Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.
A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.
A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.
A malignant form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is characterized by HEART RATE between 200 and 250 beats per minute, and QRS complexes with changing amplitude and twisting of the points. The term also describes the syndrome of tachycardia with prolonged ventricular repolarization, long QT intervals exceeding 500 milliseconds or BRADYCARDIA. Torsades de pointes may be self-limited or may progress to VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature atrial contractions or beats caused by signals originating from ectopic atrial sites. The ectopic signals may or may not conduct to the HEART VENTRICLES. Atrial premature complexes are characterized by premature P waves on ECG which are different in configuration from the P waves generated by the normal pacemaker complex in the SINOATRIAL NODE.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
An antiarrhythmia agent that is particularly effective in ventricular arrhythmias. It also has weak beta-blocking activity.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
One of the ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS, it blocks VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS and slows conduction within the His-Purkinje system and MYOCARDIUM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias.
A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.
Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.
Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An antiarrhythmia agent used primarily for ventricular rhythm disturbances.
The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
A form of inherited long QT syndrome (or LQT7) that is characterized by a triad of potassium-sensitive periodic paralysis, VENTRICULAR ECTOPIC BEATS, and abnormal features such as short stature, low-set ears, and SCOLIOSIS. It results from mutations of KCNJ2 gene which encodes a channel protein (INWARD RECTIFIER POTASSIUM CHANNELS) that regulates resting membrane potential.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
An alkaloid found in the root of RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA, among other plant sources. It is a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent that apparently acts by changing the shape and threshold of cardiac action potentials.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.
Rare congenital cardiomyopathies characterized by the lack of left ventricular myocardium compaction. The noncompaction results in numerous prominent trabeculations and a loose myocardial meshwork (spongy myocardium) in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Heterogeneous clinical features include diminished systolic function sometimes associated with left ventricular dilation, that presents either neonatally or progressively. Often, the RIGHT VENTRICLE is also affected. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE; PULMONARY EMBOLISM; and ventricular ARRHYTHMIA are commonly seen.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Antihistamine drug now withdrawn from the market in many countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects.
Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
A rare form of supraventricular tachycardia caused by automatic, not reentrant, conduction initiated from sites at the atrioventricular junction, but not the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. It usually occurs during myocardial infarction, after heart surgery, or in digitalis intoxication with a HEART RATE ranging from 140 to 250 beats per minute.
A class Ib anti-arrhythmia agent used to manage ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A group of conditions in which HEART VENTRICLE activation by the atrial impulse is faster than the normal impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE. In these pre-excitation syndromes, atrial impulses often bypass the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE delay and travel via ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAYS connecting the atrium directly to the BUNDLE OF HIS.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (1/3137)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

Preconditioning in immature rabbit hearts: role of KATP channels. (2/3137)

BACKGROUND: The protective effects of ischemic preconditioning have been shown to occur in adult hearts of all species studied. We determined whether immature hearts normoxic or chronically hypoxic from birth could be preconditioned, the time window or memory of the cardioprotective effect, and the involvement of the KATP channel. METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated immature rabbit hearts (7 to 10 days old) were subjected to 0, 1, or 3 cycles of preconditioning consisting of 5 minutes of global ischemia plus 10 minutes of reperfusion. This was followed by 30 minutes of global ischemia and 35 minutes of reperfusion. Normoxic hearts (FIO2=0.21) subjected to 1 cycle of preconditioning recovered 70+/-7% of left ventricular developed pressure compared with 43+/-8% recovery in nonpreconditioned controls. Three cycles of preconditioning did not result in additional recovery (63+/-8%). Hearts from rabbits raised from birth in hypoxic conditions (FIO2=0.12) and subjected to 1 and 3 preconditioning cycles did not show increased recovery (68+/-8% and 65+/-5%) compared with nonpreconditioned hypoxic controls (63+/-9%), although the recovery was greater in chronically hypoxic hearts than in age-matched normoxic controls. Increasing the recovery period after the preconditioning stimulus from 10 to 30 minutes resulted in a loss of cardioprotection. Pretreatment of normoxic hearts for 30 minutes with the KATP channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (300 micromol/L) completely abolished preconditioning (70+/-7% to 35+/-9%) but had no effect on nonpreconditioned hearts (40+/-8%). CONCLUSIONS: Immature hearts normoxic from birth can be preconditioned, whereas immature hearts hypoxic from birth cannot. Preconditioning in normoxic immature hearts is associated with activation of the KATP channel.  (+info)

Modulation of AV nodal and Hisian conduction by changes in extracellular space. (3/3137)

Previous studies have demonstrated that the extracellular space (ECS) component of the atrioventricular (AV) node and His bundle region is larger than the ECS in adjacent contractile myocardium. The potential physiological significance of this observation was examined in a canine blood-perfused AV nodal preparation. Mannitol, an ECS osmotic expander, was infused directly into either the AV node or His bundle region. This resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the AV nodal or His-ventricular conduction time and in the AV nodal effective refractory period. Mannitol infusion eventually resulted in Wenckebach block (n = 6), which reversed with mannitol washout. The ratio of AV nodal to left ventricular ECS in tissue frozen immediately on the development of heart block (n = 8) was significantly higher in the region of block (4.53 +/- 0.61) compared with that in control preparations (2.23 +/- 0.35, n = 6, P < 0.01) and donor dog hearts (2.45 +/- 0.18, n = 11, P < 0.01) not exposed to mannitol. With lower mannitol rates (10% of total blood flow), AV nodal conduction times increased by 5-10% and the AV node became supersensitive to adenosine, acetylcholine, and carbachol, but not to norepinephrine. We conclude that mannitol-induced changes in AV node and His bundle ECS markedly alter conduction system electrophysiology and the sensitivity of conductive tissues to purinergic and cholinergic agonists.  (+info)

Delayed rectifier potassium current in undiseased human ventricular myocytes. (4/3137)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the properties of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in myocytes isolated from undiseased human left ventricles. METHODS: The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied in 28 left ventricular myocytes from 13 hearts at 35 degrees C. RESULTS: An E-4031 sensitive tail current identified the rapid component of IK (IKr) in the myocytes, but there was no evidence for an E-4031 insensitive slow component of IK (IKs). When nifedipine (5 microM) was used to block the inward calcium current (ICa), IKr activation was fast (tau = 31.0 +/- 7.4 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and deactivation kinetics were biexponential and relatively slow (tau 1 = 600.0 +/- 53.9 ms and tau 2 = 6792.2 +/- 875.7 ms, at -40 mV, n = 7). Application of CdCl2 (250 microM) to block ICa altered the voltage dependence of the IKr considerably, slowing its activation (tau = 657.1 +/- 109.1 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and accelerating its deactivation (tau = 104.0 +/- 18.5 ms, at -40 mV, n = 8). CONCLUSIONS: In undiseased human ventricle at 35 degrees C IKr exists having fast activation and slow deactivation kinetics; however, there was no evidence found for an expressed IKs. IKr probably plays an important role in the frequency dependent modulation of repolarization in undiseased human ventricle, and is a target for many Class III antiarrhythmic drugs.  (+info)

Electrophysiologic effect of enalapril on guinea pig papillary muscles in vitro. (5/3137)

AIM: To study the direct effect of enalapril on cellular electrophysiology of myocardium. METHODS: Conventional microelectrodes technique was used to record the action potentials (AP) of guinea pig papillary muscles. RESULTS: Enalapril caused an increase of the AP amplitude (APA) and the resting potential (RP) in a concentration-dependent manner without any significant change of AP duration, Vmax and overshoot of AP. Superfusion of ouabain 0.5 mumol.L-1 reduced APA and RP, induced stable delayed after-depolarizations (DAD) at different basic cycle lengths (BCL) in a frequency-dependent manner. At BCL 200 ms, the amplitude of DAD was large enough to induce nonsustained triggered activity (TA). In additional presence of enalapril 10 mumol.L-1, the DAD amplitude at 500, 400, 300, and 200 ms were decreased from 5.3 +/- 2.3, 5.9 +/- 2.8, 7.4 +/- 2.1, and 8.9 +/- 1.3 to 2.6 +/- 0.7, 3.1 +/- 1.0, 3.7 +/- 1.5, and 5.3 +/- 1.1 (mV) respectively, all P < 0.01. The compensation intervals were increased in a similar frequency-dependent manner. The number of TA induced at BCL 200 ms was decreased from 3.6 +/- 0.7 to 0.8 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Enalapril directly inhibits DAD and TA induced by ouabain through increasing RP and APA, which may contribute to its anti-arrhythmic effect.  (+info)

Effects of dauricine, quinidine, and sotalol on action potential duration of papillary muscles in vitro. (6/3137)

AIM: To compare the characteristics of dauricine, sotalol, and quinidine on action potential duration (APD). METHODS: Using intracellular microelectrode method to record APD in guinea pig papillary muscles. RESULTS: Dauricine 20 mumol.L-1 prolonged action potential at 90% repolarization, the percent of APD prolongation were 22 +/- 8, 11 +/- 6, 9 +/- 5, 7 +/- 5, 6 +/- 3, 4.3 +/- 2.8, 4.5 +/- 2.8 at the cycle lengths of 200-2000 ms, dauricine became more effective in lengthening APD at short cycle lengths. The effect of dauricine on prolonging APD exhibited normal use-dependence, whereas quinidine 1 mumol.L-1 and sotalol 10 mumol.L-1 were less effective in lengthening APD at short cycle lengths. The effect of quinidine and sotalol on APD exhibited reverse use-dependence. CONCLUSSION: The effect of dauricine on APD depends on activation frequency.  (+info)

Imipramine blocks the transient outward potassium current in rat ventricular myocytes. (7/3137)

AIM: To examine the effects of imipramine on transient outward potassium current (I(to) in rat ventricular myocytes. METHODS: The patch-clamp whole-cell recording techniques were used. RESULTS: Imipramine resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of I(to) with the IC50 of 6.0 mumol.L-1 and a concentration-dependent acceleration of I(to) inactivation. The blocking showed no difference at different testing membrane potentials. Imipramine produced slight effects (about 3 and 4 mV, respectively) on steady-state activation and inactivation curves of I(to), and tended to prolong the recovery of I(to) from inactivation (tau control = 37 +/- 11 ms; tau drug = 58 +/- 17 ms), but not significant (n = 4, P > 0.05). The inhibitory effect of imipramine on Ito was increased when the prepulses were prolonged progressively from 0 to 120 ms. (tau control = 22 +/- 8 ms; tau drug = 14 +/- 5 ms). CONCLUSIONS: Imipramine blocked Ito in concentration-dependent but voltage-independent manners, and with "open channel blocking" properties.  (+info)

Effects of cycloprotobuxine-A on atrial fibrillation. (8/3137)

AIM: To study the effects of cycloprotobuxine-A (Cyc-A) on atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Atrial fibrillations in vivo and in vitro were induced by arrhythmogenic drugs. Action potentials were measured by the standard microelectrode technique. RESULTS: Cyc-A, similar to or slightly stronger than amiodarone (Ami), decreased incidences of atrial fibrillation elicited by CaCl2-acetylcholine in mice and increased doses of aconitine, ouabain, or adrenaline to elicit atrial fibrillation in isolated guinea pig atria. Cyc-A 0.3-100 mumol.L-1 decreased the normal automaticity and 0.3-30 mumol.L-1 attenuated or almost abolished the isoprenaline-induced abnormal increase in automaticity in sinus nodal cells. In isolated left atria, Cyc-A 0.3-30 mumol.L-1 inhibited the abnormal rhythmic activity elicited by adrenaline, prolonged action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period, and reduced excitability. At 3-30 mumol.L-1, Cyc-A also decreased the maximal velocity of depolarization (Vmax). Cyc-A antagonized the acetylcholine-induced shortening of APD. These electrophysiologic effects were similar to those of amiodarone, but Ami did not affect the Vmax. CONCLUSION: Cyc-A produces a protective effect against experimental atrial fibrillation via a prolongation of repolarization, a decease of automaticity, and an inhibition of excitability.  (+info)

Define antiarrhythmic medication. antiarrhythmic medication synonyms, antiarrhythmic medication pronunciation, antiarrhythmic medication translation, English dictionary definition of antiarrhythmic medication. Noun 1. antiarrhythmic medication - a drug used to treat an abnormal heart rhythm antiarrhythmic, antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone, Cordarone - an...
