Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Arrhythmia, Sinus: Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Ventricular Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Long QT Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Tachycardia, Supraventricular: A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Flecainide: A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Torsades de Pointes: A malignant form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is characterized by HEART RATE between 200 and 250 beats per minute, and QRS complexes with changing amplitude and twisting of the points. The term also describes the syndrome of tachycardia with prolonged ventricular repolarization, long QT intervals exceeding 500 milliseconds or BRADYCARDIA. Torsades de pointes may be self-limited or may progress to VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION.NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Amiodarone: An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Digitalis Glycosides: Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Death, Sudden: The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Atrial Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature atrial contractions or beats caused by signals originating from ectopic atrial sites. The ectopic signals may or may not conduct to the HEART VENTRICLES. Atrial premature complexes are characterized by premature P waves on ECG which are different in configuration from the P waves generated by the normal pacemaker complex in the SINOATRIAL NODE.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Propafenone: An antiarrhythmia agent that is particularly effective in ventricular arrhythmias. It also has weak beta-blocking activity.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels: A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Encainide: One of the ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS, it blocks VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS and slows conduction within the His-Purkinje system and MYOCARDIUM.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging: Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Cardiac Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial: Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Procainamide: A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Mexiletine: Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.Quinidine: An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sotalol: An adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias.Disopyramide: A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.Atrioventricular Block: Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.Tachycardia, Sinus: Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia: A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.KCNQ1 Potassium Channel: A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Epicardial Mapping: Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Moricizine: An antiarrhythmia agent used primarily for ventricular rhythm disturbances.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Acetanilides: Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.Digitalis: A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Tachycardia, Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry: Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Tachycardia, Paroxysmal: Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.GuanineBundle of His: Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Andersen Syndrome: A form of inherited long QT syndrome (or LQT7) that is characterized by a triad of potassium-sensitive periodic paralysis, VENTRICULAR ECTOPIC BEATS, and abnormal features such as short stature, low-set ears, and SCOLIOSIS. It results from mutations of KCNJ2 gene which encodes a channel protein (INWARD RECTIFIER POTASSIUM CHANNELS) that regulates resting membrane potential.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Sick Sinus Syndrome: A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Bundle-Branch Block: A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Pachyrhizus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Ajmaline: An alkaloid found in the root of RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA, among other plant sources. It is a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent that apparently acts by changing the shape and threshold of cardiac action potentials.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Calsequestrin: Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium: Rare congenital cardiomyopathies characterized by the lack of left ventricular myocardium compaction. The noncompaction results in numerous prominent trabeculations and a loose myocardial meshwork (spongy myocardium) in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Heterogeneous clinical features include diminished systolic function sometimes associated with left ventricular dilation, that presents either neonatally or progressively. Often, the RIGHT VENTRICLE is also affected. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE; PULMONARY EMBOLISM; and ventricular ARRHYTHMIA are commonly seen.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Astemizole: Antihistamine drug now withdrawn from the market in many countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects.Butylscopolammonium Bromide: Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Tachycardia, Ectopic Junctional: A rare form of supraventricular tachycardia caused by automatic, not reentrant, conduction initiated from sites at the atrioventricular junction, but not the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. It usually occurs during myocardial infarction, after heart surgery, or in digitalis intoxication with a HEART RATE ranging from 140 to 250 beats per minute.Aprindine: A class Ib anti-arrhythmia agent used to manage ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Ventricular Dysfunction, Right: A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.KCNQ Potassium Channels: A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.Pre-Excitation Syndromes: A group of conditions in which HEART VENTRICLE activation by the atrial impulse is faster than the normal impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE. In these pre-excitation syndromes, atrial impulses often bypass the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE delay and travel via ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAYS connecting the atrium directly to the BUNDLE OF HIS.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Magnesium Sulfate: A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cisapride: A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Terfenadine: A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Excitation Contraction Coupling: A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (1/3137)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

Preconditioning in immature rabbit hearts: role of KATP channels. (2/3137)

BACKGROUND: The protective effects of ischemic preconditioning have been shown to occur in adult hearts of all species studied. We determined whether immature hearts normoxic or chronically hypoxic from birth could be preconditioned, the time window or memory of the cardioprotective effect, and the involvement of the KATP channel. METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated immature rabbit hearts (7 to 10 days old) were subjected to 0, 1, or 3 cycles of preconditioning consisting of 5 minutes of global ischemia plus 10 minutes of reperfusion. This was followed by 30 minutes of global ischemia and 35 minutes of reperfusion. Normoxic hearts (FIO2=0.21) subjected to 1 cycle of preconditioning recovered 70+/-7% of left ventricular developed pressure compared with 43+/-8% recovery in nonpreconditioned controls. Three cycles of preconditioning did not result in additional recovery (63+/-8%). Hearts from rabbits raised from birth in hypoxic conditions (FIO2=0.12) and subjected to 1 and 3 preconditioning cycles did not show increased recovery (68+/-8% and 65+/-5%) compared with nonpreconditioned hypoxic controls (63+/-9%), although the recovery was greater in chronically hypoxic hearts than in age-matched normoxic controls. Increasing the recovery period after the preconditioning stimulus from 10 to 30 minutes resulted in a loss of cardioprotection. Pretreatment of normoxic hearts for 30 minutes with the KATP channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (300 micromol/L) completely abolished preconditioning (70+/-7% to 35+/-9%) but had no effect on nonpreconditioned hearts (40+/-8%). CONCLUSIONS: Immature hearts normoxic from birth can be preconditioned, whereas immature hearts hypoxic from birth cannot. Preconditioning in normoxic immature hearts is associated with activation of the KATP channel.  (+info)

Modulation of AV nodal and Hisian conduction by changes in extracellular space. (3/3137)

Previous studies have demonstrated that the extracellular space (ECS) component of the atrioventricular (AV) node and His bundle region is larger than the ECS in adjacent contractile myocardium. The potential physiological significance of this observation was examined in a canine blood-perfused AV nodal preparation. Mannitol, an ECS osmotic expander, was infused directly into either the AV node or His bundle region. This resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the AV nodal or His-ventricular conduction time and in the AV nodal effective refractory period. Mannitol infusion eventually resulted in Wenckebach block (n = 6), which reversed with mannitol washout. The ratio of AV nodal to left ventricular ECS in tissue frozen immediately on the development of heart block (n = 8) was significantly higher in the region of block (4.53 +/- 0.61) compared with that in control preparations (2.23 +/- 0.35, n = 6, P < 0.01) and donor dog hearts (2.45 +/- 0.18, n = 11, P < 0.01) not exposed to mannitol. With lower mannitol rates (10% of total blood flow), AV nodal conduction times increased by 5-10% and the AV node became supersensitive to adenosine, acetylcholine, and carbachol, but not to norepinephrine. We conclude that mannitol-induced changes in AV node and His bundle ECS markedly alter conduction system electrophysiology and the sensitivity of conductive tissues to purinergic and cholinergic agonists.  (+info)

Delayed rectifier potassium current in undiseased human ventricular myocytes. (4/3137)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the properties of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in myocytes isolated from undiseased human left ventricles. METHODS: The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied in 28 left ventricular myocytes from 13 hearts at 35 degrees C. RESULTS: An E-4031 sensitive tail current identified the rapid component of IK (IKr) in the myocytes, but there was no evidence for an E-4031 insensitive slow component of IK (IKs). When nifedipine (5 microM) was used to block the inward calcium current (ICa), IKr activation was fast (tau = 31.0 +/- 7.4 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and deactivation kinetics were biexponential and relatively slow (tau 1 = 600.0 +/- 53.9 ms and tau 2 = 6792.2 +/- 875.7 ms, at -40 mV, n = 7). Application of CdCl2 (250 microM) to block ICa altered the voltage dependence of the IKr considerably, slowing its activation (tau = 657.1 +/- 109.1 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and accelerating its deactivation (tau = 104.0 +/- 18.5 ms, at -40 mV, n = 8). CONCLUSIONS: In undiseased human ventricle at 35 degrees C IKr exists having fast activation and slow deactivation kinetics; however, there was no evidence found for an expressed IKs. IKr probably plays an important role in the frequency dependent modulation of repolarization in undiseased human ventricle, and is a target for many Class III antiarrhythmic drugs.  (+info)

Electrophysiologic effect of enalapril on guinea pig papillary muscles in vitro. (5/3137)

