Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Adrenal Cortex HormonesImmunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Eosinophil Cationic Protein: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Leukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: Species of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Status Asthmaticus: A sudden intense and continuous aggravation of a state of asthma, marked by dyspnea to the point of exhaustion and collapse and not responding to the usual therapeutic efforts.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Clemastine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Asthma, Aspirin-Induced: Asthmatic adverse reaction (e.g., BRONCHOCONSTRICTION) to conventional NSAIDS including aspirin use.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Radioallergosorbent Test: An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Bronchospirometry: Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.QuinolinesCockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.GuanineAdrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Metaproterenol: A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mice, Inbred BALB CRhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Pachyrhizus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate: Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary: Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.IndiaImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Tachyphylaxis: Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

A comparative study of the effects of ketotifen, disodium cromoglycate, and beclomethasone dipropionate on bronchial mucosa and asthma symptoms in patients with atopic asthma. (1/1287)

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that is characterized by infiltration of many inflammatory cells into the bronchial mucosa. We compared the effects of ketotifen, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) on inflammatory cells in the bronchial mucosa and on the asthma symptoms of patients with atopic asthma. In this 12-week parallel study, 32 patients were randomly allocated to either the ketotifen group (2 mg day-1, n = 13), DSCG group (8 mg day-1, n = 9) or BDP (400 micrograms day-1, n = 10). Each subject recorded daily asthma symptoms and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Before and after treatment, pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were evaluated, and fibreoptic bronchoscopy and biopsy were performed before and after treatment. Biopsy specimens were obtained by bronchoscopy. We performed immunohistochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies for activated eosinophils (EG2), mast cells (AA1), and T cells (CD3, CD4, and CD8). Our clinical findings showed significant improvement in symptom score and bronchial responsiveness (P < 0.01) each) in all groups. Both the DSCG and the BDP groups had significantly better symptom scores than the ketotifen group (P < 0.05, both groups). PEF significantly increased in the DSCG group in comparison to the ketotifen (P < 0.01) and BDP (P < 0.05) groups, FEV1% increased significantly in the DSCG (P < 0.01) and BDP (P < 0.05) groups in comparison to the ketotifen group. Compared with their baseline values, treatment significantly decreased EG2+ activated eosinophils, and CD3+ and CD4+ T cells, in each group (P < 0.01). Both the DSCG (P < 0.05) and the BDP groups (P < 0.01) exhibited significant decreases in AA1+ mast cell count, but this was not observed in the ketotifen group. Comparing before- and after-treatment values, only the DSCG group exhibited a significant decrease in the number of CD8+ T cells (P < 0.01). Ketotifen, DSCG, and BDP all showed anti-inflammatory activity as determined by examination of the bronchial mucosa of asthmatic patients; and both the DSCG and BDP groups had better clinical responses than the ketotifen group.  (+info)

Incorporating quality of life data into managed care formulary decisions: a case study with salmeterol. (2/1287)

Pharmacy and Therapeutics committees of managed care organizations have traditionally developed formularies by limiting the numbers and kinds of pharmaceuticals they purchase, with the goal of cutting costs. These attempts to manage pharmaceutical costs do not take into account the interrelationship of the costs of various components of care; thus, drug costs may decrease, but expenditures for utilization of other resources may increase. Cost-minimization and basic cost-effectiveness studies, on which many prior- authorization and formulary programs are based, only evaluate only the cost of the drug and its effectiveness. However, with the heightened competition in the healthcare market, emphasis is increasingly being laid on patient satisfaction and outcomes. Cost-utility analysis is a potentially superior pharmacoeconomic tool because it evaluate the effect of drug therapy on quality of life; however, data from such analyses are seldom readily available to the committees that evaluate a drug's potential effects on the entire healthcare system. The purpose of this review is to stress the importance of approaching formulary management from a wider perspective and to emphasize that the results of cost-utility studies should be proactively evaluated and incorporated into decisions regarding formularies. This is especially important for symptom-intensive diseases, such as asthma, in which the quality of life can be notably impaired. Cost-utility analyses should be conducted for all newer therapies, such as salmeterol, which are highly effective and which have a positive impact on quality of life, to determine the overall effect on the managed care plan's budget.  (+info)

Long-term management of asthma: how to improve outcomes. (3/1287)

Improved clinical outcomes in asthma patients have been demonstrated in several clinical trials that applied the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines for the long-term management of asthma. Environmental control, objective monitoring, drug therapy, and partnership in patient education are the major components of optimal management. Inhaled antiinflammatory agents are of major importance for long-term control in patients with persistent asthma. Adequate patient education is absolutely essential for excellent, cost-effective care of patients with asthma. Improved outcomes in adults with asthma have been demonstrated at clinics initiated and managed by pharmacists. Further trials are needed with large numbers of patients in managed care organizations.  (+info)

Effects of an asthma management program on the asthmatic member: patient-centered results of a 2-year study in a managed care organization. (4/1287)

OBJECTIVE: To report the results of a 2-year pilot program of asthma education based on National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute treatment guidelines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Asthmatic members (n = 6698) of a managed care organization received education about their condition directly or through their primary care physician. Medical and pharmacy administrative claims data were reviewed to measure acute asthma events and prescribed therapies in the first (the baseline) and second years of the study. The claims data were augmented by member surveys from a stratified random sample of 2734 asthmatic patients who were members (6 years of age or older) in the baseline year. RESULTS: Compared with the first year, asthmatic members received fewer inpatient services and the proportion of asthmatic members prescribed oral inhaled corticosteroids increased 30% in the second year. Health-related quality of life, measured with validated general and disease-specific instruments; satisfaction with the quality of care; exposure to patient education; knowledge of the disease; and member's confidence in their ability to manage their disease showed statistically significant improvements during the follow-up year of the program for both adult and child asthmatic members. CONCLUSION: For asthmatic members of this health plan, a comprehensive asthma health management program improved processes of care and outcomes.  (+info)

Hyperbaric oxygen increases plasma exudation in rat trachea: involvement of nitric oxide. (5/1287)

This study investigates the microvascular permeability changes in tracheal tissue of rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Rats, following exposure to HBO or ambient air (control animals) for 1.5, 3 and 6 h, were prepared for recording of nitric oxide exhaled (FENO) in air using a chemiluminescence analyser. The level of FENO was not statistically different in the two groups. Plasma exudation, evaluated by measuring the leakage of Evans blue (EB) dye into the tracheal tissue, was significantly elevated (48, 86 and 105% at 1.5, 3 and 6 h, respectively) in HBO-treated rats. Plasma exudation in the trachea of control rats was significantly increased (42%, P<0.05) by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), whereas it was significantly reduced (31%, P<0.05) in rats exposed to HBO for 3 h. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and flunisolide significantly prevented the increase in plasma leakage in HBO-treated rats. In contrast, indomethacin was devoid of anti-exudative activity in these experiments. Western immunoblot showed a significant increase in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein in the tracheal homogenates of HBO-treated rats, as compared to basal levels. These results indicate that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the maintenance of microvascular permeability in tracheal tissue of rats. The protective effect observed with the steroid seems to support this hypothesis. Furthermore, the beneficial action of NAC underlines that reactive oxygen species participate in the microvascular permeability changes observed in tracheal tissue of rats exposed to HBO.  (+info)

Persistent cough: is it asthma? (6/1287)

The aim of this study was to determine if children in the community with persistent cough can be considered to have asthma. A validated questionnaire was given to the parents of 1245 randomly selected children aged 6-12 years. Atopy was measured with skin prick tests. Children with persistent cough had less morbidity and less atopy compared with children with wheeze. Although the syndrome commonly referred to as "cough variant asthma" could not be shown in this study, a significant number of children with persistent cough had been diagnosed as having asthma and were treated with asthma medications including inhaled corticosteroids. Studies are urgently needed to determine the appropriate treatment for children with persistent cough.  (+info)

Effect of the leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast on cellular infiltration in the bronchial mucosa of patients with asthma. (7/1287)

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that pranlukast reduces the antigen induced immediate and late phase asthmatic responses, airway hyperreactivity to acetylcholine, and pulmonary eosinophil accumulation in guinea pigs. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that pranlukast may reduce the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchial mucosa of patients with asthma. METHODS: A double blind, placebo controlled study was performed in 17 mild to moderate asthmatic subjects to examine changes in inflammatory cell infiltration in response to pranlukast (225 mg orally twice per day for four weeks). Comparisons of the mean daily beta 2 agonist use, symptom score, FEV1 percentage predicted, and airway methacholine responsiveness were made before and after treatment. Using fibreoptic bronchoscopy, bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained before and after treatment with either pranlukast (n = 10) or placebo (n = 7). Immunohistology was performed using monoclonal antibodies for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, NP57, AA1, EG1, EG2, gamma GTP and CD19. RESULTS: When the pranlukast and placebo treated groups were compared there were decreases in beta 2 agonist use, symptom score, and airway methacholine responsiveness after pranlukast but no increase in FEV1 was seen. The clinical response in patients treated with pranlukast was accompanied by a reduction in CD3 (median difference -37, 95% confidence interval (CI) -69 to -1; p < 0.05), CD4 (median difference -28, 95% CI -49 to -8; p < 0.01), AA1 (median difference -15, 95% CI -26 to 0; p < 0.05) and EG2 positive cells (95% CI -35 to 0; p < 0.05), but not in EG1 positive eosinophils, gamma GTP positive cells, and CD19 positive plasma cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the view that pranlukast may act by inhibition of bronchial inflammation in patients with asthma.  (+info)