antiarrhythmic medications - MedHelps antiarrhythmic medications Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for antiarrhythmic medications. Find antiarrhythmic medications information, treatments for antiarrhythmic medications and antiarrhythmic medications symptoms.
N-Aminoalkyl(perfluoroalkanoylaminophenyl)sulfonic acid amides of the formula: ##STR1## in which R.sup.1 is perfluoroalkanoylamino of 2 to 4 carbon atoms, in 3- or 4- position of the benzene ring;R.sup.2 is hydrogen or alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms;R.sup.3 is hydrogen or straight or branched chain alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms;R.sup.4 is straight or branched chain alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms; andn is one of the integers 2, 3 or 4;or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, are Class I anti-arrhythmic agents useful in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and conditions characterized by coronary arteries vasospasm and myocardial ischemia.
PubMed journal article: Class III antiarrhythmic drugs block HERG, a human cardiac delayed rectifier K+ channel. Open-channel block by methanesulfonanilides. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
This phase II dose-finding study demonstrated that the upper dose of RSD1235 (2 + 3 mg/kg) rapidly and effectively terminated AF compared with lower dose RSD1235 and placebo. There were no serious adverse events associated with RSD1235. In contrast to other anti-arrhythmic drugs used for conversion of recent onset AF, there were no instances of drug-related pro-arrhythmia. Although these initial findings will require confirmation in larger scale clinical trials, this safety profile, coupled with an efficacious and rapid onset, confirms that RSD1235 is a promising new agent for the medical conversion of recent onset AF.. Cardioversion of AF may be accomplished using electrical or pharmacologic approaches. Electrical cardioversion is effective in rapidly restoring sinus rhythm; however, it requires procedural sedation and a suitable recovery period and/or may cause pain after treatment. Experimental data suggest that AF itself conditions the substrate for maintenance of AF and supports the need ...
Ischemia-Related Subcellular Redistribution of Sodium Channels Enhances the Proarrhythmic Effect of Class I Antiarrhythmic Drugs: A Simulation Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vernakalant. T2 - Pharmacology, electrophysiology, safety and efficacy. AU - Naccarelli, Gerald V.. AU - Wolbrette, Deborah L.. AU - Samii, Soraya. AU - Banchs, Javier E.. AU - Penny-Peterson, Erica. AU - Stevenson, Robert. AU - Gonzalez, Mario D.. PY - 2008/5/1. Y1 - 2008/5/1. N2 - The development of new antiarrhythmic agents for the treatment of atrial fibrillation is advancing simultaneously on several fronts. The molecular structure of existing agents such as amiodarone is being modified in an attempt to improve safety and reduce adverse effects. Similarly, atrial-selective antiarrhythmic drugs are being developed to minimize the occurrence of ventricular proarrhythmia. One of these atrial-selective compounds is vernakalant, which has demonstrated efficacy in terminating atrial fibrillation when given intravenously. In addition, preliminary data suggest that it could also suppress recurrences when used orally. This paper reviews the pharmacology, electrophysiology, efficacy ...
Arrhythmias can range from incidental, asymptomatic clinical findings to life-threatening abnormalities. In some human arrhythmias, precise mechanisms are known, and treatment can be targeted specifically against those mechanisms. In other cases, mechanisms can be only inferred, and the choice of drugs is based largely on the results of prior experience. Anti-arrhythmic drug therapy can have 2 goals: termination of an ongoing arrhythmia or prevention of an arrhythmia. Unfortunately, anti-arrhythmic drugs not only help to control arrhythmias but also can cause them, especially during long-term therapy. Thus, prescribing anti-arrhythmic drugs requires that precipitating factors be excluded or minimized, that a precise diagnosis of the type of arrhythmia be made, and that the risks of drug therapy can be minimized. ...
Antiarrhythmic medication - What are the classes of antiarrhythmic medications? I, II, III and IV. Class I is divided into ia, ib, and ic. These are sodium channel blockers. An example from this class would be propafenone. Class ii agents are beta-blockers (like metoprolol). Class iii are potassium channel blockers - for example, amiodarone. Class IV are calcium channel blockers, like diltiazem.
We report herein the synthesis and antiarrhythmic activities of some newly synthesized heterocyclic theino[2,3-c]pyrimidine and theino[2,3-c]pyridine derivative
For more than 20 years, the classification of antiarrhythmic drugs proposed by Vaughan Williams [1] has held the field. In essence, it is based on the effects of antiarrhythmic agents on the...
Study Flashcards On Antiarrhythmic Agents the script at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
METHODS AND RESULTS Patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias were randomly assigned to undergo serial testing of up to six antiarrhythmic drugs by either EPS (EPS limb) or HM and exercise testing (HM limb). Efficacy predictions were achieved in 108 of 242 patients in the EPS limb (45%) and in 188 of 244 patients (77%) in the HM limb. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) , 0.25 and presence of coronary artery disease were negative correlates (p , 0.10) of drug efficacy predictions in the EPS limb. In the HM limb, LVEF was the lone univariate correlate of efficacy, although it was only marginally significant (p = 0.107). A multivariate model selected assessment by HM and higher LVEF as independent predictors (p , 0.05) of drug efficacy. The drug evaluation process required an actuarial median time of 25 days in the EPS limb and 10 days in the HM limb (p , 0.0001). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antiarrhythmic Drugs. T2 - Rationale and Current Status. AU - Latini, Roberto. AU - Maggioni, Aldo P.. AU - Cavalli, Augusto. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. UR - UR - U2 - 10.2165/00003088-199018020-00001. DO - 10.2165/00003088-199018020-00001. M3 - Article. C2 - 2180615. AN - SCOPUS:0025287780. VL - 18. SP - 91. EP - 103. JO - Clinical Pharmacokinetics. JF - Clinical Pharmacokinetics. SN - 0312-5963. IS - 2. ER - ...
Since most of the toxicity associated with class 1B antiarrhythmic drugs is dose-related, this review examines adverse effects seen in both therapeutic pra
Antiarrhythmics are a type of heart medication that prevent and treat abnormal heartbeats. Learn more about antiarrhythmics from Heart & Stroke.
Antiarrhythmic agent Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as
It is important to reduce structural myocardial changes, especially hypertrophy of the left ventricle, which predisposes to ischemia and arrhythmias. It is also necessary to optimize the dialysis parameters to ensure hemodynamic and electrolytic balance, to evaluate the drug treatment and its impact on the incidence and seriousness of malignant arrhythmias and SCD (100).. AFi treatment aims mainly to maintain the ventricular rate by administring antiarrhythmic medication or cardioversion, to improve symptomatology and to increase effort tolerance. AFi treatment also focuses on lowering the CVA risk, discontinuing the anticoagulant treatment, increasing the quality of life and the survival rate. An accepted alternative, although often secondary to antiarrhythmic medication is the strategy to simply control the rate of ventricular response of AFi by using node blocking agents in association with continuous anticoagulation (109).. Class 1A and 1C arrhythmic medications can ensure the rapid ...
The Report Ovarian Cancer-Global API Manufacturers, Marketed and Phase III Drugs Landscape, 2016 provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and company profiles for key industry participants. -
Study Flashcards On Block 3: Antiarrhythmics at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Antiarrhythmic Medicines can be effective in treating Heart Attack. Learn about Antiarrhythmic Medicines, see related evidence, and find other smart treatments for Heart Attack at FoundHealth.
This site has a great rundown on the mechanism and actions and how these agents shift the action potential. You probably dont need to know all that for the BCPS. Just know how to pick an agent for a specific patient population.. ...
treatment and prevention during and immediately after Myocardial infarction, though this practice is now discouraged given the increased risk of ...