AIM: To study the direct effect of enalapril on cellular electrophysiology of myocardium. METHODS: Conventional microelectrodes technique was used to record the action potentials (AP) of guinea pig papillary muscles. RESULTS: Enalapril caused an increase of the AP amplitude (APA) and the resting potential (RP) in a concentration-dependent manner without any significant change of AP duration, Vmax and overshoot of AP. Superfusion of ouabain 0.5 mumol.L-1 reduced APA and RP, induced stable delayed after-depolarizations (DAD) at different basic cycle lengths (BCL) in a frequency-dependent manner. At BCL 200 ms, the amplitude of DAD was large enough to induce nonsustained triggered activity (TA). In additional presence of enalapril 10 mumol.L-1, the DAD amplitude at 500, 400, 300, and 200 ms were decreased from 5.3 +/- 2.3, 5.9 +/- 2.8, 7.4 +/- 2.1, and 8.9 +/- 1.3 to 2.6 +/- 0.7, 3.1 +/- 1.0, 3.7 +/- 1.5, and 5.3 +/- 1.1 (mV) respectively, all P < 0.01. The compensation intervals were increased in a similar frequency-dependent manner. The number of TA induced at BCL 200 ms was decreased from 3.6 +/- 0.7 to 0.8 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Enalapril directly inhibits DAD and TA induced by ouabain through increasing RP and APA, which may contribute to its anti-arrhythmic effect.  (+info)

Effects of dauricine, quinidine, and sotalol on action potential duration of papillary muscles in vitro. (6/3137)

AIM: To compare the characteristics of dauricine, sotalol, and quinidine on action potential duration (APD). METHODS: Using intracellular microelectrode method to record APD in guinea pig papillary muscles. RESULTS: Dauricine 20 mumol.L-1 prolonged action potential at 90% repolarization, the percent of APD prolongation were 22 +/- 8, 11 +/- 6, 9 +/- 5, 7 +/- 5, 6 +/- 3, 4.3 +/- 2.8, 4.5 +/- 2.8 at the cycle lengths of 200-2000 ms, dauricine became more effective in lengthening APD at short cycle lengths. The effect of dauricine on prolonging APD exhibited normal use-dependence, whereas quinidine 1 mumol.L-1 and sotalol 10 mumol.L-1 were less effective in lengthening APD at short cycle lengths. The effect of quinidine and sotalol on APD exhibited reverse use-dependence. CONCLUSSION: The effect of dauricine on APD depends on activation frequency.  (+info)

Imipramine blocks the transient outward potassium current in rat ventricular myocytes. (7/3137)

AIM: To examine the effects of imipramine on transient outward potassium current (I(to) in rat ventricular myocytes. METHODS: The patch-clamp whole-cell recording techniques were used. RESULTS: Imipramine resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of I(to) with the IC50 of 6.0 mumol.L-1 and a concentration-dependent acceleration of I(to) inactivation. The blocking showed no difference at different testing membrane potentials. Imipramine produced slight effects (about 3 and 4 mV, respectively) on steady-state activation and inactivation curves of I(to), and tended to prolong the recovery of I(to) from inactivation (tau control = 37 +/- 11 ms; tau drug = 58 +/- 17 ms), but not significant (n = 4, P > 0.05). The inhibitory effect of imipramine on Ito was increased when the prepulses were prolonged progressively from 0 to 120 ms. (tau control = 22 +/- 8 ms; tau drug = 14 +/- 5 ms). CONCLUSIONS: Imipramine blocked Ito in concentration-dependent but voltage-independent manners, and with "open channel blocking" properties.  (+info)

Effects of cycloprotobuxine-A on atrial fibrillation. (8/3137)

AIM: To study the effects of cycloprotobuxine-A (Cyc-A) on atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Atrial fibrillations in vivo and in vitro were induced by arrhythmogenic drugs. Action potentials were measured by the standard microelectrode technique. RESULTS: Cyc-A, similar to or slightly stronger than amiodarone (Ami), decreased incidences of atrial fibrillation elicited by CaCl2-acetylcholine in mice and increased doses of aconitine, ouabain, or adrenaline to elicit atrial fibrillation in isolated guinea pig atria. Cyc-A 0.3-100 mumol.L-1 decreased the normal automaticity and 0.3-30 mumol.L-1 attenuated or almost abolished the isoprenaline-induced abnormal increase in automaticity in sinus nodal cells. In isolated left atria, Cyc-A 0.3-30 mumol.L-1 inhibited the abnormal rhythmic activity elicited by adrenaline, prolonged action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period, and reduced excitability. At 3-30 mumol.L-1, Cyc-A also decreased the maximal velocity of depolarization (Vmax). Cyc-A antagonized the acetylcholine-induced shortening of APD. These electrophysiologic effects were similar to those of amiodarone, but Ami did not affect the Vmax. CONCLUSION: Cyc-A produces a protective effect against experimental atrial fibrillation via a prolongation of repolarization, a decease of automaticity, and an inhibition of excitability.  (+info)

*Management of atrial fibrillation

The agents work by prolonging the Effective Refractory Period (ERP) either by blocking sodium ions (Class I drugs) or by ... The anti-arrhythmic medications often used in either pharmacological cardioversion or in the prevention of relapse to AF alter ... as it is the only reliably effective method for relieving the symptoms of the arrhythmia and can be used when other methods ... Among patients with nonvalvular AF, anticoagulation with warfarin can reduce stroke by 60% while antiplatelet agents can reduce ...

*Nadoxolol

Warembourg H, Ducloux G. [Clinical study of a new anti-arrhythmia agent: nadoxolol]. Lille Med. 1976;21(4 Suppl 2):386-8. PMID ... Nadoxolol is an antiarrhythmic agent, chemically related in structure to beta-adrenergic receptor blocker drugs such as ...

*Cymarin

... is a cardiac glycoside and an anti-arrhythmia and cardiotonic agent. Edible and Medicinal plants of the West, Gregory L ...

*Effective refractory period

Anti-arrhythmic agents used for arrhythmias usually prolong the ERP. For the treatment of atrial fibrillation, it is a problem ... that the prolongation of the ERP by these agents also affects the ventricles, which can induce other types of arrhythmias.. ... ERP acts as a protective mechanism and keeps the heart rate in check and prevents arrhythmias, and it helps coordinates muscle ...

*Procainamide

... works as an anti-arrhythmic agent and is used to treat cardiac arrhythmia. It induces rapid block of the ... Procainamide is used for treating ventricular arrhythmias: ventricular ectopy and tachycardia and supraventricular arrhythmias ... Procainamide is a medication of the antiarrhythmic class used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. It is classified by the ... It was found that procainamide was effective for treating ventricular arrhythmias, but it had the same toxicity profile as ...

*Pharmacognosy

... the spasmolysis agent atropine; the vasodilator vincamine; the anti-arhythmia compound quinidine; the anti-asthma therapeutic ... Most bioactive compounds of natural origin are secondary metabolites, i.e., species-specific chemical agents that can be ... Balick, MJ (1990). "Ethnobotany and the identification of therapeutic agents from the rainforest". In Anonymous. Bioactive ... grouped into various categories.[citation needed] A typical protocol to isolate a pure chemical agent from natural origin is ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... uricosuric agents MeSH D27.505.954.411 --- cardiovascular agents MeSH D27.505.954.411.097 --- anti-arrhythmia agents MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ...

*HBI-3000

... the intravenous injection of HBI-3000 demonstrated to be an effective anti-arrhythmic and anti-fribrillatory agent. The ... Clinical investigation will test the safety and efficacy of HBI-3000 as a treatment for both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias ... Anti-arrhythmic medication is taken to treat irregular beating of the heart. This irregular beating results from a deregulation ... Most anti-arrhythmic medications exert their effects by decreasing the permeability of potassium ion channels (IKr) in heart ...

*AZD1305

Available anti-arrhythmic agents (AAD) used for the maintenance of AF are often accompanied with the risk of developing ... AZD1305 is an experimental drug candidate that is under investigation for the management and reversal of cardiac arrhythmias, ... The combined block of INa, IKr, and L-type calcium current is key to the anti-arrhythmic potential of AZD1305 compared IKr ... AZD1305 possesses class III anti-arrhythmic activity by blocking the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel ...

*Hyoscyamine

When hyoscyamine is used along with opioids or other anti-peristaltic agents, measures to prevent constipation are especially ... Side effects include dry mouth and throat, eye pain, blurred vision, restlessness, dizziness, arrhythmia, flushing, and ...

*Celivarone

... a drug commonly used to treat arrhythmias. Celivarone has potential as an antiarrhythmic agent, attributable to its ... "In vivo and in vitro Characterization of the Novel Antiarrhythmic Agent SSR149744C: Electrophysiological, Anti-adrenergic, and ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any abnormality in the electrical activity of the heart. Arrhythmias range from mild to severe, sometimes ... Since it affects multiple ion channels, it also shows promise in treating genetic forms of arrhythmia caused by several ion ...

*Magnesium (medical use)

... sulfate is the first-line agent for such use under the 2005 ECC guidelines and for managing quinidine-induced arrhythmias. As a ... Anti-contraction medication: Magnesium sulfate can also delay labor in the case of premature labor, to delay preterm birth. ... In very severe cases, it can cause coma, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest and death. Magnesium overdose can be counteracted ... Laxative use, particularly magnesium citrate and magnesium hydroxide Antiarrhythmic agent for torsades de pointes in cardiac ...