Systemic activity of inhaled and swallowed beclomethasone dipropionate and the effect of different inhaler devices. (8/1287)

Inhaled glucocorticoids such as beclomethasone dipropionate, which are used in the treatment of asthma, may be associated with systemic adverse effects. To determine whether any systemic absorption following the inhalation of beclomethasone was a result of drug being absorbed from the lung (inhaled fraction) or the gastrointestinal tract (swallowed fraction), we studied normal subjects after the inhalation or swallowing of 2 mg beclomethasone dipropionate. Systemic activity was assessed using early morning cortisol suppression. Both inhaled and swallowed fractions produced significant systemic activity, the degree of which depended on the inhaler device used. Systemic activity was greater using a dry powder inhaler (52%) than using a metered dose inhaler with a large volume spacer (28%). These findings suggest that to limit potential adverse effects from high-dose beclomethasone dipropionate it is better to use a metered dose aerosol with large volume spacer than a dry powder.  (+info)

About Us - Contact Us Google+ Advertise: 2 million page views AllergyCases.org: Case-based Curriculum of Allergy and Immunology Disclaimer: All opinions expressed here are those of their authors and not of their employer. The information provided here is for educational purposes only and is not intended to provide medical advice. By accessing the web site, the visitors acknowledge that there is no physician-patient relationship between them and the authors. Patient Information ...
This is a Phase II, multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, multiple-dose study designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of subcutaneously administered HAE1 in subjects 12-75 years old with moderate to severe asthma whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with moderate to high-dose ICS and LABA ...
The latest from http://brainblogger.com! Life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last few decades, particularly in the most developed countries. And thats a wonderful thing. But this increase has brought a number of new challenges in health and healthcare, specifically in age-related conditions, such as neurological conditions. One of the great challenges in medical research…
Corticosteroids. These medications can be given in a variety of ways. Some of them are inhaled, while others may be taken as a pill or liquid, or even as an injection. The steroids taken by mouth can have more side effects than those that are inhaled. Inhaled steroids are safe and effective controller medications and should be taken every day. Consult your childs doctor about the best choice for your child ...
The 2015 ACT Scores are out and five years after the introduction and implementation of Common Core, the scores are stagnant.
Information about Warren Wilson College ACT scores. Completion of a college degree program can qualify you to enter the workforce immediately. To get started, browse degree programs and certificate courses online.
Are you a leader? Admissions officers want to know. OK, youve taken the first step: Youve got a list of schools -- some safety, some fit, some reach -- based on your grades and your SAT or ACT scores. But now things have gotten confusing. There...
The majority pediatric asthma patients in Shanghai are mild persistent asthma. These patients require controller medications every day to achieve and maintain control. Leukotriene receptor antagonist is one of the options which have been recommended to use as a mono controller therapy. Patient satisfaction and compliance was better with montelukast, attributed to oral intake and convenience. Owing to its easy and simple oral once a day administration montelukast was found to be advantageous over ICS. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that there is a considerable degree of airway remodeling in peripheral airways in patients with mild asthma.The new information points out the need for large, long term studies on the treatment of mild persistent asthma, with an emphasis on exacerbations, remodeling, and the relationship between these outcomes and markers of asthma control. TGF-β participates in the initiation and propagation of inflammatory and immune responses in the airways. The ...
BackgroundMany patients and healthcare professionals believe that work-related psychosocial stress, such as job strain, can make asthma worse, but this is not corroborated by empirical evidence. We investigated the associations between job strain and the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations in working-age European men and women. MethodsWe analysed individual-level data, collected between 1985 and 2010, from 102 175 working-age men and women in 11 prospective European studies. Job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline. Incident severe asthma exacerbations were ascertained from national hospitalization and death registries. Associations between job strain and asthma exacerbations were modelled using Cox regression and the study-specific findings combined using random-effects meta-analyses. ResultsDuring a median follow-up of 10years, 1 109 individuals experienced a severe asthma exacerbation (430 with asthma as the primary diagnostic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Role of the Six-minute Walk Test, Pulmonary Function Test, and Asthma Control Test in Asthmatic Patients-a Preliminary Report. AU - Chen, Shiau-Yee. AU - Hsu, Han Lin. AU - Lin, Jiu Jenq. AU - 余, 明治(Ming-Chi Yu). AU - 江, 玲玲(Ling-Ling Chiang). AU - 李, 俊年(Chun-Nie Lee). PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Purpose: Asthma control is the main concern for related professionals when approaching asthmatic patients. In this study, we selected three different tools to understand asthma control status in patients with asthma.Methods: Twenty-six patients with asthma were recruited in the study. These patients underwent pulmonary function testing with spirometry and the six-minute walk test, and completed an asthma control questionnaire (Asthma Control Test, ACT). In statistical analysis, the Spearman rank correlation and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for correlation between measured variables. For explanation, potential prediction variables were entered into a ...
asthma medications - MedHelps asthma medications Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for asthma medications. Find asthma medications information, treatments for asthma medications and asthma medications symptoms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Management of asthma exacerbations. AU - Chestnutt, Mark. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - The 1997 Expert Panel Report 2 from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program* details principles and goals for managing asthma exacerbations, based on scientific literature and the opinion of the panel. The panels recommendations are summarized here, along with approaches to the evaluation and management of patients with asthma exacerbations. Methods to assess and classify the severity of asthma exacerbations are discussed, and treatment objectives for mild, moderate, and severe exacerbations are presented, along with a discussion of postinfectious acute airway hyperresponsiveness. A review of pharmacologic agents used in the treatment of asthma exacerbations is also included. Key points in the management of asthma exacerbations include the notion that early treatment is the best strategy for management. Important elements of early treatment include recognition of early signs ...
As co-Editors in Chief (and Professor Canonica as President of Interasma), it is our pleasure to welcome our colleagues to this first issue of the journal Asthma Research and Practice (ARP) [1]. This will be an open-access online journal, and thus easily accessible to a large audience. The aims and scope of ARP will be to publish original research articles and state of the art reviews focusing on risk factors, diagnosis and management of asthma at all ages. Since asthma is a disease that comprises diverse endotypes and is often accompanied by co-morbidities, we expect and welcome manuscripts on topics such as "obese asthma", exercise-induced asthma, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome, occupational asthma, and others [2, 3]. Although existing journals in fields as diverse as paediatrics, internal medicine, allergy and pulmonology include articles on asthma, we believe that a journal entirely dedicated to asthma is both valuable and necessary. Moreover, we are committed to have a section devoted ...
As a long-term advocate for children with asthma and their families, Visionary Consulting Partners, LLC (Visionary) anticipates the release of new national guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of asthma in August of 2019. The most recent iteration of guidelines was published in 2007 by the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) Committee, coordinated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma provided an evidence-based foundation for physicians, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, researchers, and educators to diagnose, treat, and manage asthma in patients. In 2014, an Asthma Expert Working Group was convened by the NHLBI with the goal of determining the need and scope of an update to these guidelines. Currently, the group is working to identify critical findings across systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical trials to inform ...
The Asthma USA survey showed that uncontrolled asthma had significant medical consequences. Adults with uncontrolled asthma were more prone to need treatment with oral corticosteroids, visit the emergency room, or be hospitalized, compared with patients with well-controlled asthma.. Children with uncontrolled asthma also were in the same situation. Earlier studies have shown that uncontrolled asthma can put patients at risk for increased asthma symptoms, sudden asthma attacks, hospitalization, and even death.. The survey included >81,500 households that were assessed using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Of the >10,000 adults with self-reported asthma taking the ACT, 41% had a score of 19 or less, which indicates uncontrolled asthma. The survey also examined scores from the Childhood Asthma Control Test and ACT in >3000 children respondents between the ages of 4 and 17. The results indicated that 31% of the children with asthma between the ages of 4 and 11 and 25% of those between the ages of 12 ...
About Severe Asthma. Asthma affects 315 million individuals worldwide, and up to 10% of asthma patients have severe asthma, which may be uncontrolled despite high doses of standard-of-care asthma controller medicines and can require the use of chronic oral corticosteroids (OCS).. Severe, uncontrolled asthma is debilitating and potentially fatal with patients experiencing frequent exacerbations and significant limitations on lung function and quality of life. Severe, uncontrolled asthma has an eight times higher risk of mortality than severe asthma.. Severe, uncontrolled asthma can lead to a dependence on OCS, with systemic steroid exposure potentially leading to serious short- and long-term adverse effects, including weight gain, diabetes, osteoporosis, glaucoma, anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease and immunosuppression. There is also a significant physical and socio-economic burden of severe, uncontrolled asthma with these patients accounting for 50% of asthma-related costs.. About the ...