Betapace - Betapace is an antiarrhythmic drug used for treating certain types of irregular heartbeat (ventricular arrhythmias). It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Several medications are used to treat, prevent, or lessen the frequency or severity of abnormal heart rhythms. This group of medications is called antiarrhythmics. 
Flecainide acetate, a new potent class I antiarrhythmic agent, was given to 152 patients (46 orally and 106 intravenously) over a period of 22 months. Seven patients developed proarrhythmic effects. The only conduction abnormalities induced were PR interval prolongation and QRS complex widening, and …
Prespecified criteria for adequate heart rate (HR) control in AF are outlined in Table 1. Rate control was assessed only if the patient was in AF at the time of evaluation. If a patient in the rate-control arm was in SR at a specified visit, rate control was not assessed and not recorded at that visit. Adequate rate control required the initial resting HR to be ≤80 beats/min. If that goal was achieved, a standard 6-min walk test (35)or 24-h ambulatory electrocardiographic recording (Holter monitor) was required to confirm adequate rate control. The approach used was left to the discretion of the treating physician. If both Holter monitoring and a 6-min walk test were performed, rate-control criteria had to be met for both tests. Overall rate control required evidence for resting and exercise rate control, as defined. Tests were repeated until rate control was achieved or when the patient had a change in status or change in drug dosage. Further drug titration was based on the results of these ...
The data show that there is no survival benefit to the strategy of rhythm control in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Indeed there were trends toward higher rates of death and stroke among patients treated with rhythm control. Rate control appears to be an acceptable primary strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation. Long term anticoagulation appears warranted in all patients with risk factors for stroke. Risk factors for ischemic stroke in nonvalvular AF include prior thromboembolism, CHF, HTN, age, DM, female gender, BP greater than 160 mmHg and LV dysfunction. As stated in the ACC/AHA guidelines, maximum protection against ischemic stroke in AF is probably achieved with an international normalized ratio (INR) of 2 to 3, whereas an INR range of 1.6 to 2.5 appears to be associated with incomplete efficacy, estimated at approximately 80% of that achieved with higher intensity anticoagulation. ACC/AHA guidelines recommend that physicians individualize the selection of the ...
Introduction: Class I antiarrhythmic drugs increase duration of the excitable gap (EG) during typical atrial flutter whereas intravenous class III drugs decrease the EG. The effect of chronic oral amiodarone therapy on the EG is unknown. Methods and Results: EG was prospectively determined by introducing a premature stimulus and analyzing the response pattern during typical atrial flutter in 30 patients without antiarrhythmic drugs and in 20 patients under chronic oral amiodarone therapy. EG was calculated by the difference between the longest coupling interval leading to resetting and the effective atrial refractory period (EARP). A fully EG was defined by the portion of EG where the response curve of the return cycles was flat. A partially EG was defined by the portion of EG where the return cycle increases while coupling interval decreases. A resetting response curve was constructed by plotting the duration of the return cycle against the value of the coupling interval. Cycle length (CL; 222 ...
Introduction:. Atrial fibrillation is by far the most common heart arrhythmia and is even increasing in prevalence and incidence. Approximately 10% of all cardiologic hospitalizations are due to atrial fibrillation. Several studies have shown older patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation and with minor symptoms related to the arrhythmia do equally well on a frequency control as compared to a rhythm control strategy. However, some of this lack of difference in outcome may be because the benefits by achieving sinus rhythm are outbalanced by the risk of medication with presently known antiarrhythmic drugs together with the only modest efficacy of these drugs. Non-pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation has drawn increasing interest over the last decade, and especially percutaneous catheter based ablation strategies have been in focus with promising results on the symptomatic level in several series of patients. Different technologies have been in use with very few ...
Several anti-arrhythmic agents, which are used in treatment of AF, exist. However, the efficacy of these drugs still can be improved. Furthermore, some of them are associated with a wide range of adverse side effects. Therefore, the mechanisms of action of these agents have to be better understood and still can be optimized.. Dronedarone is an anti-arrhythmic agent used in the treatment of AF by maintaining sinus rhythm. It is a derivative of amiodarone and has been developed to reduce the side effects as e.g. thyroid toxicity of its precursor compound.. The aim of this work is to integrate the effects of dronedarone into a model of atrial electrophysiology. In this way, the mechanism of action, i.e. the anti-arrhythmic effects of this agent should be better understood. In previous work, the effects of amiodarone were already integrated into an atrial cell model. Finally, a comparison of both agents and their impact on healthy and electrically remodeled tissue shall be carried out. ...
INTERIM STUDY REPORT Public Safety Committee Sue Tibbs, Chair Oklahoma House of Representatives Interim Study 11-028, Rep. Sue Tibbs and Rep. Ben Sherrer October 3, 2011 Study of making pseudoephedrine a Class III drug and needing a prescription to obtain Darrell Weaver Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs Control Drug enforcement is a different type of law enforcement. It is an in-progress crime. Laws must be able to adapt and change. Meth Labs: 2007= 147 2008= 248 2009= 743 2010= 818 In 2004, meth labs cost $1 billion in collateral damage. In 2006, Oregon made pseudoephedrine products a Schedule III or prescription only drug. After enactment, Oregon saw the largest decrease in crime rate in the nation. Meth related hospitalizations went down 35% and meth arrests were reduced 33%. Mississippi enacted similar legislation last year. Meth related incidents dropped 35%, arrests dropped 62% and there was a 76% reduction in the number of children removed from meth houses. The Bureau of ...
Tedisamil (3,7-dicyclopropylmethyl-9,9-tetramethylene-3,7-diazabicyclo-3,3,1-nonane) is an experimental class III antiarrhythmic agent currently being investigated for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Tedisamil blocks multiple types of potassium channels in the heart resulting in slowed heart rate. While the effects of tedisamil have been demonstrated in both atrial and ventricular muscle, repolarization is prolonged more efficiently in the atria. Tedisamil is administered intravenously and has a half-life of approximately 8 -13 hours in circulation. Tedisamil is being developed as an alternative to other antiarrhythmics as incidence of additional arrhythmic events is lower compared to other class III agents. Tedisamil also has significant anti-ischemic properties and was initially investigated as a potential treatment for angina until its antiarrhythmic effects were discovered. Tedisamil is manufactured by Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc. under the proposed trade name Pulzium and is currently ...
Disopyramide (INN, trade names Norpace and Rythmodan) is an antiarrhythmic medication used in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia. It is a sodium channel blocker and therefore classified as a Class 1a anti-arrhythmic agent. Disopyramide has a negative inotropic effect on the ventricular myocardium, significantly decreasing the contractility. Disopyramide also has an anticholinergic effect on the heart which accounts for many adverse side effects. Disopyramide is available in both oral and intravenous forms, and has a low degree of toxicity. Disopyramides Class 1a activity is similar to that of quinidine in that it targets sodium channels to inhibit conduction. Disopyramide depresses the increase in sodium permeability of the cardiac myocyte during Phase 0 of the cardiac action potential, in turn decreasing the inward sodium current. This results in an increased threshold for excitation and a decreased upstroke velocity. Disopyramide prolongs the PR interval by lengthening both the QRS and ...
The first five months of the MAVERIC registry have provided an estimate of the likely minimum incidence of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias in a defined population. It also suggests that just over half of these patients would satisfy the AVID criteria. In the AVID study the average age of patients was 65 years. MAVERIC patients fulfilling the AVID criteria had a similar mean age of 65.8 years. The AVID trial was stopped prematurely in April 1997 after recruitment of 1016 patients. One year mortality was reduced by 38% in patients treated with an ICD compared with those who received antiarrhythmic drug treatment. This significantly improved prognosis continued in the second and third years, with a 25% reduction in deaths in each year.. An improvement in survival with ICD treatment has been suggested in other studies. Patients with previous myocardial infarction with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, impaired left ventricular function, and non-suppressible inducible ventricular ...
Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 600 Highland Ave,SC E1/372, Madison, WI, 53792, Wisconsin, USA1 and department of Diagnostic Radiology and Medical Physics, University Hospi- Given the history of this patient, which also included the use of amiodarone, drug induced lung toxicity - amiodarone pneumonitis - was suspected. The diagnosis was validated by trans-bronchial biopsy. Amiodarone treatment was stopped and treat-ment with corticosteroid treatment was initiated. Amiodarone is a class III anti-arrhythmic drug used for treatment of refractory cardiac tachyarrhyth- mias. It accumulates in the liver and lung, and may lead to potentially fatal pulmonary toxicity in 5% of Amiodarone pneumonitis was first described in 1980. Its prevalence in patients treated with amiodarone reached up to 15%. With higher age and higher dosage of amiodarone, the risk of amiodarone pneu- monitis increases. Due to its long tissue half life, both onset of lung toxicity and clearing following ...
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The side effect profile ofhas been well established. Anticholinergic symptoms are most common, but cardiac toxicity is of greatest concern. In particular, the negative inotropic activity and proarrhythmic potential of disopyramide limits its use in s
The effects of ranolazine on cardiac ion currents at concentrations within the therapeutic range (ie, 2 to 6 μmol/L) include inhibition of IKr, late INa, and late ICa,L. Inhibition of IKr by ranolazine prolongs APD, and its effect to inhibit late INa and late ICa,L abbreviates APD. The net effect and clinical consequence of inhibition of these ion channel currents is a modest increase in the mean QTc interval over the therapeutic range. The drug differs significantly from other agents that block IKr and induce TdP. Ranolazine-induced prolongation of the APD is rate independent (ie, does not display reverse rate-dependent prolongation of APD) and is not associated with EADs, triggered activity, an increase in spatial dispersion of repolarization, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Indeed, rather than displaying arrhythmogenic activity, ranolazine, via its actions to suppress EADs and reduce TDR, possesses significant antiarrhythmic activity, acting to suppress the arrhythmogenic effects ...
