthcare professional such as a neurologist or a primary care physician with specialized training in neurology.

During a neurological examination, the healthcare provider will assess various aspects of neurological function, including:

1. Mental status: This involves evaluating a person's level of consciousness, orientation, memory, and cognitive abilities.
2. Cranial nerves: There are 12 cranial nerves that control functions such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and movement of the face and neck. The healthcare provider will test each of these nerves to ensure they are functioning properly.
3. Motor function: This involves assessing muscle strength, tone, coordination, and reflexes. The healthcare provider may ask the person to perform certain movements or tasks to evaluate these functions.
4. Sensory function: The healthcare provider will test a person's ability to feel different types of sensations, such as touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of where your body is in space).
5. Coordination and balance: The healthcare provider may assess a person's ability to perform coordinated movements, such as touching their finger to their nose or walking heel-to-toe.
6. Reflexes: The healthcare provider will test various reflexes throughout the body using a reflex hammer.

The results of a neurological examination can help healthcare providers diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or peripheral neuropathy.

The medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is a group of fiber tracts in the brain that carries various neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. It plays a crucial role in reward processing, motivation, and reinforcement, as well as regulation of motor function, cognition, and emotion.

The MFB is located in the ventral part of the forebrain and extends from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the midbrain to the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and other limbic structures in the basal forebrain.

Damage to the MFB can result in various neurological and psychiatric symptoms, such as motor impairment, mood disorders, and addiction. Stimulation of the MFB has been shown to produce rewarding effects and is implicated in the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse.

Noradrenergic agents, often referred to as "noradrenalines" or "nortropanes," are a class of medications that work by modulating the noradrenergic system in the body. Noradrenaline, also known as norepinephrine, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, attention, and arousal.

Noradrenergic agents exert their effects by either increasing the release of noradrenaline from nerve terminals, blocking its reuptake into the presynaptic neuron, or antagonizing its interaction with specific receptors. These medications are used in various clinical settings, including the treatment of depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and certain neurological disorders.

Examples of noradrenergic agents include:

* Atomoxetine: a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used to treat ADHD
* Desipramine: a tricyclic antidepressant that increases the availability of noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft by blocking its reuptake
* Methylphenidate: a stimulant medication used to treat ADHD, which increases the release of both dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain
* Reboxetine: another selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used to treat depression.

It is important to note that while these medications are often referred to as "nortropanes," this term is not a formally recognized medical or pharmacological classification. Instead, it is a colloquial term used to describe drugs that primarily affect the noradrenergic system.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

The Sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice from the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is named after Ruggero Oddi, an Italian physiologist who discovered it in 1887. The Sphincter of Oddi has two parts: the sphincter papillae, which surrounds the common opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, and the sphincter choledochus, which is located more proximally in the bile duct. The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help regulate the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and the flow of bile from the liver to aid in digestion.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

The exome is the part of the genome that contains all the protein-coding regions. It represents less than 2% of the human genome but accounts for about 85% of disease-causing mutations. Exome sequencing, therefore, is a cost-effective and efficient method to identify genetic variants associated with various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and inherited genetic conditions.

Serotonin receptor agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate serotonin receptors in the body, mimicking the effects of the neurotransmitter serotonin. These drugs can have various effects depending on which specific serotonin receptors they act upon. Some serotonin receptor agonists are used to treat conditions such as migraines, cluster headaches, and Parkinson's disease, while others may be used to stimulate appetite or reduce anxiety. It is important to note that some serotonin receptor agonists can have serious side effects, particularly when taken in combination with other medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). This can lead to a condition called serotonin syndrome, which is characterized by symptoms such as agitation, confusion, rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, and muscle stiffness.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Tetrabenazine is a prescription medication used to treat conditions associated with abnormal involuntary movements, such as chorea in Huntington's disease. It works by depleting the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, which helps to reduce the severity and frequency of these movements.

Here is the medical definition:

Tetrabenazine is a selective monoamine-depleting agent, with preferential uptake by dopamine neurons. It is used in the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington's disease. Tetrabenazine inhibits vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), leading to depletion of presynaptic dopamine and subsequent reduction in post-synaptic dopamine receptor activation. This mechanism of action is thought to underlie its therapeutic effect in reducing chorea severity and frequency.

(Definitions provided by Stedman's Medical Dictionary and American Society of Health-System Pharmacists)

Piribedil is an agonist of dopamine receptors, specifically D2, D3, and D4 receptors. It is primarily used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease to help manage symptoms such as rigidity, tremors, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement). Piribedil can also stimulate dopamine receptors in the brain, which can improve cognitive function and mood. Additionally, it has been studied for its potential benefits in treating other neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and stroke.

It is important to note that the use of piribedil should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and interactions with other medications. It is not commonly used in many countries due to the availability of other more established treatments for Parkinson's disease.

Dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of signal transduction pathways in the brain. It is primarily expressed in neurons of the striatum, a region involved in movement control, motivation, and reward processing.

DARPP-32 acts as a molecular switch in response to various neurotransmitters, including dopamine and glutamate. When phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), DARPP-32 inhibits protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1), thereby enhancing the effects of PKA and promoting long-term changes in synaptic plasticity. Conversely, when phosphorylated by other kinases such as cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) or protein kinase C (PKC), DARPP-32 inhibits PKA, counteracting its effects.

Dysregulation of DARPP-32 has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying DARPP-32 function is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Stereotyped behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to repetitive, rigid, and invariant patterns of behavior or movements that are purposeless and often non-functional. These behaviors are not goal-directed or spontaneous and typically do not change in response to environmental changes or social interactions.

Stereotypies can include a wide range of motor behaviors such as hand flapping, rocking, head banging, body spinning, self-biting, or complex sequences of movements. They are often seen in individuals with developmental disabilities, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and some mental health conditions.

Stereotyped behaviors can also be a result of substance abuse, neurological disorders, or brain injuries. In some cases, these behaviors may serve as a self-soothing mechanism or a way to cope with stress, anxiety, or boredom. However, they can also interfere with daily functioning and social interactions, and in severe cases, may cause physical harm to the individual.

Dopamine D2 receptor is a type of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is one of five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5) and is encoded by the gene DRD2. The activation of D2 receptors leads to a decrease in the activity of adenylyl cyclase, which results in reduced levels of cAMP and modulation of ion channels.

D2 receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and play important roles in various physiological functions, including motor control, reward processing, emotion regulation, and cognition. They are also involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Tourette syndrome.

D2 receptors have two main subtypes: D2 short (D2S) and D2 long (D2L). The D2S subtype is primarily located in the presynaptic terminals and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates dopamine release, while the D2L subtype is mainly found in the postsynaptic neurons and modulates intracellular signaling pathways.

Antipsychotic drugs, which are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, work by blocking D2 receptors. However, excessive blockade of these receptors can lead to side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), tardive dyskinesia, and hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, the development of drugs that selectively target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors is an active area of research in the field of neuropsychopharmacology.

Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare and complex congenital disorder characterized by the abnormal lateralization or arrangement of internal organs in the chest and abdomen. In this condition, the normal left-right (LR) asymmetry of the thoracic and abdominal organs is disrupted, resulting in either complete or partial reversal of the usual LR orientation. The term "heterotaxy" literally means "different arrangement."

