Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Biliary Dyskinesia: A motility disorder characterized by biliary COLIC, absence of GALLSTONES, and an abnormal GALLBLADDER ejection fraction. It is caused by gallbladder dyskinesia and/or SPHINCTER OF ODDI DYSFUNCTION.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Ciliary Motility Disorders: Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Axonemal Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.Chorea: Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Benserazide: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE that does not enter the central nervous system. It is often given with LEVODOPA in the treatment of parkinsonism to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, thereby increasing the amount that reaches the central nervous system and reducing the required dose. It has no antiparkinson actions when given alone.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Parkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Akathisia, Drug-Induced: A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Carbidopa: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal: A condition marked by recurrent seizures that occur during the first 4-6 weeks of life despite an otherwise benign neonatal course. Autosomal dominant familial and sporadic forms have been identified. Seizures generally consist of brief episodes of tonic posturing and other movements, apnea, eye deviations, and blood pressure fluctuations. These tend to remit after the 6th week of life. The risk of developing epilepsy at an older age is moderately increased in the familial form of this disorder. (Neurologia 1996 Feb;11(2):51-5)Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.MPTP Poisoning: A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Dystonia: An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Dynorphins: A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin: A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Tiapamil Hydrochloride: A phenylethylamine derivative that acts as a calcium antagonist showing hemodynamic effects in patients with acute myocardial infarction.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Metoclopramide: A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Amish: An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Medial Forebrain Bundle: A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.NortropanesDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Exome: That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.Serotonin Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Tetrabenazine: A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.Piribedil: A dopamine D2 agonist. It is used in the treatment of parkinson disease, particularly for alleviation of tremor. It has also been used for circulatory disorders and in other applications as a D2 agonist.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Heterotaxy Syndrome: Abnormal thoracoabdominal VISCERA arrangement (visceral heterotaxy) or malformation that involves additional CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS (e.g., heart isomerism; DEXTROCARDIA) and/or abnormal SPLEEN (e.g., asplenia and polysplenia). Irregularities with the central nervous system, the skeleton and urinary tract are often associated with the syndrome.Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that are specific for G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. They are regulatory proteins that play a role in G-protein-coupled receptor densensitization.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine: Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Entopeduncular Nucleus: A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. washington.edu/neuronames/ (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Community Mental Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Anti-Dyskinesia Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.

Early retreatment of infantile esotropia: comparison of reoperation and botulinum toxin. (1/98)

AIM: To compare the efficacy of reoperation and botulinum toxin injection in treating infantile esotropes early after unsatisfactory surgical alignment. METHODS: 55 strabismic children who had been unsuccessfully operated for infantile esotropia were randomised to reoperation (28 patients) or botulinum toxin injection (27 patients). The motor outcomes (percentage of successful motor outcome and percentage change in deviation) were compared at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years after retreatment, and the sensory outcomes (percentage with fusion ability and stereo perception) at the 3 year follow up visit. RESULTS: The motor and sensory outcomes and the stability of motor results were similar in patients reoperated and treated with botulinum injection. At the 3 year visit 67.8% and 59.2% of children were, respectively, within 8 prism dioptres of orthotropia (p=0.72). The frequency of fusion ability was, respectively, 60.7% and 51.8% (p=0.71), and the frequency of stereo perception (+info)

Early experience with intrasphincteric botulinum toxin in the treatment of achalasia. (2/98)

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested that intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin is effective and long-lasting in the treatment of achalasia. AIM: To report our experience of botulinum toxin injection in a prospective series of consecutive patients with achalasia. METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients with achalasia (eight male, mean age 55 years, range 20-87) were treated with 60 units of botulinum toxin (Dysport; Speywood Pharmaceuticals Ltd, UK) into each of four quadrants at the lower oesophageal sphincter. Patients were assessed pre-treatment and 1 month after treatment using a symptom score and oesophageal manometry. Median follow-up was 12 months (range 6-28). RESULTS: The injection procedure was simple to perform and free of adverse effects. Although treatment had a beneficial effect on dysphagia (median pre-treatment score 3 [interquartile range 3-3]; post-treatment score 2 [0-3]: P=0.03) 1 month following therapy, there was no significant improvement in chest pain or regurgitation scores. Similarly, no significant reduction in median lower oesophageal sphincter pressure was observed (29.5 mmHg [21-42] pre-treatment, 28.5 [17.5-55.5] post-treatment P=0.67). Four patients (36%) required further therapy within 3 months and the overall relapse rate was 73% (eight of 11) within 2 years. CONCLUSION: Although botulinum toxin injection was well tolerated, these results using Dysport at a dose of 240 mouse units question its efficacy as a treatment for achalasia.  (+info)

Tardive and idiopathic oromandibular dystonia: a clinical comparison. (3/98)

OBJECTIVE: Most patients with tardive dystonia have a focal onset involving the cranial-cervical region. Because of its resemblance to idiopathic cranial dystonia, a common form of dystonia, it often poses a diagnostic problem. To compare clinical features and response to botulinum toxin (BTX) injections between patients with tardive and idiopathic oromandibular dystonia (OMD). METHODS: Patients seen in a movement disorder clinic who satisfied the inclusion criteria for tardive or idiopathic OMD were studied. The clinical variables and responses to BTX between the two groups of patients were compared. In the tardive group, we also compared the clinical variables between those with oro-facial-lingual stereotypies, and those without. RESULTS: Twenty four patients with tardive OMD and 92 with idiopathic OMD were studied. There were no differences in the demographic characteristics. Most were women, with duration of symptoms longer than 8 years. The mean duration of neuroleptic exposure was 7.1 (SD 7.9) years. Jaw closure was the most frequent subtype of OMD (tardive=41.7%, idiopathic=51.1%). Idiopathic patients were more likely to have coexistent cervical dystonia (p<0.05), whereas isolated OMD was significantly higher in tardive patients (p<0.05). Limb stereotypies, akathisia, and respiratory dyskinesia were seen only in the tardive OMD. Frequency of oro-facial-lingual stereotypy was significantly higher in the tardive than the idiopathic group (75.0% v 31.5%, p<0.0001). The peak effect of BTX was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Oro-facial-lingual stereotypies were significantly more frequent in the tardive than the idiopathic group. Presence of stereotypic movements in the limbs, akathisia, and respiratory dyskinesias in patients with OMD strongly suggests prior neuroleptic exposure. Dystonia in tardive OMD is more likely to be restricted to the oromandibular region, whereas in patients with idiopathic OMD, there is often coexistent cervical dystonia. BTX is equally effective in both groups of patients.  (+info)

Tardive dystonia. (4/98)

This paper provides an overview of the phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment of tardive dystonia. Tardive dystonia is one of the extrapyramidal syndromes that starts after long-term use of dopamine receptor antagonists. The diagnosis is based on the presence of chronic dystonia, defined as a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Furthermore, dystonia must develop either during or within 3 months of a course of antipsychotic treatment, and other causes such as Wilson's disease, acute dystonia, or a conversion reaction must be ruled out. Tardive dystonia occurs in about 3 percent of patients on long-term antipsychotic treatment. Some probable risk factors for tardive dystonia are younger age, male, and the presence of tardive dyskinesia. The treatment of tardive dystonia starts with an evaluation of the need for using the causative drug. If antipsychotics must be continued, a switch to an atypical antipsychotic, particularly clozapine, may be helpful. If the dystonia is relatively localized, botulinum toxin is an effective but not well-known treatment possibility. If tardive dystonia is more extensive, either dopamine-depleting drugs or high dosages of anticholinergics can be tried.  (+info)

A multicentre randomised study of intrasphincteric botulinum toxin in patients with oesophageal achalasia. GISMAD Achalasia Study Group. (5/98)

BACKGROUND: Intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin (Botx) has been proposed as treatment for oesophageal achalasia. However, the predictors of response and optimal dose remain unclear. AIMS: To compare the effect of different doses of Botx and to identify predictors of response. PATIENTS/METHODS: A total of 118 achalasic patients were randomised to receive one of three doses of Botx in a single injection: 50 U (n=40), 100 U (n=38), and 200 U (n=40). Of those who received 100 U, responsive patients were reinjected with an identical dose after 30 days. Clinical and manometric assessments were performed at baseline, 30 days after the initial injection of botulinum toxin, and at the end of follow up (mean 12 months; range 7-24 months). RESULTS: Thirty days after the initial injection, 82% of patients were considered responders without a clear dose related effect. At the end of follow up however, relapse of symptoms was evident in 19% of patients who received two injections of 100 U compared with 47% and 43% in the 50 U and 200 U groups, respectively. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients in the 100x2 U group were more likely to remain in remission at any time (p<0.04), with 68% (95% CI 59-83) still in remission at 24 months. In a multiple adjusted model, response to Botx was independently predicted by the occurrence of vigorous achalasia (odds ratio 3.3) and the 100x2 U regimen (odds ratio 3.2). CONCLUSIONS: Two injections of 100 U of Botx 30 days apart appeared to be the most effective therapeutic schedule. The presence of vigorous achalasia was the principal determinant of the response to Botx.  (+info)

Botulinum toxin injected in the gastric wall reduces body weight and food intake in rats. (6/98)

BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin is a powerful, long-acting inhibitor of muscular contractions in both voluntary and smooth muscle. It acts by blocking the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In the stomach, propulsive contractions of the antrum are necessary for the gastric contents to pass into the duodenum. AIMS: To investigate whether intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin type A into the gastric antrum of rats would cause a reduction in food intake and hence body weight, by inhibition of gastric emptying. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, 3-way parallel group study in rats. The first group was anaesthetized, laparotomized and given 20 U of botulinum toxin type A by intramuscular injection into the gastric antrum (botulinum toxin type A group, n=14). The second group was anaesthetized, laparotomized and injected with saline (sham group, n=14) and the third group did not have any intervention (control group, n=5). Food intake was measured daily for 7 weeks and body weight was measured daily for 10 weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in loss of body weight between the two treated groups (14.0 +/- 8.2% botulinum toxin type A group, 4.4 +/- 2.7% sham group; P < 0.001). Further, the time to reach the weight nadir was significantly longer in the botulinum toxin type A group (8.7 +/- 3.9 days) compared with the sham group (5.3 +/- 3.8 days; P < 0.04). There were no significant differences between the sham and control groups for any of the body weight parameters. The minimum dietary intake was significantly lower in the botulinum toxin type A group than in the sham group (37.8 +/- 21.8% of the basal value in the botulinum toxin type A group, vs. 65.5 +/- 32.0 in the sham group, P < 0.05). In addition, the time to reach the nadir was significantly prolonged (8.2 +/- 3.5 days, botulinum toxin type A group vs. 4.9 +/- 1.7 days, sham group, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The parallel reduction of body weight and food intake in botulinum toxin type A treated animals is consistent with a long lasting inhibition of the antral pump. This is probably due to slowed gastric emptying leading to early satiety. Patients with morbid obesity might benefit from endoscopic injections of botulinum toxin type A into the stomach wall.  (+info)

Two cases of severe non-specific oesophageal dysmotility showing different response to botulinum injection therapy. (7/98)

We report 2 cases where treatment of achalasia type symptoms due to severe non-specific oesophageal dysmotility have shown symptom resolution and manometric improvement to intrasphincteric botulinum injections either by itself or in combination with oesophageal dilatation.  (+info)

Serotonin facilitates AMPA-type responses in isolated siphon motor neurons of Aplysia in culture. (8/98)

1. Serotonin (5-HT) facilitates the connections between sensory and motor neurons in Aplysia during behavioural sensitization. The effect of 5-HT on sensorimotor synapses is believed to be primarily presynaptic. Here we tested whether 5-HT can have an exclusively postsynaptic facilitatory effect. 2. Siphon motor neurons were individually dissociated from the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia and placed into cell culture. Brief pulses of glutamate, the putative sensory neuron transmitter, were focally applied (0.1 Hz) to solitary motor neurons in culture, and the glutamate-evoked postsynaptic potentials (Glu-PSPs) were recorded. 3. When 5-HT was perfused over the motor neuron for 10 min, the amplitude of the Glu-PSPs was significantly increased. The 5-HT-induced enhancement of the Glu-PSPs persisted for at least 40 min after washout. 4. Prior injection into the motor neuron of the calcium chelator BAPTA, GDP-beta-S or GTP-gamma-S blocked the 5-HT-induced facilitation of the Glu-PSPs. However, the facilitation was not blocked when APV, an NMDA receptor antagonist, was applied together with the 5-HT. 5. The enhancement of the Glu-PSPs by 5-HT was reversed by the AMPA receptor antagonist DNQX, indicating that 5-HT increased the functional expression of AMPA-type receptors in the motor neuron. 6. The presence of botulinum toxin in the motor neuron blocked the 5-HT-induced enhancement of the Glu-PSPs. As botulinum toxin prevents exocytosis we hypothesize that during sensitization 5-HT causes the insertion of additional AMPA-type receptors into the postsynaptic membrane of sensorimotor synapses via exocytosis. This postsynaptic mechanism may contribute to facilitation of the synapses.  (+info)

*Tardive dyskinesia

These agents are associated with fewer neuromotor side effects and a lower risk of developing tardive dyskinesia. Recent ... Ondansetron has shown some benefit in experimental studies on tardive dyskinesia and a variety of anti-Parkinsonian medications ... If tardive dyskinesia is diagnosed, the causative drug should be discontinued. Tardive dyskinesia may persist after withdrawal ... The term "tardive dyskinesia" first came into use in 1964. Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by repetitive, involuntary ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... anti-dyskinesia agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.090.050 --- antiparkinson agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.095 --- antiemetics MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ...

*Hyperkinesia

The most common types of these agents are antipsychotics and anti-nausea agents. The classic form of TD refers to stereotypic ... Tardive dyskinesia or tardive dystonia, both referred to as "TD," refers to a wide variety of involuntary stereotypical ... Quetiapine, sulpiride and olanzapine, the atypical neuroleptic agents, are less likely to yield drug-induced parkinsonism and ... Pharmacological treatments include the typical neuroleptic agents such as fluphenazine, pimozide, haloperidol and perphenazine ...

*Neuropsychopharmacology

... are receptor subtype-specific drugs and other specific agents. An example is the push for better anti-anxiety agents ( ... but cause a variety of dyskinesias by their action on motor cortex. Modern studies are revealing details of mechanisms of ... These SSRI anti-depressant drugs, such as Paxil and Prozac, selectively and therefore primarily inhibit the transport of ... Orexin agonism may explain the anti-narcoleptic action of the drug modafinil which was already being used only a year prior. ...

*Extrapyramidal symptoms

Tardive dyskinesia: involuntary muscle movements in the lower face and distal extremities; this can be a chronic condition ... Other anti-dopaminergic drugs, like the antiemetic metoclopramide, can also result in extrapyramidal side effects. Short and ... Commonly used medications for EPS are anticholinergic agents such as benztropine (Cogentin), diphenhydramine (Benadryl), and ... and tardive dyskinesia (irregular, jerky movements). Antipsychotics are often discontinued due to inefficacy and intolerable ...

*Reserpine

... the Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group in Anti-hypertensive Agents, and the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly ... It was previously used to treat symptoms of dyskinesia in patients suffering from Huntington's disease, but alternative ... Reserpine is listed as an option by the JNC 7. In 1987, reserpine was considered a second-line adjunct agent for patients who ... ISBN 1-59541-101-1. Bhomraj Thanvi, Nelson Lo, and Tom Robinson: Levodopa‐induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: clinical ...

*Dimethylethanolamine

Jeste DV, Wyatt RJ (1982). "Therapeutic strategies against tardive dyskinesia. Two decades of experience". Archives of General ... and it has been tested as a possible therapeutic agent related to a variety of cholinergic functions.[citation needed] DMAE is ... thought to preserve membrane fluidity via anti-oxidative effects, either directly or by preventing formation of Nitroxyl ... Soares KV, McGrath JJ (1999). "The treatment of tardive dyskinesia--a systematic review and meta-analysis". Schizophrenia ...

*Clinical neurochemistry

Bromocriptine is less effective than L-Dopa in reducing symptoms, but provides less dyskinesia. Often, the two drugs are used ... Although aNMDA receptor antagonists and anti-inflammatory drugs were tested in a clinical environment, more promising clinical ... cholinergic agents such as choline and lecithin were hypothesized to augment the progression. However, these attempts were ... can be initiated by inflammatory prostaglandins or leukotrienes and are therefore the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...

*Sydenham's chorea

It has serious potential side-effects, e.g., tardive dyskinesia. In a study conducted at the RFC, 25 out of 39 patients on ... These include: Throat swab Anti-DNAse B blood test Antistreptolysin O (ASO) blood test Further testing may include: Blood tests ... and infectious agents. The health care provider will perform a physical exam. Detailed questions will be asked about the ... Haloperidol is frequently used because of its anti-dopaminergic effect. ...

*Treatment of bipolar disorder

Each anti-convulsant agent has a unique side-effect profile. Valproic acid can frequently cause sedation or gastrointestinal ... Taking antipsychotics for long periods or at high doses can also cause tardive dyskinesia- a sometimes incurable neurological ... It is generally considered a second-line agent due to its side effect profile. Lamotrigine is considered a first-line agent for ... as in 2003 the American Psychiatric Press noted that atypical anti-psychotics should be used as adjuncts to other anti-manic ...

*Parkinson's disease

Agents currently under investigation include anti-apoptotics (omigapil, CEP-1347), antiglutamatergics, monoamine oxidase ... Dyskinesias due to dopamine agonists are rare in younger people who have PD but, along with other complications, become more ... Levodopa-related dyskinesias correlate more strongly with duration and severity of the disease than duration of levodopa ... In such cases it may be helpful to use thickening agents for liquid intake and an upright posture when eating, both measures ...

*Risperidone

Miller R, Chouinard G (Nov 1993). "Loss of striatal cholinergic neurons as a basis for tardive and L-dopa-induced dyskinesias, ... Since risperidone can cause hypotension, its use should be monitored closely when a patient is also taking anti-hypertensive ... On August 22, 2007, risperidone was approved as the only drug agent available for treatment of schizophrenia in youths, ages 13 ... Serious side effects may include the potentially permanent movement disorder tardive dyskinesia, as well as neuroleptic ...

*Pharmaceutical drug

In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... due to serious adverse effects such as tardive dyskinesia. Patients often opposed psychiatry and refused or stopped taking the ... polyenes Anti-inflammatory: NSAIDs, corticosteroids Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ...

