Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.
A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.
A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.
A malignant form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is characterized by HEART RATE between 200 and 250 beats per minute, and QRS complexes with changing amplitude and twisting of the points. The term also describes the syndrome of tachycardia with prolonged ventricular repolarization, long QT intervals exceeding 500 milliseconds or BRADYCARDIA. Torsades de pointes may be self-limited or may progress to VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature atrial contractions or beats caused by signals originating from ectopic atrial sites. The ectopic signals may or may not conduct to the HEART VENTRICLES. Atrial premature complexes are characterized by premature P waves on ECG which are different in configuration from the P waves generated by the normal pacemaker complex in the SINOATRIAL NODE.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
An antiarrhythmia agent that is particularly effective in ventricular arrhythmias. It also has weak beta-blocking activity.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
One of the ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS, it blocks VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS and slows conduction within the His-Purkinje system and MYOCARDIUM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias.
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.
Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.
Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An antiarrhythmia agent used primarily for ventricular rhythm disturbances.
The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
A form of inherited long QT syndrome (or LQT7) that is characterized by a triad of potassium-sensitive periodic paralysis, VENTRICULAR ECTOPIC BEATS, and abnormal features such as short stature, low-set ears, and SCOLIOSIS. It results from mutations of KCNJ2 gene which encodes a channel protein (INWARD RECTIFIER POTASSIUM CHANNELS) that regulates resting membrane potential.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
An alkaloid found in the root of RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA, among other plant sources. It is a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent that apparently acts by changing the shape and threshold of cardiac action potentials.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.
Rare congenital cardiomyopathies characterized by the lack of left ventricular myocardium compaction. The noncompaction results in numerous prominent trabeculations and a loose myocardial meshwork (spongy myocardium) in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Heterogeneous clinical features include diminished systolic function sometimes associated with left ventricular dilation, that presents either neonatally or progressively. Often, the RIGHT VENTRICLE is also affected. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE; PULMONARY EMBOLISM; and ventricular ARRHYTHMIA are commonly seen.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Antihistamine drug now withdrawn from the market in many countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects.
Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
A rare form of supraventricular tachycardia caused by automatic, not reentrant, conduction initiated from sites at the atrioventricular junction, but not the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. It usually occurs during myocardial infarction, after heart surgery, or in digitalis intoxication with a HEART RATE ranging from 140 to 250 beats per minute.
A class Ib anti-arrhythmia agent used to manage ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A group of conditions in which HEART VENTRICLE activation by the atrial impulse is faster than the normal impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE. In these pre-excitation syndromes, atrial impulses often bypass the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE delay and travel via ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAYS connecting the atrium directly to the BUNDLE OF HIS.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (1/3137)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

Preconditioning in immature rabbit hearts: role of KATP channels. (2/3137)

BACKGROUND: The protective effects of ischemic preconditioning have been shown to occur in adult hearts of all species studied. We determined whether immature hearts normoxic or chronically hypoxic from birth could be preconditioned, the time window or memory of the cardioprotective effect, and the involvement of the KATP channel. METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated immature rabbit hearts (7 to 10 days old) were subjected to 0, 1, or 3 cycles of preconditioning consisting of 5 minutes of global ischemia plus 10 minutes of reperfusion. This was followed by 30 minutes of global ischemia and 35 minutes of reperfusion. Normoxic hearts (FIO2=0.21) subjected to 1 cycle of preconditioning recovered 70+/-7% of left ventricular developed pressure compared with 43+/-8% recovery in nonpreconditioned controls. Three cycles of preconditioning did not result in additional recovery (63+/-8%). Hearts from rabbits raised from birth in hypoxic conditions (FIO2=0.12) and subjected to 1 and 3 preconditioning cycles did not show increased recovery (68+/-8% and 65+/-5%) compared with nonpreconditioned hypoxic controls (63+/-9%), although the recovery was greater in chronically hypoxic hearts than in age-matched normoxic controls. Increasing the recovery period after the preconditioning stimulus from 10 to 30 minutes resulted in a loss of cardioprotection. Pretreatment of normoxic hearts for 30 minutes with the KATP channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (300 micromol/L) completely abolished preconditioning (70+/-7% to 35+/-9%) but had no effect on nonpreconditioned hearts (40+/-8%). CONCLUSIONS: Immature hearts normoxic from birth can be preconditioned, whereas immature hearts hypoxic from birth cannot. Preconditioning in normoxic immature hearts is associated with activation of the KATP channel.  (+info)

Modulation of AV nodal and Hisian conduction by changes in extracellular space. (3/3137)

Previous studies have demonstrated that the extracellular space (ECS) component of the atrioventricular (AV) node and His bundle region is larger than the ECS in adjacent contractile myocardium. The potential physiological significance of this observation was examined in a canine blood-perfused AV nodal preparation. Mannitol, an ECS osmotic expander, was infused directly into either the AV node or His bundle region. This resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the AV nodal or His-ventricular conduction time and in the AV nodal effective refractory period. Mannitol infusion eventually resulted in Wenckebach block (n = 6), which reversed with mannitol washout. The ratio of AV nodal to left ventricular ECS in tissue frozen immediately on the development of heart block (n = 8) was significantly higher in the region of block (4.53 +/- 0.61) compared with that in control preparations (2.23 +/- 0.35, n = 6, P < 0.01) and donor dog hearts (2.45 +/- 0.18, n = 11, P < 0.01) not exposed to mannitol. With lower mannitol rates (10% of total blood flow), AV nodal conduction times increased by 5-10% and the AV node became supersensitive to adenosine, acetylcholine, and carbachol, but not to norepinephrine. We conclude that mannitol-induced changes in AV node and His bundle ECS markedly alter conduction system electrophysiology and the sensitivity of conductive tissues to purinergic and cholinergic agonists.  (+info)

Delayed rectifier potassium current in undiseased human ventricular myocytes. (4/3137)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the properties of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in myocytes isolated from undiseased human left ventricles. METHODS: The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied in 28 left ventricular myocytes from 13 hearts at 35 degrees C. RESULTS: An E-4031 sensitive tail current identified the rapid component of IK (IKr) in the myocytes, but there was no evidence for an E-4031 insensitive slow component of IK (IKs). When nifedipine (5 microM) was used to block the inward calcium current (ICa), IKr activation was fast (tau = 31.0 +/- 7.4 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and deactivation kinetics were biexponential and relatively slow (tau 1 = 600.0 +/- 53.9 ms and tau 2 = 6792.2 +/- 875.7 ms, at -40 mV, n = 7). Application of CdCl2 (250 microM) to block ICa altered the voltage dependence of the IKr considerably, slowing its activation (tau = 657.1 +/- 109.1 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and accelerating its deactivation (tau = 104.0 +/- 18.5 ms, at -40 mV, n = 8). CONCLUSIONS: In undiseased human ventricle at 35 degrees C IKr exists having fast activation and slow deactivation kinetics; however, there was no evidence found for an expressed IKs. IKr probably plays an important role in the frequency dependent modulation of repolarization in undiseased human ventricle, and is a target for many Class III antiarrhythmic drugs.  (+info)

Electrophysiologic effect of enalapril on guinea pig papillary muscles in vitro. (5/3137)

AIM: To study the direct effect of enalapril on cellular electrophysiology of myocardium. METHODS: Conventional microelectrodes technique was used to record the action potentials (AP) of guinea pig papillary muscles. RESULTS: Enalapril caused an increase of the AP amplitude (APA) and the resting potential (RP) in a concentration-dependent manner without any significant change of AP duration, Vmax and overshoot of AP. Superfusion of ouabain 0.5 mumol.L-1 reduced APA and RP, induced stable delayed after-depolarizations (DAD) at different basic cycle lengths (BCL) in a frequency-dependent manner. At BCL 200 ms, the amplitude of DAD was large enough to induce nonsustained triggered activity (TA). In additional presence of enalapril 10 mumol.L-1, the DAD amplitude at 500, 400, 300, and 200 ms were decreased from 5.3 +/- 2.3, 5.9 +/- 2.8, 7.4 +/- 2.1, and 8.9 +/- 1.3 to 2.6 +/- 0.7, 3.1 +/- 1.0, 3.7 +/- 1.5, and 5.3 +/- 1.1 (mV) respectively, all P < 0.01. The compensation intervals were increased in a similar frequency-dependent manner. The number of TA induced at BCL 200 ms was decreased from 3.6 +/- 0.7 to 0.8 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Enalapril directly inhibits DAD and TA induced by ouabain through increasing RP and APA, which may contribute to its anti-arrhythmic effect.  (+info)

Effects of dauricine, quinidine, and sotalol on action potential duration of papillary muscles in vitro. (6/3137)

AIM: To compare the characteristics of dauricine, sotalol, and quinidine on action potential duration (APD). METHODS: Using intracellular microelectrode method to record APD in guinea pig papillary muscles. RESULTS: Dauricine 20 mumol.L-1 prolonged action potential at 90% repolarization, the percent of APD prolongation were 22 +/- 8, 11 +/- 6, 9 +/- 5, 7 +/- 5, 6 +/- 3, 4.3 +/- 2.8, 4.5 +/- 2.8 at the cycle lengths of 200-2000 ms, dauricine became more effective in lengthening APD at short cycle lengths. The effect of dauricine on prolonging APD exhibited normal use-dependence, whereas quinidine 1 mumol.L-1 and sotalol 10 mumol.L-1 were less effective in lengthening APD at short cycle lengths. The effect of quinidine and sotalol on APD exhibited reverse use-dependence. CONCLUSSION: The effect of dauricine on APD depends on activation frequency.  (+info)

Imipramine blocks the transient outward potassium current in rat ventricular myocytes. (7/3137)

AIM: To examine the effects of imipramine on transient outward potassium current (I(to) in rat ventricular myocytes. METHODS: The patch-clamp whole-cell recording techniques were used. RESULTS: Imipramine resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of I(to) with the IC50 of 6.0 mumol.L-1 and a concentration-dependent acceleration of I(to) inactivation. The blocking showed no difference at different testing membrane potentials. Imipramine produced slight effects (about 3 and 4 mV, respectively) on steady-state activation and inactivation curves of I(to), and tended to prolong the recovery of I(to) from inactivation (tau control = 37 +/- 11 ms; tau drug = 58 +/- 17 ms), but not significant (n = 4, P > 0.05). The inhibitory effect of imipramine on Ito was increased when the prepulses were prolonged progressively from 0 to 120 ms. (tau control = 22 +/- 8 ms; tau drug = 14 +/- 5 ms). CONCLUSIONS: Imipramine blocked Ito in concentration-dependent but voltage-independent manners, and with "open channel blocking" properties.  (+info)

Effects of cycloprotobuxine-A on atrial fibrillation. (8/3137)

AIM: To study the effects of cycloprotobuxine-A (Cyc-A) on atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Atrial fibrillations in vivo and in vitro were induced by arrhythmogenic drugs. Action potentials were measured by the standard microelectrode technique. RESULTS: Cyc-A, similar to or slightly stronger than amiodarone (Ami), decreased incidences of atrial fibrillation elicited by CaCl2-acetylcholine in mice and increased doses of aconitine, ouabain, or adrenaline to elicit atrial fibrillation in isolated guinea pig atria. Cyc-A 0.3-100 mumol.L-1 decreased the normal automaticity and 0.3-30 mumol.L-1 attenuated or almost abolished the isoprenaline-induced abnormal increase in automaticity in sinus nodal cells. In isolated left atria, Cyc-A 0.3-30 mumol.L-1 inhibited the abnormal rhythmic activity elicited by adrenaline, prolonged action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period, and reduced excitability. At 3-30 mumol.L-1, Cyc-A also decreased the maximal velocity of depolarization (Vmax). Cyc-A antagonized the acetylcholine-induced shortening of APD. These electrophysiologic effects were similar to those of amiodarone, but Ami did not affect the Vmax. CONCLUSION: Cyc-A produces a protective effect against experimental atrial fibrillation via a prolongation of repolarization, a decease of automaticity, and an inhibition of excitability.  (+info)

Define antiarrhythmic medication. antiarrhythmic medication synonyms, antiarrhythmic medication pronunciation, antiarrhythmic medication translation, English dictionary definition of antiarrhythmic medication. Noun 1. antiarrhythmic medication - a drug used to treat an abnormal heart rhythm antiarrhythmic, antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone, Cordarone - an...