Heterotaxy syndrome can be further classified into two main types:

1. **Ivemark's syndrome** (or left atrial isomerism): In this type, there is a mirror-image reversal of the normal LR organization of the thoracic and abdominal organs. This results in both sides of the body having structures that are typically found on the left side (left atrial isomerism). Common features include:
* Complete heart block or complex congenital heart defects, such as transposition of the great arteries, double outlet right ventricle, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return.
* Bilateral bilobed lungs with a central location of the liver (situs ambiguus).
* Bronchial malformations, including bilateral eparterial bronchi.
* Gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, such as intestinal malrotation and biliary atresia.
* Increased incidence of situs inversus totalis (complete mirror-image reversal of the normal LR arrangement).

2. **Right atrial isomerism** (or asplenia syndrome): In this type, there is a lack of normal LR organization, and both sides of the body have structures that are typically found on the right side (right atrial isomerism). Common features include:
* Complex congenital heart defects, such as single ventricle, double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis or atresia, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return.
* Absent or multiple spleens (polysplenia) with varying degrees of functional asplenia.
* Bilateral trilobed lungs with a right-sided location of the liver (situs ambiguus).
* Bronchial malformations, including bilateral hyperarterial bronchi.
* Gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, such as intestinal malrotation and biliary atresia.
* Increased incidence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Both situs ambiguus and heterotaxy syndrome are associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to the complex congenital heart defects, gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, and immunological dysfunction in cases of asplenia or hyposplenia. Early diagnosis and management by a multidisciplinary team are crucial for improving outcomes in these patients.

Aphakia is a medical condition that refers to the absence of the lens in the eye. This can occur naturally, but it's most commonly the result of surgery to remove a cataract, a cloudy lens that can cause vision loss. In some cases, the lens may not be successfully removed or may be accidentally lost during surgery, leading to aphakia. People with aphakia typically have significant vision problems and may require corrective measures such as glasses, contact lenses, or an intraocular lens implant to improve their vision.

Common bile duct diseases refer to conditions that affect the common bile duct, a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. Some common examples of common bile duct diseases include:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This is the presence of stones (calculi) in the common bile duct, which can cause blockage, inflammation, and infection.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the common bile duct, often caused by obstruction due to stones, tumors, or strictures.
3. Common bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma): This is a rare but aggressive cancer that arises from the cells lining the common bile duct.
4. Biliary strictures: These are narrowing or scarring of the common bile duct, which can be caused by injury, inflammation, or surgery.
5. Benign tumors: Non-cancerous growths in the common bile duct can also cause blockage and other symptoms.

Symptoms of common bile duct diseases may include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine or light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure that involves the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator, which sends electrical impulses to specific targets in the brain. The impulses help to regulate abnormal brain activity, and can be used to treat a variety of neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

During the procedure, electrodes are implanted into the brain and connected to the neurostimulator, which is typically implanted in the chest. The neurostimulator can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at varying frequencies, amplitudes, and pulse widths, depending on the specific needs of the patient.

DBS is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for many patients with neurological conditions, although it does carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and hardware complications. It is typically reserved for patients who have not responded well to other forms of treatment, or who experience significant side effects from medication.

Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat certain mental/mood disorders (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and irritability associated with autistic disorder). It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. Risperidone belongs to a class of drugs called benzisoxazole derivatives.

This medication can decrease aggression and schizophrenic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusional thinking, and hostility. It may also help to improve your mood, thoughts, and behavior. Some forms of risperidone are also used for the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder (a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior).

It's important to note that this is a general medical definition, and the use of risperidone should always be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have potential side effects and risks.

G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that specifically phosphorylate and desensitize G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in response to agonist activation. There are seven known GRK isoforms, which are divided into three subfamilies based on structural similarities: GRK1/7, GRK2/3, and GRK4/5/6.

GRKs play a crucial role in the regulation of GPCR signaling by phosphorylating activated receptors, which leads to the recruitment of arrestin proteins that prevent further interaction between the receptor and its cognate G-protein. This process is known as receptor desensitization and internalization, and it helps to limit and terminate GPCR signaling.

In addition to their role in receptor desensitization, GRKs have also been implicated in various other cellular processes, including the regulation of ion channels, cytoskeletal dynamics, and gene transcription. Dysregulation of GRK function has been linked to a variety of human diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurological disorders.

The "sperm tail" is also known as the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure that enables the sperm to move or swim through fluid. The human sperm tail is made up of nine microtubule doublets and a central pair of microtubules, which are surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath that provides energy for its movement. This complex structure allows the sperm to navigate through the female reproductive tract in order to reach and fertilize an egg.

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a condition characterized by abnormalities in the functioning of the Sphincter of Oddi, which is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice from the pancreas and gallbladder into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).

In SOD, the sphincter may either fail to relax properly or become overactive, leading to a variety of symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and elevated liver enzymes. The condition can be classified into two types: Type I, which is associated with elevated liver enzymes and/or pancreatic enzymes, and Type II, which is characterized by abdominal pain without biochemical abnormalities.

The diagnosis of SOD typically involves a series of tests such as manometry (measuring the pressure inside the sphincter), endoscopic ultrasound, or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) to visualize the anatomy and function of the sphincter. Treatment options may include medications to relax the sphincter, endoscopic therapy to cut or stretch the muscle, or surgery in severe cases.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine is a chemical compound that is a derivative of the neurotransmitter serotonin. It is formed by the hydroxylation of serotonin at the 5 and 7 positions of its indole ring. This compound is not typically found in significant concentrations in the body, but it can be synthesized and used for research purposes.

In the laboratory, 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine has been used as a tool to study the role of serotonin in various physiological processes. For example, researchers have used this compound to selectively destroy serotonergic neurons in animal models, allowing them to investigate the functions of these neurons and their contributions to behavior and brain function.

It is important to note that 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine is not a medication or therapeutic agent, and it should only be used in research settings under the guidance of trained professionals.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that block the action of adenosine at A2 receptors. Adenosine is a naturally occurring molecule in the body that acts as a neurotransmitter and has various physiological effects, including vasodilation and inhibition of heart rate.

Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists work by binding to A2 receptors and preventing adenosine from activating them. This results in the opposite effect of adenosine, leading to vasoconstriction and increased heart rate. These drugs are used for a variety of medical conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and heart failure.

Examples of Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists include theophylline, caffeine, and some newer drugs such asistradefylline and tozadenant. These drugs have different pharmacological properties and are used for specific medical conditions. It is important to note that adenosine A2 receptor antagonists can have side effects, including restlessness, insomnia, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

"Macaca fascicularis" is the scientific name for the crab-eating macaque, also known as the long-tailed macaque. It's a species of monkey that is native to Southeast Asia. They are called "crab-eating" macaques because they are known to eat crabs and other crustaceans. These monkeys are omnivorous and their diet also includes fruits, seeds, insects, and occasionally smaller vertebrates.

Crab-eating macaques are highly adaptable and can be found in a wide range of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and wetlands. They are also known to live in close proximity to human settlements and are often considered pests due to their tendency to raid crops and steal food from humans.

These monkeys are social animals and live in large groups called troops. They have a complex social structure with a clear hierarchy and dominant males. Crab-eating macaques are also known for their intelligence and problem-solving abilities.

In medical research, crab-eating macaques are often used as animal models due to their close genetic relationship to humans. They are used in studies related to infectious diseases, neuroscience, and reproductive biology, among others.

