Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency: Autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the mevalonate kinase gene. Because of the mutations cholesterol biosynthesis is disrupted and MEVALONIC ACID accumulates. It is characterized by a range of symptoms, including dysmorphic FACIES, psychomotor retardation, CATARACT, hepatosplenomegaly, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, elevated IMMUNOGLOBULIN D, and recurrent febrile crises with FEVER; LYMPHADENOPATHY; ARTHRALGIA; EDEMA; and rash.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Haemophilus somnus: A species of gram-negative bacteria (currently incertae sedis) causing multisystem disease in CATTLE.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Tooth Preparation: Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.Posters as Topic: Single or multi-sheet notices made to attract attention to events, activities, causes, goods, or services. They are for display, usually in a public place and are chiefly pictorial.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Rosmarinus: A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known as a spice and medicinal plant.Ocimum basilicum: A plant species of the genus OCIMUM, family LAMIACEAE. It is a condiment with carminative properties.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.OcimumDiterpenes, Abietane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Daptomycin: A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)EuropeEducation, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.

Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods. (1/41157)

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

Modified peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity in a carbenicillin-resistant mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18s. (2/41157)

A carbenicillin-resistant mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18s was found to possess peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity significantly more resistant to inhibition by benzyl penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cephaloridine than that of the parent strain. The mutant was more resistant than the parent strain to all of the beta-lactam antibiotics tested, and 50% inhibition values for these compounds against membrane-bound model transpeptidase activity paralleled this increase. The resistance of the mutant to kanamycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol was unchanged.  (+info)

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (3/41157)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (4/41157)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (5/41157)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998. (6/41157)

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review. (7/41157)

The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised.  (+info)

Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. (8/41157)

New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.  (+info)