We have investigated the concentration-dependent modulation, by the novel class III antiarrhythmic compound NE-10064, of the delayed potassium channel current Iks in isolated guinea pig sinoatrial nodal (SAN) and ventricular cells. At concentrations greater than 1 micron, the drug potently inhibited Iks in each of the cell types investigated. The concentration-dependent inhibition of Iks (IC50 = 700 nM) was the same in ventricular and SAN cells. At near-threshold drug concentrations, we also observed increases of Iks activity in both SAN and ventricular cells. The NE-10064-induced enhancement of Iks was more pronounced at voltages near the Iks activation threshold (0 mV), than at more positive voltages in both cell types. Furthermore, the agonistic effects of the drug were more prominent before steady-state effects of the compound were attained, which suggests parallel agonistic and antagonistic pathways. Our results demonstrate that Iks channels in cells of the sinoatrial node region of the ...
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Vernakalant was originally developed to target the atrial-specific ultrarapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur). However, it is a multichannel blocker inhibiting IKur, the transient outward potassium current (Ito), the peak and late Na currents, the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channels (IKr), and the inward-rectifing potassium channels (IKAch and IKATP). It is now thought that although IKur block may contribute to vernakalants antifibrillatory effect, its most important action is through atrial-selective blockade of the peak sodium current.6 The effective refractory period is made shorter during AF, and lengthening the effective refractory period can lead to AF termination. This can be achieved by prolonging the action potential duration (APD), primarily by inhibiting potassium channels, or by blocking sodium channels, which increases cardiac excitation threshold, slows conduction, and creates a period of refractoriness after the action potential has repolarized without ...
ARCA biopharma Release: GencaroTM Demonstrated 74% Risk Reduction for New Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure Patients with Genotype Believed to be Found in Nearly 50% of Population - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
10.1055/b-0035-121513 18 Cardiac Arrhythmias 18.1 Antiarrhythmic Drugs 18.1.1 Basics Antiarrhythmic drugs play a central role in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in childhood. But their use must be weighed critically. There are numerous studies in adults showing that class I antiarrhythmic drugs do not reduce mortality, but even increase it in patients with ventricular tachycardia…
Amiodarone belongs to a class of drugs called Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic agents. It is used in the treatment of a wide range of cardiac tachyarhthmias, including both ventricular and supraventricular (atrial) arrhythmias. After intravenous administration in man, amiodarone relaxes vascular smooth muscle, reduces peripheral vascular resistance (afterload), and slightly increases cardiac index. Amiodarone prolongs phase 3 of the cardiac action potential. It has numerous other effects however, including actions that are similar to those of antiarrhythmic classes Ia, II, and IV. Amiodarone shows beta blocker-like and calcium channel blocker-like actions on the SA and AV nodes, increases the refractory period via sodium- and potassium-channel effects, and slows intra-cardiac conduction of the cardiac action potential, via sodium-channel effects ...
Amiodarone is a commonly used anti-arrhythmic agent, with well-recognized chronic toxicity. Less well known is amiodarones potential to cause acute lung damage, which can be severe or, occasionally, life-threatening. Lungs that have already been exposed to physical insults, such as the lungs of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, are particularly susceptible to acute pulmonary toxicity (APT). Unfortunately, cardiac surgery is one of the clinical scenarios in which amiodarone is most commonly used. After reviewing the data, and even in the context of difficulties and discrepancies in the existing literature, we contend that there is sufficient evidence of amiodarones potentially serious side-effect profile in surgical ICU patients to advise continued caution in its use with this severely ill patient group. We suggest that amiodarone has a potentially important, though underrecognized, role in inducing an APT/ARDS in some patients, such as those undergoing cardiac surgery. We also provide a hypothesis
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of BMS-919373 on atrial fibrillation (AF) through its effect on AF burden (AFB), or the percent of time in AF, in subjects with paroxysmal AF (pAF) when administered orally at a range of doses (2 mg once daily (QD), 5 mg QD, 12 mg QD following a 1-week period of loading doses of 3 mg QD, 8 mg QD and 20 mg QD, respectively) for a total of 4 weeks. It is hypothesized that treatment with BMS-919373 will reduce AF burden as compared to baseline relative to placebo ...
Patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) who respond to ibutilide infusion usually convert to sinus rhythm within 1 hour. However, little is known about the magnitude and time course of the drugs atrial electrophysiological effects. In the current study, the frequency content of the fibrillatory baseline on the ECG was used to quantify the effects of ibutilide infusion on AF. Nineteen patients (age 56 +/- 16 years) in persistent AF were studied. Nine of these were chronically treated with antiarrhythmic drugs. All subjects received ibutilide (1 mg i.v.) over 10 minutes and a second dose 10 minutes later as needed. An ECG was recorded and digitized throughout each of the 20 sessions (one patient had two separate cardioversions). A signal processing technique was then used to quantify the average rate of the fibrillatory baseline. After attenuating the QRS and T waves, the ECG was subjected to Fourier transformation. The average rate of fibrillatory activity was defined as the frequency
The prevalence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachyarrhthmias (VTA) in patients with heart failure can be as high as 50%.1,2 The use of ICDs have significantly reduced mortality from SCD in patients at the highest risk. However while ICD discharges save lives, they also have associated physical and psychological morbidity.3 Anti-arrhythmic drugs (classes I, II, and III) commonly used for suppression of VTA, have many side effects and can be pro-arrhythmic. Several classes of medications that are used to treat and prevent coronary heart disease may have favorable anti-arrhythmic effects on VTA, including statins, very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), and ranolazine. A meta-analysis of 25 trials of statin versus placebo indicated that there was significant reduction in sudden cardiac death in the statin arm OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.82-0.97).24 In general, the majority of these trials were in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. There ...
In experimental studies, mostly done in laboratory animals, researchers have reported that n-3 PUFAs have several potential anti-arrhythmic effects40, 41-most notably a direct effect on cardiac ion channels. Initial data37 from single-cell experiments with isolated cardiomyocytes showed that acute application of purified n-3 PUFAs had a profound inhibitory effect on sodium channels, reducing the peak sodium current by more than 50% and shifting the steady-state inactivation towards negative potentials, thus reducing excitability. This finding was supported by other similar studies,38, 39 leading to the hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs exert their predominant anti-arrhythmic effect by their inhibitory action on sodium channels. However, when cardiac cells with high membrane incorporation of n-3 PUFA, which was obtained from animals fed a diet fortified with fish oil, were studied, this effect was not consistently reported. Further studies in laboratory animals revealed that n-3 PUFAs have a diverse ...
Script error: No such module TemplatePar.Expression error: Unexpected , operator. Landiolol (INN) is a drug which acts as a highly cardioselective, ultra short-acting beta blocker. It is used as an anti-arrhythmic agent. ...
The reverse use-dependence observed with GLG-V-13 and KMC-IV-84 in the present experiments has been previously reported for methanesulfonalide class III drugs such as dofetilide (Gwilt et al., 1991;Jurkiewicz and Sanguinetti, 1993), E-4031 (Wettwer et al., 1991), d,l-sotalol (Strauss et al., 1970; Hafneret al., 1988), MK-499 (Baskin and Lynch, 1994; Krafte and Volberg, 1994) and sematilide (Krafte and Volberg, 1994). The actual mechanism(s) for reverse use-dependence is/are controversial. The earliest mechanism for reverse use-dependence of action potential duration was advanced by Hondeghem and Snyders (1990). Experimental data from their laboratory demonstrated a time- and voltage-dependent modulation of Ik with quinidine. Quinidine primarily reduced time-dependent outward potassium currents at negative membrane potentials, with blockade of outward potassium currents becoming less pronounced with depolarization (Roden et al., 1988). Later data, however, have failed to demonstrate a similar ...
Oral route(Tablet;Tablet, Extended Release). Active antiarrhythmic therapy has resulted in increased mortality; the risk of active therapy is probably greatest in patients with structural heart disease. In a meta-analysis, the mortality associated with the use of quinidine was more than 3 times as great as the mortality associated with the use of placebo. Another meta-analysis showed that in patients with various non-life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, the mortality associated with the use of quinidine was consistently greater than that associated with the use of alternative antiarrhythmics .. Oral route(Tablet, Extended Release). Many trials of antiarrhythmic therapy for non-life-threatening arrhythmias have resulted in increased mortality; the risk of therapy is probably greatest in patients with structural heart disease. In the case of quinidine used to prevent or defer recurrence of atrial flutter or fibrillation, meta-analysis data have shown that the mortality associated with the use ...
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Efficacy of Short-Term Antiarrhythmic Drugs Use after Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation-A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses and Trial Sequential Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance ...
This patient has experienced an inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI) as demonstrated by her EKG showing ST segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF. The treatment discussed in the vignette was most likely immediate revascularization via endovascular cathaterization and stent placement. In the first 24 hours following an MI, patients are at increased risk for arrhythmias. Historically, class IB antiarrhythmics such as lidocaine have been used as prophylaxis because of preferential binding to (ischemic) tissue that has been damaged in the MI. While prophylaxis with these medications is now less common, there is still a role for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias with class IB antiarrhythmics in specific settings, though they must be carefully dosed and monitored as toxicity include CNS effects. This includes lightheadedness, dizziness, drowsiness and confusion in the mild cases and progresses to seizures and respiratory arrest in severe cases ...
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A placebo-controlled study of i.v. amiodarone in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias and 2 to 3-consecutive-beat ventricular arrhythmias, and a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study evaluating rapid i.v. loading in patients with recurrent, refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ ventricular fibrillation (VF) have shown rapid onset of antiarrhythmic activity well before significant blood levels of desethylamiodarone (DEA) were present; approximately 1500 mg/day of i.v. amiodarone were administered using 2- and 3-stage infusion regimens.
In this interview, Dr. Daniel Singer updates us on the new anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation stroke prevention that he presented about at Boston Atrial Fibrillation Symposium.
Flecainide information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Qualimed Pharma, Flecainide indications, usages and related health products lists
There are many reasons why one might wish to suppress atrial fibrillation AFib and attempt to maintain sinus rhythm. This article assumes that the clinical decision to maintain sinus rhythm has been made. That being the case, antiarrhythmic drug therapy is generally the first line of treatment of AFib. Currently in the United States, there are...