A stranger would never guess my friend Catrina has asthma. She plays three varsity sports, sings along to entire musicals without losing her breath, and overall leads an active, nonstop life. Because of the incredible advancements in asthma treatment, Catrina seems practically indistinguishable from someone without asthma. Even I have never seen her reach for her inhaler. It is only because of our close friendship that I know she takes medicine to control her asthma and frequently visits an allergist. How has asthma treatment come so far? The use of animals in asthma research has lead to many groundbreaking discoveries that have benefited asthma sufferers like Catrina. Early asthma studies relied on animal research, and so does the current research that develops the kind of new medicines that Catrina uses today.. Asthma is defined by the National Institutes of Health as a "chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways", with symptoms of "recurring periods of wheezing, tightness, ...
Based on the modified GINA criteria, of the 397 children in the sample, 143 (36%) had intermittent asthma; 160 (40%) had mild persistent asthma; 51 (12.8%) had moderate persistent asthma; and 43 (10.8%) had severe persistent asthma. In 60 children, occasional limitation of daily activities was the indicator of greatest severity. Taking into account that responses to the remaining questions were not related to more severe asthma, a decision for more conservative categorization was made, and these children were classified as having mild persistent asthma. Based on the ISAAC questionnaire, 90 of the 397 children (22.3%) provided positive responses to questions assessing symptom severity, whereas 307 (77.3%) replied in the negative.. Comparison of both asthma severity criteria according to data from the second survey (Table 2) shows that, the greater the severity of the disease according to GINA criteria, the greater the proportion of children with more severe symptoms as assessed by ISAAC. No ...
Injections may be a helpful add-on treatment for certain people with severe allergic asthma. Learn more about how it works, how much it costs, and some of the potential side effects.
About Severe Asthma. Asthma affects 315 million individuals worldwide, and up to 10% of asthma patients have severe asthma which may be uncontrolled despite high doses of standard-of-care asthma controller medicines and can require the use of chronic OCS.. Severe, uncontrolled asthma is debilitating and potentially fatal with patients experiencing frequent exacerbations and significant limitations on lung function and quality of life. Severe, uncontrolled asthma has higher risk of mortality than severe asthma.. Severe, uncontrolled asthma can lead to a dependence on OCS, with systemic steroid exposure potentially leading to serious short- and long-term adverse effects, including weight gain, diabetes, osteoporosis, glaucoma, anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease and immunosuppression. There is also a significant physical and socio-economic burden of severe, uncontrolled asthma with these patients accounting for 50% of asthma-related costs.. About Fasenra (benralizumab). Fasenra is a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measures of asthma control. AU - Bime, Christian. AU - Nguyen, Jessica. AU - Wise, Robert A.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Purpose of Review: Over the past decade, the concept of asthma control as distinct from asthma severity has been clearly defined. Well controlled asthma is the goal of therapy in all asthma patients. This review is a comprehensive description of the tools currently available for a methodical assessment of different aspects of asthma control in clinical practice and research. Recent Findings: Several questionnaires for assessing asthma control have been extensively validated in adults. In children, validation data are less extensive. Considerable overlap exists between asthma control measures and measures of asthma-specific quality of life. Asthma-specific quality-of-life questionnaires have been used as primary outcome measures in major clinical trials evaluating asthma therapy. Biomarkers that reflect eosinophilic inflammation of the airways are used ...
By Jaclyn Chasse N.D.. Over 22 million Americans have asthma and it is one of the most common pediatric chronic diseases, affecting about 6 million children. Asthma is a condition characterized by cough, difficulty breathing, wheezing and chest tightness. Asthma has several underlying pathological mechanisms including bronchoconstriction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and underlying inflammation and airway edema.. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) first published guidelines for care in 1991 and published the most recent update in 2007. One of the key clinical activities recommended by the NAEPP is the development of a written asthma action plan in partnership with the patient. An asthma action plan is a written tool which outlines appropriate care for an asthma patient. The stoplight tool is on example of a written asthma action plan that categorizes severity of asthma into a red, yellow, or green zone. Each zone corresponds with a different stage of asthma and outlines ...
Page 3 Asthma Treatment Articles: Get information on Asthma Treatment. Read articles and learn about all the facts related to Asthma Treatment from our health website Onlymyhealth.com.
The trial was a cross-sectional cohort study of patients enrolled in the Pediatric Asthma Care Patient Outcomes Research Team II (PAC-PORT), a multicenter randomized trial of asthma care improvement strategies. PAC-PORT included 42 different practices in three geographic locations. Participants were identified through searches for pharmacy claims for asthma medication use and claims that identified hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and ambulance encounters in children three to 15 years of age who were diagnosed with asthma.. Children who met the criteria for mild or moderate persistent asthma were included in the study. The main outcome measures were asthma symptom days, use of reliever and controller medications, and adequacy of control as determined by face-to-face interviews. The term "asthma symptom days"was defined as the number of days in the preceding two weeks on which the child had cough, wheezing, or limitation in activity.. Of the 638 children who qualified for the study, ...
This.2 GINA has the Asthma Control Test is recommended. Overall, it is the implementation of effective, GINA guideline-defined treatment strategy for asthma
Jason Lang, MD, MPH. Summary. BACKGROUND: Poorly controlled asthma especially in children remains a major public health problem. Many children with poor asthma control experience gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). The effect of mild GERD on asthma remains controversial despite studies involving proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) assessing their effect on asthma.. GAP: Past inconsistent findings regarding the effect of PPIs on asthma control may have resulted from ineffective dosing strategies of proton-pump inhibitors employed in these studies. Drug levels and efficacy vary widely in the population and depend on genetics. Dosing in children which adjusts for the gene CYP2C19 may improve efficacy and reduce side-effects leading to improved asthma control.. HYPOTHESES:. #1: Our group hypothesizes that genotype-tailored lansoprazole dosing will reduce asthma symptoms in children with mild symptoms of GERD compared to placebo.. #2: CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genetic variants influence the pharmacokinetics (drug ...
Human translational asthma research is supported by the Parkes Family foundation, as well as individual Division investigators. The Parkes family founded the Mary Parkes Asthma Center, which became affiliated with the Pulmonary Division in 1995. We started a Severe Asthma Clinic in 2007 with the goal of providing expert evidenced-based care using non-invasive biomarkers to guide therapy and accelerate research. The Severe Asthma Clinic is staffed by Drs. Michael Larj, Sandhya Khurana, and the Mary Parkes Asthma Research Fellow.. A major theme of basic asthma research is to define the cellular and molecular mechanisms for dysregulated immune responses in asthma. Specific areas of interest include: (i) activation of lung dendritic cells by ambient air pollution and allergen particles, (ii) the role of transcription factors in T cell activation and allergic immune responses, and (iii) molecular mechanisms regulating oxidative stress. Laboratory-based investigators include Dr. Steve Georas, Dr. Jia ...
The overall goal of the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) is to develop a new paradigm for the understanding of severe asthma and its sub-phenotypes, in chi...
At-risk patients to target for special review. · Children with frequent consultations for respiratory infections. · Children over 5 years old with persistent asthma symptoms. · Asthma patients with psychiatric disease or learning disabilities. · Patients using large quantities of ?-2 agonists. Monitor asthma control through regular checks on the proportion of patients with asthma:. lwho have no or few current symptoms. lwho are able to use their prescribed inhalers effectively. lwho use inhaled steroids. lwith normal lung function (PEF greater than 80 per cent). lwith actual/best PEF greater than 85 per cent. lwith an asthma action plan. Organisation of care. Practices should use a structured record including inhaler technique, morbidity, PEF, current treatment and action plans Source: Thorax (February) ...
SATURDAY, Oct. 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Fall can be a challenging time of the year for kids with asthma, an expert says.. "Although asthma can flare up for a number of reasons, a lot of people with allergies also have asthma, and asthma can be triggered by allergies. So the fall is a tough time for asthmatic sufferers," said Dr. Gaurav Kumar, a pediatrician at LifeBridge Health in Baltimore.. While many kids do well with their asthma during the summer, problems often accompany the return to school. "You go from taking these outdoor summer vacations to now being in a classroom again," Kumar explained. "So now youre in contact with people in closed spaces. And of course, what happens is germs are more likely to spread that way. So you could get colds from friends who have colds, and then that becomes a trigger for asthma." Parents need to make sure their childs asthma is under control. If a child stopped taking preventive asthma medications regularly during the summer, they should resume ...
SATURDAY, Oct. 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Fall can be a challenging time of the year for kids with asthma, an expert says.. "Although asthma can flare up for a number of reasons, a lot of people with allergies also have asthma, and asthma can be triggered by allergies. So the fall is a tough time for asthmatic sufferers," said Dr. Gaurav Kumar, a pediatrician at LifeBridge Health in Baltimore.. While many kids do well with their asthma during the summer, problems often accompany the return to school. "You go from taking these outdoor summer vacations to now being in a classroom again," Kumar explained. "So now youre in contact with people in closed spaces. And of course, what happens is germs are more likely to spread that way. So you could get colds from friends who have colds, and then that becomes a trigger for asthma." Parents need to make sure their childs asthma is under control. If a child stopped taking preventive asthma medications regularly during the summer, they should resume ...
SATURDAY, Oct. 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Fall can be a challenging time of the year for kids with asthma, an expert says.. "Although asthma can flare up for a number of reasons, a lot of people with allergies also have asthma, and asthma can be triggered by allergies. So the fall is a tough time for asthmatic sufferers," said Dr. Gaurav Kumar, a pediatrician at LifeBridge Health in Baltimore.. While many kids do well with their asthma during the summer, problems often accompany the return to school. "You go from taking these outdoor summer vacations to now being in a classroom again," Kumar explained. "So now youre in contact with people in closed spaces. And of course, what happens is germs are more likely to spread that way. So you could get colds from friends who have colds, and then that becomes a trigger for asthma." Parents need to make sure their childs asthma is under control. If a child stopped taking preventive asthma medications regularly during the summer, they should resume ...