  • This perspective describes the historical development in brief and recent advances on the preparation of small organometallic compounds as new classes of antibacterial agents with potential for clinical development. (rsc.org)
  • Unfortunately, although successfully obtaining analogs with good antibacterial activity, these compounds lacked desired solubility properties for further advancement. (rutgers.edu)
  • This led to the second generation of compounds that lacked a constitutive cationic charge while retaining the antibacterial activity seen with the previous analogs. (rutgers.edu)
  • Compounds from the second generation were found to be highly protein bound resulting in a significant loss of antibacterial activity when administered in the presence of protein. (rutgers.edu)
  • These findings emphasize and validate the previous work of others and identify the most effective CAM anti-inflammatory, antibacterial compounds using these models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both compounds possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity and are capable of efficiently neutralizing bacterial endotoxins. (ascenion.de)
  • Both compounds inhibit the bacterial endotoxin-induced maturation and migration of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs), thereby prevending sustained and excessive inflammatory responses, which otherwise contribute to chronic inflammation and delayed wound healing. (ascenion.de)
  • Our lead compounds were then screened for anti-inflammatory activity. (elsevier.com)
  • With this in mind, the work covered in this thesis focused on the preparation of novel carbohydrate-based compounds as potential anti-bacterial agents, in particular targeted to mycobacterial infection. (edu.au)
  • For the purpose of investigating the requirement for a galactofuranose glycan moiety for anti-bacterial activity, the aglycons of the more active galactofuranosyl compounds (Chapter 2) were introduced onto alternate furanose sugars. (edu.au)
  • This series of compounds (containing either sulfenamide or sulfonamide functionality) were prepared to investigate the requirement of a carbohydrate moiety for anti-bacterial activity. (edu.au)
  • But the compounds may prove useful sooner as a topical agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA , to prevent the microbes from colonizing on the skin. (wordpress.com)
  • All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Pseudomonus aerugninasa, Straphylococcus aureus and E. coli using Gentamicin and tetracycline as a reference standard by paper disc diffusion method. (rroij.com)
  • 200 compounds possessing activity against the infectious bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). (stonybrook.edu)
  • This series of compounds although in a nascent stage, offers a new pharmacophores for the discovery of antibacterial agents. (stonybrook.edu)
  • REP3123 is a new narrow spectrum antibacterial agent that in vitro prevents the growth of C. difficile by in hibiting an essential enzyme inthe bacterial cell called methionyl tRNA synthetase, which blocks the organism from synthesizing proteins. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The susceptibility of five bacterial species to seven dentinal bonding agents was examined in vitro. (quintpub.com)
  • Bilirubin had no in vitro antibacterial effect on E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, or P. aeruginosa. (alliedacademies.org)
  • For robust screening, we developed an in-vitro efficacy paradigm to ensure anti-inflammatory parameters were observed independent of cytotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro fluoride release and the antibacterial effect of glass ionomers containing chlorhexidine gluconate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In assays against M. smegmatis the Galf 9-heptadecyl thioglycoside was found to be the most active compound with an in vitro potency of 1 µg/mL, comparable to the frontline anti-TB drug ethambutol (1-4 µg/mL). (edu.au)
  • In addition, the thioglycoside displayed excellent broad spectrum Gram positive anti-bacterial activity in vitro, but was not active at concentrations below 64 µg/mL against a Gram negative organism. (edu.au)
  • Like other tetracyclines, eravacycline inhibits bacterial protein synthesis through binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial peptide deformylase, which catalyzes the removal of the N-formyl group from N-terminal methionine following translation, is essential for bacterial protein synthesis, growth, and survival. (dovepress.com)
  • VS could inhibit the growth of S. aurous and E. coli , and adding glycine or EDTA improved VS antibacterial activity presumably via instability of the cell wall and enhanced transport of VS through bacterial cell wall. (hindawi.com)
  • Since the early steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway (mevalonate kinase) in eukaryotes resemble bacterial isoprenoid biosynthesis and regarding the fact that VS inhibits the mevalonate pathway in eukaryotic organisms [ 10 ], we examined the effect of VS as a nonselective mevalonate kinase inhibitor on bacterial isoprenoid biosynthesis and its impact on bacterial growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Replidyne's antibacterial candidate REP3123 is shown to in hibit growth and prevent spore-forming of the Gram-positive Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) bacterium without inhibiting other key organisms that are essential for normal intestinal functioning. (emaxhealth.com)
  • LOUISVILLE, Colo., September 19, 2007 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Replidyne, Inc. announced today that in preclinical studies, its antibacterial candidate REP3123 is shown to inhibit growth and prevent spore-forming of the Gram-positive Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) bacterium without inhibiting other key organisms that are essential for normal intestinal functioning. (drugs.com)
  • After incubation, zones of inhibited bacterial growth were measured. (quintpub.com)
  • A blue halo assay was developed to rapidly characterize the modes of action of antibacterial agents by visual inspection, and this assay was used to detect chloramphenicol secreted into the growth medium of Streptomyces venezuelae cultures. (asm.org)
  • Traditional methods for screening potential antimicrobial agents rely on inhibition of bacterial growth and often require high concentrations of the compound being tested. (asm.org)
  • Organic antibacterial agents are often complex toxic bactericides that have strong inhibitory effects on bacterial growth, such as organic acids, essential oils, and bacteriocins. (omicsonline.org)
  • Titanates could also be used in bandages, skin gels, mouthwashes and toothpaste to limit bacterial growth, said Dr. Whasun Oh Chung, one of the four researchers. (washington.edu)
  • In this way, can determine which substance has the best antibacterial effect and which concentration should be used inside implants to avoid bacterial growth. (austinpublishinggroup.com)