*Oleandrin

... is a promising agent for anti-cancer treatment. Studies show potential in vitro effect for cancers of the colon, non- ... Patients receiving an adequate dose of anti-digoxin Fab show a good response, resolving serious arrhythmias in two hours in ... The use of anti-digoxin Fab IV has proven successful in cases of oleandrin poisoning These antibodies have shown to bind in ... The reason anti-digoxin Fab is sparingly used in developing countries is its high cost, even though it is such an effective ...

*Outline of cardiology

Cardiac arrhythmias - conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. Many types of arrhythmia have no ... Perhaps the most prominent manipulation of ion channels is through antiarrhythmic agents. These agents are commonly classified ... SSRI's also have interactions with anti-coagulation therapy and increases the risk of bleeding while on them. Serotonin- ... A common arrhythmia that can lead to this form of cardiomyopathy is the common atrial fibrillation. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy ( ...

*Tedisamil

Atrial arrhythmias are the most common type of arrhythmia with several subtypes currently described, including atrial ... 2000). "Antianginal and anti-ischemic efficacy of tedisamil, a potassium channel blocker". Heart. 83: 167-171. doi:10.1136/ ... is an experimental class III antiarrhythmic agent currently being investigated for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. ... Arrhythmias are broadly defined as abnormal electrical activity in the heart and can affect both the atria and ventricles. ...

*Azimilide

Although each agent has its own properties and will have thus a different function. Azimilide dihydrochloride is a ... Most recent clinical trials have investigated the use of azimilide in reducing the frequency and severity of arrhythmias in ... Azimilide has been studied for its anti-arrhythmic effects: its converts and maintains sinus rhythm in patients with atrial ... Azimilide is a class ΙΙΙ antiarrhythmic drug (used to control abnormal heart rhythms). The agents from this heterogeneous group ...

*Supraventricular tachycardia

A variety of drugs including simple AV nodal blocking agents such as beta-blockers and verapamil, as well as anti-arrhythmics ... "How Are Arrhythmias Diagnosed?". NHLBI. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on February 18, 2015. "How Are Arrhythmias ... "Types of Arrhythmia". NHLBI. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on June 7, 2015. Al-Zaiti, SS; Magdic, KS (September 2016 ... Once an acute arrhythmia has been terminated, ongoing treatment may be indicated to prevent recurrence. However, those that ...

*Acecainide

It is a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, whereas procainamide is a Class Ia antiarrhythmic drug. It is only partially as active ... During and after his surgery he was facing problems with arrhythmias. These problems were investigated by Frederick R. Mautz. ... Measuring the ratio of acecainide and procainamide concentrations together helps to achieve an optimum anti-arrhythmic effect ... In patients who are refractory to other antiarrhythmic agents, the doses required appear to be greater. Moreover, a few studies ...

*Antiarrhythmic agent

Class II agents are anti-sympathetic nervous system agents. Most agents in this class are beta blockers. Class III agents ... Action potential Cardiac action potential Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST) Electrocardiogram Proarrhythmic agent ... Class IV agents affect calcium channels and the AV node. Class V agents work by other or unknown mechanisms. With regards to ... Class I agents are called membrane-stabilizing agents. The 'stabilizing' word is used to describe the decrease of ...

*Bepridil

It has been implicated in causing ventricular arrhythmia (torsades de pointes). In June 2015 a research paper was published ... "A screen of approved drugs and molecular probes identifies therapeutics with anti-Ebola virus activity". "Zoloft as Ebola cure ... May 2008). "Use of bepridil in combination with Ic antiarrhythmic agent in converting persistent atrial fibrillation to sinus ...

*Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

SVT that does not involve the AV node may respond to other anti-arrhythmic drugs such as sotalol or amiodarone. If the person ... "Types of Arrhythmia". NHLBI. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on June 7, 2015. "BestBets: Comparing Valsalva manoeuvre ... an ultra-short-acting AV nodal blocking agent, is indicated if vagal maneuvers are not effective. If unsuccessful or the PSVT ... "What Are the Signs and Symptoms of an Arrhythmia?". NHLBI. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. ...

*Pharmacotoxicology

Anti-depressants have been prescribed since the 1950s, and their prevalence has significantly increased since then. There are ... Doxorubicin is an uncoupling agent in that it inhibits proper functioning of complex I of the electron transport chain in ... but have high incidences of cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial infarctions. Guengerich, F. Peter (2011). "Mechanisms of Drug ... Other anti-cancer drugs, such as fluoropyrimidines and taxanes, are extremely effective at treating and reducing tumor ...

*Amiodarone

It is used both in supraventricular arrhythmias and ventricular arrhythmias. Defibrillation is the treatment of choice for ... Amiodarone also causes an anti-thyroid action, via Wolff-Chaikoff effect, due its large amount of iodine in its molecule, which ... Common practice is to avoid the agent if possible in individuals with decreased lung function. The most specific test of ... In 1974 it was found to be useful for arrhythmias and reintroduced. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential ...

*5-HT3 antagonist

Galanolactone, a diterpenoid found in ginger, is a 5-HT3 antagonist and is believed to at least partially mediate the anti- ... Pasricha, Pankaj J. (2006). "Treatment of Disorders of Bowel Motility and Water Flux; Antiemetics; Agents Used in Biliary and ... such as prolongation of the PT and QTc intervals and certain arrhythmias. The clinical significance of these side effects is ... 1991). "Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3 effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger". Chem Pharm Bull. 39 (2): 397-9. ...

*HERG

... anti-psychotic agents, and certain antibiotics (including quinolones and macrolides). Although there exist other potential ... Sanguinetti MC, Tristani-Firouzi M (March 2006). "hERG potassium channels and cardiac arrhythmia". Nature. 440 (7083): 463-9. ... Sanguinetti MC, Tristani-Firouzi M (2006). "hERG potassium channels and cardiac arrhythmia". Nature. 440 (7083): 463-9. doi: ... that can lead to the risk of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., torsades de pointes), due to repolarization ...

*Doxepin

Antiarrhythmic agents may be an appropriate measure to treat cardiac arrhythmias resulting from doxepin overdose. Slow ... PMC 4027305 . In general, sedating properties of anti-depressant agents are related to antagonism of serotonin 5HT2, histamines ... Sympathomimetic agents may have their effects potentiated by TCAs like doxepin. Doxepin also may potentiate the adverse effects ... Antihypertensive agents may have their effects mitigated by doxepin. Cotreatment with CNS depressants such as the ...