The two trials, published in the journal The Lancet, looked at the safety and efficacy of benralizumab as an add-on therapy for patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma - a group of patients who have few treatment options available and high rates of hospitalisation.. "Additional therapeutic options to control severe asthma are urgently needed and our findings support the use of benralizumab as an add-on therapy for the treatment of severe asthma with persistent eosinophilia," said one of the researchers J. Mark FitzGerald from University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell and part of the immune system controlling the mechanism associated with allergy and asthma.. Many patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma have high levels of eosinophils in the blood and airways (known as eosinophilia) which is associated with frequent asthma exacerbations, high symptom burden and impaired lung function.. Cytokine interleukin-5 (IL-5) is the main driver of ...
Background - Asthma is an inflammatory condition often punctuated by episodic symptomatic worsening, and accordingly, patients with asthma might have waxing and waning adherence to controller therapy.Objective - We sought to measure changes in inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence over time and to estimate the effect of this changing pattern of use on asthma exacerbations.Methods - ICS adherence was estimated from electronic prescription and fill information for 298 participants in the Study of Asthma Phenotypes and Pharmacogenomic Interactions by Race-Ethnicity.
If you are an individual or represent an organization that prefers to receive by email the registration form that you can download or print out, or for more information, please contact [email protected] or Ashley Kissinger, AE-C, at 510.620.3644. CDPH is registering for sessions in Californias Central Valley and will consider registrations for other California areas if resources allow. Please share these promotional flyers. ...
The Particulars: Research shows that chronic asthma and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share a common inflammatory pathophysiology. However, few studies have explored the potential association between persistent asthma-defined as requiring daily controller medications-and an increased risk of CVD.. Data Breakdown: Researchers compared the rates of CVD over 9 years among patients with persistent asthma, intermittent asthma, or no asthma for a study. Among those with persistent asthma, 84.1% were alive and free from CVD, compared with a 91.1% rate for those with intermittent asthma and a 90.2% rate for those without asthma. Patients with persistent asthma had about a 60.0% higher risk of CVD events that those without asthma.. Take Home Pearl: There appears to be a strong association between persistent asthma and risk for CVD. ...
Background: Asthma is the chronic inflammation of airways characterized by eosinophilic infiltration, mucus overproduction, airway hyper-responsiveness and airway remodeling. These changes are induced mostly by cytokines which are produced by T helper (Th) 2 cells. Recently, the role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) in the pathogenesis of adultallergic asthma has been studied. Objective: To explore IL-23 serum levels and its expression in persistent asthma compared with healthy children younger than five years old. Method: Blood samples of 40 children with mild and severe persistent asthma were compared to 34 healthy children regarding IL-23 serum levels and gene expression using enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (ELISA) and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The IL-23 gene expression level was significantly different in the 25 children with mild persistent asthma and the 15 children with severe persistent asthma compared to the control group (p=0.001).There was no significant
Poor asthma control, as measured by the ACT, C-ACT or ACQ, is associated with reduced lung function, increased risk of exacerbations and elevated exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and is lower in children not regularly using inhaled corticosteroid maintenance therapy [17, 18, 23-27]. Children with asthma and allergic rhinitis have poorer asthma control and a higher risk of exacerbations than those without allergic rhinitis [28, 29]. Children whose parents are concerned about the usefulness and side-effects of inhaled corticosteroid therapy also have poorer asthma control [30], and this association is caused by poor adherence to inhaled corticosteroids [31]. Follow-up studies have shown that changes in composite measures of asthma control reflect changes in the overall clinical assessment of asthma control by physicians, and the need to step up therapy [32]. No studies have assessed whether repeated structured assessment of asthma control by composite control measures helps to improve asthma control ...
1 Reported any of the following during the past year: asthma medication use, asthma symptoms, or MD visits for asthma. 2 Reported none of the following during the past year: asthma medication use, asthma symptoms, or MD visits for asthma. 3 Aged ≥ 18 years. ± Sample size excludes "DK/Refused". § Standard error. † Confidence interval. N/A: Estimate not available (N/A) if the unweighted sample size for the denominator was , 50 or if the relative standard error was , 0.30 ...
Asthma Management For Children - Is your child having symptoms of asthma? Make an appointment today and get asthma treatment for your child!
Asthma Action Plan. You and your doctor write an Asthma Action Plan together. It is a written plan that will help you stay away from triggers and take medicine to control your asthma symptoms. Learn more about an Asthma Action Plan. Always keep a copy with you.. Asthma Control Test:. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) has questions for a person with asthma. Take the ACT and see if your asthma is under control. Share the results with your doctor. Page Updated: 12/7/2017 ...
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Asthma preventer or controller medications are used to control asthma and lower the risk of disease exacerbations. These are typically inhaled corticosteroids, which may be delivered with a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) or separately.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Integrating evidence for managing asthma in patients who smoke. AU - Price, David. AU - Bjermer, Leif. AU - Popov, Todor A. AU - Chisholm, Alison. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - Cigarette smoking among asthma patients is associated with worsening symptoms and accelerated decline in lung function. Smoking asthma is also characterized by increased levels of neutrophils and macrophages, and greater small airway remodeling, resulting in increased airflow obstruction and impaired response to corticosteroid therapy. As a result, smokers are typically excluded from asthma randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The strict inclusion/exclusion criteria used by asthma RCTs limits the extent to which their findings can be extrapolated to the routine care asthma population and to reflect the likely effectiveness of therapies in subgroups of particular clinical interest, such as smoking asthmatics. The inclusion of smokers in observational asthma studies and pragmatic trials in asthma provides a ...
Fluticasone medication - Please describe the medication: advair diskus (salmeterol and fluticasone)? Asthma Controller. Advair diskus (salmeterol and fluticasone) is used to treat asthma, it is an inhaled medication that has a steroid (fluticasone) which reduced lung inflammation and long acting salmeterol which relaxes airway muscles and improves breathing. Advair comes in 2 inhaler forms, hfa and diskus.
The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) today is launching a new program to recognize individuals who are helping to improve asthma awareness, diagnosis, and care in countries around the world.. The GINA Ambassador program will highlight individuals who are involved in taking care of asthma patients in the clinic, improving public policy around asthma care, implementing GINA management strategies in their local community, developing asthma education materials, building multidisciplinary asthma care teams, and organizing World Asthma Day activities.. World Asthma Day is an annual awareness - raising event held today, the first Tuesday in May, and organized by GINA. The GINA Ambassador program is being launched on World Asthma Day because it reflects the events positive theme, "You Can Control Your Asthma.". "GINAs development of an evidence - based asthma management strategy is only one step in improving asthma care around the world," says Dr. Mark FitzGerald, Professor at the University of ...
Good asthma control is achievable but needs constant vigilance, says Dr Chris Woodforde. Although asthma management in the UK remains generally good there are several pitfalls for the unwary. Here we highlight five.. 1 Failure to step down asthma therapy.. 2 Failure to manage exacerbating factors.. 3 Inhaler device choice and technique not checked.. 4 Not recognising poor control.. 5 Failure to detect and manage coexistent conditions.. New guidelines from the BTS say GPs should aim for no or minimal asthma-related symptoms. Each of the five steps of asthma management based on medication prescribed consists of progressively more additions to therapy (see box).. Minimum treatment should be used to achieve adequate control and then reviewed every three months.. Commonly, patients may be placed on a higher therapy step but are not stepped down subsequently.. This can result in excessive and unnecessary medication and a waste of resources.. Barriers to stepping down. · Patients unwillingness to ...
Preventers are a type of asthma inhaler used to reduce the symptoms in people who regularly use a Ventolin inhaler. Find out if they could help you.
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP), "Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR-3): Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma," Clinical Practice Guidelines, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH Publication No. 08-4051, prepublication 2007; available at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/asthgdln.htm. ...
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP), "Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR-3): Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma," Clinical Practice Guidelines, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH Publication No. 08-4051, prepublication 2007; available at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/asthgdln.htm. ...
BACKGROUND. Severe refractory asthma affects all age-groups including the elderly. We examined the effect of age on clinical and inflammatory outcomes in patients recruited to the British Thoracic Society [BTS] Severe Asthma Registry.. METHODS. All subjects with refractory asthma [ATS criteria] ≥18 years old from the BTS Severe Asthma Registry were included in the analysis.. RESULTS. 754 subjects with refractory asthma were studied. Age was normally distributed (mean of 49.4 yrs [SD 13.6], range 18-82 yrs). Age correlated with a lower number of unscheduled emergency visits [-0.137; p=0.000], hospital admissions [r = -0.147; p=0.000], ITU admissions [r = -0.095; p=0.010], but asthma control was not affected [ACQ or ACT scores]. FEV1 % predicted was lower with increasing age. Comparison of clinical and inflammatory outcomes in patients aged ,65 years with those aged ≥65 years is shown in the table. ...