*Chlorpromazine

... finding is in agreement with the pharmaceutical development of chlorpromazine and other antipsychotics as anti-histamine agents ... Tardive dyskinesia and akathisia are less commonly seen with chlorpromazine than they are with high potency typical ... Posner, Lysa A.; Burns, Patrick (2009). "Chapter 13: Sedative agents: tranquilizers, alpha-2 agonists, and related agents". In ... It is commonly used to decrease nausea in animals that are too young for other common anti-emetics.[citation needed] It is also ...

*Atypical antipsychotic

It is not possible to truly know the risks of tardive dyskinesia when taking atypicals, because tardive dyskinesia can take ... but clinical experience with these newer agents is not as developed as that with the older agents. The mechanism of these ... The atypical anti-psychotic paliperidone was approved by the FDA in late 2006.[citation needed] The atypical antipsychotics ... One hypothesis as to why atypicals have a lower risk of tardive dyskinesia is because they are much less fat-soluble than the ...

*List of psychotropic medications

... anti-seizure medication) which is sometimes used as a mood stabilizer, anti-anxiety agent or to treat chronic pain, ... This is due to the high occurrence of tardive dyskinesia in patients with prolonged Haldol use. May be used as a last resort ... Klonopin ( clonazepam ) - anti-anxiety and anti-epileptic medication of the benzodiazepine class Lamotrigine ( brand named ... anti-seizure that can also be used as a mood stabilizer Valium ( diazepam )- anti-anxiety medication of the benzodiazepine ...

*Escitalopram

"Citalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 7: CD006534. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... However, dyskinesia, hypertonia, and clonus may occur in some cases. Plasma escitalopram concentrations are usually in a range ...

*Domperidone

... , by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation ( ... tardive dyskinesia, and depression. However, this is not the case with domperidone, because, unlike other D2 receptor ... Furthermore, anti-nausea drugs, such as metoclopramide, which do cross the blood-brain barrier may worsen the extra-pyramidal ... This led to the discovery of domperidone as a strong anti-emetic with minimal central effects. 1978 - On 3 January 1978 ...

*Amantadine

The usefulness of amantadine as an anti-parkinsonian drug is somewhat limited by the need to screen patients for a history of ... An extended release formulation is used to treat dyskinesia, a side effect of levodopa which is taken by people who have ... Amantadine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 1966 as a prophylactic agent against Asian ... approved the use of amantadine in an extended release formulation developed by Adamas Pharma for the treatment of dyskinesia, ...

*Brasofensine

... however development was stopped after in vivo cis-anti isomerization of the 2α-methyloxime group was reported. In animal models ... "The monoamine reuptake blocker brasofensine reverses akinesia without dyskinesia in MPTP-treated and levodopa-primed common ... of the aldehyde meant that it collapsed to the alcohol and was not isolable even though a wide assortment of reducing agents ...

*Adverse effect

"Metoclopramide & Tardive Dyskinesia". Tardive Dyskinesia Center. Archived from the original on March 23, 2013. Retrieved March ... "Can anti-depressants cause sexual dysfunction?". WebMD. May 15, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2013. Tapiainen, T.; Heininger, U. ( ... from vaccines a decade ago the rate of autism has not decreased as would be expected if it had been the causative agent. ... antidepressants Tardive dyskinesia associated with long-term use of metoclopramide and many antipsychotic medications Sometimes ...

*Mucus

Small particles such as dust, particulate pollutants, and allergens, as well as infectious agents and bacteria are caught in ... Impaired mucociliary clearance due to conditions such as primary ciliary dyskinesia may also result in its accumulation in the ... and hence may be treated with anti-inflammatory medications. ... against infectious agents such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. ... In addition to serving a protective function against infectious agents, such mucus provides protection against toxins produced ...

*5-HT3 antagonist

Galanolactone, a diterpenoid found in ginger, is a 5-HT3 antagonist and is believed to at least partially mediate the anti- ... Zullino DF, Eap CB, Voirol P (2001). "Ondansetron for tardive dyskinesia". Am J Psychiatry. 158 (4): 657-8. doi:10.1176/appi. ... Pasricha, Pankaj J. (2006). "Treatment of Disorders of Bowel Motility and Water Flux; Antiemetics; Agents Used in Biliary and ... 1991). "Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3 effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger". Chem Pharm Bull. 39 (2): 397-9. ...

*NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1)

Several anti-tumor agents such as mitosenes, indolequinones, aziridinylbenzoquinones and β-lapachone have been designed be ... Mutations in this gene have been associated with tardive dyskinesia (TD), an increased risk of hematotoxicity after exposure to ... rats and humans indicates their importance in detoxifying agent, since their location facilitates exposure to compounds ...

*Zonisamide

Manufacture and Marketing of the Anti-Epileptic Agent Zonisamide in Asia". Dainippon Pharmaceutical News Releases for 2005. ... In an open-label trial zonisamide attenuated the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. It has also been studied for obesity with ... Zonisamide is an antiseizure drug chemically classified as a sulfonamide and unrelated to other antiseizure agents. The precise ... Stiff, DD; Robicheau JT; Zemaitis MA (January 1992). "Reductive metabolism of the anticonvulsant agent zonisamide, a 1,2- ...