*Acepromazine

The clinical pharmacology of acepromazine is similar to that of other phenothiazine derived anti-psychotic agents. The primary ... and it prevents the arrhythmia and vomiting that many opiates induce. Its use as an oral sedative is somewhat controversial; ...
Dofetilide is a new antiarrhythmic agent recently approved for the conversion of and maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFl). Dofetilide is a selective class III antiarrhythmic drug which works b
antiarrhythmic medications - MedHelps antiarrhythmic medications Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for antiarrhythmic medications. Find antiarrhythmic medications information, treatments for antiarrhythmic medications and antiarrhythmic medications symptoms.
This phase II dose-finding study demonstrated that the upper dose of RSD1235 (2 + 3 mg/kg) rapidly and effectively terminated AF compared with lower dose RSD1235 and placebo. There were no serious adverse events associated with RSD1235. In contrast to other anti-arrhythmic drugs used for conversion of recent onset AF, there were no instances of drug-related pro-arrhythmia. Although these initial findings will require confirmation in larger scale clinical trials, this safety profile, coupled with an efficacious and rapid onset, confirms that RSD1235 is a promising new agent for the medical conversion of recent onset AF.. Cardioversion of AF may be accomplished using electrical or pharmacologic approaches. Electrical cardioversion is effective in rapidly restoring sinus rhythm; however, it requires procedural sedation and a suitable recovery period and/or may cause pain after treatment. Experimental data suggest that AF itself conditions the substrate for maintenance of AF and supports the need ...
Ischemia-Related Subcellular Redistribution of Sodium Channels Enhances the Proarrhythmic Effect of Class I Antiarrhythmic Drugs: A Simulation Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Antiarrhythmic medication - What are the classes of antiarrhythmic medications? I, II, III and IV. Class I is divided into ia, ib, and ic. These are sodium channel blockers. An example from this class would be propafenone. Class ii agents are beta-blockers (like metoprolol). Class iii are potassium channel blockers - for example, amiodarone. Class IV are calcium channel blockers, like diltiazem.
For more than 20 years, the classification of antiarrhythmic drugs proposed by Vaughan Williams [1] has held the field. In essence, it is based on the effects of antiarrhythmic agents on the...
Study Flashcards On Antiarrhythmic Agents the script at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
METHODS AND RESULTS Patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias were randomly assigned to undergo serial testing of up to six antiarrhythmic drugs by either EPS (EPS limb) or HM and exercise testing (HM limb). Efficacy predictions were achieved in 108 of 242 patients in the EPS limb (45%) and in 188 of 244 patients (77%) in the HM limb. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) , 0.25 and presence of coronary artery disease were negative correlates (p , 0.10) of drug efficacy predictions in the EPS limb. In the HM limb, LVEF was the lone univariate correlate of efficacy, although it was only marginally significant (p = 0.107). A multivariate model selected assessment by HM and higher LVEF as independent predictors (p , 0.05) of drug efficacy. The drug evaluation process required an actuarial median time of 25 days in the EPS limb and 10 days in the HM limb (p , 0.0001). ...
A series of theophyllinyl-7-ethyl derivatives of (RS), (R)(-) and (S)(+) 2-aminobutanol were synthesized and tested in various models of experimental arrhythmia for their preventive and curative properties; (R)(-) 2-N-theophyllinyl-7-ethyl amino-1-
TY - JOUR. T1 - Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antiarrhythmic Drugs. T2 - Rationale and Current Status. AU - Latini, Roberto. AU - Maggioni, Aldo P.. AU - Cavalli, Augusto. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025287780&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025287780&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.2165/00003088-199018020-00001. DO - 10.2165/00003088-199018020-00001. M3 - Article. C2 - 2180615. AN - SCOPUS:0025287780. VL - 18. SP - 91. EP - 103. JO - Clinical Pharmacokinetics. JF - Clinical Pharmacokinetics. SN - 0312-5963. IS - 2. ER - ...
Antiarrhythmics are a type of heart medication that prevent and treat abnormal heartbeats. Learn more about antiarrhythmics from Heart & Stroke.
... s are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as
The Report Ovarian Cancer-Global API Manufacturers, Marketed and Phase III Drugs Landscape, 2016 provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and company profiles for key industry participants. - MarketResearchReports.biz
Study Flashcards On Block 3: Antiarrhythmics at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
So based on this, unlike IA, IB blocks both open and inactivated Na+ channels, but they do it so slowly that they miss most of the open Na+ channels in phase 0 (the reason behind them producing little changes in QRS complex) and their real effect starts after phase 0 when they block the inactivated Na+ channels and prolong ERP. They detach relatively quickly so they show less cumulative blocking effect, but at higher rates when the diastolic repolarization phase is so short that even these fast-detaching fellas fail to detach and remain stuck on producing cumulative blocking effect beat after beat ...
ICI 118551 is an anxiolytic with effects similar to those of diazepam. It also has potential antiarrhythmic efficacy. ICI 118551 was in phase II clinical trials
Betapace - Betapace is an antiarrhythmic drug used for treating certain types of irregular heartbeat (ventricular arrhythmias). It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Several medications are used to treat, prevent, or lessen the frequency or severity of abnormal heart rhythms. This group of medications is called antiarrhythmics. 
Flecainide acetate, a new antiarrhythmic agent, was given orally to 11 hospitalized patients with chronic high-frequency ventricular ectopic depolarizations. Drug effectiveness was evaluated with a dose-ranging single-blind protocol, which included placebo control and washout periods. Twice-daily dosing (average daily dose 436 mg) completely suppressed all ventricular ectopic activity in five of 11 patients; average suppression in the 11 patients was 96.3%. Complex ventricular arrhythmias, which were present in all 11 patients during the placebo control period, were completely suppressed in eight patients and markedly suppressed in the other three patients during flecainide therapy. Ejection fraction and velocity of circumferential fiber shortening measured by M-mode echocardiography did not change significantly during flecainide dosing. Ventricular arrhythmias returned in all patients during the placebo washout period. During subsequent outpatient therapy with flecainide, significant ...
Prespecified criteria for adequate heart rate (HR) control in AF are outlined in Table 1. Rate control was assessed only if the patient was in AF at the time of evaluation. If a patient in the rate-control arm was in SR at a specified visit, rate control was not assessed and not recorded at that visit. Adequate rate control required the initial resting HR to be ≤80 beats/min. If that goal was achieved, a standard 6-min walk test (35)or 24-h ambulatory electrocardiographic recording (Holter monitor) was required to confirm adequate rate control. The approach used was left to the discretion of the treating physician. If both Holter monitoring and a 6-min walk test were performed, rate-control criteria had to be met for both tests. Overall rate control required evidence for resting and exercise rate control, as defined. Tests were repeated until rate control was achieved or when the patient had a change in status or change in drug dosage. Further drug titration was based on the results of these ...
The data show that there is no survival benefit to the strategy of rhythm control in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Indeed there were trends toward higher rates of death and stroke among patients treated with rhythm control. Rate control appears to be an acceptable primary strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation. Long term anticoagulation appears warranted in all patients with risk factors for stroke. Risk factors for ischemic stroke in nonvalvular AF include prior thromboembolism, CHF, HTN, age, DM, female gender, BP greater than 160 mmHg and LV dysfunction. As stated in the ACC/AHA guidelines, maximum protection against ischemic stroke in AF is probably achieved with an international normalized ratio (INR) of 2 to 3, whereas an INR range of 1.6 to 2.5 appears to be associated with incomplete efficacy, estimated at approximately 80% of that achieved with higher intensity anticoagulation. ACC/AHA guidelines recommend that physicians individualize the selection of the ...
Introduction:. Atrial fibrillation is by far the most common heart arrhythmia and is even increasing in prevalence and incidence. Approximately 10% of all cardiologic hospitalizations are due to atrial fibrillation. Several studies have shown older patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation and with minor symptoms related to the arrhythmia do equally well on a frequency control as compared to a rhythm control strategy. However, some of this lack of difference in outcome may be because the benefits by achieving sinus rhythm are outbalanced by the risk of medication with presently known antiarrhythmic drugs together with the only modest efficacy of these drugs. Non-pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation has drawn increasing interest over the last decade, and especially percutaneous catheter based ablation strategies have been in focus with promising results on the symptomatic level in several series of patients. Different technologies have been in use with very few ...
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Synonyms for flecainide acetate in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for flecainide acetate. 1 synonym for flecainide: Tambocor. What are synonyms for flecainide acetate?
Several anti-arrhythmic agents, which are used in treatment of AF, exist. However, the efficacy of these drugs still can be improved. Furthermore, some of them are associated with a wide range of adverse side effects. Therefore, the mechanisms of action of these agents have to be better understood and still can be optimized.. Dronedarone is an anti-arrhythmic agent used in the treatment of AF by maintaining sinus rhythm. It is a derivative of amiodarone and has been developed to reduce the side effects as e.g. thyroid toxicity of its precursor compound.. The aim of this work is to integrate the effects of dronedarone into a model of atrial electrophysiology. In this way, the mechanism of action, i.e. the anti-arrhythmic effects of this agent should be better understood. In previous work, the effects of amiodarone were already integrated into an atrial cell model. Finally, a comparison of both agents and their impact on healthy and electrically remodeled tissue shall be carried out. ...
INTERIM STUDY REPORT Public Safety Committee Sue Tibbs, Chair Oklahoma House of Representatives Interim Study 11-028, Rep. Sue Tibbs and Rep. Ben Sherrer October 3, 2011 Study of making pseudoephedrine a Class III drug and needing a prescription to obtain Darrell Weaver Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs Control Drug enforcement is a different type of law enforcement. It is an in-progress crime. Laws must be able to adapt and change. Meth Labs: 2007= 147 2008= 248 2009= 743 2010= 818 In 2004, meth labs cost $1 billion in collateral damage. In 2006, Oregon made pseudoephedrine products a Schedule III or prescription only drug. After enactment, Oregon saw the largest decrease in crime rate in the nation. Meth related hospitalizations went down 35% and meth arrests were reduced 33%. Mississippi enacted similar legislation last year. Meth related incidents dropped 35%, arrests dropped 62% and there was a 76% reduction in the number of children removed from meth houses. The Bureau of ...
Tedisamil (3,7-dicyclopropylmethyl-9,9-tetramethylene-3,7-diazabicyclo-3,3,1-nonane) is an experimental class III antiarrhythmic agent currently being investigated for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Tedisamil blocks multiple types of potassium channels in the heart resulting in slowed heart rate. While the effects of tedisamil have been demonstrated in both atrial and ventricular muscle, repolarization is prolonged more efficiently in the atria. Tedisamil is administered intravenously and has a half-life of approximately 8 -13 hours in circulation. Tedisamil is being developed as an alternative to other antiarrhythmics as incidence of additional arrhythmic events is lower compared to other class III agents. Tedisamil also has significant anti-ischemic properties and was initially investigated as a potential treatment for angina until its antiarrhythmic effects were discovered. Tedisamil is manufactured by Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc. under the proposed trade name Pulzium and is currently ...
Disopyramide (INN, trade names Norpace and Rythmodan) is an antiarrhythmic medication used in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia. It is a sodium channel blocker and therefore classified as a Class 1a anti-arrhythmic agent. Disopyramide has a negative inotropic effect on the ventricular myocardium, significantly decreasing the contractility. Disopyramide also has an anticholinergic effect on the heart which accounts for many adverse side effects. Disopyramide is available in both oral and intravenous forms, and has a low degree of toxicity. Disopyramides Class 1a activity is similar to that of quinidine in that it targets sodium channels to inhibit conduction. Disopyramide depresses the increase in sodium permeability of the cardiac myocyte during Phase 0 of the cardiac action potential, in turn decreasing the inward sodium current. This results in an increased threshold for excitation and a decreased upstroke velocity. Disopyramide prolongs the PR interval by lengthening both the QRS and ...
The first five months of the MAVERIC registry have provided an estimate of the likely minimum incidence of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias in a defined population. It also suggests that just over half of these patients would satisfy the AVID criteria. In the AVID study the average age of patients was 65 years. MAVERIC patients fulfilling the AVID criteria had a similar mean age of 65.8 years. The AVID trial was stopped prematurely in April 1997 after recruitment of 1016 patients. One year mortality was reduced by 38% in patients treated with an ICD compared with those who received antiarrhythmic drug treatment. This significantly improved prognosis continued in the second and third years, with a 25% reduction in deaths in each year.. An improvement in survival with ICD treatment has been suggested in other studies. Patients with previous myocardial infarction with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, impaired left ventricular function, and non-suppressible inducible ventricular ...