It is almost 50 years since the first UK studies identified potentially preventable factors in the majority of asthma deaths.1 Those first reports led to the development of national asthma guidelines, intended to radically improve management. Since the 1980s, asthma care in the UK has shifted from secondary to primary care,2 linked to enhanced asthma nurse training and involvement. With the development of new doctor-patient partnerships in the form of personalised self-management plans and newer drugs with innovative delivery systems, improving asthma care in the future seemed a certainty. And yet, from 1992, the only ongoing inquiry into asthma death in the East of England fuelled background concern that preventable death was still a major issue.3 That concern was highlighted by the National Atlas of Variation in Healthcare for Respiratory Disease,4 published in September 2012, which showed great variation in almost every facet of asthma care delivery across the UK.. The National Review of ...
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Asthma has long been recognised as a major health problem in Australia, with the proportion of the population with the disease being high by international stand
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[103 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Asthma Drugs Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Asthma Drugs in Global market, especially in...
If you have asthma, its very important you know about the most effective asthma treatment and medications for short-term relief and long-term control. Knowing asthma treatments will enable you to work with your regular doctor to confidently manage and control your asthma symptoms practically everyday. When you have an asthma attack or asthma symptoms, its essential to know when to call your doctor or asthma healthcare providers to prevent an emergency situation. …. Read More ...
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There is no cure for Asthma; however asthma doesnt have to place significant limitations on your life. With effective treatments and management, symptoms can be controlled, minimizing their impact. Each case of asthma is different and requires treatments to be personalized. One general rule that applies to all is removing environmental factors that worsen ones asthma. Along with removing environmental factors, asthma medications are available to help control symptoms. Asthma medications are divided into two types, quick-relief and long-term and are either inhaled or in pill form. Quick-relief medicines are used to relieve coughing, wheezing and chest tightness that occurs during an asthma episode; long-term medications help control your asthma and are generally used when symptoms happen more than twice a week. For people with asthma, it is important to have an asthma management plan. An asthma management plan is created by you and your doctor. An effective plan should include; identifying and ...
Introduction: Reslizumab (RES), a humanized anti-human interleukin-5, is under development for patients with moderate to severe, persistent asthma with elevated eosinophils (EOS).. Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of RES vs placebo (PBO) in subjects with asthma and elevated EOS.. Methods: This was a multicenter, PBO-controlled, double-blind, 16-week study (NCT01270464). Subjects (N=311) were 12-75 years of age with uncontrolled asthma on at least medium ICS, had an asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) score ≥1.5, and blood EOS level of ≥400/µL. Randomization was to intravenous RES 0.3 or 3.0 mg/kg or PBO once every 4 weeks. Efficacy variables included pre-dose, pre-bronchodilator pulmonary function (FEV1, primary variable) and ACQ scores.. Results: Following 16 weeks of therapy, RES (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg) significantly improved overall FEV1 (P≤0.024) and ACQ score (P≤0.033) vs PBO (treatment difference vs PBO: 115 and 160 mL, FEV1 and 0.238 and 0.359 ACQ, respectively); ...
Asthma treatment in adolescents and adults:: ASTHMA TREATMENT OVERVIEW - Asthma is a common lung disease affecting millions of people worldwide. It is caused by narrowing of the airways (tubes) in the lungs. This narrowing is partially or completely reversible.
Asthma exacerbations are important because of the associated personal (eg, decreased quality of life and ability to work) and societal costs (eg, increased use of healthcare services), and the increased risk of death. The review by Sin et al is an important contribution to the knowledge base on asthma management because it provides an evaluation of the long term effects of several classes of pharmacological agents on exacerbations and lung function.. Strengths of the review include the thorough search for studies, albeit only English language studies, and the inclusion of studies with a Jadad score ⩾3, indicating good methodological quality.. As the authors acknowledged, the review had several limitations. It was not possible to address whether current smoking, obesity, race, or other risk factors modified treatment effects of the various asthma medications. Similarly, the effects of asthma medications on mortality and long term adverse outcomes could not be determined because the studies were ...
Factors that may trigger or worsen asthma symptoms include viral infections, domestic or occupational allergens (e.g., house dust mite, pollens, cockroach), tobacco smoke, exercise and stress. These responses are more likely when asthma is uncontrolled. Some drugs can induce or trigger asthma, e.g., beta-blockers, and (in some patients) aspirin or other NSAIDs.. Asthma flare-ups (also called exacerbations or attacks) may occur, even in people taking asthma treatment. When asthma is uncontrolled, or in some high-risk patients, these episodes are more frequent and more severe, and may be fatal.. A stepwise approach to treatment takes into account the effectiveness of available medications, their safety, and their cost to the payer or patient.. Regular controller treatment, particularly with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-containing medications, markedly reduces the frequency and severity of asthma symptoms and the risk of having a flare-up.. Asthma is a common condition, affecting all levels of ...
A new study has linked asthma medications taken during infancy to stunted growth. Infants given asthma medications during their first 2 years of age are likely to...
Asthma medication plays a key role in how well you control your condition. There are two main types of treatment, each geared toward a specific goal.
Dupilumab, an injectable monoclonal antibody that inhibits signaling by interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, reduced asthma exacerbations by almost 90% while also improving asthma symptoms in a randomized trial. Participants had moderate-to-severe asthma that had previously been uncontrolled despite use of inhaled corticosteroids with long-acting beta-agonists. Twenty five million people in the U.S. - 8% of the population [… read more]. ...
Introduction: Approximately 7.1 million US children have asthma. The burden of asthma is disproportionate with ruralUSpopulations experiencing a higher prevalence of the disease. Rural populations experience additional disparities regarding health care access, job availability, and daily living resources. Hence, the family impact of having a child with asthma may be influenced by geographic locale. This impact could be a result of health insurance tied to employment, out of pocket costs, and health care provider availability. Few studies have assessed the impact a childs asthma has on a family. This study sought to answer the question: What is the impact of children with asthma on US rural families? Methods: Multivariate techniques were performed to examine a single year of data from two connected population-based datasets, the 2007-2008 National Survey of Childrens Health and the 2009-2010 Children with Special Health Care Needs Survey. Children with current asthma defined the study
The phenotypic features of asthma differ by severity and with advancing age. With advancing age, patients with severe asthma are more obese, have greater airflow limitation, less allergen sensitization, and variable type 2 inflammation. Novel mechanisms besides type 2 inflammatory pathways may infor …
Government Ordered Label Warnings For An Asthma Drug. The government ordered stronger label warnings for an injected asthma medication.
Physician developed information for parents about childhood asthma treatment options to help children cope with and control asthma.
Updated guidelines and new treatments for asthma have become available since the last major survey of asthma management in the United States was completed ∼11 years ago. The Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) survey was conducted to assess the current status of asthma burden in the United States. A geographically stratified screening of 60,682 households provided a national sample of 2500 patients with current asthma (2186 adults aged ≥18 years; 314 adolescents aged 12‐17 years). A national sample of 1004 adults without current asthma was interviewed for comparison with the adult asthma population, and 309 asthma health care providers were surveyed for their opinions about the burden of asthma. Asthma prevalence in the United States was estimated at 8%. Twice as many adult asthma patients rated their health as "only fair," "poor," or "very poor," or experienced limitations in activity because of health problems, compared with the general population. Asthma also frequently caused negative ...
Asthma treatment medications including control, prevention and rescue medications for asthma relief and treatment. The Allergy & Asthma Center provides diagnosis and treatment for asthma for Baltimore and DC Metro areas. To schedule an appointment, call 1-800-778-9923.
New clot preventer works as well as older drugLast Updated: 2013-07-01 10:55:29 -0400 (Reuters Health)By Bill Berkrot(Reuters) - The blood clot preventer...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Asthma is a chronic, debilitating disease characterized by intermittent attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, cough and excess sputum/mucus production. As many as 300 million people worldwide may have some form of asthma and the prevalence has steadily increased at an alarming rate over the past two decades. Today in the United States alone, more than 24 million people (~ 10 million children) have asthma resulting in more than 500,000 hospital admissions annually due to asthmatic symptoms and more than 5000 deaths each year. Most asthmatics have a mild form of the disease, which is well controlled by inhaled bronchodilators; however, up to 5% have severe asthma for which there is no effective treatment. These are the patients who show up at the emergency room during an acute, life threatening attack and can remain in the hospital for up to one week or longer. The cost of asthma is great and asthma-related hospitalizations accounts for ...
Estimated Reading Time: 3 minutes. Heres what it feels like to have bronchial asthma symptoms:. Get a straw. Hold your nose, and try breathing through the straw for 15 seconds like youre drinking from a glass of lemonade.. Scary, right?. If youve never experienced an asthma attack yourself, the Straw Challenge gives you a good idea of what to expect.. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates over 235 million people worldwide suffer from asthma, and its the most common long-term disease children experience (1). But adults can experience severe asthma, too.. In this post, youll learn the major bronchial asthma symptoms, risk factors, and asthma triggers to look out for. Plus, well cover natural asthma treatment techniques you can use to keep your symptoms in check.. Lets take a look.. ...
Actually, your parents were not misinformed, and neither were mine. In fact, it was very common back then for the latest asthma wisdom to elude even physicians. Asthma research hospitals like National Jewish in Denver had access to the latest wisdom. IF asthmatics got bad, they were sent to these hospitals. It wasnt until 1989 that asthma guidelines were created. Also at this time physicians at these hospitals started holding educational fairs for regional doctors to teach them about the latest asthma wisdom. Both of these resulted in regional doctors gaining the same wisdom that once eluded them about asthma. Now, thanks to guidelines, all asthmatics have access to the latest wisdom, and the most up to date medicine. ReplyDelete ...