antiarrhythmic medications - MedHelps antiarrhythmic medications Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for antiarrhythmic medications. Find antiarrhythmic medications information, treatments for antiarrhythmic medications and antiarrhythmic medications symptoms.
N-Aminoalkyl(perfluoroalkanoylaminophenyl)sulfonic acid amides of the formula: ##STR1## in which R.sup.1 is perfluoroalkanoylamino of 2 to 4 carbon atoms, in 3- or 4- position of the benzene ring;R.sup.2 is hydrogen or alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms;R.sup.3 is hydrogen or straight or branched chain alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms;R.sup.4 is straight or branched chain alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms; andn is one of the integers 2, 3 or 4;or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, are Class I anti-arrhythmic agents useful in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and conditions characterized by coronary arteries vasospasm and myocardial ischemia.
PubMed journal article: Class III antiarrhythmic drugs block HERG, a human cardiac delayed rectifier K+ channel. Open-channel block by methanesulfonanilides. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
This phase II dose-finding study demonstrated that the upper dose of RSD1235 (2 + 3 mg/kg) rapidly and effectively terminated AF compared with lower dose RSD1235 and placebo. There were no serious adverse events associated with RSD1235. In contrast to other anti-arrhythmic drugs used for conversion of recent onset AF, there were no instances of drug-related pro-arrhythmia. Although these initial findings will require confirmation in larger scale clinical trials, this safety profile, coupled with an efficacious and rapid onset, confirms that RSD1235 is a promising new agent for the medical conversion of recent onset AF.. Cardioversion of AF may be accomplished using electrical or pharmacologic approaches. Electrical cardioversion is effective in rapidly restoring sinus rhythm; however, it requires procedural sedation and a suitable recovery period and/or may cause pain after treatment. Experimental data suggest that AF itself conditions the substrate for maintenance of AF and supports the need ...
Ischemia-Related Subcellular Redistribution of Sodium Channels Enhances the Proarrhythmic Effect of Class I Antiarrhythmic Drugs: A Simulation Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vernakalant. T2 - Pharmacology, electrophysiology, safety and efficacy. AU - Naccarelli, Gerald V.. AU - Wolbrette, Deborah L.. AU - Samii, Soraya. AU - Banchs, Javier E.. AU - Penny-Peterson, Erica. AU - Stevenson, Robert. AU - Gonzalez, Mario D.. PY - 2008/5/1. Y1 - 2008/5/1. N2 - The development of new antiarrhythmic agents for the treatment of atrial fibrillation is advancing simultaneously on several fronts. The molecular structure of existing agents such as amiodarone is being modified in an attempt to improve safety and reduce adverse effects. Similarly, atrial-selective antiarrhythmic drugs are being developed to minimize the occurrence of ventricular proarrhythmia. One of these atrial-selective compounds is vernakalant, which has demonstrated efficacy in terminating atrial fibrillation when given intravenously. In addition, preliminary data suggest that it could also suppress recurrences when used orally. This paper reviews the pharmacology, electrophysiology, efficacy ...
Arrhythmias can range from incidental, asymptomatic clinical findings to life-threatening abnormalities. In some human arrhythmias, precise mechanisms are known, and treatment can be targeted specifically against those mechanisms. In other cases, mechanisms can be only inferred, and the choice of drugs is based largely on the results of prior experience. Anti-arrhythmic drug therapy can have 2 goals: termination of an ongoing arrhythmia or prevention of an arrhythmia. Unfortunately, anti-arrhythmic drugs not only help to control arrhythmias but also can cause them, especially during long-term therapy. Thus, prescribing anti-arrhythmic drugs requires that precipitating factors be excluded or minimized, that a precise diagnosis of the type of arrhythmia be made, and that the risks of drug therapy can be minimized. ...
Antiarrhythmic medication - What are the classes of antiarrhythmic medications? I, II, III and IV. Class I is divided into ia, ib, and ic. These are sodium channel blockers. An example from this class would be propafenone. Class ii agents are beta-blockers (like metoprolol). Class iii are potassium channel blockers - for example, amiodarone. Class IV are calcium channel blockers, like diltiazem.
We report herein the synthesis and antiarrhythmic activities of some newly synthesized heterocyclic theino[2,3-c]pyrimidine and theino[2,3-c]pyridine derivative
For more than 20 years, the classification of antiarrhythmic drugs proposed by Vaughan Williams [1] has held the field. In essence, it is based on the effects of antiarrhythmic agents on the...
Study Flashcards On Antiarrhythmic Agents the script at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
METHODS AND RESULTS Patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias were randomly assigned to undergo serial testing of up to six antiarrhythmic drugs by either EPS (EPS limb) or HM and exercise testing (HM limb). Efficacy predictions were achieved in 108 of 242 patients in the EPS limb (45%) and in 188 of 244 patients (77%) in the HM limb. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) , 0.25 and presence of coronary artery disease were negative correlates (p , 0.10) of drug efficacy predictions in the EPS limb. In the HM limb, LVEF was the lone univariate correlate of efficacy, although it was only marginally significant (p = 0.107). A multivariate model selected assessment by HM and higher LVEF as independent predictors (p , 0.05) of drug efficacy. The drug evaluation process required an actuarial median time of 25 days in the EPS limb and 10 days in the HM limb (p , 0.0001). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antiarrhythmic Drugs. T2 - Rationale and Current Status. AU - Latini, Roberto. AU - Maggioni, Aldo P.. AU - Cavalli, Augusto. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. UR - UR - U2 - 10.2165/00003088-199018020-00001. DO - 10.2165/00003088-199018020-00001. M3 - Article. C2 - 2180615. AN - SCOPUS:0025287780. VL - 18. SP - 91. EP - 103. JO - Clinical Pharmacokinetics. JF - Clinical Pharmacokinetics. SN - 0312-5963. IS - 2. ER - ...
Since most of the toxicity associated with class 1B antiarrhythmic drugs is dose-related, this review examines adverse effects seen in both therapeutic pra
Antiarrhythmics are a type of heart medication that prevent and treat abnormal heartbeats. Learn more about antiarrhythmics from Heart & Stroke.
Antiarrhythmic agent Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as
It is important to reduce structural myocardial changes, especially hypertrophy of the left ventricle, which predisposes to ischemia and arrhythmias. It is also necessary to optimize the dialysis parameters to ensure hemodynamic and electrolytic balance, to evaluate the drug treatment and its impact on the incidence and seriousness of malignant arrhythmias and SCD (100).. AFi treatment aims mainly to maintain the ventricular rate by administring antiarrhythmic medication or cardioversion, to improve symptomatology and to increase effort tolerance. AFi treatment also focuses on lowering the CVA risk, discontinuing the anticoagulant treatment, increasing the quality of life and the survival rate. An accepted alternative, although often secondary to antiarrhythmic medication is the strategy to simply control the rate of ventricular response of AFi by using node blocking agents in association with continuous anticoagulation (109).. Class 1A and 1C arrhythmic medications can ensure the rapid ...
The Report Ovarian Cancer-Global API Manufacturers, Marketed and Phase III Drugs Landscape, 2016 provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and company profiles for key industry participants. -
Study Flashcards On Block 3: Antiarrhythmics at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Antiarrhythmic Medicines can be effective in treating Heart Attack. Learn about Antiarrhythmic Medicines, see related evidence, and find other smart treatments for Heart Attack at FoundHealth.
This site has a great rundown on the mechanism and actions and how these agents shift the action potential. You probably dont need to know all that for the BCPS. Just know how to pick an agent for a specific patient population.. ...
treatment and prevention during and immediately after Myocardial infarction, though this practice is now discouraged given the increased risk of ...
Betapace - Betapace is an antiarrhythmic drug used for treating certain types of irregular heartbeat (ventricular arrhythmias). It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Several medications are used to treat, prevent, or lessen the frequency or severity of abnormal heart rhythms. This group of medications is called antiarrhythmics. 