*MALDI imaging

Hanrieder, J.; Ljungdahl, A.; Falth, M.; Mammo, S. E.; Bergquist, J.; Andersson, M. (6 July 2011). "L-DOPA-induced Dyskinesia ... "Reagent Precoated Targets for Rapid In-Tissue Derivatization of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Isoniazid Followed by MALDI Imaging ... "Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry Detection of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent ...
Background: Upper limb function is essential for activities of daily living impacting on quality of life in children with cerebral palsy (CP). In preschool children, dysfunctional upper extremity manipulation not only leads to disability but may further delay global development and substantially increase career burden. Even modest functional improvement could have tremendous long-term benefit in activities of daily living and significantly reduce career burden. Hypertonia is the main symptom causing motor dysfunction in CP. Intramuscular Botulinum toxin injection is one way of treatment. In spite of anecdotal evidence suggesting that early intervention can lead to better outcomes, Israeli physicians are unable to prescribe this treatment for the upper extremities due to limited health insurance coverage. A paucity research evidence is often cited as the reason for limiting the insurance coverage, in particular to the upper limb. We therefore propose to study the effects of Botox® in treating ...
Meige Syndrome is a rare neurological movement disorder (dyskinesia) characterized by spasms of the muscles of the eyelids and associated loss of tone in these eyelid muscles.
Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
Primary cervical dystonia (CD) affects about 20-40/100.000 population. The disease is chronic and life-long. The therapy of choice are local intramuscular Botulinum Toxin injections given every three months. Oral medication such as anticholinergics or dopamine depleting drugs are usually of limited efficacy or their use is limited by intolerable side-effects. About 5-10% of CD patients develop neutralizing antibodies against Botulinum Toxin. Two previous controlled multicenter trials have shown the efficacy and safety of bilateral pallidal stimulation in patients with primary segmental and generalized dystonia (one study was performed by our group).. Following surgery, patients will be randomized 1:1 to verum or placebo stimulation for a period of three months. Primary outcome measure is the TWSTRS (Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale) - a validated and widely accepted physician-based outcome measure for cervical dystonia. The independent TWSTRS raters are movement disorders ...
Repeated botulinum toxin injection for idiopathic overactive bladder: will chemodenervation become a long-term solution?: Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) has emerged
Dysphagia was suspected in 36% of patients with cervical dystonia on the basis of clinical assessment. The incidence of dysphagia increased to 72% on electrophysiological evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing.. Clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluations have also indicated a high incidence of swallowing disorders in patients with cervical dystonia3,4,8,9 before any treatment such as botulinum toxin injection or rhizotomy. The incidence of dysphagia varied between 22 and 100% of patients (mostly over 50%). The incidence of dysphagia increased more significantly after botulinum toxin injection4,10,17-19 and after selective rhizotomy.8,9 Similarly, dysphagia in patients with spasmodic dysphonia has been reported before and after treatment of this condition.1,2,6,7. In our patient groups 11 had pure spasmodic torticollis and 7 had torticollis with generalised dystonia. However, in our 7 patients with oromandibular and laryngeal dystonia there were no abnormal neck movements except in one patient. ...
Botulinum toxin injections may significantly improve lower limb kinematics in gait of children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy. Here we aimed to analyze the effect of lower limb botulinum toxin injections on trunk postural control and lower limb intralimb (intersegmental) coordination in children with spastic diplegia or spastic hemiplegia (GMFCS I or II). We recorded tridimensional trunk kinematics and thigh, shank and foot elevation angles in fourteen 3-12 year-old children with spastic diplegia and 14 with spastic hemiplegia while walking either barefoot or with ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) before and after botulinum toxin infiltration according to a management protocol. We found significantly greater trunk excursions in the transverse plane (barefoot condition) and in the frontal plane (AFO condition). Intralimb coordination showed significant differences only in the barefoot condition, suggesting that reducing the degrees of freedom may limit the emergence of selective coordination. Minimal
Botulinum toxin injections may significantly improve lower limb kinematics in gait of children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy. Here we aimed to analyze the effect of lower limb botulinum toxin injections on trunk postural control and lower limb intralimb (intersegmental) coordination in children with spastic diplegia or spastic hemiplegia (GMFCS I or II). We recorded tridimensional trunk kinematics and thigh, shank and foot elevation angles in fourteen 3-12 year-old children with spastic diplegia and 14 with spastic hemiplegia while walking either barefoot or with ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) before and after botulinum toxin infiltration according to a management protocol. We found significantly greater trunk excursions in the transverse plane (barefoot condition) and in the frontal plane (AFO condition). Intralimb coordination showed significant differences only in the barefoot condition, suggesting that reducing the degrees of freedom may limit the emergence of selective coordination. Minimal
Learn more about Botulinum Toxin Injections -- Medical at Medical City Dallas DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
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Drug induced movement disorders have been described with an increasing frequency since the introduction of chlorpromazine (thorazine) in 1952.1 This and other dopamine receptor blocking drugs, also referred to as neuroleptic drugs, can cause a wide variety of movement disorders.1 20-22 In 1982, Burkeet al,2 comprehensively characterised tardive dystonia as a variant of tardive dyskinesia in 42 patients exposed to neuroleptic drugs. Since then, tardive dystonia has been widely recognised as a separate entity from tardive dyskinesia, and both can manifest at the same time.1-4 7 10 Studies on tardive dystonia have focused on the prevalence of the anatomical areas involved, and its clinical progression.2 3 7 The craniocervical region has been demonstrated as the most common region initially affected in patients with tardive dystonia.1-4 7 As it is relatively common for patients and their family members to be unaware of an exposure to neuroleptic drugs, the presence of suggestive clinical signs that ...
In 2012 one of the first symptoms I developed was severe Oromandibular Dystonia. This meant that my jaw, mouth and tongue go into painful, and often extreme spasms. On these occasions I struggle to speak; this can be due to several factors such as: my tongue spasming and making it impossible to talk, the…
Surgical treatments for dystonia may be an option for individuals whose symptoms do not respond to oral medications or botulinum toxin injections. Researchers are actively refining current techniques and collecting information about which patients may benefit the most from surgical treatments.. There is no single surgical procedure that can be applied to all forms of dystonia. Surgical procedures for dystonia can be divided into two broad categories: brain surgery and peripheral surgery. Peripheral surgery includes procedures that target parts of the body other than the brain.. In both brain and peripheral procedures, the goal of surgery is to interrupt the faulty communication between the brain and muscles that causes involuntary muscle movements. Surgery intends to treat symptoms and improve function but does not cure the underlying condition.. Because dystonia is a chronic disorder, the management of symptoms is an ongoing, lifelong process. Just as medications and botulinum toxin injections ...
C.L.I.M.B.®, an injection training program for Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA). Read Important Safety Information & Boxed Warning.
Botulinum toxin injections,or Botox, are one of the most popular cosmetic treatments in the world, and Snowberrry Lane is proud to offer this service.
Cervical dystonia is a movement disorder affecting your neck. Also known as spasmodic torticollis, this painful condition is most common in women.
Cervical dystonia is a movement disorder affecting your neck. Also known as spasmodic torticollis, this painful condition is most common in women.
Cervical dystonia, known as spasmodic torticollis, is a neurological disorder which causes the neck and shoulder muscles to involuntarily contract and...
Surgical treatment of cervical dystonia (costs for program #205821) ✔ University Hospital Bonn ✔ Department of Neurosurgery ✔ BookingHealth.com
Read clinical results of Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA), FDA-approved botulinum toxin therapy for children (2 & older) w/ LLS. Read Safety Info & Boxed Warning.
Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage
Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Chronic Migraine What is botulinum toxin? Botulinum toxin (Onabotulinum Toxin A) is made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In high doses it can produce muscle paralysis. In low doses, it is used to treat many conditions. Botulinum toxin is a medicine approved by the FDA to prevent chronic migraines. How does it work? It is unclear how botulinum toxin treats chronic migraine. Botulinum toxin injections can cause relaxation of muscles and can block nerve signal transmission. The effects last about 12 weeks. It works best if treatment is done every 12 weeks. It may take more than one treatment to feel the full effect of botulinum toxin therapy. How do I know it will help me? Botulinum toxin treatments are expensive and come with some risk. Both your provider and insurance consider this treatment when less invasive treatments have not worked for you. Botulinum toxin has been found to work well for chronic migraine. Most people (up to 70%) feel ...
Treatment for oromandibular dystonia must be highly customized to the individual. A multitude of oral medications has been studied to determine benefit for people with oromandibular dystonia. About one-third of peoples symptoms improve when treated with oral medications such as Klonapin® (clonazepam), Artane® (trihexyphenidyl), diazepam (Valium®), tetrabenezine, and Lioresal® (baclofen).. Although the symptoms may vary from person to person, approximately 70% of people with oromandibular dystonia experience some reduction of spasm and improvement of chewing and speech after injection of botulinum toxin into the masseter, temporalis, and lateral pterygoid muscles. Botulinum toxin injections are most effective in jaw-closure dystonia, while treating jaw-opening dystonia may be more challenging. Botulinum toxin injections may also be an option for lingual dystonia. Side effects such as swallowing difficulties, slurred speech, and excess weakness in injected muscles may occur, but these side ...
Botulinum toxin injection bilateral rectus femoris, medial hamstrings, and gastrocnemius soleus muscles, phenol neurolysis of bilateral obturator nerves, application of bilateral short leg fiberglass casts.
Acknowledging its growing popularity and the market growth, Market Research Future, recently published a study report - The Global Cervical Dystonia Market. Which indicates that the Market is booming and estimated to gain further prominence over the forecast period. Further MRFR asserts that the Market will demonstrate a massive growth by 2023, phenomenally superseding its previous growth records in terms of value with a whooping CAGR during the anticipated period (2017 - 2023). The Global cervical dystonia market research report is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5% during forecasted period 2017-2023.. Market Research Future published new report, titled "Cervical Dystonia Market -Research Report: Global Forecast till 2023".. The study report worldwide Cervical Dystonia Market covers the market analysis for the regions - North America, Europe, Asia Pacific/ Southeast Asia and Row and country analysis of China, Japan, and India focusing on top manufacturers in world market and the market share they ...
Cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary, abnormal movements and postures of the head and neck. Current views on its pathophysiology, such as faulty sensorimotor integration and impaired motor planning, are largely based on studies of focal hand dystonia. Using resting state fMRI, we explored whether cervical dystonia patients have altered functional brain connectivity compared to healthy controls, by investigating 10 resting state networks.
Abstracts of scientific studies on the use of PEMF with Whiplash:. Evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the treatment of pain in patients with lumbar radiculopathy or the whiplash syndromeBack pain and the whiplash syndrome are very common diseases involving tremendous costs and extensive medical effort. A quick and effective reduction of symptoms, especially pain, is required. In two prospective randomized studies, patients with either lumbar radiculopathy in the segments L5/S1 or the whiplash syndrome were investigated. Inclusion criteria were as follows: either clinically verified painful lumbar radiculopathy in the segments L5/S1 and a Laségues sign of 30 degrees (or more), or typical signs of the whiplash syndrome such as painful restriction of rotation and flexion/extension. Exclusion criteria were prolapsed intervertebral discs, systemic neurological diseases, epilepsy, and pregnancy.. A total of 100 patients with lumbar radiculopathy and 92 with the whiplash syndrome were selected ...
Tweet While secondary lymphedema is caused by blockage or damage to a normally functioning lymphatic system resulting from surgery, radiation, trauma and other known insults, the formation of primary lymphedema is caused by pathology affecting the lymphatic system directly in form of a developmental abnormality, most commonly hypoplasia or hyperplasia involving lymph vessels and/or . . . → Read More: Primary Lymphedema. ...
A disabling form of tardive dystonia and dyskinesia in a young schizophrenic patient is reported. Severe forms of dystonia plus dyskinesia associated with long term neuroleptic exposition are not rare. Although tomographic scans were normal, blood perfusion examination through single photon computed tomography (SPECT) showed basal ganglia hypoperfusion, indicating striatum involvement in this late neuroleptic side effect. The patient was treated with relative success by the association of high doses of propranolol, diazepan and biperiden. A critical discussion about some clinical, neurobiological and treatment issues related to severe forms of tardive dystonia is presented. The association of beta-adrenergic antagonists, gaba agonists and anticholinergic drugs are suggested as a possible alternative for the treatment of this condition ...
Cervical dystonia patients get help with coverage and reimbursement for Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA) from IPSEN CARES®. Read Safety Info & Boxed Warning.
Background: Cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of adult-onset focal dystonia, has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with variable clinical features, leading to difficulties and delays in diagnosis. Owing to the lack of reviews specifically focusing on the frequency of primary CD in the general population, we performed a systematic literature search to examine its prevalence/incidence and analyze methodological differences among studies.