Actually, your parents were not misinformed, and neither were mine. In fact, it was very common back then for the latest asthma wisdom to elude even physicians. Asthma research hospitals like National Jewish in Denver had access to the latest wisdom. IF asthmatics got bad, they were sent to these hospitals. It wasnt until 1989 that asthma guidelines were created. Also at this time physicians at these hospitals started holding educational fairs for regional doctors to teach them about the latest asthma wisdom. Both of these resulted in regional doctors gaining the same wisdom that once eluded them about asthma. Now, thanks to guidelines, all asthmatics have access to the latest wisdom, and the most up to date medicine. ReplyDelete ...
Check your spirometry predicted values, record peak flow results in our chart. The Global Asthma Report 2011 http://www.globalasthmareport.org. Asthma affects 235 million people today and prevalence is rising. Low- and middle-income countries suffer the most severe cases.. We have the tools to counter the devastating personal and economic impact of untreated and poorly managed asthma.. The British Asthma Guideline recommends the Royal College of Physicians three questions to assess asthma control over the preceding month.. Have you had any difficulty sleeping because of asthma symptoms, have you had your usual asthma symptoms during the day, and has your asthma interfered with your usual activities?. A personal asthma action plan is a tailored written record of what action to take when symptoms or peak flow readings deteriorate. It includes information about when the patient needs to seek medical help or emergency care. This encourages the patient to take more responsibility for their asthma ...
Quick-relief or rescue medications are used to quickly relax and open the airways and relieve symptoms during an asthma flare-up, or are taken before exercising if prescribed. These include: short-acting beta-agonists . These inhaled bronchodilator
Results. A total of 4.8% of children had atopic asthma, 1.9% had nonatopic asthma, 3.4% had resolved asthma, and 4.3% had frequent respiratory symptoms. Mean BMI was higher among children with nonatopic asthma, whereas prenatal maternal smoking was a risk factor for resolved asthma. Atopic and nonatopic asthma were similar for most measures of asthma severity (eg, medication use and lung function), and relatively few children in either group were receiving inhaled corticosteroids (5%-10%). Patients with resolved asthma had fewer symptoms but lung-function impairment similar to that seen with current asthma, whereas children with frequent respiratory symptoms but no asthma diagnosis had normal lung function. ...
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This proof-of-concept phase IIa trial investigated the efficacy and tolerability of ARRY 502 in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent allergic asthma. The
Causes and natural remedies for Asthma, including dietary changes, supplements and a comprehensive Wellness Program - Asthma, Asthma Treatment, Breathing Problems, Asthma Products, Asthma Inhaler, Bronchial Asthma, Asthma Symptoms, Wheezing, Allergies
Asthma drugs that could benefit asthmatic kids to prevent their attacks are not receiving the prescriptions, even after going to the emergency room.
1 Aged ≥ 18 years. 2 Reported any of the following during the past year: asthma medication use, asthma symptoms, or MD visits for asthma. ± Sample size excludes "DK/Refused". § Standard error. † Confidence interval. N/A: Estimate not available (N/A) if the unweighted sample size for the denominator was , 50 or if the relative standard error was , 0.30 ...
Analysing proteins that line the airways of asthmatic patients could help doctors to quickly diagnose and better treat specific asthma sub-types, according to a new report by the University of...UK Health Centre Information
A new asthma drug, known as Fevipiprant (a prostaglandin D2 receptor antagonist) could revolutionize the treatment of the disease according to a new study.
Asthma control can take a little time and energy to master, but its worth the effort. Learn more about ways to manage your childs asthma.
You will find myriad bronchial asthma medications available. It is not easy for patients to select which to purchase. You should realize that bronchial asthma medications exist in two differing types- the controller and also the quick relief. The controller type is come to prevent someone from bronchial asthma attacks and signs and symptoms. They may be utilized on each day-to-day basis. The relief type are taken whenever a patient already comes with an attack to nullify the signs and symptoms. However, it vital that you always consult a physician just in case from the signs and symptoms keep in mind that bronchial asthma could be existence-threatening.. ...
Find complete Asthma information including causes of asthma, asthma symptoms, asthma treatment, asthma medications, asthma in children and adult asthma.
This page from eMedicine.com is a helpful resource for anyone who deals with asthma, whether in yourself or a loved one. Not only are there pictures and information about all of the different asthma medications, spacers, and nebulizers available, but there are also diagrams demonstrating how to position a patient for dosing, and even a list of advantages and disadvantages of each type of medication and delivery device ...
Bronchial asthma is a severe disease which characterizes by chronic inflammation of respiratory tract and bronchial hypersensitivity. AsthmaHealth - Asthma Treatment $ Care
Researchers have identified a genetic mutation in a protein linked to the immune system that could help further improve treatments for asthma. scientists reporting in the European Journal of...UK Health Centre Information
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The US FDA has approved AstraZenecas interleukin-5 inhibitor Fasenra for severe asthma, setting up a fight in the market with rival drugs from GlaxoSmithKline and Teva.. Its the first approval for Fasenra (benralizumab), as well as the first for AZs emerging portfolio of respiratory biologic drugs, and the company says it is taking the marketing battle to its competitors by pricing the drug at a discount to GSKs Nucala (mepolizumab) and Tevas Cinqair/Cinqaero (reslizumab) - also IL-5 inhibitors.. Fasenra will be priced at $38,000 in the first year, dropping to $28,000-$33,000 in subsequent years as a maintenance therapy, which it maintains is a discount to all other biologics used in severe asthma, according to Reuters.. AZ is also emphasising the drugs maintenance dosing frequency of every eight weeks, whereas Nucala and Cinqair require monthly doses. Like Nucala it is administered by subcutaneous injections while Cinqaero requires an intravenous infusion. The drug is also on the brink of ...
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Methods: Consecutive patients with severe asthma disease (n=15; Group IA, pretreatment and Group IB, post-treatment) underwent omalizumab treatment. Control group was age- and sex-matched including 25 healthy in Group II. Blood samples from both the groups were taken during their first visit (Group IA and II) and then after 12 months of treatment in asthmatic patients (Group IB). Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), eosinophil cationic peptide (ECP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), soluble OX2 (sCD200) and clinical follow-up tests including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), asthma control test (ACT), and pulmonary function tests were evaluated ...
Eighteen children suffering from hay fever were treated with intra-nasal beclomethasone dipropionate (400 mug/day) and an identical placebo aerosol in a double-blind cross-over trial. 17 of the children preferred the intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate, one had no preference, none preferred the placebo. The effect on the nasal symptoms was impressive. Symptom scores decreased, on average, to 12% and the number of antihistamine tablets taken to 18% of the pretreatment amount. Some beneficial effect on eye symptoms was also discernible, possibly due to an indirect influence from the nasal mucosa via the nasolacrimal reflex. Adrenal function was not affected. It was concluded that 400 mug beclomethasone dipropionate given intranasally daily for some weeks is an effective and safe treatment for hay fever in children.. ...
Absorption:Fluticasone Propionate:Healthy Subjects: Fluticasone propionate acts locally in the lung; therefore, plasma levels do not predict therapeutic effect. Studies using oral dosing of labeled and unlabeled drug have demonstrated that the oral systemic bioavailability of fluticasone propionate is negligible (,1%), primarily due to incomplete absorption and presystemic metabolism in the gut and liver. In contrast, the majority of the fluticasone propionate delivered to the lung is systemically absorbed.. Following administration of ADVAIR DISKUS to healthy adult subjects, peak plasma concentrations of fluticasone propionate were achieved in 1 to 2 hours. In a single-dose crossover study, a higher-than-recommended dose of ADVAIR DISKUS was administered to 14 healthy adult subjects. Two (2) inhalations of the following treatments were administered: ADVAIR DISKUS 500/50, fluticasone propionate powder 500 mcg and salmeterol powder 50 mcg given concurrently, and fluticasone propionate powder 500 ...
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Evaluation of Fluticasone Propionate and Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol Combination on Exercise in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients with Asthma
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Long-term use of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol fixed-dose combination and incidence of cataracts and glaucoma among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the UK General Practice Research Database David P Miller, Stephanie E Watkins, Tim Sampson, Kourtney J Davis WorldWide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Durham, NC, USA Objectives: Some large population-based studies have reported a dose-related increased risk of cataracts and glaucoma associated with use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the association between use of ICS-containing products, specifically fluticasone propionate/salmeterol fixed-dose combination (FSC), and incidence of cataracts and glaucoma among patients with COPD in a large electronic medical record database in the United Kingdom. Methods: We identified a cohort of patients aged 45 years and over with COPD in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) between 2003 and 2006. Cases of
Ciclosporin has been touted as a therapeutic option in moderate to severe asthmatic patients as a corticosteroid sparing agent ... These efforts probed the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties of ciclosporin after regional deposition of drug in ... It was originally used to prevent transplant rejection of solid organs but has also found use as an orally administered agent ... Evans, DJ; Cullinan, P; Geddes, DM (2001). "Cyclosporin as an oral corticosteroid sparing agent in stable asthma". Cochrane ...
... mimics the asthmatic hypersensitivity to agents that cause bronchoconstriction by increasing airway narrowing responses to ... this action may contribute to their anti-atherogenic effect. In guinea pigs, 13(S)-HODE, when injected intravenously, causes a ... This stimulation appears due to a direct interaction of these agents on TRPV1 although reports disagree on the potencies of the ...
... exacerbation of asthmatic bronchoconstriction and related symptoms, In extremely rare instances, asthmatic symptoms in response ... a sulfur dioxide-related agent, or an agent whose levels in alcohol beverages correlated positively with those of sulfur ... and by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) other than aspirin. The study suggested the salicylate-"contaminates" in ... tested the effects of alcoholic beverage consumption on the respiratory symptoms of 11 asthmatic subjects who gave a history of ...