Flecainide acetate, a new potent class I antiarrhythmic agent, was given to 152 patients (46 orally and 106 intravenously) over a period of 22 months. Seven patients developed proarrhythmic effects. The only conduction abnormalities induced were PR interval prolongation and QRS complex widening, and …
Prespecified criteria for adequate heart rate (HR) control in AF are outlined in Table 1. Rate control was assessed only if the patient was in AF at the time of evaluation. If a patient in the rate-control arm was in SR at a specified visit, rate control was not assessed and not recorded at that visit. Adequate rate control required the initial resting HR to be ≤80 beats/min. If that goal was achieved, a standard 6-min walk test (35)or 24-h ambulatory electrocardiographic recording (Holter monitor) was required to confirm adequate rate control. The approach used was left to the discretion of the treating physician. If both Holter monitoring and a 6-min walk test were performed, rate-control criteria had to be met for both tests. Overall rate control required evidence for resting and exercise rate control, as defined. Tests were repeated until rate control was achieved or when the patient had a change in status or change in drug dosage. Further drug titration was based on the results of these ...
The data show that there is no survival benefit to the strategy of rhythm control in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Indeed there were trends toward higher rates of death and stroke among patients treated with rhythm control. Rate control appears to be an acceptable primary strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation. Long term anticoagulation appears warranted in all patients with risk factors for stroke. Risk factors for ischemic stroke in nonvalvular AF include prior thromboembolism, CHF, HTN, age, DM, female gender, BP greater than 160 mmHg and LV dysfunction. As stated in the ACC/AHA guidelines, maximum protection against ischemic stroke in AF is probably achieved with an international normalized ratio (INR) of 2 to 3, whereas an INR range of 1.6 to 2.5 appears to be associated with incomplete efficacy, estimated at approximately 80% of that achieved with higher intensity anticoagulation. ACC/AHA guidelines recommend that physicians individualize the selection of the ...
Introduction: Class I antiarrhythmic drugs increase duration of the excitable gap (EG) during typical atrial flutter whereas intravenous class III drugs decrease the EG. The effect of chronic oral amiodarone therapy on the EG is unknown. Methods and Results: EG was prospectively determined by introducing a premature stimulus and analyzing the response pattern during typical atrial flutter in 30 patients without antiarrhythmic drugs and in 20 patients under chronic oral amiodarone therapy. EG was calculated by the difference between the longest coupling interval leading to resetting and the effective atrial refractory period (EARP). A fully EG was defined by the portion of EG where the response curve of the return cycles was flat. A partially EG was defined by the portion of EG where the return cycle increases while coupling interval decreases. A resetting response curve was constructed by plotting the duration of the return cycle against the value of the coupling interval. Cycle length (CL; 222 ...
Introduction:. Atrial fibrillation is by far the most common heart arrhythmia and is even increasing in prevalence and incidence. Approximately 10% of all cardiologic hospitalizations are due to atrial fibrillation. Several studies have shown older patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation and with minor symptoms related to the arrhythmia do equally well on a frequency control as compared to a rhythm control strategy. However, some of this lack of difference in outcome may be because the benefits by achieving sinus rhythm are outbalanced by the risk of medication with presently known antiarrhythmic drugs together with the only modest efficacy of these drugs. Non-pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation has drawn increasing interest over the last decade, and especially percutaneous catheter based ablation strategies have been in focus with promising results on the symptomatic level in several series of patients. Different technologies have been in use with very few ...
Several anti-arrhythmic agents, which are used in treatment of AF, exist. However, the efficacy of these drugs still can be improved. Furthermore, some of them are associated with a wide range of adverse side effects. Therefore, the mechanisms of action of these agents have to be better understood and still can be optimized.. Dronedarone is an anti-arrhythmic agent used in the treatment of AF by maintaining sinus rhythm. It is a derivative of amiodarone and has been developed to reduce the side effects as e.g. thyroid toxicity of its precursor compound.. The aim of this work is to integrate the effects of dronedarone into a model of atrial electrophysiology. In this way, the mechanism of action, i.e. the anti-arrhythmic effects of this agent should be better understood. In previous work, the effects of amiodarone were already integrated into an atrial cell model. Finally, a comparison of both agents and their impact on healthy and electrically remodeled tissue shall be carried out. ...
INTERIM STUDY REPORT Public Safety Committee Sue Tibbs, Chair Oklahoma House of Representatives Interim Study 11-028, Rep. Sue Tibbs and Rep. Ben Sherrer October 3, 2011 Study of making pseudoephedrine a Class III drug and needing a prescription to obtain Darrell Weaver Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs Control Drug enforcement is a different type of law enforcement. It is an in-progress crime. Laws must be able to adapt and change. Meth Labs: 2007= 147 2008= 248 2009= 743 2010= 818 In 2004, meth labs cost $1 billion in collateral damage. In 2006, Oregon made pseudoephedrine products a Schedule III or prescription only drug. After enactment, Oregon saw the largest decrease in crime rate in the nation. Meth related hospitalizations went down 35% and meth arrests were reduced 33%. Mississippi enacted similar legislation last year. Meth related incidents dropped 35%, arrests dropped 62% and there was a 76% reduction in the number of children removed from meth houses. The Bureau of ...
Tedisamil (3,7-dicyclopropylmethyl-9,9-tetramethylene-3,7-diazabicyclo-3,3,1-nonane) is an experimental class III antiarrhythmic agent currently being investigated for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Tedisamil blocks multiple types of potassium channels in the heart resulting in slowed heart rate. While the effects of tedisamil have been demonstrated in both atrial and ventricular muscle, repolarization is prolonged more efficiently in the atria. Tedisamil is administered intravenously and has a half-life of approximately 8 -13 hours in circulation. Tedisamil is being developed as an alternative to other antiarrhythmics as incidence of additional arrhythmic events is lower compared to other class III agents. Tedisamil also has significant anti-ischemic properties and was initially investigated as a potential treatment for angina until its antiarrhythmic effects were discovered. Tedisamil is manufactured by Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc. under the proposed trade name Pulzium and is currently ...
Disopyramide (INN, trade names Norpace and Rythmodan) is an antiarrhythmic medication used in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia. It is a sodium channel blocker and therefore classified as a Class 1a anti-arrhythmic agent. Disopyramide has a negative inotropic effect on the ventricular myocardium, significantly decreasing the contractility. Disopyramide also has an anticholinergic effect on the heart which accounts for many adverse side effects. Disopyramide is available in both oral and intravenous forms, and has a low degree of toxicity. Disopyramides Class 1a activity is similar to that of quinidine in that it targets sodium channels to inhibit conduction. Disopyramide depresses the increase in sodium permeability of the cardiac myocyte during Phase 0 of the cardiac action potential, in turn decreasing the inward sodium current. This results in an increased threshold for excitation and a decreased upstroke velocity. Disopyramide prolongs the PR interval by lengthening both the QRS and ...
The first five months of the MAVERIC registry have provided an estimate of the likely minimum incidence of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias in a defined population. It also suggests that just over half of these patients would satisfy the AVID criteria. In the AVID study the average age of patients was 65 years. MAVERIC patients fulfilling the AVID criteria had a similar mean age of 65.8 years. The AVID trial was stopped prematurely in April 1997 after recruitment of 1016 patients. One year mortality was reduced by 38% in patients treated with an ICD compared with those who received antiarrhythmic drug treatment. This significantly improved prognosis continued in the second and third years, with a 25% reduction in deaths in each year.. An improvement in survival with ICD treatment has been suggested in other studies. Patients with previous myocardial infarction with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, impaired left ventricular function, and non-suppressible inducible ventricular ...
Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 600 Highland Ave,SC E1/372, Madison, WI, 53792, Wisconsin, USA1 and department of Diagnostic Radiology and Medical Physics, University Hospi- Given the history of this patient, which also included the use of amiodarone, drug induced lung toxicity - amiodarone pneumonitis - was suspected. The diagnosis was validated by trans-bronchial biopsy. Amiodarone treatment was stopped and treat-ment with corticosteroid treatment was initiated. Amiodarone is a class III anti-arrhythmic drug used for treatment of refractory cardiac tachyarrhyth- mias. It accumulates in the liver and lung, and may lead to potentially fatal pulmonary toxicity in 5% of Amiodarone pneumonitis was first described in 1980. Its prevalence in patients treated with amiodarone reached up to 15%. With higher age and higher dosage of amiodarone, the risk of amiodarone pneu- monitis increases. Due to its long tissue half life, both onset of lung toxicity and clearing following ...
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The side effect profile ofhas been well established. Anticholinergic symptoms are most common, but cardiac toxicity is of greatest concern. In particular, the negative inotropic activity and proarrhythmic potential of disopyramide limits its use in s
The effects of ranolazine on cardiac ion currents at concentrations within the therapeutic range (ie, 2 to 6 μmol/L) include inhibition of IKr, late INa, and late ICa,L. Inhibition of IKr by ranolazine prolongs APD, and its effect to inhibit late INa and late ICa,L abbreviates APD. The net effect and clinical consequence of inhibition of these ion channel currents is a modest increase in the mean QTc interval over the therapeutic range. The drug differs significantly from other agents that block IKr and induce TdP. Ranolazine-induced prolongation of the APD is rate independent (ie, does not display reverse rate-dependent prolongation of APD) and is not associated with EADs, triggered activity, an increase in spatial dispersion of repolarization, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Indeed, rather than displaying arrhythmogenic activity, ranolazine, via its actions to suppress EADs and reduce TDR, possesses significant antiarrhythmic activity, acting to suppress the arrhythmogenic effects ...
We have investigated the concentration-dependent modulation, by the novel class III antiarrhythmic compound NE-10064, of the delayed potassium channel current Iks in isolated guinea pig sinoatrial nodal (SAN) and ventricular cells. At concentrations greater than 1 micron, the drug potently inhibited Iks in each of the cell types investigated. The concentration-dependent inhibition of Iks (IC50 = 700 nM) was the same in ventricular and SAN cells. At near-threshold drug concentrations, we also observed increases of Iks activity in both SAN and ventricular cells. The NE-10064-induced enhancement of Iks was more pronounced at voltages near the Iks activation threshold (0 mV), than at more positive voltages in both cell types. Furthermore, the agonistic effects of the drug were more prominent before steady-state effects of the compound were attained, which suggests parallel agonistic and antagonistic pathways. Our results demonstrate that Iks channels in cells of the sinoatrial node region of the ...
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Vernakalant was originally developed to target the atrial-specific ultrarapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur). However, it is a multichannel blocker inhibiting IKur, the transient outward potassium current (Ito), the peak and late Na currents, the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channels (IKr), and the inward-rectifing potassium channels (IKAch and IKATP). It is now thought that although IKur block may contribute to vernakalants antifibrillatory effect, its most important action is through atrial-selective blockade of the peak sodium current.6 The effective refractory period is made shorter during AF, and lengthening the effective refractory period can lead to AF termination. This can be achieved by prolonging the action potential duration (APD), primarily by inhibiting potassium channels, or by blocking sodium channels, which increases cardiac excitation threshold, slows conduction, and creates a period of refractoriness after the action potential has repolarized without ...