Dysphagia, or swallowing disorder, is a term used to describe the inability to move food from the mouth to the stomach. This condition can accompany a neurological disorder such as stroke, Parkinsons disease, cerebral palsy, Lou Gehrigs Disease, etc., as well as bacterial, viral, or fungal infections. Dysphagia can occur at any of the 3 stages of swallowing: oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal.. Depending on the type of swallowing disorder, changing a persons diet by adding thickeners and physical therapy may help alleviate the problem in noninvasive ways. Sometimes drug therapy helps relieve symptoms of the underlying neurological cause and thus relieves the swallowing problems. Less commonly, botulinum toxin injections can be used when food or liquid cannot enter the esophagus. Severely affected individuals may require surgery or feeding tubes.. Next >>. ...
2) Even small amounts of participation is appreciated: This works better for first year students who often have little clinical experience, but I think it does help even with more experienced learners. In the botulinum toxin injection clinic, I will have the students only observe for the first day or so. After that I have them clean the injection area with alcohol swabs, and hook up the EMG ground and reference leads. Although that doesnt sound like much, for a student, it makes them understand that they are being helpful and are a valued part of your team. In truth, it does make things go faster as it takes about the same amount of time to wash my hands as it does to prep the patient for the injections. As possible, I also try to let the students do one injection in a relatively straight forward site by the end of the ten weeks. It doesnt always work out that a good patient/ injection works out on the last day of the rotation. But, even doing one injection for a student is potentially a big ...
Drooping of the eyelid, or ptosis, is a side effect of botulinum toxin injections, which can be caused by poor injection technique. Dr Zahida Butt describes the side effects and contraindications using apraclonidine, or Iopidine, to treat Botox-induced ptosis. ...
The following tests and treatments are some of the most common tests and treatments offered by specialists in this area. These specialists offer many other advanced tests and treatments for a wide range of medical problems. Please call (888) 352-RUSH (7874) if you have questions about specific tests or treatments not listed here. Bone Scan Botulinum Toxin Injections
Researchers have identified a gene that causes adult-onset primary cervical dystonia, an often-painful condition in which patients necks twist involuntarily. The discovery by a team from the Jacksonville, Fla., campus of ...
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1 Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment For Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Jaw-Opening Oromandibular Dystonia Karen Gisotti DO 1, Scott Fuchs DO 1, Gilbert Siu DO PhD 1, Sooja Cho MD 2, C.R. Sridhara MD 1,2 1 Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 2 MossRehab, Elkins Park, PA ABSTRACT Setting: Tertiary care rehabilitation center and electrodiagnostic laboratory Patient: 18-year-old female with severe traumatic brain injury. Case: 18-year-old female with severe traumatic brain injury due to a motor vehicle collision who sustained a right subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury along with right orbital and mandible fractures and remained minimally responsive at admission. She had upper motor neuron syndrome, severe spasticity, and hyperreflexia with minimal voluntary control. The patient also presented with severe jaw-closing impairment, which affected her oral hygiene, swallowing mobility, and speech presentation. Electrodiagnostic studies ...
Objective: To determine the safety and the self-reported efficacy of botulinum toxin injections for adult spasticity in current clinical practice. Design: A prospective observational study. Subjects: A total of 406 adult patients with focal spasticit
... guidelines consider various factors, which this eMedTV page lists. This page also explains how the drug works to treat different conditions and offers tips on when and how to take your botulinum toxin type A injection.
May 16, 2015 at 1:53 AM CONSIDERING RECEIVING BOTOX OR DYSPORT INJECTIONS? Please read this first. I do not have a personal agenda. I am not a member of PETA or any other activist organization. I am an intelligent, educated, responsible and rational person. I do not have anything against anyone who wants to use injectables or any other treatment for anti-aging. I used to be one of those people.. I have had plastic surgery, fillers and, yes, botulinum toxin injections (ie Botox). I was not a "junkie"….just a normal person that wanted to try and slow the age clock….just a little. I was scared to get my first injection, we perhaps all were just a little. And…..my first experience with an botulinum toxin product was fine. I actually loved the result. But….when it came time for the next….even though my injector was an experienced, very well-known board certified physician and a leader in the field…..something went terribly wrong. And I am here to tell you…..THIS CAN HAPPEN TO ...
The Australasian College of Cosmetic Surgery estimated that 1.5 million botulinum toxin injections or 250,000 wrinkle reduction procedures were administered in Australia in 2009. These figures are 30% higher than those reported for 2008. With the need for further and ongoing treatment in those who have previously received injections and the promise of new customers, these numbers are expected to double over the next five years. There are two formulations of botulinum toxin available for injection in Australia: • BOTOX® • DYSPORT® Both are purified from the toxic bacterium, Clostridium botulinum. This bacterium has a claim to fame as the cause of the rare but serious condition known as botulism. In this condition, ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium or the toxins it produces, leads to progressive paralysis.. This usually starts with the muscles of the face and eyes and then spreads progressively over the body. It affects the face and eyes first because these are among ...
In managing patients with spasticity, especially when injecting botulinum toxin, there is one motto that holds true. Its that the more one thinks he knows the more there really is to learn. Whether it is patient criteria, medication use or muscle selection for injection, nothing is as straight forward as it seems.. It is the goal of this article to review the factors that form the basis for selection of botulinum toxin therapy in adult patients. The features of botulinum type A and type B will be compared. Finally, techniques and resources available to the clinician in determining when botulinum might be effective and in which muscles will be introduced.. When considering spasticity management the physician needs to take into account the patients physical presentation as well as the goals that they and their care providers have. Positive symptoms of upper motor syndrome include spasticity, heightened reflexes, clonus, and synergy patterns of movement.. Negative symptoms include weakness and ...
The basics of Botulinum Toxin (BT) are important to understand when considering injections. Botulinum toxin (BT) is a safe neuromodulator agent.
Looking for online definition of Meige's disease in the Medical Dictionary? Meige's disease explanation free. What is Meige's disease? Meaning of Meige's disease medical term. What does Meige's disease mean?
achalasia - MedHelps achalasia Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for achalasia. Find achalasia information, treatments for achalasia and achalasia symptoms.
Cervical Dystonia (CD) is a condition associated with abnormal movements of the neck and head, which may result in considerable pain and discomfort. Academic Network conducted a clinical trial recruitment campaign for a new medication for CD by a
Common adverse reactions for Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA) in adults with cervical dystonia. Read Important Safety Information & Boxed Warning.
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) (Botox®, Myobloc™, Dysport®, Xeomin™) is a naturally occurring toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium.
The treatment for achalasia changed dramatically after the introduction of minimally invasive surgery. Since 1991, laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) has replaced pneumatic dilatation (PD) as the primary form of treatment in many centers. Over time, PD became safer, and eventually endoscopic experts were able to perform an endoscopic myotomy via a per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Ultimately, the best outcomes are obtained by a multidisciplinary team that can tailor a specific treatment to each individual patient.
Edema, particularly severe below the waist, develops about the time of puberty. Meige (1898) described 8 cases in 4 generations without male-to-male transmission. Goodman (1962) reported the condition in 2 sisters and a brother with presumed normal parents who were not known to be related. Herbert and Bowen (1983) described a kindred with many cases of lymphedema of postpubertal onset. Involvement of the upper limbs (as well as the lower limbs), face, and larynx and, in one, a persistent pleural effusion were notable features. Scintilymphangiography indicated paucity or absence of lymph nodes in the axillae and above the inguinal ligaments. Chronic facial swelling resulted in a characteristic appearance of affected members including puffiness, shiny skin, deep creases, and, in some, excessive wrinkling. Emerson (1966) noted similar facial features and remarked on the possible erroneous diagnosis of myxedema. Herbert and Bowen (1983) noted the difficulties of nosology. For example, because ...
Treating rosacea symptoms with botox is a new and potentially interesting area. There isnt a lot of published information relating to the efficacy of treating rosacea with botox. Here is one paper that looks useful. Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Facial Flushing, Dermatologic Surgery, Volume 30, Number 1, January 2004, pp. 102-104, Melanie Yuraitis, MS, and […]. ...
Producer of Botulinum Toxin type A, offers information on treatment and answers to common questions, a searchable list of physicians, surveys, testimonials, and beauty tips. ...
Scientists have discovered the first new form of botulinum toxin in over 40 years, but they're taking the unusual step of keeping key details about it
Scientists have discovered the first new form of botulinum toxin in over 40 years, but theyre taking the unusual step of keeping key details about it
Aired: July 13, 2016 Marco is one of the few people who suffer from a rare genetic form of dystonia or movement disorder called X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism, which can only be found in ...
Esophagography shows the typical beaking appearance of the esophago-gastric junction and dilatation of the proximal esophagus (A). After pneumatic dilatation, t
Tardive Tourretism - MedHelps Tardive Tourretism Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Tardive Tourretism. Find Tardive Tourretism information, treatments for Tardive Tourretism and Tardive Tourretism symptoms.
Nursing management of achalasia - Has anyone heard of achalasia? Achalasia. This is a narrowing of the esophagus which can be very painful. Sometimes it can be treated by dilating the esophagus to reduce the pain and narrowing. You should see a gastroenterologist for further treatment.
The tear in the skin around the opening of the anus is referred to anal fissure. Basically, associated with pain this disorder can cause bleeding during bowel movements.
Tardive Dysphrenia - MedHelps Tardive Dysphrenia Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Tardive Dysphrenia. Find Tardive Dysphrenia information, treatments for Tardive Dysphrenia and Tardive Dysphrenia symptoms.
Botox is a most widely used way to non-surgically correct mimic wrinkles. Now you can have the injection up to 3 times cheaper on a medical tourism trip!
Vidant Health - Achalasia is a disorder that affects your esophagus, which is the swallowing tube that connects the back of your throat to your stomach.
... is a disease that makes it hard to eat and drink normally. It affects your esophagus, which is the swallowing tube that connects the back of your throat to your stomach.
Learn more about Achalasia at Grand Strand Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision .....
... is a disease that makes it hard to eat and drink normally. It affects your esophagus, which is the swallowing tube that connects the back of your throat to your stomach.
Learn more about Achalasia at Largo Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
... is a disease that makes it hard to eat and drink normally. It affects your esophagus, which is the swallowing tube that connects the back of your throat to your stomach.
Learn more about Achalasia at TriStar Health DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Achalasia at Sky Ridge Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Chorea is associated with a number of causes, some temporary and some chronic. Here are some common causes of chorea you should know of.
Kuo, in a study assessing whether suburothelial injection of different doses of botulinum toxin A would have a similar therapeutic effect to but less side effects than the use of 200 U botulinum toxin... more
The bottom line?. The authors concluded: "This study suggests a potentially meaningful role for zinc and/or phytase supplementation in increasing the degree and duration of botulinum toxin effect in the treatment of cosmetic facial rhytids, benign essential blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm.". When a skeletal muscle nerve ending is stimulated it releases acetylcholine, which triggers an impulse to the muscle. Botulinum toxin blocks release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. As shown in the photo above, zinc is part of the botulinum toxin structure. A more detailed explanation is here.. Phytases are enzymes that increase zinc absorption from the intestines, making more available in the circulation and at the botulinum toxin site of action.. This study is important because it shows that taking more zinc may increase the response and duration of effect of "Botox" type drugs. This may be particularly useful for patients who experience a decline in response over time.. 4/10/13 9:28 ...
Botulinum Toxin Type A directory ☆ Botulinum Toxin Type A manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Botulinum Toxin Type A buyers, importers, wholesalers, distributors
Treatment options for dystonia are not curative but symptomatic; the treatment of choice for focal dystonias is repeated botulinum toxin injections. Here, we present the case of a 46-year-old beautician with focal dystonia in her left hand that affected her ability to work. Pharmacological treatment with clonazepam and gabapentin failed to resolve her symptoms and was discontinued due to side effects (sleepiness, gastrointestinal disorders). Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (incobotulinumtoxinA, Xeomin) into the extensor digitorum communis (35 U), flexor carpi radialis (35 U), and flexor digitorum superficialis (30 U) muscles resulted in complete resolution of symptoms at clinical assessments at 1, 3, 6, and 10 months after the injections, confirmed by the results of surface electromyography 10 months after treatment. The patient was able to work again 1 month after treatment. No reinjection has been necessary at the last evaluation (12 months after treatment). In
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Use of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Healing of Thyroidectomy Wounds. T2 - A Randomized, Prospective, Placebo-Controlled Study. AU - Phillips, Timothy James. AU - Fung, Elaine. AU - Rigby, Matthew H.. AU - Burke, Emily. AU - Hart, Robert D.. AU - Trites, Jonathan R.B.. AU - Gassner, Holger G.. AU - Taylor, S. Mark. PY - 2019/2/1. Y1 - 2019/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that botulinum toxin type A may have an inhibitory effect on the formation of fibroblasts and thus possibly decreases the severity of scar formation. Therefore, a trial was designed to assess the effects of botulinum toxin type A on scar formation after thyroid surgery. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was designed. All patients underwent a preoperative survey to assess scar history. All patients underwent a total thyroidectomy, hemithyroidectomy, or parathyroidectomy through a standardized incision. At the conclusion of the case, one half of the incision was injected ...