The side effect profile ofhas been well established. Anticholinergic symptoms are most common, but cardiac toxicity is of greatest concern. In particular, the negative inotropic activity and proarrhythmic potential of disopyramide limits its use in s
We have investigated the concentration-dependent modulation, by the novel class III antiarrhythmic compound NE-10064, of the delayed potassium channel current Iks in isolated guinea pig sinoatrial nodal (SAN) and ventricular cells. At concentrations greater than 1 micron, the drug potently inhibited Iks in each of the cell types investigated. The concentration-dependent inhibition of Iks (IC50 = 700 nM) was the same in ventricular and SAN cells. At near-threshold drug concentrations, we also observed increases of Iks activity in both SAN and ventricular cells. The NE-10064-induced enhancement of Iks was more pronounced at voltages near the Iks activation threshold (0 mV), than at more positive voltages in both cell types. Furthermore, the agonistic effects of the drug were more prominent before steady-state effects of the compound were attained, which suggests parallel agonistic and antagonistic pathways. Our results demonstrate that Iks channels in cells of the sinoatrial node region of the ...
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Vernakalant was originally developed to target the atrial-specific ultrarapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur). However, it is a multichannel blocker inhibiting IKur, the transient outward potassium current (Ito), the peak and late Na currents, the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channels (IKr), and the inward-rectifing potassium channels (IKAch and IKATP). It is now thought that although IKur block may contribute to vernakalants antifibrillatory effect, its most important action is through atrial-selective blockade of the peak sodium current.6 The effective refractory period is made shorter during AF, and lengthening the effective refractory period can lead to AF termination. This can be achieved by prolonging the action potential duration (APD), primarily by inhibiting potassium channels, or by blocking sodium channels, which increases cardiac excitation threshold, slows conduction, and creates a period of refractoriness after the action potential has repolarized without ...
ARCA biopharma Release: GencaroTM Demonstrated 74% Risk Reduction for New Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure Patients with Genotype Believed to be Found in Nearly 50% of Population - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
Amiodarone belongs to a class of drugs called Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic agents. It is used in the treatment of a wide range of cardiac tachyarhthmias, including both ventricular and supraventricular (atrial) arrhythmias. After intravenous administration in man, amiodarone relaxes vascular smooth muscle, reduces peripheral vascular resistance (afterload), and slightly increases cardiac index. Amiodarone prolongs phase 3 of the cardiac action potential. It has numerous other effects however, including actions that are similar to those of antiarrhythmic classes Ia, II, and IV. Amiodarone shows beta blocker-like and calcium channel blocker-like actions on the SA and AV nodes, increases the refractory period via sodium- and potassium-channel effects, and slows intra-cardiac conduction of the cardiac action potential, via sodium-channel effects ...
Amiodarone belongs to a class of drugs called Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic agents. It is used in the treatment of a wide range of cardiac tachyarhthmias, including both ventricular and supraventricular (atrial) arrhythmias. After intravenous administration in man, amiodarone relaxes vascular smooth muscle, reduces peripheral vascular resistance (afterload), and slightly increases cardiac index. Amiodarone prolongs phase 3 of the cardiac action potential. It has numerous other effects however, including actions that are similar to those of antiarrhythmic classes Ia, II, and IV. Amiodarone shows beta blocker-like and calcium channel blocker-like actions on the SA and AV nodes, increases the refractory period via sodium- and potassium-channel effects, and slows intra-cardiac conduction of the cardiac action potential, via sodium-channel effects ...
Amiodarone is a commonly used anti-arrhythmic agent, with well-recognized chronic toxicity. Less well known is amiodarones potential to cause acute lung damage, which can be severe or, occasionally, life-threatening. Lungs that have already been exposed to physical insults, such as the lungs of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, are particularly susceptible to acute pulmonary toxicity (APT). Unfortunately, cardiac surgery is one of the clinical scenarios in which amiodarone is most commonly used. After reviewing the data, and even in the context of difficulties and discrepancies in the existing literature, we contend that there is sufficient evidence of amiodarones potentially serious side-effect profile in surgical ICU patients to advise continued caution in its use with this severely ill patient group. We suggest that amiodarone has a potentially important, though underrecognized, role in inducing an APT/ARDS in some patients, such as those undergoing cardiac surgery. We also provide a hypothesis
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of BMS-919373 on atrial fibrillation (AF) through its effect on AF burden (AFB), or the percent of time in AF, in subjects with paroxysmal AF (pAF) when administered orally at a range of doses (2 mg once daily (QD), 5 mg QD, 12 mg QD following a 1-week period of loading doses of 3 mg QD, 8 mg QD and 20 mg QD, respectively) for a total of 4 weeks. It is hypothesized that treatment with BMS-919373 will reduce AF burden as compared to baseline relative to placebo ...
3 weeks after ablation procedure have experienced a lot of pauses between beats. Flecainide Acetate does not contrl it and am experiencing episodes of long pauses 3 - 4 times a day lasting 40 min...
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Patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) who respond to ibutilide infusion usually convert to sinus rhythm within 1 hour. However, little is known about the magnitude and time course of the drugs atrial electrophysiological effects. In the current study, the frequency content of the fibrillatory baseline on the ECG was used to quantify the effects of ibutilide infusion on AF. Nineteen patients (age 56 +/- 16 years) in persistent AF were studied. Nine of these were chronically treated with antiarrhythmic drugs. All subjects received ibutilide (1 mg i.v.) over 10 minutes and a second dose 10 minutes later as needed. An ECG was recorded and digitized throughout each of the 20 sessions (one patient had two separate cardioversions). A signal processing technique was then used to quantify the average rate of the fibrillatory baseline. After attenuating the QRS and T waves, the ECG was subjected to Fourier transformation. The average rate of fibrillatory activity was defined as the frequency
The prevalence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachyarrhthmias (VTA) in patients with heart failure can be as high as 50%.1,2 The use of ICDs have significantly reduced mortality from SCD in patients at the highest risk. However while ICD discharges save lives, they also have associated physical and psychological morbidity.3 Anti-arrhythmic drugs (classes I, II, and III) commonly used for suppression of VTA, have many side effects and can be pro-arrhythmic. Several classes of medications that are used to treat and prevent coronary heart disease may have favorable anti-arrhythmic effects on VTA, including statins, very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), and ranolazine. A meta-analysis of 25 trials of statin versus placebo indicated that there was significant reduction in sudden cardiac death in the statin arm OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.82-0.97).24 In general, the majority of these trials were in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. There ...
In experimental studies, mostly done in laboratory animals, researchers have reported that n-3 PUFAs have several potential anti-arrhythmic effects40, 41-most notably a direct effect on cardiac ion channels. Initial data37 from single-cell experiments with isolated cardiomyocytes showed that acute application of purified n-3 PUFAs had a profound inhibitory effect on sodium channels, reducing the peak sodium current by more than 50% and shifting the steady-state inactivation towards negative potentials, thus reducing excitability. This finding was supported by other similar studies,38, 39 leading to the hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs exert their predominant anti-arrhythmic effect by their inhibitory action on sodium channels. However, when cardiac cells with high membrane incorporation of n-3 PUFA, which was obtained from animals fed a diet fortified with fish oil, were studied, this effect was not consistently reported. Further studies in laboratory animals revealed that n-3 PUFAs have a diverse ...
The reverse use-dependence observed with GLG-V-13 and KMC-IV-84 in the present experiments has been previously reported for methanesulfonalide class III drugs such as dofetilide (Gwilt et al., 1991;Jurkiewicz and Sanguinetti, 1993), E-4031 (Wettwer et al., 1991), d,l-sotalol (Strauss et al., 1970; Hafneret al., 1988), MK-499 (Baskin and Lynch, 1994; Krafte and Volberg, 1994) and sematilide (Krafte and Volberg, 1994). The actual mechanism(s) for reverse use-dependence is/are controversial. The earliest mechanism for reverse use-dependence of action potential duration was advanced by Hondeghem and Snyders (1990). Experimental data from their laboratory demonstrated a time- and voltage-dependent modulation of Ik with quinidine. Quinidine primarily reduced time-dependent outward potassium currents at negative membrane potentials, with blockade of outward potassium currents becoming less pronounced with depolarization (Roden et al., 1988). Later data, however, have failed to demonstrate a similar ...
Oral route(Tablet;Tablet, Extended Release). Active antiarrhythmic therapy has resulted in increased mortality; the risk of active therapy is probably greatest in patients with structural heart disease. In a meta-analysis, the mortality associated with the use of quinidine was more than 3 times as great as the mortality associated with the use of placebo. Another meta-analysis showed that in patients with various non-life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, the mortality associated with the use of quinidine was consistently greater than that associated with the use of alternative antiarrhythmics .. Oral route(Tablet, Extended Release). Many trials of antiarrhythmic therapy for non-life-threatening arrhythmias have resulted in increased mortality; the risk of therapy is probably greatest in patients with structural heart disease. In the case of quinidine used to prevent or defer recurrence of atrial flutter or fibrillation, meta-analysis data have shown that the mortality associated with the use ...
Question - Effect of smoking on atrial fibrillation. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Nicotine, Ask an Oncologist
Efficacy of Short-Term Antiarrhythmic Drugs Use after Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation-A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses and Trial Sequential Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance ...
This patient has experienced an inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI) as demonstrated by her EKG showing ST segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF. The treatment discussed in the vignette was most likely immediate revascularization via endovascular cathaterization and stent placement. In the first 24 hours following an MI, patients are at increased risk for arrhythmias. Historically, class IB antiarrhythmics such as lidocaine have been used as prophylaxis because of preferential binding to (ischemic) tissue that has been damaged in the MI. While prophylaxis with these medications is now less common, there is still a role for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias with class IB antiarrhythmics in specific settings, though they must be carefully dosed and monitored as toxicity include CNS effects. This includes lightheadedness, dizziness, drowsiness and confusion in the mild cases and progresses to seizures and respiratory arrest in severe cases ...
A placebo-controlled study of i.v. amiodarone in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias and 2 to 3-consecutive-beat ventricular arrhythmias, and a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study evaluating rapid i.v. loading in patients with recurrent, refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ ventricular fibrillation (VF) have shown rapid onset of antiarrhythmic activity well before significant blood levels of desethylamiodarone (DEA) were present; approximately 1500 mg/day of i.v. amiodarone were administered using 2- and 3-stage infusion regimens.
In this interview, Dr. Daniel Singer updates us on the new anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation stroke prevention that he presented about at Boston Atrial Fibrillation Symposium.
Flecainide information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Qualimed Pharma, Flecainide indications, usages and related health products lists
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
There are many reasons why one might wish to suppress atrial fibrillation AFib and attempt to maintain sinus rhythm. This article assumes that the clinical decision to maintain sinus rhythm has been made. That being the case, antiarrhythmic drug therapy is generally the first line of treatment of AFib. Currently in the United States, there are...
Nguyen on sotalol side effects: Sotalol is an antiarrhythmic medication to.. Side Effects:. headache, sleep problems, depression. 3- Dermatologic.The efficacy and safety of sotalol therapy for ventricular arrhythmias was evaluated in 133 patients with drug-refractory ventricular arrhythmias.Author Elsa-Grace. renal function is decreased to prevent anticholinergic side effects associated with.Information about what to expect, side effects, reviews, pharmacist tips, benefits, downsides, and uses of Betapace (sotalol), from medical experts and people like you ...
Antiarrhythmic medicines are used to control abnormal heart rhythms. However, your doctor will be aware that several antiarrhythmics may be harmful for people with heart failure and should be avoided.
Amiodarone (Cordarone) is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. Includes amiodarone side effects, interactions and indications.