ARCA biopharma Release: GencaroTM Demonstrated 74% Risk Reduction for New Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure Patients with Genotype Believed to be Found in Nearly 50% of Population - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
10.1055/b-0035-121513 18 Cardiac Arrhythmias 18.1 Antiarrhythmic Drugs 18.1.1 Basics Antiarrhythmic drugs play a central role in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in childhood. But their use must be weighed critically. There are numerous studies in adults showing that class I antiarrhythmic drugs do not reduce mortality, but even increase it in patients with ventricular tachycardia…
Amiodarone belongs to a class of drugs called Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic agents. It is used in the treatment of a wide range of cardiac tachyarhthmias, including both ventricular and supraventricular (atrial) arrhythmias. After intravenous administration in man, amiodarone relaxes vascular smooth muscle, reduces peripheral vascular resistance (afterload), and slightly increases cardiac index. Amiodarone prolongs phase 3 of the cardiac action potential. It has numerous other effects however, including actions that are similar to those of antiarrhythmic classes Ia, II, and IV. Amiodarone shows beta blocker-like and calcium channel blocker-like actions on the SA and AV nodes, increases the refractory period via sodium- and potassium-channel effects, and slows intra-cardiac conduction of the cardiac action potential, via sodium-channel effects ...
Amiodarone is a commonly used anti-arrhythmic agent, with well-recognized chronic toxicity. Less well known is amiodarones potential to cause acute lung damage, which can be severe or, occasionally, life-threatening. Lungs that have already been exposed to physical insults, such as the lungs of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, are particularly susceptible to acute pulmonary toxicity (APT). Unfortunately, cardiac surgery is one of the clinical scenarios in which amiodarone is most commonly used. After reviewing the data, and even in the context of difficulties and discrepancies in the existing literature, we contend that there is sufficient evidence of amiodarones potentially serious side-effect profile in surgical ICU patients to advise continued caution in its use with this severely ill patient group. We suggest that amiodarone has a potentially important, though underrecognized, role in inducing an APT/ARDS in some patients, such as those undergoing cardiac surgery. We also provide a hypothesis
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of BMS-919373 on atrial fibrillation (AF) through its effect on AF burden (AFB), or the percent of time in AF, in subjects with paroxysmal AF (pAF) when administered orally at a range of doses (2 mg once daily (QD), 5 mg QD, 12 mg QD following a 1-week period of loading doses of 3 mg QD, 8 mg QD and 20 mg QD, respectively) for a total of 4 weeks. It is hypothesized that treatment with BMS-919373 will reduce AF burden as compared to baseline relative to placebo ...
Patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) who respond to ibutilide infusion usually convert to sinus rhythm within 1 hour. However, little is known about the magnitude and time course of the drugs atrial electrophysiological effects. In the current study, the frequency content of the fibrillatory baseline on the ECG was used to quantify the effects of ibutilide infusion on AF. Nineteen patients (age 56 +/- 16 years) in persistent AF were studied. Nine of these were chronically treated with antiarrhythmic drugs. All subjects received ibutilide (1 mg i.v.) over 10 minutes and a second dose 10 minutes later as needed. An ECG was recorded and digitized throughout each of the 20 sessions (one patient had two separate cardioversions). A signal processing technique was then used to quantify the average rate of the fibrillatory baseline. After attenuating the QRS and T waves, the ECG was subjected to Fourier transformation. The average rate of fibrillatory activity was defined as the frequency
The prevalence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachyarrhthmias (VTA) in patients with heart failure can be as high as 50%.1,2 The use of ICDs have significantly reduced mortality from SCD in patients at the highest risk. However while ICD discharges save lives, they also have associated physical and psychological morbidity.3 Anti-arrhythmic drugs (classes I, II, and III) commonly used for suppression of VTA, have many side effects and can be pro-arrhythmic. Several classes of medications that are used to treat and prevent coronary heart disease may have favorable anti-arrhythmic effects on VTA, including statins, very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), and ranolazine. A meta-analysis of 25 trials of statin versus placebo indicated that there was significant reduction in sudden cardiac death in the statin arm OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.82-0.97).24 In general, the majority of these trials were in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. There ...
In experimental studies, mostly done in laboratory animals, researchers have reported that n-3 PUFAs have several potential anti-arrhythmic effects40, 41-most notably a direct effect on cardiac ion channels. Initial data37 from single-cell experiments with isolated cardiomyocytes showed that acute application of purified n-3 PUFAs had a profound inhibitory effect on sodium channels, reducing the peak sodium current by more than 50% and shifting the steady-state inactivation towards negative potentials, thus reducing excitability. This finding was supported by other similar studies,38, 39 leading to the hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs exert their predominant anti-arrhythmic effect by their inhibitory action on sodium channels. However, when cardiac cells with high membrane incorporation of n-3 PUFA, which was obtained from animals fed a diet fortified with fish oil, were studied, this effect was not consistently reported. Further studies in laboratory animals revealed that n-3 PUFAs have a diverse ...
Script error: No such module TemplatePar.Expression error: Unexpected , operator. Landiolol (INN) is a drug which acts as a highly cardioselective, ultra short-acting beta blocker. It is used as an anti-arrhythmic agent. ...
The reverse use-dependence observed with GLG-V-13 and KMC-IV-84 in the present experiments has been previously reported for methanesulfonalide class III drugs such as dofetilide (Gwilt et al., 1991;Jurkiewicz and Sanguinetti, 1993), E-4031 (Wettwer et al., 1991), d,l-sotalol (Strauss et al., 1970; Hafneret al., 1988), MK-499 (Baskin and Lynch, 1994; Krafte and Volberg, 1994) and sematilide (Krafte and Volberg, 1994). The actual mechanism(s) for reverse use-dependence is/are controversial. The earliest mechanism for reverse use-dependence of action potential duration was advanced by Hondeghem and Snyders (1990). Experimental data from their laboratory demonstrated a time- and voltage-dependent modulation of Ik with quinidine. Quinidine primarily reduced time-dependent outward potassium currents at negative membrane potentials, with blockade of outward potassium currents becoming less pronounced with depolarization (Roden et al., 1988). Later data, however, have failed to demonstrate a similar ...
Oral route(Tablet;Tablet, Extended Release). Active antiarrhythmic therapy has resulted in increased mortality; the risk of active therapy is probably greatest in patients with structural heart disease. In a meta-analysis, the mortality associated with the use of quinidine was more than 3 times as great as the mortality associated with the use of placebo. Another meta-analysis showed that in patients with various non-life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, the mortality associated with the use of quinidine was consistently greater than that associated with the use of alternative antiarrhythmics .. Oral route(Tablet, Extended Release). Many trials of antiarrhythmic therapy for non-life-threatening arrhythmias have resulted in increased mortality; the risk of therapy is probably greatest in patients with structural heart disease. In the case of quinidine used to prevent or defer recurrence of atrial flutter or fibrillation, meta-analysis data have shown that the mortality associated with the use ...
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Efficacy of Short-Term Antiarrhythmic Drugs Use after Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation-A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses and Trial Sequential Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance ...
This patient has experienced an inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI) as demonstrated by her EKG showing ST segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF. The treatment discussed in the vignette was most likely immediate revascularization via endovascular cathaterization and stent placement. In the first 24 hours following an MI, patients are at increased risk for arrhythmias. Historically, class IB antiarrhythmics such as lidocaine have been used as prophylaxis because of preferential binding to (ischemic) tissue that has been damaged in the MI. While prophylaxis with these medications is now less common, there is still a role for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias with class IB antiarrhythmics in specific settings, though they must be carefully dosed and monitored as toxicity include CNS effects. This includes lightheadedness, dizziness, drowsiness and confusion in the mild cases and progresses to seizures and respiratory arrest in severe cases ...
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A placebo-controlled study of i.v. amiodarone in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias and 2 to 3-consecutive-beat ventricular arrhythmias, and a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study evaluating rapid i.v. loading in patients with recurrent, refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ ventricular fibrillation (VF) have shown rapid onset of antiarrhythmic activity well before significant blood levels of desethylamiodarone (DEA) were present; approximately 1500 mg/day of i.v. amiodarone were administered using 2- and 3-stage infusion regimens.
In this interview, Dr. Daniel Singer updates us on the new anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation stroke prevention that he presented about at Boston Atrial Fibrillation Symposium.
Flecainide information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Qualimed Pharma, Flecainide indications, usages and related health products lists
There are many reasons why one might wish to suppress atrial fibrillation AFib and attempt to maintain sinus rhythm. This article assumes that the clinical decision to maintain sinus rhythm has been made. That being the case, antiarrhythmic drug therapy is generally the first line of treatment of AFib. Currently in the United States, there are...
Antiarrhythmic medicines are used to control abnormal heart rhythms. However, your doctor will be aware that several antiarrhythmics may be harmful for people with heart failure and should be avoided.
Amiodarone (Cordarone) is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. Includes amiodarone side effects, interactions and indications.
Spatial features, represented by grid cell occupancy descriptors, supplement partition coefficient, which is the most important determinant of in-vivo antiarrhythmic activity, to provide a comprehensive model for drug action. The QSPR models are less significant in statistical measures, and limited …
Warembourg, H; Ducloux, G (1976). "Clinical study of a new anti-arrhythmia agent: nadoxolol". Lille Med. 21 (4): 386-8. PMID ... Nadoxolol is an antiarrhythmic agent (i.e., a drug for the treatment of irregular heartbeat), chemically related in structure ...
Anti-arrhythmic agents used for arrhythmias usually prolong the ERP. For the treatment of atrial fibrillation, it is a problem ... that the prolongation of the ERP by these agents also affects the ventricles, which can induce other types of arrhythmias. ... ERP acts as a protective mechanism and keeps the heart rate in check and prevents arrhythmias, and it helps coordinates muscle ...
... is a cardiac glycoside and an anti-arrhythmia and cardiotonic agent. Tilford GL. Edible and Medicinal plants of the ...