Antiarrhythmic medicines are used to control abnormal heart rhythms. However, your doctor will be aware that several antiarrhythmics may be harmful for people with heart failure and should be avoided.
Amiodarone (Cordarone) is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. Includes amiodarone side effects, interactions and indications.
Spatial features, represented by grid cell occupancy descriptors, supplement partition coefficient, which is the most important determinant of in-vivo antiarrhythmic activity, to provide a comprehensive model for drug action. The QSPR models are less significant in statistical measures, and limited …
Warembourg, H; Ducloux, G (1976). "Clinical study of a new anti-arrhythmia agent: nadoxolol". Lille Med. 21 (4): 386-8. PMID ... Nadoxolol is an antiarrhythmic agent (i.e., a drug for the treatment of irregular heartbeat), chemically related in structure ... Antiarrhythmic agents, 1-Naphthyl compounds, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system drug stubs). ...
... is a cardiac glycoside and an anti-arrhythmia and cardiotonic agent. Tilford GL. Edible and Medicinal plants of the ...
Anti-arrhythmic agents used for arrhythmias usually prolong the ERP. For the treatment of atrial fibrillation, it is a problem ... that the prolongation of the ERP by these agents also affects the ventricles, which can induce other types of arrhythmias. ( ... ERP acts as a protective mechanism and keeps the heart rate in check and prevents arrhythmias, and it helps coordinates muscle ...
... works as an anti-arrhythmic agent and is used to treat cardiac arrhythmia. It induces rapid block of the ... Procainamide is used for treating ventricular arrhythmias: ventricular ectopy and tachycardia and supraventricular arrhythmias ... Procainamide (PCA) is a medication of the antiarrhythmic class used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. It is classified ... It was found that procainamide was effective for treating ventricular arrhythmias, but it had the same toxicity profile as ...
... the intravenous injection of HBI-3000 demonstrated to be an effective anti-arrhythmic and anti-fribrillatory agent. The ... The most common chronic arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation. There is an increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in the ... Anti-arrhythmic medication is taken to treat irregular beating of the heart. This irregular beating results from a deregulation ... Most anti-arrhythmic medications exert their effects by decreasing the permeability of potassium ion channels (IKr) in heart ...
Available anti-arrhythmic agents (AAD) used for the maintenance of AF are often accompanied with the risk of developing ... AZD1305 is an experimental drug candidate that is under investigation for the management and reversal of cardiac arrhythmias, ... The combined block of INa, IKr, and L-type calcium current is key to the anti-arrhythmic potential of AZD1305 compared IKr ... AZD1305 possesses class III anti-arrhythmic activity by blocking the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel ...
When hyoscyamine is used along with opioids or other anti-peristaltic agents, measures to prevent constipation are especially ... arrhythmia, flushing, and faintness. An overdose will cause headache, nausea, vomiting, and central nervous system symptoms ... and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) Among Patients Attending a Free Clinic". Journal of Patient Experience. 7 (6 ...
Stewart JM (2003). "Bradykinin antagonists as anti-cancer agents". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 9 (25): 2036-42. doi:10.2174/ ... arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. A bradykinin-potentiating factor (BPF) which increases both the duration and magnitude of ... and bradykinin antagonists have been investigated as anti-cancer agents. Bradykinin has been proposed as an explanation for ...
Atrial arrhythmias are the most common type of arrhythmia with several subtypes currently described, including atrial ... Fox KM, Henderson JR, Kaski JC, Sachse A, Kuester L, Wonnacott S (February 2000). "Antianginal and anti-ischaemic efficacy of ... is an experimental class III antiarrhythmic agent currently being investigated for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. ... Arrhythmias are broadly defined as abnormal electrical activity in the heart and can affect both the atria and ventricles. ...
Cardiac arrhythmias - conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. Many types of arrhythmia have no ... Perhaps the most prominent manipulation of ion channels is through antiarrhythmic agents. These agents are commonly classified ... SSRI's also have interactions with anti-coagulation therapy and increases the risk of bleeding while on them. Serotonin- ... A common arrhythmia that can lead to this form of cardiomyopathy is the common atrial fibrillation. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy ( ...
... a drug commonly used to treat arrhythmias. Celivarone has potential as an antiarrhythmic agent, attributable to its ... "In vivo and in vitro Characterization of the Novel Antiarrhythmic Agent SSR149744C: Electrophysiological, Anti-adrenergic, and ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any abnormality in the electrical activity of the heart. Arrhythmias range from mild to severe, sometimes ... Since it affects multiple ion channels, it also shows promise in treating genetic forms of arrhythmia caused by several ion ...
Although each agent has its own properties and will have thus a different function. Azimilide dihydrochloride is a ... Most recent clinical trials have investigated the use of azimilide in reducing the frequency and severity of arrhythmias in ... Azimilide has been studied for its anti-arrhythmic effects: its converts and maintains sinus rhythm in patients with atrial ... Azimilide is a class ΙΙΙ antiarrhythmic drug (used to control abnormal heart rhythms). The agents from this heterogeneous group ...
It is a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, whereas procainamide is a Class Ia antiarrhythmic drug. It is only partially as active ... During and after his surgery he was facing problems with arrhythmias. These problems were investigated by Frederick R. Mautz. ... Measuring the ratio of acecainide and procainamide concentrations together helps to achieve an optimum anti-arrhythmic effect ... In patients who are refractory to other antiarrhythmic agents, the doses required appear to be greater. Moreover, a few studies ...
Class II agents are anti-sympathetic nervous system agents. Most agents in this class are beta blockers. Class III agents ... Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST) Electrocardiogram Antiarrhythmic agents (category) Proarrhythmic agent Rang, ... Class IV agents affect calcium channels and the AV node. Class V agents work by other or unknown mechanisms. With regard to ... Class I agents are called membrane-stabilizing agents, "stabilizing" referring to the decrease of excitogenicity of the plasma ...
Tiapamil has been described as an "antianginal agent". It exhibits properties of anti-arrhythmic medications. These are ... It can treat ventricular arrhythmias to a higher degree than traditional calcium antagonists. Verapamil Cocco, G.; Strozzi, C ... It is another calcium antagonist and anti-hypertensive. The two drugs have similar properties, however, Dimeditiapramine ...
... uricosuric agents MeSH D27.505.954.411 - cardiovascular agents MeSH D27.505.954.411.097 - anti-arrhythmia agents MeSH D27.505. ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 - anti-bacterial agents MeSH D27.505 ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.025 - antimanic agents MeSH ...
... other agents are now preferred[citation needed]) and arrhythmia. These sweet glycosides found in the stevia plant Stevia ... Their medicinal value is due to their expectorant, corticoid and anti-inflammatory effects. Steroid saponins are important ... Saponins are also natural ruminal antiprotozoal agents that are potential to improve ruminal microbial fermentation reducing ... and anti-inflammatory effects. These glycosides contain an aglycone group that is a derivative of anthraquinone. They have a ...
They can be used in combination with other anti-hypertensives or drugs that cause hypokalemia to help maintain a normal range ... C03D Potassium-sparing agents Rose BD (February 1991). "Diuretics". Kidney Int. 39 (2): 336-52. doi:10.1038/ki.1991.43. PMID ... which risks potentially fatal arrhythmias. Triamterene, specifically, is a potential nephrotoxin and up to half of the patients ... are anti-hypertensive drugs with diuretic effects that decrease renal excretion of potassium. They work by inhibiting either ...
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The most common type of cardiac arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation.[citation needed] Many anti-arrhythmic drugs have side ... In patients who has been administered with digitalis agents (digoxin, methyl-digoxin), the vasoconstrictor dose should be ... and the nature of the arrhythmia. If arrhythmia develops during dental treatment, the procedure should be suspended, oxygen is ... Mechanical mitral valves are prone to thrombosis, which cause emboli if adequate anti-coagulation is not maintained, although ...
At age 12, she was diagnosed with heart arrhythmia that meant she would need to take a nine-month break from dancing. "Mini ... As part of her work with The Next Step, Chaves has participated in Family Channel's Stand Up! anti-bullying campaign. In 2017, ... Hill, Valerie (June 7, 2017). "Five triple-threat dance students from Kitchener catching the attention of talent agents". ...
... agent for torsades de pointes in cardiac arrest under the ECC guidelines and for managing quinidine-induced arrhythmias. ... Magnesium sulfate was once used as a tocolytic, but meta-analyses have failed to support it as an anti-contraction medication. ... Magnesium sulfate may be used as bronchodilator after beta-agonist and anticholinergic agents have been tried, e.g. in severe ...
Anti-depressants have been prescribed since the 1950s, and their prevalence has significantly increased since then. There are ... Doxorubicin is an uncoupling agent in that it inhibits proper functioning of complex I of the electron transport chain in ... but have high incidences of cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial infarctions. Guengerich, F. Peter (2011). "Mechanisms of Drug ... Other anti-cancer drugs, such as fluoropyrimidines and taxanes, are extremely effective at treating and reducing tumor ...
It may have both an anti-spirochete activity and an anti-inflammatory activity, similar to the treatment of rheumatoid ... Both agents also inhibit CYP2D6 activity and may interact with other medications that depend on this enzyme. Antimalarials are ... ventricular arrhythmias) if used concurrently) Mefloquine and other drugs known to lower the seizure threshold (co- ... After World War I, the German government sought alternatives to quinine as an anti-malarial. Chloroquine, a synthetic analogue ...
SVT that does not involve the AV node may respond to other anti-arrhythmic drugs such as sotalol or amiodarone.[citation needed ... "Types of Arrhythmia". NHLBI. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on June 7, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2016. "BestBets ... Adenosine, an ultra-short-acting AV nodal blocking agent, is indicated if vagal maneuvers are not effective. If unsuccessful or ... "What Are the Signs and Symptoms of an Arrhythmia?". NHLBI. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. ...