... oral anti-diabetics, colestyramine, dextromethorphan, mifepristone, corticosteroids, anti-platelet agents and selective ... have had an acute asthmatic attack, hives, rhinitis (inflammation of the inner lining of the nasal passage), or other allergic ... Tenoxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It was originated by Roche but as of 2008 is sold by Meda AB under ... Assessment report for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and cardiovascular risk. (2012, Oct. 18). European ...
While much further work is needed, these studies indicate that PGF2α-FP axis has some pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory ... The axis may likewise play role in human allergic responses: PGF2α causes airway constriction in normal and asthmatic humans ... Eyelid hypotrichosis caused by FP receptor agonists are used as highly effective agents to synchronize the oestrus cycles of ... of the tachycardia response to the pro-inflammatory agent, lipopolysaccharide. PTGFR knockout mice also show a reduction in the ...
... mimics the asthmatic hypersensitivity to agents that cause bronchoconstriction by increasing airway narrowing responses to ... Nixon, Jennifer B; Kim, Kyung-Su; Lamb, Patricia W; Bottone, Frank G; Eling, Thomas E (2004). "15-Lipoxygenase-1 has anti- ... This stimulation appears due to a direct interaction of these agents on TRPV1 although reports disagree on the potencies of the ... "Statins meditate anti-atherosclerotic action in smooth muscle cells by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation ...
... they are anti-inflammatory cell signaling agents. Lipoxins are derived enzymatically from arachidonic acid, an ω-6 fatty acid. ... LXA4 inhibits the-bronchial contracting action of LTC4 and relaxes pre-contracted bronchi in asthmatic individuals. Kaposi's ... and metabolites of the latter two classes of enzymes while suppressing production of anti-inflammatory signaling agents such as ... which increases production of the anti-inflammatory gaseous signaling agent, carbon monoxide, and genes involved in the ...
... or etamiphyllin (INN) is a xanthine intended for use as an anti-asthma agent. It has shown poor to absent effects ... Vazquez, C; Labayru, T; Rodriguez-Soriano, J (1984). "Poor bronchodilator effect of oral etamiphylline in asthmatic children". ...
... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.796 --- respiratory system agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.050 --- anti-asthmatic agents MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ...
A primary cause was the donning agent used for latex gloves prior to the 1990s, however most gloves now use protein free starch ... Wheat may specifically induce WDEIA and certain chronic urticaria because the anti-gliadin IgE detects ω5-gliadins expressed by ... and similar proteins in other Triticeae genera enter the blood stream during exercise where they cause acute asthmatic or ... While gluten is also the causative agent of celiac disease (CD), celiac disease can be contrasted to gluten allergy by the ...
These agents may also cause kidney impairment, especially in combination with other nephrotoxic agents. Kidney failure is ... exacerbations of asthmatic and rhinitis (see aspirin-induced asthma) symptoms in individuals with a history of asthma or ... Most nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are weak acids, with a pKa of 3-5. They are absorbed well from the stomach and ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that groups together drugs that reduce pain, decrease fever, and ...
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents/analgesics (NSAIAs), Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs). Use. Pain, fever ... exacerbations of asthmatic and rhinitis (see aspirin-induced asthma) symptoms in individuals with a history of asthma or ... These agents may also cause kidney impairment, especially in combination with other nephrotoxic agents. Kidney failure is ... "Medications - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs". Retrieved 2 February 2018.. *^ Lee A, Cooper MG, Craig JC, Knight JF, ...
These include for adults: antihistamines, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, benzonatate, anti asthmatic-expectorant- ... Agents whose purpose is to suppress coughing. Cold medicine. Cough medicine often contains cough suppressants and expectorants. ... Chang, AB; Peake, J; McElrea, MS (16 April 2008). "Anti-histamines for prolonged non-specific cough in children". The Cochrane ... anti inflammatories, and anticholinergics - and for children: antihistamines, decongestants for clearing the nose, or ...
... and human platelet thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptors by immunoaffinity chromatography employing anti-peptide and anti- ... TP receptor-independent agents that stimulate cells to activate protein kinases C or protein kinases A can also down-regulate ... The TP receptor appears to play and essential role in the pro-asthmatic actions of leukotriene C4 (LTC4): in ovalbumin- ... However, these studies face issues that drugs which indirectly target TP (e.g. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that block ...
... eicosanoids most often act as autocrine signaling agents to impact their cells of origin or as paracrine signaling agents to ... Inhibition of COX-1 and/or the inducible COX-2 isoforms, is the hallmark of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), ... isolated from severe and aspirin-intolerant asthmatics was greater than that from healthy volunteers and mild asthmatic ... Heat-PGE2 is also a potent pyretic agent. Aspirin and NSAIDS-drugs that block the COX pathways and stop prostanoid synthesis- ...
Fluticasone works as a potent anti-inflammatory agent, inhibiting multiple cell types such as mast cells, eosinophils, ... and bone mineral density in asthmatic children when inhaled fluticasone is used for up to three months.[10] ... Fluticasone, a corticosteroid, is the anti-inflammatory component of the combination which decreases inflammation in the lungs ...
Hyperforin has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antibiotic and anti-depressant functions (. PMID 17696442, ... Agents such as montelukast and zafirlukast block the actions of cysteinyl leukotrienes at the CysLT1 receptor on target cells ... These effects contribute to inflammation, edema, mucus secretion, and bronchoconstriction in the airways of asthmatic patients ... Scott JP, Peters-Golden M (September 2013). "Antileukotriene agents for the treatment of lung disease". Am. J. Respir. Crit. ...
Nagata K (2004). "CRTH2". Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 17 (4): 334-7. PMID 15065763.. ... Mice genetically engineered to be deficient in DP2 (i.e. DP2−/-) mice are defective in mounting asthmatic responses in models ... and increased production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10).[8] ... reduces allergen-induced airway responses in allergic asthmatics". Clinical & Experimental Allergy. 44 (8): 1044-52. doi: ...
There is no commercially available vaccine however high rates of cure have been achieved with various anti-filarial regimens ... "Wuchereria bancrofti: The causative agent of Bancroftian Filariasis". ww.nematodes.org. Retrieved 20 February 2014. Ramaiah, KD ... In rare conditions it also causes tropical eosinophilia, an asthmatic disease. ...
Pump inhalers for asthmatics deliver aerosolized drugs into the lungs via the mouth. However, the insufflation by the pump is ... Steroids (local effect) and anti-asthma medication Hormone replacement Decongestants (local effect) Nicotine replacement ... volatile anesthetic agents). Nasal insufflation is the most common method of nasal administration. Other methods are nasal ...
Hyperforin has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antibiotic and anti-depressant functions (PMID 17696442, ... Antileukotriene agents David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox. Lehninger's Principles of Biochemistry, Fifth Edition. W.H. Freeman and ... These effects contribute to inflammation, edema, mucus secretion, and bronchoconstriction in the airways of asthmatic patients ... Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of hyperforin have been described as inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (but not COX-2) and 5- ...
External agents/. occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. Baritosis. Bauxite fibrosis. Berylliosis. ... The treatment of EIB has been extensively studied in asthmatic subjects over the last 30 years, but not so in EIB.[ ... Some physicians prescribe inhaled anti-inflammatory mists such as corticosteroids or leukotriene antagonists, and mast cell ... However, there is no evidence supporting different treatment for EIB in asthmatic athletes and nonathletes.[16] ...
Mice genetically engineered to be deficient in DP2 (i.e. DP2−/-) mice are defective in mounting asthmatic responses in models ... and increased production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Studies in Dp2 gene-deficient (i.e. Dp2−/-) mice indicate ... Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 17 (4): 334-7. PMID 15065763. Chiba T, Kanda A, Ueki S, Ito W, ... However, the drug, while supporting the concept that DP2 contributes to asthmatic disease, did not show sufficient advantage ...
Asthmatic patients have also shown elevated sensitization to M. racemosus. Mucor racemosus-specific IgE antibody is commonly ... However, some secondary metabolites of the fungus have been found to have anti-inflammatory activity similar to the drug ... M. racemosus is a rare agent of human disease, typically only associated with opportunistic infection of immunocompromised ... Comparison of aerobiological data and skin tests with mould extracts in an asthmatic population". Allergy. 40 (3): 181-6. doi: ...
There are also increased levels of MMP in the lungs of asthmatics. Since tumstatin is cleaved by MMP from the collagen in the ... Wang Shu-jing; Liu Xing-han; Ji Yu-bin; Chen Ning (6-8 July 2007). "The Effect of Tumstatin Anti-tumor Peptide on Proliferation ... Tumstatin is a protein fragment cleaved from collagen that serves as both an antiangiogenic and proapoptotic agent. It has ... Type-IV collagen is present in the basement membrane within normal lungs, and this is reduced in asthmatic patients. ...
The first is named the early asthmatic response, and the latter the late asthmatic response. Bronchioconstriction can occur as ... Muscarinic antagonists (anti-cholinergics): Blocking the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in pulmonary smooth muscle tissue ... In combination with mucous thinning agents such as Guaifenesin significant improvement in breathing can be accomplished. More ... Unlike the SABAs, these medications do not provide relief of acute symptoms or asthmatic attacks, and their benefits are ...
Homozygous variants for this five repeat promoter region in a study of 624 asthmatic children in Ankara, Turkey were much more ... Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) can cause NSAID-exacerbated diseases (N-ERD). These have been ... Alox5 and presumably human ALOX5 functions may vary widely depending on the agents stimulating their and types of metabolites ... have turned out to be effective anti-inflammatory drugs. Furthermore, blockers of LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 synthesis (i.e. ALOX5 ...
It is used as a bleaching agent in the production of Coconut cream It is used as a reducing agent to break sulfide bonds in ... An important anti-oxidant and bactericide It is also used to precipitate gold from auric acid (gold dissolved in aqua regia). ... It may cause allergic reactions in those who are sensitive to sulfites, including respiratory reactions in asthmatics, ... It is used as a cleaning agent for potable water reverse osmosis membranes in desalination systems. It is also used to remove ...