... works as an anti-arrhythmic agent and is used to treat cardiac arrhythmia. It induces rapid block of the ... Procainamide is used for treating ventricular arrhythmias: ventricular ectopy and tachycardia and supraventricular arrhythmias ... Procainamide is a medication of the antiarrhythmic class used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. It is classified by the ... It was found that procainamide was effective for treating ventricular arrhythmias, but it had the same toxicity profile as ...
Common anti-arrhythmic drugs under the modernized classification according to Lei et al. 2018. Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression ... Class II agents are anti-sympathetic nervous system agents. Most agents in this class are beta blockers. Class III agents ... Class IV agents affect calcium channels and the AV node. Class V agents work by other or unknown mechanisms. With regard to ... Class I agents are called membrane-stabilizing agents, "stabilizing" referring to the decrease of excitogenicity of the plasma ...
... the intravenous injection of HBI-3000 demonstrated to be an effective anti-arrhythmic and anti-fribrillatory agent. The ... The most common chronic arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation. There is an increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in the ... Anti-arrhythmic medication is taken to treat irregular beating of the heart. This irregular beating results from a deregulation ... Most anti-arrhythmic medications exert their effects by decreasing the permeability of potassium ion channels (IKr) in heart ...
Although the goal of drug therapy is to prevent arrhythmia, nearly every anti arrhythmic drug has the potential to act as a pro ... Main article: Antiarrhythmic agents. There are many classes of antiarrhythmic medications, with different mechanisms of action ... For other uses, see Arrhythmia (disambiguation).. Arrhythmia, also known as cardiac arrhythmia or heart arrhythmia, is a group ... Fetal arrhythmiaEdit. Arrhythmias can also be found in the fetus.[15] The normal heart rate of the fetus is between 110 and 160 ...
Available anti-arrhythmic agents (AAD) used for the maintenance of AF are often accompanied with the risk of developing ... AZD1305 is an experimental drug candidate that is under investigation for the management and reversal of cardiac arrhythmias, ... The combined block of INa, IKr, and L-type calcium current is key to the anti-arrhythmic potential of AZD1305 compared IKr ... AZD1305 possesses class III anti-arrhythmic activity by blocking the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel ...
When hyoscyamine is used along with opioids or other anti-peristaltic agents, measures to prevent constipation are especially ... arrhythmia, flushing, and faintness. An overdose will cause headache, nausea, vomiting, and central nervous system symptoms ...
Stewart JM (2003). "Bradykinin antagonists as anti-cancer agents". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 9 (25): 2036-42. doi:10.2174/ ... arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. A bradykinin-potentiating factor (BPF) which increases both the duration and magnitude of ... and bradykinin antagonists have been investigated as anti-cancer agents. Bradykinin has been proposed as an explanation for ...
... a drug commonly used to treat arrhythmias. Celivarone has potential as an antiarrhythmic agent, attributable to its ... "In vivo and in vitro Characterization of the Novel Antiarrhythmic Agent SSR149744C: Electrophysiological, Anti-adrenergic, and ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any abnormality in the electrical activity of the heart. Arrhythmias range from mild to severe, sometimes ... Since it affects multiple ion channels, it also shows promise in treating genetic forms of arrhythmia caused by several ion ...
Atrial arrhythmias are the most common type of arrhythmia with several subtypes currently described, including atrial ... Fox KM, Henderson JR, Kaski JC, Sachse A, Kuester L, Wonnacott S (February 2000). "Antianginal and anti-ischaemic efficacy of ... is an experimental class III antiarrhythmic agent currently being investigated for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. ... Arrhythmias are broadly defined as abnormal electrical activity in the heart and can affect both the atria and ventricles. ...
Cardiac arrhythmias - conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. Many types of arrhythmia have no ... Perhaps the most prominent manipulation of ion channels is through antiarrhythmic agents. These agents are commonly classified ... SSRI's also have interactions with anti-coagulation therapy and increases the risk of bleeding while on them. Serotonin- ... A common arrhythmia that can lead to this form of cardiomyopathy is the common atrial fibrillation. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy ( ...
Although each agent has its own properties and will have thus a different function. Azimilide dihydrochloride is a ... Most recent clinical trials have investigated the use of azimilide in reducing the frequency and severity of arrhythmias in ... Azimilide has been studied for its anti-arrhythmic effects: its converts and maintains sinus rhythm in patients with atrial ... Azimilide is a class ΙΙΙ antiarrhythmic drug (used to control abnormal heart rhythms). The agents from this heterogeneous group ...
It is a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, whereas procainamide is a Class Ia antiarrhythmic drug. It is only partially as active ... During and after his surgery he was facing problems with arrhythmias. These problems were investigated by Frederick R. Mautz. ... Measuring the ratio of acecainide and procainamide concentrations together helps to achieve an optimum anti-arrhythmic effect ... In patients who are refractory to other antiarrhythmic agents, the doses required appear to be greater. Moreover, a few studies ...
... uricosuric agents MeSH D27.505.954.411 - cardiovascular agents MeSH D27.505.954.411.097 - anti-arrhythmia agents MeSH D27.505. ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 - anti-bacterial agents MeSH D27.505 ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.025 - antimanic agents MeSH ...
... other agents are now preferred[citation needed]) and arrhythmia. These sweet glycosides found in the stevia plant Stevia ... Their medicinal value is due to their expectorant, and corticoid and anti-inflammatory effects. Steroid saponins, for example, ... Saponins are also natural ruminal antiprotozoal agents that are potential to improve ruminal microbial fermentation reducing ...
They can be used in combination with other anti-hypertensives or drugs that cause hypokalemia to help maintain a normal range ... C03D Potassium-sparing agents Rose BD (February 1991). "Diuretics". Kidney Int. 39 (2): 336-52. doi:10.1038/ki.1991.43. PMID ... which risks potentially fatal arrhythmias. Triamterene, specifically, is a potential nephrotoxin and up to half of the patients ... are anti-hypertensive drugs with diuretic effects that decrease renal excretion of potassium. They work by inhibiting either ...
The most common type of cardiac arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation. Many anti-arrhythmic drugs have side effects such as ... In patients who has been administered with digitalis agents (digoxin, methyl-digoxin), the vasoconstrictor dose should be ... and the nature of the arrhythmia. If arrhythmia develops during dental treatment, the procedure should be suspended, oxygen is ... Arrhythmias are variations in normal heart rate due to cardiac rhythm, frequency or contraction disorders. ...
At age 12, she was diagnosed with heart arrhythmia that meant she would need to take a nine month break from dancing. "Mini ... As part of her work with The Next Step, Chaves has participated in Family Channel's Stand Up! anti-bullying campaign. In 2017, ... Hill, Valerie (June 7, 2017). "Five triple-threat dance students from Kitchener catching the attention of talent agents". ...
SVT that does not involve the AV node may respond to other anti-arrhythmic drugs such as sotalol or amiodarone.[citation needed ... "Types of Arrhythmia". NHLBI. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on June 7, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2016. "BestBets ... Adenosine, an ultra-short-acting AV nodal blocking agent, is indicated if vagal maneuvers are not effective. If unsuccessful or ... "What Are the Signs and Symptoms of an Arrhythmia?". NHLBI. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. ...
Anti-depressants have been prescribed since the 1950s, and their prevalence has significantly increased since then. There are ... Doxorubicin is an uncoupling agent in that it inhibits proper functioning of complex I of the electron transport chain in ... but have high incidences of cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial infarctions. Guengerich, F. Peter (2011). "Mechanisms of Drug ... Other anti-cancer drugs, such as fluoropyrimidines and taxanes, are extremely effective at treating and reducing tumor ...
It may have both an anti-spirochete activity and an anti-inflammatory activity, similar to the treatment of rheumatoid ... Both agents also inhibit CYP2D6 activity and may interact with other medications that depend on this enzyme. Antimalarials are ... ventricular arrhythmias) if used concurrently) Mefloquine and other drugs known to lower the seizure threshold (co- ... Fox R (June 1996). "Anti-malarial drugs: possible mechanisms of action in autoimmune disease and prospects for drug development ...
A variety of drugs including simple AV nodal blocking agents such as beta-blockers and verapamil, as well as anti-arrhythmics ... "How Are Arrhythmias Diagnosed?". NHLBI. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on February 18, 2015. "How Are Arrhythmias ... "Types of Arrhythmia". NHLBI. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on June 7, 2015. Al-Zaiti, SS; Magdic, KS (September 2016 ... The other type of fast heart rhythm is ventricular arrhythmias-rapid rhythms that start within the ventricle. Diagnosis is ...
Galanolactone, a diterpenoid found in ginger, is a 5-HT3 antagonist and is believed to at least partially mediate the anti- ... Pasricha, Pankaj J. (2006). "Treatment of Disorders of Bowel Motility and Water Flux; Antiemetics; Agents Used in Biliary and ... such as prolongation of the PT and QTc intervals and certain arrhythmias. The clinical significance of these side effects is ... 1991). "Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3 effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger". Chem Pharm Bull. 39 (2): 397-9. ...
It is used both in supraventricular arrhythmias and ventricular arrhythmias. Defibrillation is the treatment of choice for ... Amiodarone also causes an anti-thyroid action, via Wolff-Chaikoff effect, due its large amount of iodine in its molecule, which ... Common practice is to avoid the agent if possible in individuals with decreased lung function. The most specific test of ... In 1974 it was found to be useful for arrhythmias and reintroduced. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential ...
... agent for torsades de pointes in cardiac arrest under the ECC guidelines and for managing quinidine-induced arrhythmias. ... Magnesium sulfate was once used as a tocolytic, but meta-analyses have failed to support it as an anti-contraction medication. ... Magnesium sulfate may be used as bronchodilator after beta-agonist and anticholinergic agents have been tried, e.g. in severe ...
2005). "Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients". FASEB J. 19 (6): 656-658. doi: ... Patients who take these agents develop higher levels of immunoglobulin E against food, whether they had prior antibodies or not ... Arrhythmias such as tachycardia, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, and premature ventricular beats have also been reported. ... Relief of heartburn Short-term and maintenance therapy of gastric and duodenal ulcers With nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ...
H2S is a cardioprotective agent that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects,. A major topic of research ... DATS is a promising treatment for cardiac arrhythmias through its ability to change the opening of the human ether-à-go-go- ... However, hERG trafficking impairment has also been shown to cause arrhythmias due to the development of long QT syndrome and ...