  • DAAO showed a good ability to decrease the bacterial growth on various food stuffs: e.g., 10-fold less colonies were formed on grated cheese incubated for 16 h at 37°C when a tiny amount (0.01 mg corresponding to 1.2 units) of DAAO was added. (frontiersin.org)
  • On this side, the antibacterial effects of hydrogen peroxide have been extensively investigated due to its possible involvement in a number of important biological events in which bacterial cells are either killed or their growth inhibited. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2018) Peptide drug stability: The anti-inflammatory drugs Pep19-2.5 and Pep19-4LF in cream formulation. (ascenion.de)
  • Compounding this problem is the fact that no new chemical entity has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bacterial diseases for more than 20 years ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Tickborne rickettsial diseases continue to cause severe illness and death in otherwise healthy adults and children, despite the availability of low-cost, effective antibacterial therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • This book contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing antibacterial agents with clinical practicality and alternatives to synthetic antibacterial agents through detailed reviews of diseases and their control using alternative approaches. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • The book aims at explaining bacterial diseases and their control via synthetic drugs replaced by chemicals obtained from different natural resources which present a future direction in the pharmaceutical industry. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • Bacterial suspensions of McFarland turbidity 0.5 were prepared, and 5-μl aliquots were spotted onto the agar plates within circles 5 mm in diameter (final bilirubin concentrations: 5, 10, and 15 mg/dl). (alliedacademies.org)
  • The protein identified by Joachim Grötzinger, Thomas Bosch and colleagues at the University of Kiel, hydramacin-1, is unusual (and also clinically valuable) as it shares virtually no similarity with any other known antibacterial proteins except for two antimicrobials found in another ancient animal, the leech. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In the past, scientists have concentrated their search for the source of its antibacterial properties on the proteins it contains. (labmanager.com)
  • However, an interdisciplinary team of chemists and doctors at Vanderbilt University have discovered that some of the carbohydrates in human milk not only possess antibacterial properties of their own but also enhance the effectiveness of the antibacterial proteins also present. (labmanager.com)
  • FtsZ is a highly conserved, essential bacterial cell division protein that forms the dynamic Z-ring involved in recruitment of other essential proteins and serving as the constricting force for cell division. (rutgers.edu)
  • The results of the current research have successfully demonstrated that CA changes the bacterial metabolism through interactions with different biochemical families such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, which needs further validation by proteomics and transcriptomics studies. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In recent years, interest focused on the use of natural antimicrobial agents in foods, such as antimicrobial peptides and occurring proteins, e.g., lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, or lactoferrin. (frontiersin.org)
  • As an example for a potential systemic use for potent agents that are limited for topical use, we present antibody-targeted phage nanoparticles that carry a large payload of the hemolytic antibiotic chloramphenicol connected through the aminoglycoside neomycin. (asm.org)
  • Despite these current liabilities, further pursuit of more potent and broader spectrum PDIs which are less susceptible to bacterial mechanisms of resistance is still warranted. (dovepress.com)
  • As β-lactams are a cornerstone of anti-infective therapy, it is important to closely monitor the activity of the agents being used today and to aggressively pursue new strategies that can augment current drugs and thwart ever-emerging β-lactam resistance mechanisms that are continuously encountered. (wiley.com)
  • This chapter provides an overview of the antibacterial agents currently marketed in the United States, with major emphasis on their mechanisms of action, spectra of activity, important pharmacologic parameters, and toxicities. (asmscience.org)
  • What are the 2 main antibacterial mechanisms? (brainscape.com)
  • Toxic levels of chloramphenicol after 2-9 days result in: Loss of appetite Vomiting Ashen gray color of the skin Hypotension (low blood pressure) Cyanosis (blue discolouration of lips and skin) Hypothermia Cardiovascular collapse Hypotonia Abdominal distension Irregular respiration Increased blood lactate Two pathophysiologic mechanisms are thought to play a role in the development of gray baby syndrome after exposure to the anti-microbial drug chloramphenicol. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are 5 main antibiotic targets in a bacterial cell? (brainscape.com)
  • With minimal projected side-effects, owing to the lack of Galf residues in mammalian systems, hydrolytically-stable Galf analogues were selected as promising targets for the development of potential therapeutic agents against Galf containing pathogenic micro-organisms. (edu.au)
  • Eravacycline is an investigational, synthetic fluorocycline antibacterial agent that is structurally similar to tigecycline with two modifications to the D-ring of its tetracycline core: a fluorine atom replaces the dimethylamine moiety at C-7 and a pyrrolidinoacetamido group replaces the 2-tertiary-butyl glycylamido at C-9. (springer.com)
  • Now, researchers have determined certain antibacterial molecules from the Persian shallot, a staple of Iranian cooking, have the potential to combat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). (mercola.com)
  • In searching for new antibacterials, we tend to focus on molecules that are potent enough to be developed commercially as new drug entities by themselves. (mercola.com)
  • The inhibitory bioactivity of S. australe and S. leuhmannii fruit extracts against the bacterial panel validate the use by indigenous Australians of S. australe and S. leuhmannii as antiseptic agents and confirms their medicinal potential. (edu.au)
  • Although several drug classes are characterized by the presence of a sulfonamide function, eg, hypoglycemics, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, saluretics, and tubular transport inhibitors, the antibacterial sulfonamides have become classied as the sulfa drugs. (scribd.com)
  • It aims to anti-bacterialize those packing materials such as plastic film which directly attaches to food, by addition or coating. (abctechno.com)