The goal of treating achalasia is to disrupt and open the lower esophageal valve to improve esophageal emptying and relieve symptoms. Unfortunately, no treatment is available to promote the return of peristalsis.. The best treatments for healthy patients are pneumatic dilatation or laparoscopic Heller myotomy. Frail or elderly patients may do well with botulinum toxin (Botox) injections.. Treatment markedly relieves symptoms, but is rarely curative. Overall, the success of both the pneumatic dilation and heller myotomy procedures is 80%-90% and dependent on the skills of the operator. Retreatment may be required and alternative treatments may be needed.. Pneumatic dilatation - This procedure involves upper GI endoscopy with the passage of various size balloons to tear the esophagus from within, opening the valve. The procedure is done with conscious sedation and takes about 30 minutes, with a loss of one day of activity. The major complication, esophageal perforation (hole in the esophagus), is ...
Meiges syndrome is a type of dystonia. It is also known as Brueghels syndrome and oral facial dystonia. It is actually a combination of two forms of dystonia, blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia (OMD). When OMD is combined with blepharospasm, it may be referred to as Meiges Syndrome named after Henri Meige, the French neurologist who first described the symptoms in detail in 1910. The symptoms usually begin between the ages of 30 and 70 years old and appear to be more common in women than in men (2:1 ratio). The combination of upper and lower dystonia is sometimes called cranial-cervical dystonia. The incidence is about one case in 20,000 people. Oromandibular Symptoms difficulty opening the mouth (trismus) clenching or grinding of the teeth (bruxism) spasms of jaw opening sideways deviation or protrusion of the jaw lip tightening and pursing drawing back (retraction) of the corners of the mouth deviation or protrusion of the tongue. jaw pain difficulties eating and drinking difficulties ...
Dystonia nurses are general nurses who have a detailed knowledge and understanding of dystonia and its management. They provide vital continuity of care as they often see the same patient at each visit and their clinic slots are frequently longer than those of a neurologist. Whitaker et al (2001) states that nurse practitioners provide a more flexible, much appreciated, safe and cost-effective service for this client group. Wider use of outreach nurse practitioners should therefore be encouraged.. Some dystonia nurses are trained to give botulinum toxin injections either in the clinic or as an outreach service. Through continuity, they can learn the specifics of each patients treatment, including how best to site the injections for maximal effect with lowest dose. Dystonia nurses are sometimes also able to adjust the dose of botulinum toxin within agreed parameters, if necessary seeking advice from the consultant through agreed protocols (Whitaker et al (2001)). Other dystonia nurses provide ...
Botulinum toxin is one of the most toxic natural substances; it acts by blocking the neuromuscular transmission by inhibiting Acetylcholine (Ach) releasing from the motor nerve into the neuromuscular junction. Although the toxin inhibits ACh release, other transmitters can also be inhibited. Botulinum toxin, specifically toxin type A (BONT-A) has been used since the 1970s to treat many different disorders, such as general spasticity resulting from stroke, multiple sclerosis or cerebral palsy, strabismus, hyperhidrosis or excessive sweating, pain, and it is effective in combating migraine and tension headaches. Since prostate gland is under the influence of autonomic innervation and associated neurotransmitters, the effects of BONT-A on the prostate have gained attention in the urological community and it has been studied in different species, including rats, dogs and humans. The aim of this paper is to review the mechanism of action of botulinum toxin and to discuss in particular the results of ...
As this eMedTV page explains, if youre using incobotulinumtoxinA to treat eyelid spasms, your dosage will be based on how much Botox you were using. This resource also lists general dosing guidelines for incobotulinumtoxinA.
The efficacy and safety of XEOMIN for the treatment of upper limb spasticity were evaluated in two Phase 3, randomized, multi-center, double-blind studies.. Study 1 and Study 2 were both prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multi-center trials with an open-label extension period (OLEX) to investigate the efficacy and safety of XEOMIN in the treatment of post-stroke spasticity of the upper limb. For patients who had previously received botulinum toxin treatment in any body region, Study 1 and Study 2 required that ≥ 12 months and ≥ 4 months, respectively, had passed since the most recent botulinum toxin administration.. Study 1 consisted of a 12-week main phase followed by three 12-week OLEX treatment cycles for a total exposure duration of 48 weeks. The study included 317 treatment-naïve patients who were at least three months post-stroke in the main study period (210 XEOMIN and 107 placebo). During the main period, XEOMIN (fixed total dose of 400 Units) and placebo ...
REFERENCES. Amirali, A.; Mu, L.; Gracies, J. M. & Simpson, D. M. Anatomical localization of motor endplate bands in the human biceps brachii. J. Clin. Neuromuscul. Dis., 9(2):306-12, 2007. [ Links ] Borodic, G. E.; Ferrante, R.; Pearce, L. B. & Smith, K. Histologic assessment of dose-related diffusion and muscle fiber response after therapeutic botulinum A toxin injections. Mov. Disord., 9(1):31-9, 1994. [ Links ] Chae, J.; Mascarenhas, D.; Yu, D. T.; Kirsteins, A.; Elovic, E. P.; Flanagan, S. R.; Harvey, R. L.; Zorowitz, R. D. & Fang, Z. P. Poststroke shoulder pain: its relationship to motor impairment, activity limitation, and quality of life. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 88(3):298-301, 2007. [ Links ] Childers, M. K. Targeting the neuromuscular junction in skeletal muscles. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 83(10 Suppl.):S38-44, 2004. [ Links ] Childers, M. K.; Kornegay, J. N.; Aoki, R.; Otaviani, L. & Petroski, G. Evaluating motor end-plate-targeted injections of botulinum toxin type A in a canine ...
Study of Uveitis and JRA Children are needed for a study of the safety and effectiveness of the drug etanercept (Enbrel) against a placebo. If your child has uveitis associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, call 1-800-411-1222 (TTY 1-866-411-1010). The study take place at the Clinical Center. All study-related tests and medications are provided at no charge. Study of Dystonia Researchers at NIH are conducting a study to determine if amlodipine can improve the effects of botulinum toxin injections for individuals with cervical or focal hand dystonia. Call 1-800-411-1222 (TTY: 1-866-411-1010). Do You Have Keloids? If you and your family members have keloids, call 1-800-411-1222 for more information. Compensation available to those who take part in an NIH study. 13-Week Weight Management Program The Uniformed Services University is looking for overweight, healthy African American women between the ages of 18-55 who are not pregnant to participate in a weight management program as part of an ...
Our findings of increased reporting of diffuse symptoms from all body parts among chronic whiplash sufferers and the positive linear association between time since whiplash injury and frequency of somatic symptoms are hard to explain within the organic model. The findings are more compatible with, and indicative evidence of, a functional element within chronic whiplash. However, other explanations may also be relevant.. In line with previous studies [4, 7, 16, 17, 19, 59-61], the most frequent symptoms amongst chronic whiplash sufferers were headache, dizziness and neck pain/joint-muscle pain. Somatic symptoms beyond headache, dizziness and joint/muscle pain have not previously been as thoroughly explored in the literature. Some studies have found increased levels of gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, shortness of breath and sleep disturbances [15, 21], but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the entire range of somatic symptoms included in the ICD-10 ...
Miami is not only a colorful city with an exciting ocean and clean air, but its also the undisputed leader in providing cutting-edge cosmetology services. The most popular experts from across the country secure classic and innovative technologies and extremely high service are here for you! What could be better than to pamper yourself with beauty treatments in the atmosphere of the most famous resort in the world? Choose the best!. Botulinum toxin injections.. This procedure «erases the age out of your face». Injections smooth the horizontal forehead wrinkles, creases between the eyebrows and «crows feet», lift the corners of the mouth.. Injections of hyaluronic acid.. This fills and levels the wrinkles and nasolabial furrows, increases the lips volume. Its used in those face areas not available to Botulinum.. Peelings.. All the modern peeling types are the face cleaning procedures completely removing the top layers of hard skin. Youll get a silky smooth skin tone, without wrinkles and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Botulinum toxin A for lower facial contouring. T2 - A prospective study. AU - Yu, Chung Chih. AU - Chen, Philip Kuo Ting. AU - Chen, Yu Ray. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - Background: A prominent mandibular angle is a common reason for aesthetic treatment among Asian women. Such women usually present with hypertrophic masseteric muscles, and one treatment for this uses botulinum toxin A (BoNTA). Detailed effectiveness and physiologic influences of this therapy are still under investigation. Methods: The authors report a prospective study of 10 female volunteers with hypertrophic masseteric muscles who received a single treatment comprising intramuscular injection of BoNTA. The facial change and the discomfort of the injection were self-rated using a visual analog scale, and the patients were regularly inspected up to 1 year. Bite forces also were measured for chronological documentation. Volume changes of masticating muscles were evaluated by three-dimensional computed ...
The Toxin . . . . . . . Tips and Tricks . . . . . . References . . . . . . . 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 24 24 The requirements and rules are basically the same for every aesthetic procedure. The following list is not intended to give a complete overview but to give some hopefully helpful advice when treating aesthetic indications with botulinum toxin (BNT). 2 Documentation A thorough documentation of all treatment-related data is highly recommended. Besides being useful for legal and billing reasons, thorough documentation will help to improve ones own performance and thus patients satisfaction, too. Botulinum toxin is a powerful agent for the upper third: it can erase wrinkles, lift the eyebrows and improve the eye contour. If the patient presents severe photo-damage, the skin of the three thirds is compromised and what can be improved in the skin appearance in the upper third, can barely be achieved in the lower and even less in the mid third. The question that should be asked now ...
Shop Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Whiplash is a type of neck strain that occurs when the head is forced backward and then forward. This is also known as cervical acceleration-deceleration injury. It arises when the body is in motion and then suddenly stops with the head whipping back and forth at the neck due to this instantaneous change in speed. This causes stretching and even tearing of the ligaments, muscles and tendons.. There can also be intervertebral disc and facet joint injury. In severe cases the bones may also be involved and whiplash can lead to fractures. In addition there is usually some degree of injury to the nerves in the area, such as compression, stretching and so on. Along with the neck injury, whiplash is often accompanied by a concussion. This is a result of the brain striking the inside of the skull with the sudden and forceful head movements.. Read more on whiplash and concussion.. ...
Coleman, C., Chang, S., Copley-Merriman, K., Masaquel, C. J., & Hubble, J. (2011, May). Health-Related Quality-of-Life Improvements With Dysport in Cervical Dystonia. Presented at ISPOR 16th Annual International Meeting, .. ...
Get this from a library! Botulinum toxin A for spasticity and associated pain following damage to the central nervous system : clinical and cost effectiveness and guidelines for use. [Sarah Ndegwa; Carolyn Spry; Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Health Technology Inquiry Service.]
Find out more information about the myths and fact about Botulinum Toxin (Botox) and its uses. Visit Harley Street MD website today!
Learn about a treatment for moderate to severe pain of chronic anal fissure. View Important Risk Information and full Prescribing Information for RECTIV.
Botulinum toxin may help prevent shaking or tremor in the arms and hands of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), according to new research published in the July 3, 2012, print issue of Neurology.
Dr Nikola Milojevic explains how dermal fillers, botulinum toxin and plasma can be used to address the signs of ageing in the upper and lower eye. ...
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Botulinum toxin (BTX) is used in various fields of medicine, including the treatment of hyperhidrosis and cervical dystonia. Botox®, Dysport®, Xeomin® and NeuroBloc® are commercially available BTX products, which are formulated differently and their dosing units are unique. Dosage and concentration of the prepared solution for injection varies considerably among studies comparing the products. Improved guidelines on concentration and dosing when changing from one product to another are warranted. This would ensure the use of the lowest effective doses for good effect, minimal risk of antibody formation and side-effects as well as reduced costs.. The aim of the present work was to find the most appropriate BTX concentration for each of the four products to achieve the highest sweat reducing effect and to investigate dose conversion ratios between Botox and Dysport in the treatment of cervical dystonia when the products are diluted to the same concentration, 100 U/ml.. Paper I and II clearly ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
After receiving Botulinum Toxin injections, there will be some muscle tenderness. But that will disappear almost immediately after your treatment. There may also be mild temporary bruising, numbness or redness around the injection sites. Since Botulinum Toxin treatment is nonsurgical and noninvasive, you will be able to return to normal activities immediately. However, it is important that you do not rub or massage the area that has been injected with Botulinum Toxin. Avoiding this will help to prevent the spreading of the toxin to other muscle groups. You should also remain upright for several hours after the procedure, while also limiting physical activities immediately following. If you suffer from TMD or headaches, now is the time to stand up as seek further treatment for relief. Contact Dr. Patel at Craniofacial Pain & Dental Sleep Center of Georgia for more information on Botulinum Toxin (Botox) injections for TMD and headache treatment. ...
Abductor spasmodic dysphonia (ABSD) occurs in 15% of persons affected with spasmodic dysphonia. This form of spasmodic dysphonia is less well understood than adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), and persons with this disorder do not receive as much benefit from botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX®) treatment as do those affected with ADSD (Blitzer, Brin, & Stewart, 1998). This is the topic that I was asked to address in this report. To do so, I will spend some time discussing what is known about the symptoms, the treatment responses of persons with ABSD to BOTOX®, and what is known about the pathophysiology underlying the symptoms of this form of spasmodic dysphonia. In conclusion, better understanding of the pathophysiology is needed in order to design better treatments for the disorder ...

Cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: update 2008-11 | ThoraxCystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: update 2008-11 | Thorax

Mannitol is an osmotic agent that has recently been evaluated as an inhaled therapy in CF. The theoretical mechanism of action ... Tramper-Stranders et al investigated an alternative approach-namely, the use of regular prophylactic courses of anti- ... Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a consensus statement on diagnostic and treatment approaches in children. Eur Respir J 2009;34:1264 ... Primary ciliary dyskinesia. PCD refers to a group of autosomal recessive conditions causing impaired function of the ...
more infohttp://thorax.bmj.com/content/67/7/645

Kartagener Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical TrialsKartagener Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

Anti-Asthmatic Agents. 6. Antioxidants. 7. Autonomic Agents. 8. Bronchodilator Agents. 9. Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing ... ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 1 30.7. ARMC4 CCDC103 CCDC114 CCDC151 CCDC40 DNAAF1 2. primary ciliary dyskinesia 29.8. ARMC4 ... Diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. Completed. NCT00783887 7. Otolith Function in Patients With Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia ... NIOX VERO Nasal Application in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. Completed. NCT02622061 11. Dyskinesia, Heterotaxy and Congenital ...
more infohttp://www.malacards.org/card/kartagener_syndrome

Dr. Martin Lerners Treatment Protocol for ME/CFSDr. Martin Lerner's Treatment Protocol for ME/CFS

Cefotaxime may be substituted for ceftriaxone in the case of biliary dyskinesia. If there is biliary dyskinesia, Unasyn, or ... Agents Barry, Thomas F. et al: Venable LLP, P.O. Box 3485 Washington, DC 20043-9998 (US). This patent differentiates Group A ... Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titer ≥400 units - Lab Corp, Dublin, OH Note Lyme and Lyme co-infections can be elusive. Lyme disease ... Below is his guide to treating patients with ME/CFS using antimicrobial agents. He also includes the roster of tests he uses ...
more infohttp://cfstreatment.blogspot.co.uk/2015/04/dr-martin-lerners-treatment-protocol.html

procyclidine (CHEBI:8448)procyclidine (CHEBI:8448)

antidyskinesia agent Any compound which can be used to treat or alleviate the symptoms of dyskinesia. ... procyclidine (CHEBI:8448) has role antidyskinesia agent (CHEBI:66956) procyclidine (CHEBI:8448) has role antiparkinson drug ( ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:8448

L-dopa (CHEBI:15765)L-dopa (CHEBI:15765)

antidyskinesia agent Any compound which can be used to treat or alleviate the symptoms of dyskinesia. ... L-dopa (CHEBI:15765) has role antidyskinesia agent (CHEBI:66956) L-dopa (CHEBI:15765) has role antiparkinson drug (CHEBI:48407 ... L-dopa (CHEBI:15765) has role dopaminergic agent (CHEBI:48560) L-dopa (CHEBI:15765) has role hapten (CHEBI:59174) L-dopa (CHEBI ... dopaminergic agent A drug used for its effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:15765

Long-Term Dopamine Transporter Imaging and Clinical Assessment of Parkinson's Disease Progression - Full Text View -...Long-Term Dopamine Transporter Imaging and Clinical Assessment of Parkinson's Disease Progression - Full Text View -...