Galanolactone, a diterpenoid found in ginger, is a 5-HT3 antagonist and is believed to at least partially mediate the anti- ... Pasricha, Pankaj J. (2006). "Treatment of Disorders of Bowel Motility and Water Flux; Antiemetics; Agents Used in Biliary and ... such as prolongation of the PT and QTc intervals and certain arrhythmias. The clinical significance of these side effects is ... 1991). "Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3 effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger". Chem Pharm Bull. 39 (2): 397-9. ...
It is used both in supraventricular arrhythmias and ventricular arrhythmias.[citation needed] Defibrillation is the treatment ... Amiodarone also causes an anti-thyroid action, via Plummer and Wolff-Chaikoff effects, due its large amount of iodine in its ... Common practice is to avoid the agent if possible in individuals with decreased lung function. The most specific test of ... In some people, daily use of amiodarone at 100 mg oral doses can be effective for arrhythmia control with no or minimal side ...
2005). "Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients". FASEB J. 19 (6): 656-658. doi: ... Arrhythmias such as tachycardia, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, and premature ventricular beats have also been reported. ... Patients who take these agents develop higher levels of immunoglobulin E against food, whether they had prior antibodies or not ... Relief of heartburn Short-term and maintenance therapy of gastric and duodenal ulcers With nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ...
In addition, palmatine also had anti-cancer activity on MCF-7, U251, KB, CHOK-1, HT-29 and SiHacell lines. Palmatine induced ... "Identifying potential quality markers of Xin-Su-Ning capsules acting on arrhythmia by integrating UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap, ADME ... "Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-n-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents". Molecules. 17 (10 ... Study showed, that palmatine can decrease the production of pro-inflammatory factors and increase the production of anti- ...
H2S is a cardioprotective agent that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects,. A major topic of research ... DATS is a promising treatment for cardiac arrhythmias through its ability to change the opening of the human ether-à-go-go- ... However, hERG trafficking impairment has also been shown to cause arrhythmias due to the development of long QT syndrome and ...
Antiarrhythmic agents may be an appropriate measure to treat cardiac arrhythmias resulting from doxepin overdose. Slow ... In general, sedating properties of anti-depressant agents are related to antagonism of serotonin 5HT2, histamines, and α-1 ... Sympathomimetic agents may have their effects potentiated by TCAs like doxepin. Doxepin also may potentiate the adverse effects ... Antihypertensive agents may have their effects mitigated by doxepin. Cotreatment with CNS depressants such as the ...
The selective agents (atenolol, metoprolol) are preferred to the non-selective agents (propranolol). There are several ( ... Arrhythmias: Sinus tachycardia is the most common abnormal heart rhythm associated with a pheochromocytoma and is experienced ... Furthermore, over a fourth of the patients were able to decrease their anti-hypertensive medications and reported symptomatic ... These agents should be avoided whenever possible as there is upwards of seven times more beta-adrenoceptor antagonism than ...
"Citalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD006534. doi: ... arrhythmia and unconsciousness. SNRIs like SSRIs carry a black box warning for suicidal ideation, but it is generally ... Like other serotonergic agents, SNRIs have the potential to cause serotonin syndrome, a potentially fatal systemic response to ... Overdose of an SSRI or concomitant use with another agent that causes increased levels of serotonin can result in serotonin ...
He was not arrested in connection with the nerve agent attack but after two police officers felt unwell in his house. He was ... They observed that, while caesium-137 exposure did not cause any damage to heart cells or arrhythmias, results indicated that ... A Japanese language website marketed tests and a mineral supplement (dubbed an "anti-radiation" pill, and condemned by leading ... He was arrested in 2018 in Devon after the nerve agent attack on the Skripals when some police officers visited his home after ...
Agents that induce or inhibit CYP3A4 such as phenytoin, rifampin, and azole antifungals will affect the metabolism of ... Angelucci, F.; Basso, A.; Bellelli, A.; Brunori, M.; Pica Mattoccia, L.; Valle, C. (August 2007). "The anti-schistosomal drug ... various cardiac arrhythmias, and hypotension The WHO states praziquantel is safe during pregnancy. Animal studies have failed ... Agents Chemother. 41 (6): 1256-9. doi:10.1128/AAC.41.6.1256. PMC 163896. PMID 9174180. ...
The agents work by prolonging the Effective Refractory Period (ERP) either by blocking sodium ions (Class I drugs) or by ... The anti-arrhythmic medications often used in either pharmacological cardioversion or in the prevention of relapse to AF alter ... as it is the only reliably effective method for relieving the symptoms of the arrhythmia and can be used when other methods ... Among patients with nonvalvular AF, anticoagulation with warfarin can reduce stroke by 60% while antiplatelet agents can reduce ...
... but clinical experience with these newer agents is not as developed as that with the older agents. The mechanism of these ... The atypical anti-psychotic paliperidone was approved by the FDA in late 2006.[citation needed] The atypical antipsychotics ... cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia. Conventional antipsychotics may pose an even greater safety risk. No clear efficacy evidence ... Sexual adverse effects caused by some anti-psychotics are a result of an increase of prolactin. Sulpiride and Amisulpiride, as ...
"Coronavirus: Anti-Lockdown Protests Grow Across US". US & Canada. BBC News. April 17, 2020. Archived from the original on April ... One of Didier's COVID-19 studies was later retracted by the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. On March 28, the FDA ... including fatal cardiac arrhythmias among other side effects. In late July, President Trump continued to promote the use of ... "Coronavirus: Anti-Lockdown Protests Grow Across US". BBC News. 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. ...
Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (Public Law 1QO-690, section 2404) (15 U.S.C. 2d57a(e)(2)). "US Nitrous Oxide Laws (alphabetically ... Other agents may have more direct effects at receptors, as inhalants exhibit a variety of mechanisms of action. The mechanisms ... Inhaling butane gas can cause drowsiness, unconsciousness, asphyxia, and cardiac arrhythmia. Butane is the most commonly ... Other alkyl nitrites were outlawed in the U.S. by Congress through the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. The law includes an ...
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited substances, Orphan drugs). ... arrhythmia, hypertension and congestive heart failure, and edema. A recent study has extended these findings to treatment of ... The advisory recommended caution in using these agents in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or off chemotherapy, and ... "Information for Healthcare Professionals: Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESA)". Food and Drug Administration. Archived from ...
These medications were the first agents of what is known as radioimmunotherapy, and they were approved for the treatment of ... In 2002, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin), which is an anti-CD20 ... heart arrhythmia and peripheral artery disease. Radiation-induced fibrosis, vascular cell damage and oxidative stress can lead ... of the radioactive agents being infused. Methods, techniques and devices are available to lower the occurrence of this type of ...
... , by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation as ... van Noord C, Dieleman JP, van Herpen G, Verhamme K, Sturkenboom MC (November 2010). "Domperidone and ventricular arrhythmia or ... Furthermore, anti-nausea drugs, such as metoclopramide, which do cross the blood-brain barrier, may worsen the extrapyramidal ... "Domperidone: Anti-sickness medicine used to treat nausea and vomiting". 7 January 2020. "Domperidone 10mg Tablets - Summary of ...
Incompatibility of anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications in persons with histamine intolerance: Anti-inflammatory / ... "Contrast agents release histamine. The reason why, in most cases, nothing happens when administering contrast media is that ... However, since many complaints such as headaches, migraines, bronchial asthma, hypotension, arrhythmia and dysmenorrhea ( ... In addition, adherence to a histamine-free diet 24 hours before x-ray studies with contrast agents is recommended for ...
... is among the most powerful oxidizing agents known, far stronger than O2. It is also unstable at high concentrations, ... anti-inflammatory property, and quality of red pepper fruit from Capsicum baccatum". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. ... "Ambient particulate air pollution and cardiac arrhythmia in a panel of older adults in Steubenville, Ohio". Occupational and ... Oxidizing agents, Homonuclear triatomic molecules, Gases with color, Pollution, Air pollution, Pages that use a deprecated ...
The purported reason was to protect him from foreign agents from the United States. As a result, the Soviet people didn't ... In 1964 doctors diagnosed him with cardiac arrhythmia. In February he spent ten days in the hospital after a heart problem. ... Arrested on a false official charge as a "member of an anti-Soviet counter-revolutionary organization" (which would later be ...
As a flavouring agent in drinks, quinine is limited to less than 83 parts per million in the United States, and 100 mg⁄l in the ... Sappington's Anti-Fever Pills" across Missouri. Demand became so great that within three years, Dr. Sappington founded a ... In people with atrial fibrillation, conduction defects, or heart block, quinine can cause heart arrhythmias, and should be ... Quinine is sometimes detected as a cutting agent in street drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Quinine is used as a treatment for ...
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (7): 1069-1087. doi:10.2174/18715206113139990304. PMID 23537048. S2CID 1537056. " ... Cardiac glycosides have long served as the main medical treatment to congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia, due to ... Their beneficial medical uses are as treatments for congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias; however, their relative ... On the other hand, cardiac arrhythmia are changes in heart rate, whether faster (tachycardia) or slower (bradycardia). ...
... anti-HAV IgM, HBSAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HCV Autoimmune markers: ANA, ASMA, LKMA, immunoglobulin levels Ceruloplasmin level ( ... Vasoconstrictive agents (especially vasopressin) should be avoided. Pulmonary edema and pulmonary infections are commonly seen ... cardiac arrhythmia or arrest and respiratory failure. The median time to death after admission was 5 days. Intravenous N- ... Hypotension should be treated preferentially with fluids, but systemic vasopressor support with agents such as epinephrine, ...
In patients with diabetes, increased requirements of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. Fluid and electrolyte disturbances: ... Methylprednisolone (Depo-Medrol, Medrol, Solu-Medrol) is a synthetic glucocorticoid, primarily prescribed for its anti- ... arrhythmias, and possible hyperlipidemia. Dermatologic: impaired wound healing, petechiae and ecchymoses, thinning of the skin ...