Magnesium for rapid atrial fibrillation rate-control in the emergency department by Dr. Bryan Hayes. A good adjunct with a beta- or calcium-channel blocker.
To address rate and rhythm control and prevent stroke it is best to refer or consult a specialist. The treatment needs to control the arrhythmia either as the rate or the rhythm and also from the viewpoint of prophylaxis against thromboembolic complications. Paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation confers a risk of thromboembolism similar to permanent atrial fibrillation.8 The AFFIRM study12 confirmed that there was no statistically significant difference between the rate and rhythm of control groups. However, patients fare marginally better (in terms of mortality) with just rate control rather than trying to get them back into sinus rhythm if they are asymptomatic in atrial fibrillation. ...
Ibutilide is an anti-arrhythmic heart medication that corrects certain conditions of irregular heart rhythm. Ibutilide is used to help keep the heart beating normally in people with certain heart rhythm disorders of the atrium (the upper chambers of the heart that allow blood to flow into the heart). Ibutilide is used...
Increased pulse pressure (the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) appears to be an important predictor of the risk for new onset atrial fibrillation.
I am a 70 year old male, and have been in A Fib for the past two months. In addition a echocardiogram has shown damage to my heart muscle. I have hypothyroidism (essentially no thyroid function) an...
Anti-arrhythmic drugs are a mainstay in the management of symptoms related to arrhythmias, and are adjuncts in prevention and treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. However, they also have the potential for pro-arrhythmia and thus the prediction of arrhythmia predisposition and drug response are critical issues. Clinical trials are the latter stages in the safety testing and efficacy process prior to market release, and as such serve as a critical safeguard. In this review, we look at some of the lessons to be learned from approaches to arrhythmia prediction in patients, clinical trials of drugs used in the treatment of arrhythmias, and the implications for the design of pre-clinical safety pharmacology testing ...
Cibenzoline Succinate Tanabe is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Cibenzoline Succinate Tanabe is available on the Drugs.com website.
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The imidazolium salts described are useful as antiarrhythmic agents. A method of treating arrhythmia by increasing the refractoriness of cardiac tissue is provided as well as pharmaceutical formulatio
Mammography Debate - When to Start Screening - At what age is it recommended for a woman to start routine mammograms: A. 40 years old B. 50 years old C. Neither A or B D. Both A and B. Until last year, t... ...
Propafenone is in a group of drugs called Class IC anti-arrhythmics. It affects the way your heart beats. Propafenone is used in certain situations to prevent serious heart rhythm disorders. Propafenone may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Amiodarone is a commonly administered medication in the critical care. It is an antiarrhythmic drug that is used commonly to treat ventricular heart arrhythmias. Learn how to administer amiodarone and what to look out for as a nurse.
Find in-depth information on atrial fibrillation, including symptoms ranging from lack of energy to heart palpitations and dizziness.
Fluorine-containing benzoylguanidines of the formula I ##STR1## in which R.sup.1, R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 have the meanings indicated, and their physiologically acceptable salts, have antiarrhythmic properties and act as inhibitors of the cellular Na.sup.+ /H.sup.+ antiporter, for example.
The mechanisms underlying the non-competitive β-antagonistic properties of amiodarone were investigated, and the haemodynamic responses to exercise following the administration of oral amiodarone or...
Dronedarone 400mg anti-arrhythmic medication is used for maintaining the heart rhythms. Order more than 20 tablets & save $62.67.
N. I. Pirogov Second Moscow Medical Institute. (Presented by Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences B. T. Velichkovskii.) Translated from Byulleten Éksperimentalnoi Biologii i Meditsiny, Vol. 113, No. 5, pp. 460-462, May, 1992. ...
Cibenzoline succinate/ACM100678328 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Cardiac arrhythmias can be treated with antiarrhythmic drugs, AV nodal blocking drugs, beta blockers, statins, and omega-3 fatty acids.
If you have been prescribed an anti-arrhythmic drug, you should learn about the specific drug you are taking and its side effects.
Available by prescription only, propafenone is used for treating certain types of irregular heart rhythms. This eMedTV Web page explores approved and unapproved reasons a healthcare provider may prescribe this drug and describes how propafenone works.
By slowing down electrical impulses in the heart, flecainide can help prevent certain heart rhythm problems. This eMedTV resource describes approved uses of flecainide, and also discusses situations where the drug may be prescribed for unapproved reasons.
Boc Sciences offers cas 1215370-87-8 5-Hydroxy Propafenone D5 HCl in bulk,please inquire us to get a quote for 1215370-87-8 5-Hydroxy Propafenone D5 HCl.
Cardarone is an antiarrhythmic agent used to treat irregular heart beat. It can be applied in the treatment of tachyarrhythmias, ventricular and supraventricular (atrial) arrhythmias. | Discountab.com
Pronunciation guide (phonetic spelling and recorded audio) of amiodarone, also known as Cordarone; Pacerone, which is a Top 250 Drug in the drug class of Antiarrhythmic (class III).
CORVERT (ibutilide fumarate injection, solution) comes in different strengths and amounts. The appearance of Corvert can differ based on the dosing.
I saw my EP yesterday and had an excellent Q & A session. I am currently reducing my Flecainide dose in 25 mg steps from 200mg daily to 150mg daily, with the aim of 100 mg daily. Some points which...
Learn about Tambocor (Flecainide) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
... , .sotalol-banner { background-image: url(/lib/yhst-23671804106035/sotalol-header.jpg); height: 314px; } .sotalol-banner p { margin: 85px 16px 16px 16px; padding: 10px; float: right; width: 530px; } Sotalol is a beta blocker for ventricular
Learn about Cordarone IV (Amiodarone Intravenous) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Find patient medical information for Amiodarone Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
しっかり予防してあげてくださいね!!. 分からないことがありましたら何なりと連絡してきてください!!. TEL 075-561-3639. メール [email protected] Ibutilide ...
As this eMedTV segment explains, people with certain medical issues or who are allergic to any of the components of sotalol should not take it. This page also stresses the importance of discussing your situation with your healthcare provider.
How would you treat this patient in regards to rate control: Pt has been going in AF for a few days, and now they are in AF RVR with a rate of 130. The patient is also on Levophed at 5 mcg/min. BP
Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy ...
I was skeptical heading into the experiment. It sounded dreadful ? and impossible ? but surprisingly, a $2-a-day food budget is more than possible.
Ibutilide and dl-sotalol are methanesulphonilides with class III electrophysiological and antiarrhythmic effects.12-21 Unlike dl-sotalol, ibutilide does not have β blocking activity at the doses used in this study. In canine studies, ibutilide was effective against atrial flutter (0.006 mg/kg),19-21 atrial fibrillation (0.150 mg/kg),20 and the subacute phase of ventricular tachycardias (0.030 mg/kg) after myocardial infarction.18The exact mode of action of ibutilide is a matter of discussion.16 Activation of a slow (Na+) inward current,13 blockade of Ikr,14 15 and/or additional or combined effects15 may explain the class III effect. In contrast, activation of an outward potassium current at higher dosages may explain self limitation in prolongation of the cardiac action potential.13 Ibutilide has not been shown to produce important haemodynamic changes at doses of less than 3 mg/kg. Comparative studies in animals involving single cell preparations and models of ischaemia have shown that ...
Title: Dronedarone: A Safety Comparison to Amiodarone. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):James R. Clem, Debra K. Farver, Janet R. Fischer and Thomas J. Johnson. Affiliation:South Dakota State University College of Pharmacy, 4801 North Career Avenue, Sioux Falls, SD 57107, USA.. Keywords:Dronedarone, SR 33589, amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, safety. Abstract: Dronedarone is an oral Class III antiarrhythmic agent which was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in nonpermanent atrial fibrillation. Structurally similar to amiodarone, dronedarone is a benzofuran derivative but it lacks the iodine moiety attached to amiodarone. Based upon the investigational clinical trials to date, it appears that dronedarone has an established efficacy when compared to placebo along with exhibiting a minimal adverse effect profile. The efficacy of dronedarone will need to be further evaluated in comparison trials with established antiarrhythmics for atrial fibrillation. The adverse profile of ...
Clinical record. A 73-year-old man presented with recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT) on a background of severe, non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction, 20%) and cardiac resynchronisation therapy with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Over the previous 6 months, he had frequent appropriate ICD shocks for VT after unsuccessful antitachycardia pacing. A coronary angiogram was normal. Amiodarone had been successful in reducing VT burden and ICD shocks, but was ceased because of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. Shortly after discontinuing amiodarone, there was a significant increase in VT burden and appropriate ICD shocks. An endocardial mapping and VT ablation procedure had been performed, but this was unsuccessful and suggested an epicardial source of VT. The patient also underwent subsequent epicardial mapping and VT ablation using a CARTO 3 (Biosense Webster) electroanatomical mapping system, which localised the source of VT to a diffuse area of the basal ...
article{ceee0ce3-7cdb-426b-8c17-2f62ad33a172, abstract = {,p,AIMS: To evaluate the usefulness of the signed value of monophasic action potential duration difference in analysing the cause of dispersion of ventricular repolarization.,/p,,p,METHODS AND RESULTS: Monophasic action potentials were simultaneously recorded from the right ventricular apex and outflow tract during programmed stimulation in 36 patients with ventricular arrhythmias. The time difference between the ends of repolarization on the two monophasic action potentials was used as a measure of the dispersion of ventricular repolarization, and the signed value of the monophasic action potential duration difference was used to specify the contributions of the activation time difference and the monophasic action potential duration difference to the dispersion of ventricular repolarization. During right ventricular pacing, single and double programmed stimulation and at the induction of ventricular arrhythmias, the dispersion of ...
Bretylium tosylate (Bretylol) has recently been approved for parenteral use against resistant ventricular arrhythmias. The pharmacologic action of bretylium is complex, and its antiarrhythmic action differs significantly from other drugs. Bretylium is an adrenergic neuronal blocking agent taken up selectively at peripheral adrenergic nerve terminals, where it initially releases norepinephrine (sympathomimetic effect) and then produces adrenergic neuronal blockade. It has direct cardiac membrane effect to prolong action potential duration and effective refractory period but, unlike other membrane active antiarrhythmic agents, does not depress conduction velocity or automaticity. Bretylium increases ventricular fibrillation threshold and prevents the decrease in ventricular fibrillation threshold associated with myocardial ischemia. It does not depress myocardial contractility. Clinical studies have shown parenteral bretylium to be effective in suppressing ventricular arrhythmias, particularly ...
In 2013, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) published a Practical Guide on the use of non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) (Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P, European Heart Rhythm A. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013;15:625-651; Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P. EHRA practical guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: executive summary. Eur Heart J 2013;34:2094-2106). The document received widespread interest, not only from cardiologists but also from neurologists, geriatricians, and general practitioners, as became evident from the distribution of ,350 000 copies of its pocket version (the EHRA Key Message Booklet) world-wide. Since 2013, numerous new ...
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is characterized by polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in the structurally normal heart. It is typically triggered by physical activity, emotional stress or catecholamine infusion. Ventricular tachycardia can lead to dizziness, syncope, seizures, ventricular fibrillation and sudden death.. The Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia NGS panel consists of nine genes: ANK2, CALM1, CALM2, CALM3, CASQ2, KCNJ2, RYR2, TECRL and TRDN.. Copy number variation (CNV) analysis of the catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia genes is also offered as a panel. Additionally, CTGT offers a comprehensive test (both NGS and CNV panels) for these genes. Panel genes are also offered as individual sequencing and deletion/duplication tests unless otherwise indicated.. ...
The current study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to assess the association between the whole spectrum of thyroid disease and the subsequent risk of atrial fibrillation in a population of primary care patients. Our main finding was an apparent linear relation between levels of thyroid dysfunction and atrial fibrillation risk-that is, a low atrial fibrillation risk in hypothyroid patients, a high risk in hyperthyroidism, and a TSH level dependent (a dose-response relation) increased risk of atrial fibrillation in all levels of hyperthyroid disease, even in high normal euthyroid subjects. Notably, in subjects with reduced serum TSH levels but normal free thyroid hormone levels the risk of developing atrial fibrillation was increased approximately 10% in individuals with high normal thyroid function and increased about 40% in those with subclinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed TSH levels (table 4⇑, fig 3⇑). Overall, the relative risk of atrial fibrillation associated with thyroid ...