Parasympathomimetics are substances or drugs that mimic the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two branches of the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary physiological functions. It is responsible for the "rest and digest" response, and its neurotransmitter is acetylcholine.

Parasympathomimetic drugs work by either directly stimulating muscarinic receptors or increasing the availability of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. These drugs can have various effects on different organs, depending on the specific receptors they target. Some common effects include decreasing heart rate and contractility, reducing respiratory rate, constricting pupils, increasing glandular secretions (such as saliva and sweat), stimulating digestion, and promoting urination and defecation.

Examples of parasympathomimetic drugs include pilocarpine, which is used to treat dry mouth and glaucoma; bethanechol, which is used to treat urinary retention and neurogenic bladder; and neostigmine, which is used to treat myasthenia gravis and reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

The entopeduncular nucleus (EP) is a small, compact collection of neurons located in the ventral region of the diencephalon, specifically within the posterior intralaminar complex of the thalamus. It is present in various mammals, including humans. The EP nucleus receives inputs from the basal ganglia and projects to the brainstem and other thalamic nuclei.

In rodents, the entopeduncular nucleus is also known as the globus pallidus internus (GPi). However, in primates, including humans, the GPi is a separate structure located near the EP nucleus. Both structures are part of the basal ganglia circuitry and play essential roles in motor control, procedural learning, and habit formation.

The entopeduncular nucleus has been implicated in several neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the EP nucleus or GPi is an effective treatment for reducing motor symptoms associated with these disorders.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Molecular conformation, also known as spatial arrangement or configuration, refers to the specific three-dimensional shape and orientation of atoms that make up a molecule. It describes the precise manner in which bonds between atoms are arranged around a molecular framework, taking into account factors such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles.

Conformational isomers, or conformers, are different spatial arrangements of the same molecule that can interconvert without breaking chemical bonds. These isomers may have varying energies, stability, and reactivity, which can significantly impact a molecule's biological activity and function. Understanding molecular conformation is crucial in fields such as drug design, where small changes in conformation can lead to substantial differences in how a drug interacts with its target.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) are mental health facilities that provide a range of comprehensive and accessible mental health services to a specific geographic community or catchment area. They are designed to serve as the primary point of contact for individuals seeking mental health care and aim to provide coordinated, continuous, and person-centered care.

CMHCs typically offer a variety of services, including:

1. Outpatient mental health treatment: This includes individual, group, and family therapy sessions with licensed mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and counselors.
2. Crisis intervention and emergency services: CMHCs often have 24-hour crisis hotlines and mobile crisis teams that can respond to mental health emergencies in the community.
3. Psychiatric evaluation and medication management: Psychiatrists or nurse practitioners at CMHCs can assess individuals for psychiatric disorders, provide diagnoses, and prescribe and manage psychotropic medications as needed.
4. Prevention and early intervention services: CMHCs may offer programs that focus on mental health promotion, suicide prevention, and early identification and treatment of mental health issues in children and adolescents.
5. Case management and care coordination: CMHC staff can help individuals navigate the mental health system, connect with community resources, and coordinate care across various providers and services.
6. Rehabilitation and recovery services: CMHCs may provide vocational training, educational support, and other rehabilitative services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their personal goals and maximize their independence.
7. Community outreach and engagement: CMHCs often engage in activities that promote mental health awareness, reduce stigma, and increase access to care within the communities they serve.

The goal of CMHCs is to provide accessible, high-quality mental health services that are integrated with primary care and other community-based services, ensuring that individuals receive the support they need to manage their mental health concerns and improve their overall well-being.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Nasal mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity. It is a delicate, moist, and specialized tissue that contains various types of cells including epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands. The primary function of the nasal mucosa is to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air before it reaches the lungs.

The nasal mucosa produces mucus, which traps dust, allergens, and microorganisms, preventing them from entering the respiratory system. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures on the surface of the epithelial cells, help move the mucus towards the back of the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled.

The nasal mucosa also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and immune cells that help protect against infections and inflammation. It plays an essential role in the body's defense system by producing antibodies, secreting antimicrobial substances, and initiating local immune responses.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Facial nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function of the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression, and it also carries sensory information from the taste buds in the front two-thirds of the tongue, and regulates saliva flow and tear production.

Facial nerve diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific location and extent of the nerve damage. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or paralysis on one or both sides of the face
* Drooping of the eyelid and corner of the mouth
* Difficulty closing the eye or keeping it closed
* Changes in taste sensation or dryness of the mouth and eyes
* Abnormal sensitivity to sound (hyperacusis)
* Twitching or spasms of the facial muscles

Facial nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as Bell's palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and Lyme disease
* Trauma or injury to the face or skull
* Tumors that compress or invade the facial nerve
* Neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barre syndrome
* Genetic disorders such as Moebius syndrome or hemifacial microsomia

Treatment for facial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication, physical therapy, or surgery may be necessary to restore function and relieve symptoms.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

Anti-dyskinetic agents are a class of medications that are used to treat or manage dyskinesias, which are involuntary movements or abnormal muscle contractions. These medications work by blocking or reducing the activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in movement control.

Dyskinetic symptoms can occur as a side effect of long-term use of levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Anti-dyskinetic agents such as amantadine, anticholinergics, and dopamine agonists may be used to manage these symptoms.

Amantadine works by increasing the release of dopamine and blocking its reuptake, which can help reduce dyskinesias. Anticholinergic medications such as trihexyphenidyl and benztropine work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to dyskinesias. Dopamine agonists such as pramipexole and ropinirole mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can help reduce dyskinesias by reducing the dose of levodopa required for symptom control.

It is important to note that anti-dyskinetic agents may have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.