The short-term anti-hypertensive action is based on the fact that thiazides decrease preload, decreasing blood pressure. On the ... The term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a relatively low rate of excretion of ... Alternatively, an antidiuretic, such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of ... Diuretics increase the urine volume and dilute doping agents and their metabolites. Another use is to rapidly lose weight to ...
This is known as fast-pacing, overdrive pacing, or anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP). ATP is only effective if the underlying ... Biventricular pacing alone is referred to as CRT-P (for pacing). For selected patients at risk of arrhythmias, CRT can be ... who have body hair on the chest may want to remove the hair by clipping just prior to surgery or using a depilatory agent ( ... Circ Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 2 (1): 29-34. doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.108.795906. PMID 19808441.. ...
In 2002, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin), which is an anti-CD20 ... of the radioactive agents being infused.[15] Methods, techniques and devices are available to lower the occurrence of this type ... heart arrhythmia and peripheral artery disease. Radiation-induced fibrosis, vascular cell damage and oxidative stress can lead ... which is a combination of an iodine-131 labelled and an unlabelled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody.[76] These medications were ...
Psychoanaleptics: Anti-dementia agents (ATC code N06D and others). AChE inhibitor medications. *Donepezil ... severe cardiac arrhythmia and sick sinus syndrome.[15] ... There is no evidence that donepezil or other similar agents ... is a centrally acting reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and structurally unrelated to other anticholinesterase agents.[ ...
... , by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation ( ... van Noord C, Dieleman JP, van Herpen G, Verhamme K, Sturkenboom MC (November 2010). "Domperidone and ventricular arrhythmia or ... Furthermore, anti-nausea drugs, such as metoclopramide, which do cross the blood-brain barrier may worsen the extra-pyramidal ... Johannes CB, Varas-Lorenzo C, McQuay LJ, Midkiff KD, Fife D (September 2010). "Risk of serious ventricular arrhythmia and ...
Cutting agent[edit]. Quinine is sometimes detected as a cutting agent in street drugs such as cocaine and heroin.[63] ... According to tradition, the bitter taste of anti-malarial quinine tonic led British colonials in India to mix it with gin, thus ... quinine can cause heart arrhythmias, and should be avoided.[citation needed] ... As a flavoring agent in beverages, quinine is limited to less than 83 parts per million in the United States, and 100​mg⁄l in ...
Agents associated with a moderately increased risk include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., ibuprofen), ... "Journal of Arrhythmia (Review). 33 (4): 345-67. doi:10.1016/j.joa.2017.05.004. PMC 5529598. PMID 28765771.. ... "Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. 8 (2): 296-302. doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.114.001909. PMC 4731871. PMID 25684755.. ... experts generally recommend an anti-clotting medication.[18] Anti-clotting medications include warfarin and direct oral ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929-1950". J. Hist. Med. Allied ... they are called arrhythmia, hypertension, and hyperthermia, and may lead to rhabdomyolysis, stroke, cardiac arrest, or seizures ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ...
Anti-microtubule agents[edit]. Vinca alkaloids prevent the assembly of microtubules, whereas taxanes prevent their disassembly ... This causes kidney damage and the high levels of potassium can cause cardiac arrhythmia. Although prophylaxis is available and ... Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ...
Adverse reactions to adrenaline include palpitations, tachycardia, arrhythmia, anxiety, panic attack, headache, tremor, ... "Part 6: Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Section 6: Pharmacology II: Agents to Optimize Cardiac Output and Blood Pressure ... World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited substances. *Peripherally selective drugs. *Respiratory therapy. Hidden categories: *CS1: ... contrast agents, medicines or people with a history of anaphylactic reactions to known triggers. A single dose is recommended ...
However, these agents may precipitate prolongation of the QT interval and consequently provoke a ventricular arrhythmia such as ... "Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 10 (6): 701-6. doi:10.1586/eri.12.50. PMC 3488423. PMID 22734959.. ... Paralytic agents are not suggested for use in sepsis cases in the absence of ARDS, as a growing body of evidence points to ... The usage of prokinetic agents such as metoclopramide, domperidone, and erythromycin are recommended for those who are septic ...
Heneghan C, Ward A, Perera R (2012)։ «Self-monitoring of oral anti-coagulation: systematic review and meta-analysis of ... Policosanol: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic signifi cance of a new lipid-lowering agent American Heart Journal, Volume ... a haemostasis index could detect the relationship with the arrhythmia duration»։ Thromb J 3 (1): 2։ PMC 555849։ PMID 15748296։ ...
2005). "Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients". FASEB J. 19 (6): 656-658. doi: ... Arrhythmias such as tachycardia, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, and premature ventricular beats have also been reported.[ ... Patients who take these agents develop higher levels of immunoglobulin E against food, whether they had prior antibodies or not ...
"Anti-Hangover Tips". The Webtender. Retrieved 2010-03-26.. *^ McGregor NR (November 2007). "Pueraria lobata (Kudzu root) ... as the combination of alcohol and hyperthermia increases the likelihood of dangerous cardiac arrhythmias.[47] ... Agents and Actions. 4 (2): 125-30. doi:10.1007/BF01966822. PMID 4842541.. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin or ibuprofen have been proposed as a treatment for the headaches ...
"Army neuroscientists foresee intelligent agents on the battlefield , U.S. Army Research Laboratory". ... determine whether to wean anti-epileptic medications.. At times, a routine EEG is not sufficient to establish the diagnosis or ... This also allows the EEG to identify cardiac arrhythmias that are an important differential diagnosis to syncope or other ... With halogenated anesthetics, such as halothane or intravenous agents, such as propofol, a rapid (alpha or low beta), ...
Cardiac complications can include arrhythmias, abnormally slow heart beat, low blood pressure, decreased size of the heart ... For example, abnormal hormonal responses to challenges with serotonergic agents have been observed during acute illness, but ... and result in life-threatening arrhythmias. Hypokalemia most commonly results in anorexic patients when restricting is ...
At the moment, apiegnin and beta-cyclodextrin are thought to alleviate S.aureus pneumonia, whereas the antibodies of anti alpha ... As a consequence, some symptoms may appear, such as fatigue, pain, arrhythmias, an enlarged heart or even heart failure, among ... This pore consists of seven alpha-hemolysin subunits, which represent the major cytotoxic agent that is freed by this kind of ... Moreover, some hemolysins may be neutralized by the action of anti-hemolysin antibodies, preventing a longer and more dangerous ...
These properties may define the roles of iNOS in host immunity, enabling its participation in anti-microbial and anti-tumor ... nNOS in the heart protects against cardiac arrhythmia induced by myocardial infarction. The primary receiver for NO produced by ... is an NOS inhibitor that is under development as a neuroprotective agent for the treatment of traumatic brain injury.[1] Other ... "Neuronal nitric oxide synthase protects against myocardial infarction-induced ventricular arrhythmia and mortality in mice". ...
External agents/. occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. Baritosis. Bauxite fibrosis. Berylliosis. ... There are many mimics that present with similar symptoms, such as vocal cord dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies ... Some physicians prescribe inhaled anti-inflammatory mists such as corticosteroids or leukotriene antagonists, and mast cell ...
For example, pacemakers and medications for irregular heartbeats, such as the anti-arrhythmia drug amiodarone, may be life ... "Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 42 (12): 3245-50. PMC 106029. PMID 9835521.. *^ Dubner S, Schapachnik E, Riera AR, Valero E (2008 ... Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity without cytotoxicity to mammalian cells". J Biol Chem. 277 (51): 49332-40. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 49 (4): 1521-8. doi:10.1128/AAC.49.4.1521-1528.2005. PMC 1068607. PMID 15793134.. ...
... especially arrhythmias.[ai] Several anti-arrhythmia drugs act on the cardiac action potential, such as quinidine, lidocaine, ... Some poisons inactivate acetylcholinesterase to prevent this control, such as the nerve agents sarin and tabun,[ag] and the ... Newmark J (2007). "Nerve agents". Neurologist. 13 (1): 20-32. doi:10.1097/01.nrl.0000252923.04894.53. PMID 17215724.. ... Main articles: Cardiac action potential, Electrical conduction system of the heart, Cardiac pacemaker, and Heart arrhythmia ...
... has been recognized as a potential agent for use in bioterrorism.[79] It can be absorbed through the eyes, ... These can arise from paralysis of critical muscle groups and can include arrhythmia, heart attack, and in some cases seizures, ... University-based ophthalmologists in the US and Canada further refined the use of botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent. By ... The effects of botulinum toxin are different from those of nerve agents involved insofar in that botulism symptoms develop ...
Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (1): 49-56. doi:10.2174/187152107779314179. Archived (PDF) from the original on ... a life-threatening arrhythmia, but in practice this appears relatively uncommon in part because the most widely prescribed ... Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (1): 49-56. doi:10.2174/187152107779314179.. ... "Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 42 (7): 1778-82. doi:10.1128/AAC.42.7.1778. PMC 105682. PMID 9661020.. ...
It has been implicated in causing ventricular arrhythmia (torsades de pointes). Ebola research[edit]. In June 2015 a research ... "A screen of approved drugs and molecular probes identifies therapeutics with anti-Ebola virus activity".. ... "Use of bepridil in combination with Ic antiarrhythmic agent in converting persistent atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm" ...
Agents specifically labeled for cardiac arrhythmia *Esmolol,[85] sotalol,[86] landiolol (Japan)[87] ... World Anti-Doping Agency (September 19, 2005). "The World Anti-Doping Code: The 2006 Prohibited List International Standard" ( ... "Medications for Arrhythmia". Retrieved August 10, 2019.. *^ "Beta Blocker Therapy". American College of ... Agents specifically labeled for glaucoma *Betaxolol,[84] carteolol,[84] levobunolol,[84] timolol,[84] metipranolol[88] ...
Reducing agent (antioxidant), e.g. if epinephrine is used, then sodium metabisulfite is used as a reducing agent ... thereby making it most likely to precipitate malignant arrhythmias. Even levobupivacaine and ropivacaine (single-enantiomer ... LA drugs are also often combined with other agents such as opioids for synergistic analgesic action.[1] Low doses of LA drugs ... This can be a factor in choosing an agent in patients with liver failure,[56] although since cholinesterases are produced in ...
Toxoplasma gondii is the most common opportunistic infectious agent associated with myocarditis in AIDS occurring in 12% of ... Interferon-alpha can cause arrhythmia and myocardial infarction/ischemia. Mortality in HIV-infected patients with ... anti-α-myosin autoantibodies) than HIV-infected patients with healthy hearts and HIV-negative controls. In addition, patients ... Toxoplasma gondii is the most common opportunistic infectious agent associated with myocarditis in AIDS. Coinfection with ...