Antiparkinson Agents. Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. Dopamine Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00134784?term=%22Parkinson

A Trial of Memantine as Symptomatic Treatment for Early Huntington Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govA Trial of Memantine as Symptomatic Treatment for Early Huntington Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antiparkinson Agents. Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. Dopamine Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... Dyskinesias. Movement Disorders. Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System. Neurodegenerative Diseases. Genetic Diseases, ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01458470?cond=%22Huntington+disease%22&rank=18

Prophylactic Effect of Memantine in Chronic Tension-Type Headache - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govProphylactic Effect of Memantine in Chronic Tension-Type Headache - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antiparkinson Agents. Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. Dopamine Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00315666

Effect of tDCS on Cognition, Symptoms in Chronic Schizophrenia Patients With Tardive DyskinesiaEffect of tDCS on Cognition, Symptoms in Chronic Schizophrenia Patients With Tardive Dyskinesia

Anti-dyskinesia Agents. Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or ... and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ... If you are a legal copyright holder or a designated agent for such and you believe a post on this website falls outside the ... Tardive Dyskinesia. Drug-related movement disorder characterized by uncontrollable movements in certain muscles. It is ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/204919/Effect-of-tDCS-on-Cognition-Symptoms-in-Chronic-Schizophrenia-Patients-With-Tardive.html

Neuromuscular Agents
      - Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
     Summary Report | CureHunterNeuromuscular Agents - Skeletal Muscle Relaxants Summary Report | CureHunter

Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS. ... Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING ... AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). ... Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD009465-Neuromuscular-Agents-Skeletal-Muscle-Relaxants.do

ChemIDplus - 7101-51-1 - XBBDACCLCFWBSI-ZETCQYMHSA-N - Melevodopa [INN] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas,...ChemIDplus - 7101-51-1 - XBBDACCLCFWBSI-ZETCQYMHSA-N - Melevodopa [INN] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas,...

Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. *. Antiparkinson Agents. *. Central Nervous System Agents. *. Drug / Therapeutic Agent ...
more infohttps://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/7101-51-1

Clinical Trial | Dexpramipexole Japanese Pharmacokinetics StudyClinical Trial | Dexpramipexole Japanese Pharmacokinetics Study

Protective Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antiparkinson Agents. Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. Central Nervous System Agents ...
more infohttp://comparetrials.com/compare-clinical-trials/dexpramipexole-japanese-pharmacokinetics-study

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

anti-dyskinesia agents - therapeutic use (68) 68 Filter by. Remove filter. botox (67) 67 ... neuromuscular agents - administration & dosage (84) 84 Filter by. Remove filter. botulinum toxins, type a - adverse effects (83 ... Neuromuscular Agents - adverse effects , Aged, 80 and over , Adult , Female , Aged , Retrospective Studies , Botulinum Toxins, ... Neuromuscular Agents - chemistry , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Middle Aged , Botulinum Toxins, Type A - chemistry , Eyelids ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Blepharospasm

Antiparkinson Agents | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystAntiparkinson Agents | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Central Nervous System Agents [D27.505.954.427]. *Anti-Dyskinesia Agents [D27.505.954.427.090] ... Agents used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the ... "Antiparkinson Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antiparkinson Agents" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Antiparkinson%20Agents

N Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineN Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS. MeSH ... Neuromuscular Agents (61) • Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal ... Nicotinic Agents (0) see Cholinergic Agents. Nicotinic Agonists (8) • Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic ... Nicotinic Effect (0) see Cholinergic Agents. Nitric Oxide Donors (20) • A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/drug/categories/n

A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineA Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Anti-Dyskinesia Agents (54) • Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or ... Anti-Mycobacterial Agents (0) see Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Obesity Agents (24) • Agents that increase energy expenditure and ... Anti-Anxiety Effect (0) see Anti-Anxiety Agents. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents (153) • Agents used for the treatment or prevention of ... Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal (251) • Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti- ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/drug/categories

Medications that cause Tardive Dyskinesia - Brain and Spinal CordMedications that cause Tardive Dyskinesia - Brain and Spinal Cord

Anti-Parkinsons Agents. Parkinsons patients are especially prone to develop tardive dyskinesia and should use caution when ... Anti-cholinergics. Anti-cholinergics (anti-spasmodics) are class of medications prescribed for respiratory problems such as ... Other medications not included here can also cause tardive dyskinesia.. Neuroleptics. Neuroleptics (anti-psychotics) are ... The anti-malarial drug Chlorquine (brand name: Aralen) can cause tardive dyskinesia. ...
more infohttps://www.brainandspinalcord.org/medications-cause-tardive-dyskinesia/

Prochlorperazine Suppository - FDA prescribing information, side effects and usesProchlorperazine Suppository - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

There is no known effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia; anti-parkinsonism agents do not alleviate the symptoms of this ... Tardive Dyskinesia: As with all antipsychotic agents, tardive dyskinesia may appear in some patients on long-term therapy or ... In most cases these symptoms are readily controlled when an anti-parkinsonism agent is administered concomitantly. Anti- ... Treatment with anti-parkinsonian agents, benzodiazepines or propranolol may be helpful.. Extrapyramidal Symptoms. Dystonia. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/pro/prochlorperazine-suppository.html

Diffusion, spread, and migration of botulinum toxin.  - PubMed - NCBIDiffusion, spread, and migration of botulinum toxin. - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-Dyskinesia Agents*/metabolism. *Anti-Dyskinesia Agents*/pharmacology. *Anti-Dyskinesia Agents*/therapeutic use ... Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is an acetylcholine release inhibitor and a neuromuscular blocking agent used for the treatment of a ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868503?dopt=Abstract

DailyMed - TRIFLUOPERAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE- trifluoperazine hydrochloride tablet, film coatedDailyMed - TRIFLUOPERAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE- trifluoperazine hydrochloride tablet, film coated

There is no known effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia; anti-parkinsonism agents do not alleviate the symptoms of this ... these symptoms are readily controlled when an anti-parkinsonism agent is administered concomitantly. Anti-parkinsonism agents ... Tardive Dyskinesia. As with all antipsychotic agents, tardive dyskinesia may appear in some patients on long-term therapy or ... Tardive Dyskinesia. Tardive dyskinesia, a syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements, ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ae43c10e-cfa9-4298-8af5-7a3e6524bbda

DailyMed - PROCHLORPERAZINE MALEATE tablet
PROCHLORPERAZINE MALEATE tabletDailyMed - PROCHLORPERAZINE MALEATE tablet PROCHLORPERAZINE MALEATE tablet

There is no known effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia; anti-parkinsonism agents do not alleviate the symptoms of this ... Tardive Dyskinesia: As with all antipsychotic agents, tardive dyskinesia may appear in some patients on long-term therapy or ... In most cases these symptoms are readily controlled when an anti-parkinsonism agent is administered concomitantly. Anti- ... Treatment with anti-parkinsonian agents, benzodiazepines or propranolol may be helpful.. Pseudo-Parkinsonism: Symptoms may ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b05bc20e-cd19-ab40-1ad0-84a115d6d69e

Repository of UOI Olympias: Effects of amantadine on tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyRepository of UOI "Olympias": Effects of amantadine on tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Anti-Dyskinesia Agents/adverse effects/*therapeutic use,Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects/therapeutic use,Brief Psychiatric ... Tardive dyskinesia was assessed by means of the Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale(AIMS). The primary efficacy end point was ... Effects of amantadine on tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Journal article) Pappa, S./ ... Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced/*drug therapy/physiopathology,Female,Humans,Male,Middle Aged,Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/ ...
more infohttp://olympias.lib.uoi.gr/jspui/handle/123456789/22126

Pimozide - DrugBankPimozide - DrugBank

A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to haloperidol for the suppression ... Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. *Antipsychotic Agents. *Antipsychotic Agents (First Generation [Typical]). *Benzimidazoles. *Central ... A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to haloperidol for the suppression ... Blockade of HERG K+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes by antipsychotic agents]. Fiziol Zh. 2001;47(1):17-25. [PubMed: ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01100
  • A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to haloperidol for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. (drugbank.ca)
  • The condition may be reversible, if recognized in the earliest stages, by stopping the causative agent, but may be permanent. (drugs.com)
  • The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (nih.gov)