These agents are associated with fewer neuromotor side effects and a lower risk of developing tardive dyskinesia. Studies have ... From 2008, there have been reported cases of the anti-psychotic medication aripiprazole, a partial agonist at D2 receptors, ... If tardive dyskinesia is diagnosed, the causative drug should be discontinued. Tardive dyskinesia may persist after withdrawal ... The term "tardive dyskinesia" first came into use in 1964. Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by repetitive, involuntary ...
It is also an anti-asthmatic agent and a demethylized metabolite of caffeine. Small open-label trials suggest that theophylline ... Istradefylline is a A2A receptor antagonist which increases motor activity and decreases dyskinesia caused by a prolonged ... Several xanthines and non-xanthines are under development as potential anti-parkinsonism agents, which are selective for A2A ... Some effects were found to be due to enhanced activity of natural killer cells and also due to enhanced efficacy of anti-PD-1 ...
Additionally, the medication has been used non-medically as a novel vigilance-promoting agent. Adrafinil is a prodrug; it is ... A case report of adrafinil-induced orofacial dyskinesia exists. Reports of this side effect also exist for modafinil. Because ... "Prohibited List" (PDF). World Anti-Doping Agency. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-04-10. "Regulations.gov". www. ... Adrafinil is a wakefulness-promoting agent and was used to promote alertness, attention, wakefulness, and mood. It was ...
The most common types of these agents are antipsychotics and anti-nausea agents. The classic form of TD refers to stereotypic ... Tardive dyskinesia or tardive dystonia, both referred to as "TD", refers to a wide variety of involuntary stereotypical ... Quetiapine, sulpiride and olanzapine, the atypical neuroleptic agents, are less likely to yield drug-induced parkinsonism and ... Pharmacological treatments include the typical neuroleptic agents such as fluphenazine, pimozide, haloperidol and perphenazine ...
... the Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group in Anti-hypertensive Agents, and the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly ... It was previously used to treat symptoms of dyskinesia in patients with Huntington's disease, but alternative medications are ... ISBN 978-1-59541-101-3. Thanvi B, Lo N, Robinson T (June 2007). "Levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: clinical ... Antihypertensive agents, Benzoate esters, Fetotoxins, Heterocyclic compounds with 5 rings, Tryptamine alkaloids, Indole ethers ...
Manufacture and Marketing of the Anti-Epileptic Agent Zonisamide in Asia". Dainippon Pharmaceutical News Releases for 2005. ... In an open-label trial zonisamide attenuated the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. It has also been studied for obesity with ... Zonisamide is an antiseizure drug chemically classified as a sulfonamide and unrelated to other antiseizure agents. The precise ... Stiff DD, Robicheau JT, Zemaitis MA (January 1992). "Reductive metabolism of the anticonvulsant agent zonisamide, a 1,2- ...
... are receptor subtype-specific drugs and other specific agents. An example is the push for better anti-anxiety agents ( ... but cause a variety of dyskinesias by their action on motor cortex. Modern studies are revealing details of mechanisms of ... producing more desirable results than a more selective agent would. An example of this is Vortioxetine, a drug which is not ... and in vitro studies using selective binding agents on live tissue cultures. These allow neural activity to be monitored and ...
Prokinetic agents (e.g. domperidone) Anti-cholinergic agents (e.g. orphenadrine) Evidence suggests that opioid-inclusive ... Due to severe side effects such as tardive dyskinesia, haloperidol is now rarely used. A related drug, prochlorperazine is more ... Amongst analgesics there are a small number of agents which act on the central nervous system but not on the opioid receptor ... Paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including ibuprofen and naproxen are considered safer alternatives. They ...
Tardive dyskinesia: involuntary muscle movements in the lower face and distal extremities; this can be a chronic condition ... Other anti-dopaminergic drugs, like the antiemetic metoclopramide, can also result in extrapyramidal side effects. Short and ... The treatment varies by the type of the EPS, but may involve anticholinergic agents such as procyclidine, benztropine, ... When other measures fail or are not feasible, medications are used to treat tardive dyskinesia. These include the vesicular ...
Bromocriptine is less effective than L-Dopa in reducing symptoms, but provides less dyskinesia. Often, the two drugs are used ... Although aNMDA receptor antagonists and anti-inflammatory drugs were tested in a clinical environment, more promising clinical ... cholinergic agents such as choline and lecithin were hypothesized to augment the progression. However, these attempts were ... can be initiated by inflammatory prostaglandins or leukotrienes and are therefore the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...
Tardive dyskinesia may be persistent and irreversible in some people. The majority of reports of tardive dyskinesia occur in ... As a perioperative anti-emetic, the effective dose is usually 25 to 50 mg (compared to the usual 10 mg dose). It is also used ... Agents in the benzodiazepine class of drugs may be helpful, but benefits are usually modest and side effects of sedation and ... The FDA required a warning about tardive dyskinesia to be added to the drug label in 1985 stating that: "tardive dyskinesia ...
Each anti-convulsant agent has a unique side-effect profile. Valproic acid can frequently cause sedation or gastrointestinal ... Taking antipsychotics for long periods or at high doses can also cause tardive dyskinesia - a sometimes incurable neurological ... It is generally considered a second-line agent due to its side effect profile. Lamotrigine is considered a first-line agent for ... as in 2003 the American Psychiatric Press noted that atypical anti-psychotics should be used as adjuncts to other anti-manic ...
In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... due to serious adverse effects such as tardive dyskinesia. Patients often opposed psychiatry and refused or stopped taking the ... Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors. Anti-fungal: imidazoles, polyenes. Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ...
... finding is in agreement with the pharmaceutical development of chlorpromazine and other antipsychotics as anti-histamine agents ... Rarely, tardive dyskinesia can occur when the medication is stopped. Chlorpromazine is classified as a low-potency typical ... Posner LA, Burns P (2009). "Chapter 13: Sedative agents: tranquilizers, alpha-2 agonists, and related agents". In Riviere JE, ... It is commonly used to decrease nausea in animals that are too young for other common anti-emetics.[citation needed] It is also ...
... anti-nausea and anti-vertigo drugs. Symptoms of akathisia are often described in vague terms such as feeling nervous, uneasy, ... Other agents commonly responsible for this side-effect may also include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, metoclopramide ... tardive dyskinesia, or other neurological and medical conditions. The controversial diagnosis of "pseudoakathisia" is sometimes ... but was more properly classed as dyskinesia.[medical citation needed] The presence and severity of akathisia can be measured ...
To confirm recent streptococcal infection: Throat culture Anti-DNAse B titre (peaks at 8-12 weeks after infection) Anti- ... Haloperidol was used previously, but caused serious side effects e.g. tardive dyskinesia. Case reports exist to support ... or psychotropic agents. Although some of these can similarly present in an acute way, there will typically be other ... familial dyskinesia-facial myokymia (Bird-Raskind syndrome) due to an ADCY5 gene mutation, glutaric aciduria, Lesch-Nyhan ...
... anti-cancer agent, Velcade (PS-341), currently used to treat multiple myeloma. The clinical program was supported by National ... their ability to modulate the tardive dyskinesias elicited by certain neuroleptics. Subsequently, Elliott took a post-doctoral ... Elliott was also the project leader of an anti-stroke agent, PS-519, that completed Phase IIa clinical trials. Support for the ... as head of Pharmacology (1993-1996) where he focused on novel drugs to treat stroke, and also on a permeabilizing agent, RMP-7 ...