However, these agents may precipitate prolongation of the QT interval and consequently provoke a ventricular arrhythmia such as ... Anti-endotoxin vaccines: back to the future»։ Virulence 5 (1): 219-25։ January 2014։ PMC 3916378։ PMID 23974910։ doi:10.4161/ ... Paralytic agents are not suggested for use in sepsis cases in the absence of ARDS, as a growing body of evidence points to ... 11,0 11,1 «Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock: changes in incidence, pathogens and outcomes»։ Expert Review of Anti- ...
Agents. 35 (6): 524-6. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2009.12.019. PMID 20188526. Amaral, L; Viveiros, M (May 2012). "Why ... The branded product was withdrawn worldwide in 2005 because it caused severe cardiac arrhythmias. However, generic versions are ... but chronic use of thioridazine and other anti-psychotics in people with dementia is not recommended. For further information ... Thanacoody, HKR (November 2007). "Thioridazine: resurrection as an antimicrobial agent?". British Journal of Clinical ...
Minhas A M, Nayab A, Iyer S, Narmeen M, et al «Association of Zika Virus with Myocarditis, Heart Failure, and Arrhythmias: A ... Saiz JC, Martín-Acebes MA «Reply to Iannetta et al., "Azithromycin shows anti-Zika virus activity in human glial cells"» (en ... Saiz, JC; Martín-Acebes, MA «Zika virus: a race in search for antivirals» (en anglès). Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 2017; Mar ... Shiryaev SA, Mesci P, Pinto A, Fernandes I, et al «Repurposing of the anti-malaria drug chloroquine for Zika Virus treatment ...
It has properties of class IA, IB, and IC agents but does not clearly belong to any of the three subclasses. It has less effect ... Moricizine is used to treat irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and to maintain a normal heart rate. It acts on the heart muscle ... In the Vaughan Williams classification of antiarrhythmics, moricizine is considered to be a class I agent. ... Used to treat irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and maintain a normal heart rate. ...
Ibutilide fumurate prolongs the action potential duration and increases both atrial and ventricular refractoriness in vivo, i.e., class III electrophysiologic effects. Voltage clamp studies indicate that Ibutilide, at nanomolar concentrations, delays repolarization by activation of a slow, inward current (predominantly sodium), rather than by blocking outward potassium currents, which is the mechanism by which most other class III antiarrhythmics act ...
Explore the 39 possible supplements interactions for Anti-Arrhythmia Agents and the research papers that mention these ... Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. A.K.A: Antiarrhythmic agent, antiarrhythmic agents, Antiarrhythmic drug, ANTIARRHYTHMICS, …(more) ...
Anti-Arrhythmic Agents for Pharmacy (1) - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online ... generation (aka autonomic arrhythmias). Those resulting from an abnormality in impulse. conduction (reentrant arrhythmias) ... antiarrhythmic agent on a chronic basis, she. comes back complaining of fatigue, lowgrade fever and joint pain suggestive of. ... in arrhythmias that fail to respond to blockers, in patients with high risk of. developing torsades de pointes. ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers. Sodium Channel Blockers. Membrane Transport Modulators. ... Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial II Investigators. Effect of the antiarrhythmic agent moricizine on survival after ... Treatment of ventricular arrhythmias by United States cardiologists: a survey before the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial ... A symposium: the cardiac arrhythmia suppression trial--does it alter our concepts of and approaches to ventricular arrhythmias ...
Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers. Sodium ... narcotic use following pacemaker or defibrillator insertion in subjects who undergo arrhythmia surgery at Baylor Heart and ... The Association Between Type Of Local Anesthesia Treatment And Postoperative Pain In Patients In Having Undergone Arrhythmia ... THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TYPE OF LOCAL ANESTHESIA TREATMENT AND POSTOPERATIVE PAIN IN PATIENTS IN HAVING UNDERGONE ARRHYTHMIA ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers. Sodium Channel Blockers. Membrane Transport Modulators. ... However, beta-blockers have many actions in addition to being anti-arrhythmic agents and it is possible that these other ... Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial II Investigators. Effect of the antiarrhythmic agent moricizine on survival after ... Treatment of ventricular arrhythmias by United States cardiologists: a survey before the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial ...
The Task Force for the Management of Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death of the ... 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: ... Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use * Arrhythmias, Cardiac / genetics * Arrhythmias, Cardiac / therapy* * Autopsy / ... 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: The ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Grant support. *R01 HL111314/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ... Department of Medicine, Cardiac Arrhythmia Service, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.. 8. Division of Cardiac Surgery, ... Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Arrhythmia Service, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, ...
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, Cardioprotective. Additional Keywords : Cardiovascular Activity, ... Diseases : Atrial Arrhythmias, Atrial Fibrillation, Atrial Flutter, Cardiac Mortality Anti Therapeutic Actions : ... Diseases : Cardiac Arrhythmias, Magnesium Deficiency, Mitral Valve Prolapse. Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents ... A lipid peroxidation product of DHA exerts anti-arrhythmia properties post heart attack in mice. It challenges the paradigm ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / adverse effects * Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use* * Atrial Fibrillation / drug therapy* ... Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality on Dofetilide Study Group N Engl J Med. 1999 Sep 16;341(12):857-65. doi: ... We randomly assigned 762 patients to receive dofetilide, a novel class III antiarrhythmic agent, and 756 to receive placebo in ...
... on severity of ouabain-induced cardiac arrhythmias and the possible involvement of serum catecholamines were investigated in ... Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / blood, chemically induced, therapy*. Dopamine / blood. Epinephrine / blood. ... 0/Anti-Arrhythmia Agents; 0/Narcotic Antagonists; 0/Opioid Peptides; 465-65-6/Naloxone; 51-41-2/Norepinephrine; 51-43-4/ ... 22078757 - Anti-cd11d monoclonal antibody treatment for rat spinal cord compression injury.. 11961137 - Substrate-induced up- ...
This topic contains 65 study abstracts on Cardiac Arrhythmias indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Omega-3 ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, Cardioprotective. Additional Keywords : Cardiovascular Activity, ... Diseases : Atrial Arrhythmias, Atrial Fibrillation, Atrial Flutter, Cardiac Mortality Anti Therapeutic Actions : ... Diseases : Cardiac Arrhythmias, Magnesium Deficiency, Mitral Valve Prolapse. Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. *Biological Factors. *Carbohydrates. *Cardiac Therapy. *Cardiovascular Agents. *Cardiovascular System ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. *Biological Factors. *Carbohydrates. *Cardiac Therapy. *Cardiovascular Agents. *Cardiovascular System ... The All Medicare V Pla Synergy Anti Wrinkle Face and Neck Mask ... Hello Care Anti-wrinkle Ampoule Mask. *Hello Care Moisturizing ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. *Antifungal Agents. *Biological. *Cromakalim. *Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects*. *Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy*. *Atrial Flutter/chemically induced* ...
Intravenous lidocaine (anti-arrhythmia agent) was administered; however, nitroglycerin and morphine (both medications for acute ... Absence of exercise-induced complex ventricular arrhythmias. *Absence of hemodynamically significant stenosis on all major ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / pharmacology, therapeutic use. Arrhythmias, Cardiac* / etiology, therapy. Catheter Ablation. Disease ...
Anti-arrhythmia Agents. Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization- ... A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias and tachycardias. Paradoxically ... Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade ... Supraventricular arrhythmia with discordant electrocardiographic features: What is the arrhythmia mechanism?. Junctional and AV ...
0 (Anti-Arrhythmia Agents); 0 (ERG1 Potassium Channel); 0 (Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels); 0 (KCNH2 protein, human); 0 ( ... 0 (2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)acetamide); 0 (Anti-Arrhythmia Agents); 0 (Anticonvulsants); 0 (Sodium Channel Blockers ... 0 (Adrenergic beta-Antagonists); 0 (Anti-Arrhythmia Agents); 0 (Calcium Channel Blockers); 0 (Imidazoles); GFO928U8MQ ( ... 0 (Anti-Arrhythmia Agents); 0 (Antidotes); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); GFO928U8MQ (Disopyramide). ...
0 (Anti-Arrhythmia Agents); 0 (Antimalarials); 0 (Antiviral Agents); 0 (Membrane Transport Modulators); 0 (Protein Kinase ... 0 (Cardiotonic Agents); 0 (KATP Channels); 0 (KCNMA1 protein, human); 0 (KCNT2 protein, human); 0 (Large-Conductance Calcium- ... 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (Membrane Transport Modulators); 0 (SLC5A2 protein, human); 0 (Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2); ... 0 (4-chloro-N-(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)benzamide); 0 (Benzamides); 0 (Histamine Agents); 0 (KCNQ Potassium Channels); 0 (Membrane ...
Anti-arrhythmic agents used for arrhythmias usually prolong the ERP. For the treatment of atrial fibrillation, it is a problem ... that the prolongation of the ERP by these agents also affects the ventricles, which can induce other types of arrhythmias. ... ERP acts as a protective mechanism and keeps the heart rate in check and prevents arrhythmias, and it helps coordinates muscle ...
152 results for Category equals ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS Info. Please enable JavaScript in your browser. Row Number. Result. ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Atrial Fibrillation Pharmaceutical Preparations Amiodarone Incidence Therapeutics Registries ...
Anti-Windup FOPID-Based DPC for SAPF Interconnected to a PV System Tuned Using PSO Algorithm. Boudechiche, G., Sarra, M., Aissa ... Anti-Islanding Protection of PV-based Microgrids Consisting of PHEVs using SVMs. Baghaee, H. R., Mlakić, D., Nikolovski, S. & ... Anti-TNF therapy in pregnant women with inflammatory bowel disease: Effects of therapeutic strategies on disease behavior and ... Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy and recurrent or new primary cancers in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, ...
heart disease, a heart condition such as arrhythmia, blood vessel disease. *future surgery that will require general anesthesia ... In 1999 the FDA approved orlistat (the first of a new class of anti-obesity drugs called lipase inhibitors) for long-term use. ...