No data available that match "anti asthmatic agents"


  • The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its chemokine CXCL12 are involved in the recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells as successfully demonstrated in the airways using agents that block either CXCL12 or CXCR4 ( Hachet-Haas et al JBC 2008 ). (ersjournals.com)
  • To characterize the dose of fluticasone-salmeterol hydrofluoroalkane-134a (HFA) (particle size, 2.7 μm) delivered to asthmatic patients and examine the drug distribution within the lungs. (nih.gov)
  • A crossover study was conducted in asthmatic patients with commercial formulations of fluticasone-salmeterol and HFA beclomethasone radiolabeled with technetium Tc 99m. (nih.gov)
  • However, it is unknown if the simultaneous use of sildenafil plus, at least, 3 classes of antihypertensive agents in patients with resistant arterial hypertension may have a synergic effect on the patients blood pressure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hypothesis: The investigators hypothesize that the sildenafil, besides the anti-ischemic effect, will improve the patients hemodynamic status and, moreover, that it will occur a modulation of this effect by the T-786C polymorphism. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Three patients with TS who experienced incomplete responses to conventional anti-TS drugs but noted a significant amelioration of symptoms when smoking marijuana. (ukcia.org)
  • Boswellia serrata, a potent inhibitor of leukotriene production, has been successful in a clinical trial with asthmatic patients. (townsendletter.com)
  • The results of this study indicate that a dose of 2 gm/ day of Nigella sativa might be a beneficial adjuvant to oral hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetic patients. (mercola.com)
  • Other medications are available for special situations, other therapies (allergy shots, bronchial thermoplasty) in selected patients and lifestyle changes (treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, and weight loss in obese asthmatics) in others. (chieftain.com)
  • This review assessed the efficacy and safety of nebulisers, pressurised metered-dose inhalers and dry powder inhalers as delivery systems for beta-agonists, anticholinergic agents and corticosteroids. (york.ac.uk)
  • To compare the efficacy and safety of nebulisers, pressurised metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) with or without a spacer or holding chamber, and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) as delivery systems for beta-agonists, anticholinergic agents and corticosteroids. (york.ac.uk)
  • The medications delivered were mainly beta2-agonists, though there were some studies of corticosteroid and anticholinergic agents. (york.ac.uk)
  • MC recruitment of neutrophils could be blocked by preventing the pro-inflammatory activation (using cromolyn sodium) or enhancing an anti-inflammatory phenotype (using Ac2-26) in MCs. (bireme.br)
  • VCO has been studied extensively because the free fatty acids in this oil have beneficial effects on many aspects of human health and disease such as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic properties [ 11 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The high intake of medication in international football - especially of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - is alarming and should be addressed. (bmj.com)
  • 3 Although many authors have raised concerns about the use in international sports of prescribed substances such as β2-agonists, 4 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 5 - 7 corticosteroids, 8 and nutritional supplements, 9 10 only little is known about the magnitude of their current use. (bmj.com)
  • Recently published data on medication use in professional footballers indicate a high intake of both supplements 12 and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (bmj.com)
  • Overall, the five drug classes mentioned most frequently for emergency department visits during 2004 were narcotic analgesics (30.7 million), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (25.2 million), non-narcotic analgesics (15.2 million), sedatives and hypnotics (10.4 million), and cephalosporins (8.2 million). (aahd.us)
  • The potential use of CBD as an anti-epileptic drug and its possible potentiating effect on other drugs are discussed. (ukcia.org)
  • This review discusses the clinical effects and the putative mode of anti-inflammatory action unrelated to H 1 receptor blockade of this class of drugs. (springer.com)
  • Here, the seeds were used in conjunction with regular anti-diabetic medications. (mercola.com)
  • Mast cells mediate early neutrophil recruitment and exhibit anti-inflammatory properties via the formyl peptide receptor 2/lipoxin A receptor. (bireme.br)
  • A synthetic derivative of hydroxyurea with antiasthmatic properties. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Honey has anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. (medindia.net)
  • This Brazilian study Investigates the possible anti-psychotic activity of CBD by studying the effect of this cannabinoid on animal models used in research with potential anti-psychotic properties. (ukcia.org)
  • According to a recent animal study published in July 2011 , cumin appears to have anti-stress properties. (mercola.com)
  • A drug or agent that induces or hastens menstrual flow. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These well-characterized agents, representing two general drug effect mechanisms, are considered good candidates for clinical chemoprevention studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conclusion: This study demonstrates the anti-asthmatic potential of KILE during prolonged administration by the oral route. (scirp.org)
  • This study provides scientific support for the anti-stress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities of cumin extract and substantiates that its traditional use as a culinary spice in foods is beneficial and scientific in combating stress and related disorders. (mercola.com)
  • A study published earlier this year concluded that black cumin's anti-diabetic effects appear to be rooted in its ability to improve insulin sensitivity. (mercola.com)
  • Effects of beta adrenergic blocking agents on erythropoietin production in rabbits exposed to hypoxia. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Two health benefits that may be of particular interest to a majority of people are its anti-diabetic and anti-asthmatic effects. (mercola.com)
  • In addition, both in vitro and animal studies suggest that second-generation antihistamines may also show anti-inflammatory effects unrelated to H 1 receptor antagonism. (springer.com)
  • Thus, for example, the finding of pANCA in a systemic vasculitic condition arising initially as an asthmatic condition and found to also manifest tissue and blood eosinophilia makes a strong case for the diagnosis of CSD (which invariably involves the lungs). (medscape.com)
  • Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=285649&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=285649&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Agents that block LO-catalyzed activity may be effective in preventing cancer by interfering with signaling events needed for tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of paeonol self-microemulsion-loaded colon-specific capsules on experimental ulcerative colitis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Multilayer films of polypeptides are promising for the development of applications which encompass some of the following desirable features: anti-fouling, biocompatibility, biodegradability, specific bio-molecular sensitivity, edibility, environmental benignity, thermal responsiveness, and stickiness or non-stickiness. (patent-de.com)