Agents associated with a moderately increased risk include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., ibuprofen), ... It may also start as other forms of arrhythmia such as atrial flutter that then transform into AF. Episodes can be asymptomatic ... For those at more than low risk, experts generally recommend an anti-clotting medication. Anti-clotting medications include ... "FDA approves anti-clotting drug Savaysa". FDA. 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 19 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June ...
This is called compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). Both the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reactions ... Methylene blue has been found to work in cases resistant to the usual agents. This effect was first reported in the early 1990s ... Dopamine may cause rapid heart rate and arrhythmias, and is only recommended in combination with norepinephrine in those with ... Both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses play a role in septic shock. Septic shock involves a widespread ...
... is believed to be an anti-inflammatory agent at the A2A receptor. Topical treatment of adenosine to foot wounds in ... This includes any re-entrant arrhythmias that require the AV node for the re-entry, e.g., AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) and ... Methotrexate's anti-inflammatory effect may be due to its stimulation of adenosine release. In general, adenosine has an ... Because of the effects of adenosine on AV node-dependent SVTs, adenosine is considered a class V antiarrhythmic agent. When ...
While preferred over agents such as atosiban and ritodrine, its role has largely been replaced by the calcium channel blocker ... The 1972 Munich Olympics were the first Olympics where anti-doping measures were deployed, and at that time β2 agonists were ... Other symptoms may include tachycardia, arrhythmia, flushing of the skin, myocardial ischemia (rare), and disturbances of sleep ...
It is often viewed as a first-line agent in most people with edema caused by congestive heart failure because of its anti- ... increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias with amisulpride, sertindole, or pimozide (avoid with pimozide) if hypokalemia occurs ... It is on the World Anti-Doping Agency's banned drug list due to concerns that it may mask other drugs. It has also been used in ... "WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD PROHIBITED LIST 2022" (PDF). 2022. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 ...
However, these agents may precipitate prolongation of the QT interval and consequently provoke a ventricular arrhythmia such as ... Cross AS (January 2014). "Anti-endotoxin vaccines: back to the future". Virulence. 5 (1): 219-225. doi:10.4161/viru.25965. PMC ... Paralytic agents are not suggested for use in sepsis cases in the absence of ARDS, as a growing body of evidence points to ... The usage of prokinetic agents should be reassessed daily and stopped if no longer indicated. Sepsis will prove fatal in ...
Drug treatment of cardiac arrhythmias / edited by Lawrence A. Gould. by Gould, Lawrence A. ...
Fortunately, malignant arrhythmias during the course of normal gestation are rare, and the relatively common complaint of ... Cardiac arrhythmia is one of the most common reasons for cardiac consultation during pregnancy. ... palpitations is usually due to benign arrhythmias. However, in pregnant patients w … ... Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / adverse effects * Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use* * Arrhythmias, Cardiac / complications ...
For the treatment of documented ventricular arrhythmias, such as sustained ventricular tachycardia, that, in the judgment of ... is a primary amine analog of lidocaine with antiarrhythmic properties useful in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. ...
Intravenous lidocaine (anti-arrhythmia agent) was administered; however, nitroglycerin and morphine (both medications for acute ... Absence of exercise-induced complex ventricular arrhythmias. *Absence of hemodynamically significant stenosis on all major ...
Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents ... Antihypertensive Agents. Enzyme Inhibitors. Ophthalmic Solutions. Pharmaceutical Solutions. Anticoagulants. Plasma Substitutes ... the patient was instructed to discontinue taking the medication and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug was prescribed. ...
Organic Compound; Ester; Drug; Food Toxin; Plant Toxin; Enzyme Inhibitor; Anti-Arrhythmia Agent; Cardiotonic Agent; Metabolite ...
Education, Medical, Continuing, Atrial Fibrillation/therapy, Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, Instructional Film and Video, Webcast, ... Education, Medical, Continuing, Atrial Fibrillation/therapy, Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, Instructional Film and Video, Webcast ... Education, Medical, Continuing, Atrial Fibrillation/therapy, Stroke/prevention & control, Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, Symptoms in ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents /therapeutic use; Atrial Fibrillation /drug therapy /surgery; Catheter Ablation; Humans ... with development of a new arrhythmia and total proportion with any arrhythmia while on study medication were extracted. ... For RFA success rate (disappearance of arrhythmia) after a single procedure or after one or more procedures within the study ... Proportions of patients that had new or recurrent arrhythmia and those who required repeat ablation procedures were calculated ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents 100% * Anti-Bacterial Agents 16% * Antiemetics 14% * Antipsychotic Agents 11% ... from the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee of the Council of Clinical Cardiology ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Medicine & Life Sciences 22% * Acute Pain Medicine & Life Sciences 20% ... anti-hyperalgesic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, side effects, and role of intravenous lidocaine in the management of ... anti-hyperalgesic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, side effects, and role of intravenous lidocaine in the management of ... anti-hyperalgesic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, side effects, and role of intravenous lidocaine in the management of ...
Do not initiate treatment with anti-arrhythmic agents in a patient with undocumented arrhythmia. ... Consider trying different types of anti-arrhythmic agents in case the SVT is refractory; however, closely monitor the blood ... Type of Arrhythmia. EKG (lead II)†. Clues Sinus tachycardia. Onset and termination: gradual. Rhythm: regular. Rate: ,220 minus ... no other cause of arrhythmia identified ▸ Verapamil (Class I, level of evidence C). OR. ▸ Diltiazem (Class I, level of evidence ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Medicine & Life Sciences 78% * Atrial Fibrillation Medicine & Life Sciences 77% ... The primary end-point of the study was the absence of any recurrence of atrial arrhythmia lasting ,30s in the 1-year follow-up ... The primary end-point of the study was the absence of any recurrence of atrial arrhythmia lasting ,30s in the 1-year follow-up ... The primary end-point of the study was the absence of any recurrence of atrial arrhythmia lasting ,30s in the 1-year follow-up ...
anti-arrhythmia agents. Year of Approval. 1981. FDA Approval. approved. Drug Class. Small Molecule. ... Synthesis and evaluation of nitric oxide-releasing DDB derivatives as potential Pgp-mediated MDR reversal agents in MCF-7/Adr ... Transgenic mice that express the human multidrug-resistance gene in bone marrow enable a rapid identification of agents that ... and arylmethylamine-phenyl derivatives as potent P-glycoprotein modulating agents., J Med Chem ...
Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology : Journal of the Working Groups on Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Cellular ... Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology : Journal of the Working Groups on Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Cellular ... Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology : Journal of the Working Groups on Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Cellular ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents 78% * Electrophysiology 75% * Ventricular Fibrillation 73% * Pharmaceutical Preparations 27% ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents 42% * Heart Valves 41% * Palpitations: Evaluation and management by primary care practitioners. Govender ... Phytochemical profile, anti-glycation effect, and advanced glycation end-products protein cross-link breaking ability of ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents *Anti-Infective Agents *Anti-Inflammatory Agents *Anti-Obesity Agents ...
Agents, Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, Antiarrhythmia Anti Arrhythmia Agent Anti Arrhythmia Agents Anti Arrhythmia Drug Anti ... Agents, Anti-Arrhythmia. Agents, Antiarrhythmia. Agents, Antifibrillatory. Anti Arrhythmia Agent. Anti Arrhythmia Agents. Anti ... Anti Arrhythmic Anti Arrhythmics Anti-Arrhythmia Agent Anti-Arrhythmia Drug Anti-Arrhythmia Drugs Anti-Arrhythmic Anti- ... Anti Arrhythmia Drugs. Anti Arrhythmic. Anti Arrhythmics. Anti-Arrhythmia Agent. Anti-Arrhythmia Drug. Anti-Arrhythmia Drugs. ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Arrhythmias, Cardiac --chemically induced. en_US. ... Effect of glucagon on arrhythmias induced by coronary artery occlusion and ouabain in dogs. Indian Journal of Physiology and ... The effect of glucagon in arrhythmias induced by coronary artery occlusion and ouabain was studied in dogs. Intravenous ... Effect of glucagon on arrhythmias induced by coronary artery occlusion and ouabain in dogs.. en_US. ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. 8. Papers. *. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride. 8. Papers. *. Interleukin-10. 8. Papers ...
anti-arrhythmia agents. Drug Class. small molecule. Drug Indications. Antihypertensive Agents. Drug Indications. Anti- ... mixed effects model analysis of the pharmacokinetics of routinely administered bepridil in Japanese patients with arrhythmias ... mixed effects model analysis of the pharmacokinetics of routinely administered bepridil in Japanese patients with arrhythmias ...
... an anti-arrhythmia drug, an analgesic and a fertilizer. It is a magnesium salt and a metal sulfate. ... Glyoxal is used in the textile industry as an ingredient in permanent press fabrics, as a stabilizing agent in rayon and other ... It acts as a solubilizer and cross-linking agent in polymer chemistry. Further, it is used as a fixative for histology to ... It has a role as an anticonvulsant, a cardiovascular drug, a calcium channel blocker, an anaesthetic, a tocolytic agent, ...
AnimalsAnti-Arrhythmia AgentsBerberine AlkaloidsCell SeparationDelayed Rectifier Potassium ChannelsFemaleGuinea PigsHeart ... Inhibition of transmembrane K(+) currents in mammalian ventricular myocytes by antiarrhythmic agent RP62719]. ...
... anti-arrhythmia agents, atrial flutter, atrioventricular nodal reentry, cardiac, catheter ablation, congenital, death, ectopic ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents) RN - 0 (Estrenes) RN - 80177-51-1 (Org 7797) SB - IM MH - Animals MH - Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/* ... Anti-Arrhythmia Agents) RN - 64706-54-3 (Bepridil) SB - IM MH - Action Potentials/drug effects MH - Animals MH - Anti- ... Anti-Arrhythmia Agents) RN - 0 (Pyrimidinones) RN - 130656-51-8 (MS 551) RN - 1951-25-3 (Amiodarone) SB - IM MH - Aged MH - ... Anti-Arrhythmia Agents) RN - 0 (Piperidines) RN - 0 (Potassium Channels) RN - 0 (Pyridines) RN - 113558-89-7 (E 4031) SB - AIM ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents 39% * heart diseases 34% * Investigating immune cell "macrophage" driven drug resistance in Acute ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents 33% 1 Scopus citations * Cryoablation Cox-maze Surgery: Nitrous Oxide or Argon? Putting the Debate on ...