... topical numbing agent online Wholesalers - choose topical numbing agent from 652 list of China topical numbing agent ... Lidocaine Hcl Pain Killer Raw Powder Antiarrhythmia Agent CAS 73-78-9 Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a ... Topical Anesthesia Lidocaine / Xylocaine CAS 137-58-6 Treat Heart arrhythmia Product Name: Xylocaine Synonyms: 2-(Diethylamino ... topical numbing agent. All topical numbing agent wholesalers & topical numbing agent manufacturers come from members. We ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents (administration & dosage, adverse effects) *Arrhythmias, Cardiac (chemically induced, drug therapy, ...
It has antihypertensive and selective anti-arrhythmia activities and acts as a calmodulin antagonist. ... A long-acting calcium-blocking agent with significant anti-anginal activity. The drug produces significant coronary ... A long-acting calcium-blocking agent with significant anti-anginal activity. The drug produces significant coronary ... It has antihypertensive and selective anti-arrhythmia activities and acts as a calmodulin antagonist. ...
  • To determine whether drug treatment of asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmias in post-myocardial infarction patients reduced the incidence of sudden cardiac death and total mortality. (
  • Advanced age, poor ventricular function, and presence of ventricular arrhythmias can identify post-MI patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death and all-cause mortality. (
  • 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: The Task Force for the Management of Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). (
  • Numerous studies have described a protective effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase-inhibitors (statins) against ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. (
  • It is unclear, however, whether QT prolongation is a perfect proxy measure for the risk of sudden cardiac death due to arrhythmia and which patients with this abnormality are at the highest risk for an adverse outcome. (
  • Despite emergency medicine advances and guideline updates, sudden cardiac death from arrhythmia accounts for several thousand deaths per year. (
  • 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. (
  • Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. (
  • The elective course, Cardiovascular Electrophysiology: From Bench to Bedside, was developed for third-year (P3) students to complement their knowledge base regarding arrhythmias and diagnosis based on interpretation of ECGs. (
  • Magnesium supplementation may reduce the incidence of postoperative arrhythmias in pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. (
  • AIMS: Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is an inherited disorder associated with abnormally abbreviated QT intervals and an increased incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. (
  • They can also reduce myocardial infarction size, arrhythmia incidence, and improve survival. (
  • The pharmacology of anti-arrhythmic agents and pharmacotherapy of arrhythmia is taught in the P2 spring semester as part of the Integrated Pharmacy Care (IPC) Cardiovascular Care module. (
  • Learners were presented with foundational information on the mechanisms underlying electrophysiological changes associated with the development of arrhythmias. (
  • Nadoxolol is an antiarrhythmic agent (i.e., a drug for the treatment of irregular heartbeat), chemically related in structure to beta-adrenergic receptor blocker drugs such as propranolol. (
  • Implications of Norpace medication for patients with significant arrhythmias. (
  • Medically unstable conditions warranting further evaluation include severe COPD, reactive airways disease, active cardiac conditions (e.g., unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated heart failure, significant arrhythmias, severe valvular disease). (
  • Delaying surgery may be indicated if there is severe COPD, reactive airways disease, or active cardiac conditions (e.g., unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated heart failure, significant arrhythmias, severe valvular disease). (
  • Patients with evidence of acute or unstable cardiac conditions (e.g., unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated heart failure, significant arrhythmias, severe valvular disease) should be evaluated and managed prior to undergoing this (or any) elective procedure. (
  • A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist … A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. (
  • Two newly synthesized β blockers namely DPJ 955 and DPJ 890 were studied for its effect on (1) ECG of anaesthetized mice when administered alone and (2) ability to inhibit isoprenaline induced tachycardia (anti-arrhythmic activity) in mice. (
  • Used to treat irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and maintain a normal heart rate. (
  • Cymarin is a cardiac glycoside and an anti-arrhythmia and cardiotonic agent. (
  • Catheter ablation reduces shock and arrhythmia, stabilizes rhythm and improves prognosis. (
  • Variables assessed comprised study design and population characteristics, AF ablation methods, use of anti-arrhythmic drugs, AF recurrence ascertainment methods, adjustment variables, and other quality indicators. (
  • Nadolol has no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and, unlike some other beta-adrenergic blocking agents, nadolol has little direct myocardial depressant activity and does not have an anesthetic-like membrane-stabilizing action. (
  • 1 The cause of arrhythmia is multifactorial and can include myocardial ischemia, electrolyte disorders, cardiomyopathies, hypertrophy, several classes of drugs, and channelopathies. (
  • Free drug fractions of two antiarrhythmic agents with contrasting binding characteristics, quinidine and procainamide, were related to free fatty acid and α 1 -glycoprotein concentrations on days 1 through 5 and 10 in 20 patients with acute myocardial infarction. (
  • While defibrillators are very effective at preventing death from ventricular arrhythmias, shocks for arrhythmia are painful and decrease quality of life, 3, 4 leading to trials of both pharmacological and ablative techniques to decrease shocks in this population. (
  • However, after development of recurrent arrhythmias, subsequent shocks, or possible Ibutilide administration, the percentage of patients discharged in normal sinus rhythm was similar (95% for advanced practice providers vs. 96% for medical doctors). (
  • Older agents like fluoroquinolones, clofazimine and thioridazine have also been noted to cause this abnormality. (
  • A number of clinical trials have evaluated whether acute or chronic anti-arrhythmic drug therapy can reduce mortality in post-MI patients. (
  • In an effort to address some of these points, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute initiated the Cardiac Arrhythmia Pilot Study in 1982. (
  • However, if a torsades de pointes episode persists, it can lead to a life-threatening arrhythmia called ventricular fibrillation. (
  • In this large subanalysis of the MADIT-CRT trial, statin use was associated with a significant decrease in ICD-treated ventricular arrhythmias among patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and class II heart failure. (
  • This study suggests statins may provide another avenue to decrease arrhythmias in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and ICDs. (
  • Late cardiac toxicity has been seen both in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors, mainly associated with anthracycline and anti-neoplastic agents, including cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. (
  • 2) narcotic use following pacemaker or defibrillator insertion in subjects who undergo arrhythmia surgery at Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute while adjusting for pertinent clinical and/or demographic factors. (
  • This arrhythmia occurs because of a problem with your heart's natural pacemaker (sinus node), a part of its electrical system. (
  • ERP acts as a protective mechanism and keeps the heart rate in check and prevents arrhythmias, and it helps coordinates muscle contraction. (
  • When this arrhythmia occurs, less blood is pumped out from your heart. (
  • Heart arrhythmias are a range of conditions, which have a range of outcomes. (
  • There are many types of heart arrhythmia. (
  • This arrhythmia occurs when your heart misses a beat or adds an extra beat. (
  • Background- Ranolazine is a novel antianginal agent capable of producing antiischemic effects at plasma concentrations of 2 to 6 μmol/L without reducing heart rate or blood pressure. (
  • 1-3 The drug has been shown to increase left ventricular function in animals with chronic heart failure, 4 and 2 clinical trials (Monotherapy Assessment of Ranolazine In Stable Angina [MARISA] and Combination Assessment of Ranolazine In Stable Angina [CARISA]) have established its effectiveness as an antianginal agent. (
  • Those data will help to better guide the heart failure and anti-arrhythmic treatment, predict response to therapy, develop novel siRNA-based gene silencing for malignant gene mutations, or intervene with mutation-specific altered gene pathways in the heart. (
  • Arrhythmia surgery in association with complex congenital heart repairs excluding patients with fontan conversion. (
  • We randomly assigned 762 patients to receive dofetilide, a novel class III antiarrhythmic agent, and 756 to receive placebo in a double-blind study. (
  • Suggests a chain of events, originating in the clinical experience with papaverine as a vasodilating agent, which may explain the relative lack of attention paid to papaverine as an antiarrhythmic agent. (
  • These agents have complex pharmacokinetic profiles, multiple drug-drug interactions, and potential adverse effects other than precipitating arrhythmias. (
  • Since most statin trials have included predominantly patients with ischemic disease it is difficult to differentiate whether the improvements in SCD and/or arrhythmia reflect an anti-ischemic effect with decreases in ischemica-mediated arrhythmia, or a true anti-arrhythmic effect. (
  • Clopidogrel, an antiplatelet agent structurally and pharmacologically similar to ticlopidine, is used to inhibit blood clots in a variety of conditions such as peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease. (
  • 3 Patients with complicated disease conditions such as arrhythmias are often on multiple medications and need to be monitored continuously. (
  • Know the reversal agents (antidotes) available for common meds. (
  • The drugs are associated with QT prolongation-an abnormal pattern on the electrocardiogram that can lead to a fatal arrhythmia. (
  • There remains some distance between computational modeling and clinical appreciation of arrhythmia generation, and computational approaches have not as yet found a clinical role. (
  • This review focuses on the mechanisms of statin pleiotropy and discusses evidence from the statin clinical trials as well as examining the possible anti-arrhythmic effects atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. (
  • This discourages patients from getting more exercise while they are hospitalized, which is a risk factor for muscle atrophy, and getting enough sleep, which is a risk factor for delirium, 4) Telemetry is not available for all hospital beds at UCSF and even units where it is available have limitations for the types of arrhythmias they can monitor. (
  • 1 Similarly, some studies in patients with ICDs have shown a decrease in subsequent arrhythmias in those on statins, but most of these have focused on patients with underlying CAD. (
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of using QTc prolongation as the approximation of risk for arrhythmia in patients on DR-TB treatment? (
  • What is the best strategy for managing arrhythmia risk in patients on DR-TB treatment? (
  • Examines the effectiveness of Norpace therapy among patients who had been on antiarrhythmic agents. (
  • In the Vaughan Williams classification of antiarrhythmics, moricizine is considered to be a class I agent. (
  • As a result of these diverse effects, it has been suggested that statins also have anti-arrhythmic effects. (
  • These data warrant further investigation into the anti-neoplastic effects of statins in prostate tissue. (
  • For the treatment of atrial fibrillation , it is a problem that the prolongation of the ERP by these agents also affects the ventricles, which can induce other types of arrhythmias. (
  • This arrhythmia is characterized by your heart's two lower chambers (ventricles) beating fast, making the waves on an ECG monitor look twisted. (
  • This arrhythmia is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the heart's ventricles. (
  • These are a group of arrhythmias caused by abnormal electrical activity in the heart's atria. (
  • The elective course provided in-depth exposure to the mechanisms underlying electrophysiological aberrations resulting in arrhythmias. (
  • Although the module introduces learners to rate and rhythm abnormalities, learners receive limited exposure to the interpretation of ECGs and the underlying mechanisms causing arrhythmias. (