Anti-influenza agents, Anti-RNA virus drugs, Antiparkinsonian agents, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management, ... In 2017, the extended release formulation was approved for use in the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Amantadine has ... In addition, anti-dopaminergic drugs such as metoclopramide and typical anti-psychotics should be avoided. These interactions ... Amantadine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 1968, as a prophylactic agent against Asian (H2N2) ...
The major reason why thioridazine has not been utilized as an antimicrobial agent is due to adverse effects on the central ... and derivatives of phenothiazine are currently under investigation as possible anti-infective drugs. Phenothiazine is a ... including akathisia and tardive dyskinesia), hyperprolactinaemia, and the rare but potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant ... Thanacoody, HKR (November 2007). "Thioridazine: resurrection as an antimicrobial agent?". British Journal of Clinical ...
Galanolactone, a diterpenoid found in ginger, is a 5-HT3 antagonist and is believed to at least partially mediate the anti- ... Zullino DF, Eap CB, Voirol P (2001). "Ondansetron for tardive dyskinesia". Am J Psychiatry. 158 (4): 657-8. doi:10.1176/appi. ... Pasricha, Pankaj J. (2006). "Treatment of Disorders of Bowel Motility and Water Flux; Antiemetics; Agents Used in Biliary and ... 1991). "Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3 effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger". Chem Pharm Bull. 39 (2): 397-9. ...
This was followed in the inter-war period by the development of the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics ... due to serious adverse effects such as tardive dyskinesia. Patients often opposed psychiatry and refused or stopped taking the ... This was denounced by the anti-psychiatric movement in the 1960s and later. It was very difficult for women to become doctors ... Kitasato confirmed Yersin's discovery that the bacterium Yersinia pestis is the agent of the plague. In 1897 he isolated and ...
... another drug that has anti-Parkinson effects. DHEC differs in that it is hydrogenated in C9-C10 and lacks bromine in C2. In ... is a dopamine agonist of the ergoline group that is used as an antiparkinson agent in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It ... a standardized rating scale of Parkinson's Disease symptoms such as gait parameters and dyskinesia. Another clinical study has ... Peripheral oedema Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that dihydroergocriptine is an effective anti- ...
Several anti-tumor agents such as mitosenes, indolequinones, aziridinylbenzoquinones and β-lapachone have been designed be ... Mutations in this gene have been associated with tardive dyskinesia (TD), an increased risk of hematotoxicity after exposure to ... rats and humans indicates their importance in detoxifying agent, since their location facilitates exposure to compounds ...
... anti-dyskinesia agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.090.050 - antiparkinson agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.095 - antiemetics MeSH D27.505. ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 - anti-bacterial agents MeSH D27.505 ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.025 - antimanic agents MeSH ...
In about half, the first agent is effective; a second single agent helps in about 13% and a third or two agents at the same ... Different anti-seizure medications (ASMs) are associated with varying levels of teratogenic risk. Under the guidance of their ... Attacks of the movement disorder paroxysmal dyskinesia may be taken for epileptic seizures. The cause of a drop attack can be, ... Identifying an epilepsy syndrome is useful as it helps determine the underlying causes as well as what anti-seizure medication ...
... other xenobiotic DNA damaging agents (such as drugs or chemotherapy) or other DNA damaging agents including reactive oxygen ... Infertility associated with viable, but immotile sperm may be caused by primary ciliary dyskinesia. The sperm must provide the ... July 2022). "Female germline stem cells: aging and anti-aging". Journal of Ovarian Research. 15 (1): 79. doi:10.1186/s13048-022 ... Environmental factors Toxins such as glues, volatile organic solvents or silicones, physical agents, flame retardants, chemical ...
... , by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation as ... tardive dyskinesia, and depression. However, this is not the case with domperidone, because, unlike other D2 receptor ... Furthermore, anti-nausea drugs, such as metoclopramide, which do cross the blood-brain barrier, may worsen the extrapyramidal ... "Domperidone: Anti-sickness medicine used to treat nausea and vomiting". 7 January 2020. "Domperidone 10mg Tablets - Summary of ...
However, reports of mild-to-moderate, reversible anxiety and depression made it unsuitable for commercialization as an anti- ... Coulter AA, Rebello CJ, Greenway FL (July 2018). "Centrally Acting Agents for Obesity: Past, Present, and Future". Drugs. 78 ( ... It appears to lack the typical extrapyramidal effects like tardive dyskinesia that occur with D2 receptor antagonists. Ecopipam ...
"Metoclopramide & Tardive Dyskinesia". Tardive Dyskinesia Center. Archived from the original on March 23, 2013. Retrieved March ... "Can anti-depressants cause sexual dysfunction?". WebMD. May 15, 2011. Archived from the original on March 21, 2013. Retrieved ... the rate of autism has not decreased as would be expected if it had been the causative agent. Another instance is the potential ... antidepressants Tardive dyskinesia associated with use of metoclopramide and many antipsychotic medications Sometimes, putative ...
Using thickening agents for liquid intake and an upright posture when eating may be useful; both measures reduce the risk of ... Dyskinesias due to dopamine agonists are rare in younger people who have PD, but along with other complications, become more ... Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and calcium channel blockers may be protective. A 2010 meta-analysis found ... Levodopa-related dyskinesias correlate more strongly with duration and severity of the disease than duration of levodopa ...
These agents are associated with fewer neuromotor side effects and a lower risk of developing tardive dyskinesia. Studies have ... From 2008, there have been reported cases of the anti-psychotic medication aripiprazole, a partial agonist at D2 receptors, ... If tardive dyskinesia is diagnosed, the causative drug should be discontinued. Tardive dyskinesia may persist after withdrawal ... The term "tardive dyskinesia" first came into use in 1964. Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by repetitive, involuntary ...
There is no known effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia; anti-parkinsonism agents do not alleviate the symptoms of this ... Tardive Dyskinesia: As with all antipsychotic agents, tardive dyskinesia may appear in some patients on long-term therapy or ... In most cases these symptoms are readily controlled when an anti-parkinsonism agent is administered concomitantly. Anti- ... Treatment with anti-parkinsonian agents, benzodiazepines or propranolol may be helpful.. Pseudo - parkinsonism: Symptoms may ...
Anti-hypertensive agents: dose adjustment may be required (7.3). *Tricyclic antidepressants: risk of hypertension and ... Dyskinesias Inform patients that Stalevo may cause and/or exacerbate pre-existing dyskinesias [see Warnings and Precautions ( ... 2.4 Concomitant Use with Other Anti-Parkinsons Disease Drugs. Anticholinergic agents, dopamine agonists, monoamine oxidase ( ... 5.3 Dyskinesia. Dyskinesia (involuntary movements) may occur or be exacerbated at lower dosages and sooner with Stalevo than ...
... dopamine depleting agents such as tetrabenazine, anti-seizure medications such as valproic acid, or benzodiazepines may help. ... Related Rare Diseases: ADCY5-Related Dyskinesia, Kufor Rakeb Syndrome, Primary Orthostatic Tremor, ... ... Examples include "anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis", lupus, or some other rare autoimmune conditions. Some diseases related to ... When chorea symptoms are disabling, low doses of potent dopamine receptor blocking agents such as haloperidol, ...
Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. *Immunosuppressants. *Contraceptives. *Other Medications. *Antineoplastic Agents. *Anti-Retroviral ... This test includes all three PGx panels plus additional medical insights for other drug classes that include urological agents ...
... discontinuation of all agents with central anticholinergic effects, especially anti-Parkinsons agents and tricyclic ... Dyskinesia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyskinesia .. * Parkinsons Disease Video: Dyskinesia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= ... Certain agent such as LSD and mescaline are well described hallucinogens. * Furthermore, these agents exert their ... Neurological adverse effects associated with antipsychotic agents:136 * Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) can be severe ...
Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or ... Type ADystonic DisordersSpasmBotulinum ToxinsEyelidsPhotophobiaFacial NerveAnti-Dyskinesia AgentsFacial InjuriesOculomotor ... Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.. ... Neuromuscular Agents. Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle ...
Anti-Dyskinesia Agents * Apoptosis * Drug Synergism * Enzyme Inhibitors * Humans * Janus Kinase 2 ...
Anti-Dyskinesia Agents}, {InterventionAncestorId=,D000065687, InterventionAncestorTerm=,Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 ... Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary}, {InterventionAncestorId=,D000000890, InterventionAncestorTerm=,Anti-Infective Agents ... Anti-Dyskinesia Agents, InterventionBrowseBranchAbbrev=,AnDyAg}, {InterventionBrowseBranchName=,Micronutrients, ... Anti-Infective Agents, InterventionBrowseBranchAbbrev=,Infe}, {InterventionBrowseBranchName=,All Drugs and Chemicals ...
anti-dyskinesia agents. *,. *antiparkinson agents. *,. *destabilizing domains. *,. *dopamine agonists. * 2020 (2). 2019 (1). ... Mark L-DOPA and graft-induced dyskinesia : different treatment, same story? Breger, Ludivine S LU and Lane, Emma L LU (2013) In ... Mark Comparison of rating scales used to evaluate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the 6-OHDA lesioned rat Breger, Ludivine S LU ; ...
World Anti-Doping Agency - 2007 Prohibited List. External links. *"SID 184744 - PubChem Substance Summary". PubChem Project. ... "Adrafinil-induced Orofacial Dyskinesia" by S. Thobois, J. Xie, H. Mollion, I. Benatru and E. Broussolle of the Department of ... "Adrafinil: A Novel Vigilance Promoting Agent" by Norton W. Milgram, Heather Callahan and Christina Siwak of the University of ... its close relative modafinil were added to the list of substances prohibited for athletic competition according to World Anti- ...
5 mg This drug is not recommended to treat the movement problems caused by tardive dyskinesia and may worsen them. Antacids and ... This active component plays the role of a muscarinic antagonist, an antiparkinson drug and an antidyskinesia agent. It is a ... This active component plays the role of a muscarinic antagonist, an antiparkinson drug and an antidyskinesia agent. It is a ... This drug is not recommended to treat the movement problems caused by tardive dyskinesia and may worsen them. Antacids and ...
... tardive dyskinesia, treatment of glaucoma and hyperphosphatemia, tropical anti-infective, and type-II diabetes therapeutic ... calcimimetic agent, cardiovascular agent, central nervous system agent, chronic alcoholism, chronic kidney disease, dopamine ... anti-asthmatic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-Parkinson, anti-viral, antibiotic, anticoagulant, anticonvulsant, ... antineoplastic detoxifying agent, antiprotozoal agent, antipsoriatic, antipsychotic, antitubercular, antitussive, ...
... an anti\NMDA receptor agent, delays disability in a few individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nevertheless, it showed ... and yo yo dyskinesias (package 1). Package 1?Classification of levodopa\induced dyskinesias Maximum dosage dyskinesia Diphasic ... Individuals prefer mobility connected with dyskinesias to immobility without dyskinesias. Using dopamine receptor agonists As ... Levodopa\induced dyskinesias (Cover) were 1st reported by Cotzias identifies involuntary, rapid, abnormal, purposeless, and ...
... anticholinergic agents can exacerbate tardive dyskinesia. In high dosage, anticholinergics may decrease the effects of levodopa ... Comment: Anti-parkinsonism drugs should be used with caution in patients receiving tranylcypromine since severe reactions have ... Comment: Anticholinergic agents may enhance the therapeutic effects of levodopa; however, anticholinergic agents can exacerbate ... Comment: Anti-parkinsonism drugs should be used with caution in patients receiving tranylcypromine since severe reactions have ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA 01/2011. 1. Isradipine (Dynacirc)FDA LinkGeneric 01/2011. ... Dyskinesias (Dyskinesia) 01/2010. 1. Huntington Disease (Huntingtons Disease) 11/2009. 1. Chorea (Rheumatic Chorea) 11/2009. ... Drug/Important Bio-Agent (IBA). 5. Levodopa (L Dopa)FDA LinkGeneric 09/2014 - 01/2010. ...
This anti-diabetic agent has the best preventative effects for weight gain on atypical antipsychotics, and it works better when ... Tardive dyskinesia risk with first- and second-generation antipsychotics in comparative randomized controlled trials: a meta- ... Furthermore, despite early hopes, patients on quetiapine are at risk for tardive dyskinesia.11 ... where its efficacy usually ranks near the bottom among atypical antipsychotic anugmentation agents.7 ...
Tardive dyskinesia As with all antipsychotic agents, tardive dyskinesia may appear in some patients on long-term therapy or ... Psychomotor anti-agitation Use as a psychomotor anti-agitation agent for mental or behavioural problems such as aggression, ... Anti-parkinson agents should not be prescribed routinely, but only be given as required, because of the possible risk of ... The physician should keep in mind the possible anticholinergic effects associated with anti-parkinson agents. ...
Concomitant Use With Other Anti-Parkinsons Disease Drugs. Anticholinergic agents, dopamine agonists, monoamine oxidase (MAO ... Dyskinesias. Inform patients that Stalevo may cause and/or exacerbate pre-existing dyskinesias [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. ... Dyskinesia. Dyskinesia (involuntary movements) may occur or be exacerbated at lower dosages and sooner with Stalevo than with ... Antihypertensive Agents. Symptomatic postural hypotension has occurred when carbidopa/levodopa was added to the treatment of ...
Title: Claulansine F-Donepezil Hybrids as Anti-Alzheimers Disease Agents with Cholinergic, Free-Radical Scavenging, and ... when dyskinesias plateaued, or 8 weeks later, when dyskinesias were established. A 60% to 70% decrease in LIDs was observed ... This may partly explain the anti-tumour selectivity of these agents. Silencing NDRG1 expression increased phosphorylation of ... Then the bioactivities of the compound were investigated including the anti-inflammatory, anti-acetylcholinesterase and ...
... bronchitis responding to anti-inflammatory treatment and non-acid reflux being treated with promotility agents rather the anti- ... primary ciliary dyskinesia, immune deficiency, tuberculosis, aspiration syndromes, tracheobronchomalacia, somatic and tic cough ... Anti-asthmatic drugs. Question 3: should anti-asthmatic drugs (anti-inflammatory or bronchodilator drugs) be used to treat ... Anti-acids. Question 4: Should anti-acid drugs (PPIs and H2-antagonists) be used to treat patients with chronic cough? ...
... may be considered as potential antiviral agents (46) and components of targeted oxidation strategy in anti-SARS-CoV-2 treatment ... HCoV 229E induced ciliary dyskinesia resulting in impaired mucociliary clearance. The latter may not only alter viral particle ... and the search for adequate anti-inflammatory agents is of particular importance (104). ... The observed anti-inflammatory effects of Zn in lung tissue seem to be mainly mediated by inhibition of NF-κB signaling through ...
Severe extrapyramidal dyskinesias may occur.. If the patient is seen sufficiently soon (up to 6 hours) after ingestion of a ... Positive inotropic agents such as dopamine may be tried if fluid replacement is insufficient to correct the circulatory ... If persistent or life threatening, appropriate anti-arrhythmic therapy may be considered.. Avoid lidocaine and, as far as ... Peripheral vasoconstrictor agents are not generally recommended. Avoid the use of adrenaline.. Ventricular or supraventricular ...
The major bioactive ingredient THSG of Polygonum multiflorum is well established for its anti-oxidation, anti-aging and anti- ... We found that CE improved dyskinesia in MPTP-intoxicated mice, which was confirmed by the pole test and traction test. Also, ... These results reveal potential mechanisms that could facilitate the study and application of CE as a neuroprotective agent. ... Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de ...
Anti-Dyskinesia Agents [D27.505.954.427.090] * Antiemetics [D27.505.954.427.095] * Antitussive Agents [D27.505.954.427.153] ... Opioid Reversal Agents Related Concept UI. M000640784. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Opioid Reversal Agents Preferred Term Term UI ... Opioid Reversal Agent Opioid Reversal Agents Registry Number. 0. NLM Classification #. QV 89. Date Established. 1966/01/01. ... Peripheral Nervous System Agents [D27.505.696.663] * Sensory System Agents [D27.505.696.663.850] * Abuse-Deterrent Formulations ...