Glyset
        -
        Anti-Arrhythmia AgentsGlyset - Anti-Arrhythmia Agents

It has properties of class IA, IB, and IC agents but does not clearly belong to any of the three subclasses. It has less effect ... Moricizine is used to treat irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and to maintain a normal heart rate. It acts on the heart muscle ... In the Vaughan Williams classification of antiarrhythmics, moricizine is considered to be a class I agent. ... Used to treat irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and maintain a normal heart rate. ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Glyset.html

Anti-Arrhythmia Agents - SUPP.AI by AI2Anti-Arrhythmia Agents - SUPP.AI by AI2

Explore the 39 possible supplements interactions for Anti-Arrhythmia Agents and the research papers that mention these ... Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. A.K.A: Antiarrhythmic agent, antiarrhythmic agents, Antiarrhythmic drug, ANTIARRHYTHMICS, …(more) ...
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Labaz
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        Vasodilator Agents,  Enzyme Inhibitors,  Anti-Arrhythmia Agents,  ATC:C01BD01Labaz - Vasodilator Agents, Enzyme Inhibitors, Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, ATC:C01BD01

Amiodarone belongs to a class of drugs called Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic agents. It is used in the treatment of ... Orally, for the treatment of life-threatening recurrent ventricular arrhythmias such as recurrent ventricular fibrillation and ... a wide range of cardiac tachyarhthmias, including both ventricular and supraventricular (atrial) arrhythmias. After intravenous ...
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2014 AATS guidelines for the prevention and management of perioperative atrial fibrillation and flutter for thoracic surgical...2014 AATS guidelines for the prevention and management of perioperative atrial fibrillation and flutter for thoracic surgical...

Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Grant support. *R01 HL111314/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ... Department of Medicine, Cardiac Arrhythmia Service, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.. 8. Division of Cardiac Surgery, ... Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Arrhythmia Service, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25129609

Risk factors for recurrence of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing hybrid therapy for antiarrhythmic drug-induced atrial...Risk factors for recurrence of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing hybrid therapy for antiarrhythmic drug-induced atrial...

Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects*. *Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy*. *Atrial Flutter/chemically induced* ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12831821

Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist on Prohibiting Cardiovascular Events on Hemodialysis Patients - Full Text View -...Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist on Prohibiting Cardiovascular Events on Hemodialysis Patients - Full Text View -...

Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Anti- ... or more than 150 mmHg if the patients received antihypertensive agents. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00530595

Study of Propranolol as Anti-Adhesive Therapy in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govStudy of Propranolol as Anti-Adhesive Therapy in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents ... anti-arrhythmia medications, bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, insulin, or hypoglycemic medication. *History of allergy to ... Study of Propranolol as Anti-Adhesive Therapy in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Thus, the use of propranolol in SCD may represent a safe and effective means of anti-adhesive therapy in SCD. ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01077921?term=PROPRANOLOL&

Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial for Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block in Medically Refractory Ventricular Tachycardia -...Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial for Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block in Medically Refractory Ventricular Tachycardia -...

Arrhythmias, Cardiac. Heart Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Cardiac Conduction System Disease. Pathologic Processes. Anti- ... Patients with ICD have generated ICD shock or anti-tachycardia pacing despite of defibrillation and drug therapy ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02646501?recrs=abc&cond=Tachycardia&rank=22

RCSB PDB - ADN Ligand Summary PageRCSB PDB - ADN Ligand Summary Page

Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. *Biological Factors. *Carbohydrates. *Cardiac Therapy. *Cardiovascular Agents. *Cardiovascular System ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/ligand/ADN

RCSB PDB - Ligand Summary PageRCSB PDB - Ligand Summary Page

Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. *Biological Factors. *Carbohydrates. *Cardiac Therapy. *Cardiovascular Agents. *Cardiovascular System ... The All Medicare V Pla Synergy Anti Wrinkle Face and Neck Mask ... Hello Care Anti-wrinkle Ampoule Mask. *Hello Care Moisturizing ...
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Trial of a Best-Practice Alert in the Electronic Medical Record to Reduce Unnecessary Telemetry MonitoringTrial of a Best-Practice Alert in the Electronic Medical Record to Reduce Unnecessary Telemetry Monitoring

Anti-arrhythmia Agents. Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization- ... A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias and tachycardias. Paradoxically ... Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade ... Supraventricular arrhythmia with discordant electrocardiographic features: What is the arrhythmia mechanism?. Junctional and AV ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/142956/Trial-of-a-Best-Practice-Alert-in-the-Electronic-Medical-Record-to.html

Protective role of immobilization on ouabain-induced arrhythmias.Protective role of immobilization on ouabain-induced arrhythmias.

... on severity of ouabain-induced cardiac arrhythmias and the possible involvement of serum catecholamines were investigated in ... Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / blood, chemically induced, therapy*. Dopamine / blood. Epinephrine / blood. ... 0/Anti-Arrhythmia Agents; 0/Narcotic Antagonists; 0/Opioid Peptides; 465-65-6/Naloxone; 51-41-2/Norepinephrine; 51-43-4/ ... 22078757 - Anti-cd11d monoclonal antibody treatment for rat spinal cord compression injury.. 11961137 - Substrate-induced up- ...
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Cardiac Arrhythmias | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural MedicineCardiac Arrhythmias | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine

This topic contains 65 study abstracts on Cardiac Arrhythmias indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Omega-3 ... Diseases : Cardiac Arrhythmias. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts ... Diseases : Atrial Arrhythmias, Atrial Fibrillation, Atrial Flutter, Cardiac Mortality Anti Therapeutic Actions : ... Diseases : Cardiac Arrhythmias, Magnesium Deficiency, Mitral Valve Prolapse. Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents ...
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Tiapamil--a new calcium antagonist.Tiapamil--a new calcium antagonist.

We have undertaken experimental studies on the anti-arrhythmic properties of tiapamil, a ... Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / drug therapy. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology*, ... 0/Anti-Arrhythmia Agents; 0/Calcium Channel Blockers; 0/Propylamines; V824N2T753/Tiapamil Hydrochloride ... We have undertaken experimental studies on the anti-arrhythmic properties of tiapamil, and on the intravenous use of this agent ...
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MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Anti-Arrhythmia Agents). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1802. [Cu] Atualiza o por classe:. 180226. ... Arrhythmia after cone repair for Ebstein anomaly: The Mayo Clinic experience in 143 young patients.. ... OBJECTIVES: To assess the burden of arrhythmia in young patients after CR and to assess the utility of selective preoperative ... BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of preoperative and postoperative arrhythmia in Ebstein anomaly (EA) prompted some ...
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MEDLINE - Results of the search |page  1|
	MEDLINE - Results of the search |page 1|

0 (Anti-Arrhythmia Agents); 0 (Phenethylamines); 0 (Sulfonamides); ITX08688JL (Quinidine); K94FTS1806 (Flecainide); L39WTC366D ... 0 (Anticholesteremic Agents); 0 (Cytostatic Agents); 0 (Cytotoxins); 0 (Microtubule-Associated Proteins); 0 (beta-Cyclodextrins ... Nevertheless, with all agents, these effects translated to the amplified epicardial-to-endocardial and the LV-to-RV non- ... Ga chelating agents can have high influence on physiological properties of Ga labeled bioactive molecules, as was experienced ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=i&format=standard.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D02.241.223.100.050.500.875

Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation Report F99-15 | CDC/NIOSHFire Fighter Fatality Investigation Report F99-15 | CDC/NIOSH

Intravenous lidocaine (anti-arrhythmia agent) was administered; however, nitroglycerin and morphine (both medications for acute ...
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Effects of SEA0400 on arrhythmogenicity in a Langendorff-perfused 1-month myocardial infarction rabbit model. | CureHunterEffects of SEA0400 on arrhythmogenicity in a Langendorff-perfused 1-month myocardial infarction rabbit model. | CureHunter

Anti-Arrhythmia Agents (administration & dosage, adverse effects) *Arrhythmias, Cardiac (chemically induced, drug therapy, ...
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Sudden Death
     Summary Report | CureHunterSudden Death Summary Report | CureHunter

Anti-Arrhythmia AgentsIBA 06/04/1992 - "Antiarrhythmic drugs have not been shown to be effective for preventing sudden death, ... on anti-arrhythmias and prevention of sudden death. ". 04/01/2010 - "Risk of sudden death is associated with a low blood level ... Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Sudden Death: 1. Amiodarone (Amiodarona)FDA LinkGeneric 04/01/1994 - " ... 09/01/2015 - "QT interval prolongation, a marker of risk for arrhythmias and sudden death, is highly prevalent among kidney ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD003645-Sudden-Death.do

Category:NadololCategory:Nadolol

Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Antihypertensive Agents. Sympatholytics s. Antihypertensive Agents. Sympatholytics Has role Drug + ... Nadolol has no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and, unlike some other beta-adrenergic blocking agents, nadolol has little ... used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for migraine ...
more infohttp://neurolex.org/wiki/Special:Browse/Category:Nadolol
  • This discourages patients from getting more exercise while they are hospitalized, which is a risk factor for muscle atrophy, and getting enough sleep, which is a risk factor for delirium, 4) Telemetry is not available for all hospital beds at UCSF and even units where it is available have limitations for the types of arrhythmias they can monitor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Non-uniform shortening of the action potential duration (APD90) in different myocardial regions upon heart rate acceleration can set abnormal repolarization gradients and promote arrhythmia. (bireme.br)
  • A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist … A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. (neurolex.org)
  • Ga chelating agents can have high influence on physiological properties of Ga labeled bioactive molecules, as was experienced during the application of HBED-CC on PSMA ligand. (bireme.br)
  • The arterial serum catecholamine levels (A, NA and DA), measured immediately after the stressor application, were increased significantly and were in negative correlation with the arrhythmia parameters. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It has properties of class IA, IB, and IC agents but does not clearly belong to any of the three subclasses. (pharmacycode.com)
  • It has less effect on the slope of phase 0 and a greater effect on action potential duration and effective refractory period than class IC agents. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Nadolol has no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and, unlike some other beta-adrenergic blocking agents, nadolol has little direct myocardial depressant activity and does not have an anesthetic-like membrane-stabilizing action. (neurolex.org)