Ranolazine is an anti-ischaemic agent that does not reduce heart rate nor blood pressure. It is approved as add-on therapy to ... Stress-echocardiography did not unmask dyskinesia and the ejection fraction increased by 6%. A coronary angiography and ... Ranolazine, an anti-ischaemic agent with additional electrophysiological properties can help in the above-described situations ... CARISA (6) (2004; 823 patients) evaluated ranolazine plus anti-anginal treatment against placebo plus anti-anginal treatment. ...
... the dosage forms of the invention have anti-inflammatory effects and can therefore be used as anti-inflammatory agents for the ... chronic/tardive and non-motor and levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID). They are also suitable for the treatment and/or ... anti-obstructive agents such as those used for example in the therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or ... anti-inflammatory and/or immunosuppressive agents such as those used for example in the therapy of chronic obstructive ...
  • Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary repetitive body movements, which may include grimacing, sticking out the tongue or smacking the lips. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tardive dyskinesia occurs in some people as a result of long-term use of dopamine-receptor-blocking medications such as antipsychotics and metoclopramide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "tardive dyskinesia" first came into use in 1964. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with Parkinson's have difficulty moving, whereas people with tardive dyskinesia have difficulty not moving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory irregularity, such as grunting and difficulty breathing, is another symptom associated with tardive dyskinesia, although studies have shown that the rate of people affected is relatively low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tardive dyskinesia is often misdiagnosed as a mental illness rather than a neurological disorder, and as a result, people are prescribed neuroleptic drugs, which increase the probability that the person will develop a severe and disabling case, and shortening the typical survival period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other closely related neurological disorders have been recognized as variants of tardive dyskinesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIMS Examination": This test is used when psychotropic medications have been prescribed because people sometimes develop tardive dyskinesia due to prolonged use of antipsychotic medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) examination is a test used to identify the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia (TD). (wikipedia.org)
  • The test is not meant to tell whether there is an absence or presence of tardive dyskinesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tardive dyskinesia was first described in the 1950s shortly after the introduction of chlorpromazine and other antipsychotic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most compelling line of evidence suggests that tardive dyskinesia may result primarily from neuroleptic-induced dopamine supersensitivity in the nigrostriatal pathway, with the D2 dopamine receptor being most affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroleptics act primarily on this dopamine system, and older neuroleptics, which have greater affinity for the D2 binding site, are associated with high risk for tardive dyskinesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias. (lookformedical.com)
  • This drug is not recommended to treat the movement problems caused by tardive dyskinesia and may worsen them. (thetopmedstore.com)
  • Tardive dyskinesia remains an enigma with psychosis who had been treated with without a convincing explanation to its conventional neuroleptics for a prolonged underlying pathophysiology. (who.int)
  • There has been increasing evidence that deranged superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities might be a risk factor for schizophrenia and/or tardive dyskinesia (TD). (nature.com)
  • Several lines of evidence have indicated that free radicals may play a role in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia (TD). (nature.com)
  • Effects of Levetiracetam vs. Placebolevetiracetam on Tardive Dyskinesia. (cuny.edu)
  • tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (cuny.edu)
  • Its use in many parts of the world has declined because of highly frequent and severe early and late tardive dyskinesia , a type of extrapyramidal symptom . (bionity.com)
  • Serious side effects include akathisia , tardive dyskinesia and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome . (bionity.com)
  • The Gallagher Law Firm is currently prosecuting cases involving the pharmaceutical drug Reglan which has been connected to known incidences of Tardive Dyskinesia (TD). (gallagher-law-firm.com)
  • In fact, one study revealed that as many as 20% of Reglan users developed Tardive Dyskinesia. (gallagher-law-firm.com)
  • Contact The Gallagher Law Firm at (888) 222-7052 or contact us online if you think you or a relative may have developed Tardive Dyskinesia while taking Reglan and want to know more about your options and rights regarding a Reglan lawsuit. (gallagher-law-firm.com)
  • This medication may cause Tardive Dyskinesia (TD), which can be permanent. (gallagher-law-firm.com)
  • In 2009 the FDA ordered a "black box" warning, the FDA's strongest, due to the risk of Tardive Dyskinesia. (gallagher-law-firm.com)
  • Most EPSEs, despite causing tremendous stress and even painful reactions to patients, are treatable and reversible, except tardive dyskinesia. (ashtons.com)
  • Early treatment with amantadine may delay levodopa-induced dyskinesia onset more than treatment with other symptomatic agents. (reliasmedia.com)
  • Role of CB1 and CB2 receptors and relevance for Alzheimer's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia. (ufastylish.com)
  • Using dopamine receptor agonists As stated previously, initiating treatment with dopamine receptor agonists is definitely associated with much less dyskinesias. (bio-cavagnou.info)
  • Apomorphine, a parenteral dopamine receptor agonist, can decrease off state governments and decrease dyskinesia. (bio-cavagnou.info)
  • Positive inotropic agents such as dopamine may be tried if fluid replacement is insufficient to correct the circulatory collapse. (azurewebsites.net)
  • In patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), province and identification of pathogen. (cdc.gov)
  • and primary ciliary dyskinesia are less common, but they can all result in persistent cough. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Package 1?Classification of levodopa\induced dyskinesias Maximum dosage dyskinesia Diphasic CP-91149 dyskinesia Off condition dystonia On condition dystonia Yo\yoing CP-91149 reported attenuation from the decrease in striatal CP-91149 fluorodopa uptake on positron emission tomography scans in individuals on ropinirole in comparison to those on levodopa.36 Riluzole, an anti\NMDA receptor agent, delays disability in a few individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (bio-cavagnou.info)
  • The technique of temporary drawback of levodopa (medication holiday) isn't used since it is definitely often connected with significant worsening of Parkinson's disease and dyskinesias are just slightly decreased for a brief period of your time.39 The frequent and small doses often neglect to achieve desired results. (bio-cavagnou.info)
  • A meta\evaluation of several lengthy\term, open up\label, uncontrolled research involving a complete of 233 sufferers reported efficiency of constant subcutaneous apomorphine infusions in advanced Parkinson's disease.40 The usage of subcutaneous apomorphine infusion was successful in aborting off periods, reducing dyskinesias and enhancing Parkinson's disease motor CP-91149 results, using the added advantage of a considerable levodopa\sparing effect. (bio-cavagnou.info)
  • Researchers demonstrated the long-term efficacy and safety of unilateral MRI-guided high-frequency ultrasound subthalamotomy for Parkinson's disease patients with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia three years after the procedure. (reliasmedia.com)
  • Though a highly effective technique in enhancing disease control, it isn't known whether it decreases dyskinesias in sufferers currently with levodopa priming. (bio-cavagnou.info)
  • Use as an antipsychotic agent for schizophrenia, psychoses, mania and hypomania, organic brain damage (depending on symptoms). (pillintrip.com)
  • The Tardif dyskinesia�involuntary body motion�that manifests in patients taking thorzine is a symptom of �Psychiatrogenicosis tric � treatment. (bioelectrichealth.org)
  • Tardif dyskinesia is a symptom of a dysfunctional nervous system, so the treatment of psychiatric disorders via the administration of agents that produce it is, �Psychiatrogenicosis tric ," in nature. (bioelectrichealth.org)
  • Although ost meta-analyses rank OFC at the top of the efficacy list in bipolar depression, the story is different in unipolar depression, where its efficacy usually ranks near the bottom among atypical antipsychotic anugmentation agents. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Uncommon types of Cover consist of akathasia (extreme motor restlessness), a higher stepped overshooting gait, quick alternating motions (Ram memory) of hip and THY1 legs, blepharospasm, and combined pattern of irregular movements.21 Predicated on their relationship with levodopa dosing, Cover are classified as maximum\dosage, diphasic, off condition, on condition, and yo yo dyskinesias (package 1). (bio-cavagnou.info)
  • To the best of our knowledge, preva- definition of what constituted TD and, more lence rate of TD has not been recorded for importantly, the confounding effect of the patients from Arab countries diagnosed type, dosage and duration of the offending with psychosis and being treated with con- agents, and the duration of the illness itself, ventional neuroleptics. (who.int)
  • 823 patients) evaluated ranolazine plus anti-anginal treatment against placebo plus anti-anginal treatment. (escardio.org)
  • The drug Reglan (Generic name: metoclopramide (MET oh KLOE pr amide)) is a gastroprokinetic and antiemetic agent used for short term treatment of heartburn and nausea and vomiting. (gallagher-law-firm.com)
  • The anti-emetic properties of this drug are due to its antagonist activity in the central nervous system, preventing nausea and vomiting triggered by most stimuli. (gallagher-law-firm.com)
  • CBG is also an amazing antiemetic, analgesic, and anti-nausea cannabinoid which makes it a perfect cure for pneumonia. (ufastylish.com)
  • This test includes all three PGx panels plus additional medical insights for other drug classes that include urological agents, alpha-blockers, and diabetes treatments, delivering a personalized medicine report unique to you. (dynamicdnalabs.com)
  • RESEARCH LETTERS patients, the many possible causative agents of pneu- to be the most common infectious agents in PCD pa- monia, especially viruses, have not been investigated tients ( 3 ) but did not detect them in culture or PCR. (cdc.gov)
  • In summary, EPSEs are a group of different movement disorder linked to a variety of drugs, with older antipsychotics as common causative agents. (ashtons.com)
  • Despite the lack of dyskinesia, coarse tics or choreoathetosis, concrete evidence for the underlying patho- with abnormal oro-facial movements being physiology of TD, there have been a few the commonest [2]. (who.int)
  • Adrafinil-induced Orofacial Dyskinesia " by S. Thobois, J. Xie, H. Mollion, I. Benatru and E. Broussolle of the Department of Neurology, Pierre Wertheimer Neurological Hospital, Lyon, France. (moshersoteria.com)
  • Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). (lookformedical.com)
  • Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS. (lookformedical.com)
  • Different treatable traits exist with cough variant asthma (CVA)/eosinophilic bronchitis responding to anti-inflammatory treatment and non-acid reflux being treated with promotility agents rather the anti-acid drugs. (ersjournals.com)
  • Avoid lidocaine and, as far as possible, long acting anti-arrhythmic drugs. (azurewebsites.net)
  • It is approved as add-on therapy to conventional agents for the symptomatic treatment of patients with stable angina pectoris in whom conventional drugs have failed. (escardio.org)
  • The term, �Psychiatrogenicosis try ,� could be used to describe what is currently going on in the alleged, �Psychiatric,� industry via the advent of the use of, �Atypical Anti-psychotic,� drugs in that atypical anti-psychotic drug use is linked to large weight gains and the manifestation of diabetes symptoms in the patients that those agents are being prescribed to. (bioelectrichealth.org)
  • Within this group, epilepsy is refractory in up to 40 % of patients, who have shown para el control de síntomas refractarios en a decrease in the frequency of seizures with the concomitant use of cannabidiol and conventional antiepileptics, with mild síndromes convulsivos side effects such as diarrhea and drowsiness. (bvsalud.org)
  • Loss of dopaminergic neurons due to oxidative damage is thought to be an important factor in the development of PD, the potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects of CH could potentially be used for PD treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Does Amantadine Treatment Reduce Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias? (reliasmedia.com)
  • It usually appears while consistently reported risk factors which the patient is still on the offending agent or were found to make some patients more appears for the first time when the drug is vulnerable to developing TD if treated with discontinued or its dose is reduced. (who.int)
  • The key to treating most patients with constipation is correction of dietary deficiencies, which generally involves increasing intake of fiber and fluid and decreasing the use of constipating agents (eg, milk products, coffee, tea, alcohol). (medscape.com)
  • This anti-diabetic agent has the best preventative effects for weight gain on atypical antipsychotics, and it works better when started earlier (500-1000 mg/d with food). (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects have been demonstrated in experimental mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • MPTP was administered to C57BL/6J mice to induce inflammation and dopaminergic neuron loss as well as dyskinesia, followed by behavioral analysis to determine the role of CH in eliminating inflammation, avoiding neuron loss, and improving dyskinesia. (bvsalud.org)
  • In mice, CHE ameliorated MPTP-induced dyskinesia and rescued the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum. (bvsalud.org)
  • Zinc possesses anti‑inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF‑κB signaling and modulation of regulatory T‑cell functions that may limit the cytokine storm in COVID‑19. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Astragalin (AST) is a natural flavonoid with excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many other studies have shown that CBG can be an effective agent for overactive immune systems, colon inflammation, and inflammatory bowel disease. (ufastylish.com)
  • This active component plays the role of a muscarinic antagonist, an antiparkinson drug and an antidyskinesia agent. (thetopmedstore.com)
  • We are leading supplier, trader and exporter of Anti Cancer Medicines. (fedeltyhealth.com)
  • Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nevertheless, it showed unsatisfactory results in a little, double\blind research in Cover.37 Several other putative neuroprotective agents have already been tested. (bio-cavagnou.info)
  • Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Adrafinil: A Novel Vigilance Promoting Agent " by Norton W. Milgram, Heather Callahan and Christina Siwak of the University of Toronto at Scarborough, CNS Drug Reviews, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 193-212 (PDF). (moshersoteria.com)
  • Ranolazine, an anti-ischaemic agent with additional electrophysiological properties can help in the above-described situations and is different from conventional agents (4) in that it does not reduce heart rate nor blood pressure. (escardio.org)
  • Ranolazine is an anti-ischaemic agent that does not reduce heart rate nor blood pressure. (escardio.org)
  • Los efectos del cannabidiol lo convierten en una alternativa, of the title and research adicional a la terapéutica convencional, para el control de síntomas en trastornos neurológicos, disminuyendo de forma objectives, exhaustive sostenida el número total de episodios con un perfil de seguridad aceptable. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2019). Identification of novel genes associated with sequence type seems to be particularly virulent to anti-phagocytic functions in Streptococcus equi subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • Ranolazine was developed in the late 1990s and has been approved as a anti-anginal medicine subsequently. (escardio.org)
  • For use of antiretroviral agents for post-exposure prophylaxis the most recent official guidelines, e.g. those by WHO should be consulted. (who.int)
  • The anti-OH effect of rivastigmine probably mediates this better response. (reliasmedia.com)
  • If persistent or life threatening, appropriate anti-arrhythmic therapy may be considered. (azurewebsites.net)