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents 28% 8 Citations (Scopus) * Visualization of the electrophysiologically defined junction between the ... journal of arrhythmia. 36, 1, p. 193-196 4 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ... journal of arrhythmia. 34, 4, p. 465-468 4 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
This ECG shows sinus arrhythmia at a rate of 65-75 beats per minute. The P waves all originate from the sinus node (SN) because ... Writing Committee to Revise the ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 Guideline Update for Implantation of Cardiac Pacemakers and Antiarrhythmia ... Anticholinergic Agents. Class Summary. Atropine, by vagolytic effect, increases the heart rate. Although it may also be used ... The ECG shows sinus arrhythmia (bradycardia) at a rate of 50-79 beats per minute, with a PR interval of 136 ms. Two junctional ...
  • Europace : European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology : Journal of the Working Groups on Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology. (
  • For AAD the proportions of patients with recurrence of atrial fibrillation, with development of a new arrhythmia and total proportion with any arrhythmia while on study medication were extracted. (
  • Their continued efficacy in treatment of congestive heart failure and as anti-arrhythmic agents is well appreciated. (
  • Hawthorn is one of the most used herbs for diseases of the heart, such as arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, chest pain, and blood pressure problems. (
  • 0.001) ablation group patients had atrial arrhythmia recurrence (four patients had atrial flutter, 26 patients AF). (
  • Two main categories of atrial arrhythmias are CTI-dependent atrial flutter and non-CTI dependent atrial tachycardia. (
  • Serious adverse effects include cardiovascular block and arrhythmias, neuro-excitability and hypersensitivity, although the frequency of these are not known. (
  • 3) Anti-hypertensives: Hypertension which is the most common of all cardiovascular diseases and it has affected nearly 40 million people in the US. (
  • It has a role as an anticonvulsant, a cardiovascular drug, a calcium channel blocker, an anaesthetic, a tocolytic agent, an anti-arrhythmia drug, an analgesic and a fertilizer. (
  • Hundreds of studies are confirming its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, and cardiovascular protective effects. (
  • Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand published a review 'The protective role of curcumin in cardiovascular diseases' which showed that anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin may have the possibility of preventing arrhythmias. (
  • However, in pregnant patients with organic heart disease, arrhythmias are often triggered by the haemodynamic burden of pregnancy and may be the first manifestation of the disease. (
  • Antiarrhythmic drug therapy is indicated in such patients only in symptomatic or haemodynamically significant arrhythmias. (
  • Proportions of patients that had new or recurrent arrhythmia and those who required repeat ablation procedures were calculated. (
  • Anti-inflammatory agents are administered to patients with subacute granulomatous thyroiditis. (
  • HA741 trade name] is indicated as a pharmacokinetic enhancer for protease inhibitors when these are used in combination therapy with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infected patients. (
  • Conclusion: Ablation therapy combined with antiarrhythmic drug therapy is superior to antiarrhythmic drug therapy alone in preventing atrial arrhythmia recurrences in patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF in whom antiarrhythmic drug therapy has already failed. (
  • 2006, Nonlinear mixed effects model analysis of the pharmacokinetics of routinely administered bepridil in Japanese patients with arrhythmias. (
  • After an initial loading dose, 200 mg/day in many patients maintains arrhythmia control and minimizes the frequency of side effects. (
  • Amiodarone is a safe and efficacious antiarrhythmic agent when lower dosages are given to patients who are closely monitored and subject to careful follow-up. (
  • It would be helpful for clinicians and patients if the mechanism of arrhythmias could be identified via ECGs with a high degree of certainty, according to Dr Arunashis Sau (Imperial College London, UK) [1]. (
  • Beta blockers agents in 1960s brought major changes for treatment of hypertension or angina pectoris patients. (
  • These agents may be of benefit in patients whose conditions have not responded to steroids or in patients unable to tolerate prednisone. (
  • In this setting, the optimal strategies for prevention of thrombotic events and choice of antithrombotic agents for management of pre-existing or new thrombotic events in patients with COVID-19 are of utmost importance. (
  • 4 ] [ 8 ] Some important considerations for the choice and dose of antithrombotic agents are the urgency for need of invasive procedures (e.g., for patients in the intensive care unit [ICU]), considerations for management of acute impairment of renal and liver function, and drug-drug interactions between investigational COVID-19 therapies and antithrombotic agents. (
  • n\nConclusion: High dose intravenous prednisolone might cause different types of arrhythmias in MS patients. (
  • The pivotal study evaluated the combination of KEYTRUDA, Merck's anti-PD-1 therapy, plus LENVIMA, the orally available multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovered by Eisai, versus chemotherapy (treatment of physician's choice of doxorubicin or paclitaxel) for patients with advanced endometrial carcinoma following at least one prior platinum-based regimen in any setting. (
  • As with other sympathomimetic agents CETAL SINUS should be used with caution in patients with hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, elevated intraocular pressure and prostatic enlargement. (
  • Patients initially received gemcitabine 1000 mg/m 2 alone on days 1, 8 and 15 every 28-days for a total of six cycles (single agent cohort), and after protocol amendment a combination therapy with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m 2 and cisplatin 25 mg/m 2 on days 1 and 8 was administered every 21 days for a total of eight cycles (combined regimen cohort). (
  • The first 9 patients received single-agent gemcitabine. (
  • La réanimation agressive, la prise en charge nutritionnelle, l'excision chirur- gicale complète des plaies infectées, la fermeture rapide des plaies, les greffes et la mise au point d'une chimiothérapie locale et systémique efficace ont permis d'améliorer grandement le taux de morbidité et de mortalité chez les patients brûlés. (
  • For the treatment of documented ventricular arrhythmias, such as sustained ventricular tachycardia, that, in the judgment of the physician, are life-threatening. (
  • Prospective interventional studies or studies with cost data that related to treatment of ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation with AAD therapy (amiodarone, dofetilide, propafenone, sotalol or flecainide agents) were eligible for inclusion. (
  • Amiodarone-induced arrhythmia is rare, with frequency of 0.3% in one study. (
  • n\nThe most important cardiac selleck inhibitor arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia, sinus arrest, and sinus exit block. (
  • Studies are confirming that hawthorn "may be an alternative treatment medication for arrhythmias induced by digoxin toxicity in humans. (
  • Rarely, high-dose steroids and narcotic analgesic agents are used for extremely painful or recurrent life-threatening hyperthyroidism. (
  • f. has been widely used in clinical practice due to its good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. (
  • chili pepper extract and neuropeptide releasing agent selective for primary sensory peripheral neurons, used to experimentally manipulate substance P and other tachykinins, and as an analgesic for Herpes zoster infection. (
  • These effects may result in analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities. (
  • disturbances like sphincter and bowel problems have more chance to develop arrhythmias while receiving high dose steroids. (
  • Longstanding use of antithrombotic agents for guideline-recommended indications should be, in general, continued. (
  • Overdose noted as severe headache diarrhea hypotension cardiac arrhythmias. (
  • Pain is treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). (
  • None were critically ill, all responded quickly to treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), and several also received glucocorticoids. (
  • Acute inflammation due to gout can be treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, or colchicine. (
  • The parameters for the model include body weight, breathing rate, and chemical-specific pharmacokinetic constants in humans, data typically available for pharmaceutical agents prior to large scale manufacturing. (
  • A beta-adrenergic antagonist used as an anti-arrhythmia agent, an anti-angina agent, an antihypertensive agent, and an antiglaucoma agent. (
  • Treatment consists of anti-inflammatory agents including NSAIDs, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and glucocorticoids. (
  • Tocainide is a primary amine analog of lidocaine with antiarrhythmic properties useful in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. (
  • Previously used as anti-arrhythmic, intravenous lidocaine infusion is becoming popular for use in management of acute pain. (
  • In this article, we selected and reviewed randomized controlled trials to summarize the pharmacokinetics, antinociceptive effects, anti-hyperalgesic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, side effects, and role of intravenous lidocaine in the management of early postoperative pain. (
  • This is an oral contrast agent used for the rapid and significant inhibition of the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. (
  • Inhibition of arrhythmias. (
  • Because agents that lower uric acid can precipitate attacks of gout, low-dose colchicine is typically used as prophylaxis (usually for 6 months) when such therapy is initiated. (
  • The most prominent drug-drug interactions with investigational COVID-19 therapies and antiplatelet agents include those occurring between lopinavir/ritonavir and agents such as clopidogrel (may need dose increase) or ticagrelor (may need dose reduction). (
  • Additionally, dose adjustment would be necessary for agents such as vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), apixaban, and betrixaban. (
  • 4 ] VKAs potentially have major drug interactions when prescribed with investigatory agents such as ribavirin, interferon, methylprednisolone, and azithromycin, which often necessitates close international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring, dose adjustment, or using alternative options. (
  • In the single-agent cohort with gemcitabine the median relative dose intensity (RDI) was 100% (IQR 88.3-100). (
  • For children who are undergoing anti-tuberculosis treatment with rifampicin, higher dosages of ritonavir may be needed for pharmacokinetic enhancement of the combined protease inhibitor. (
  • 2-ethylhexyl acrylate can be prepared with a high yield by esterification of acrylic acid with racemic 2-ethylhexanol in the presence of hydroquinone as a polymerization inhibitor and a strong acid such as methanesulfonic acid by reactive distillation using toluene as an azeotroping agent. (
  • Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. (
  • Drug treatment of cardiac arrhythmias / edited by Lawrence A. Gould. (
  • This review focuses on recent findings on cellular pharmacology of cardiac glycosides as they relate to treatment of human cancer and attempts to explain why these agents have been overlooked in the past. (
  • 2) Anti-arrhythmics: These agents are used for treatment of Arrhythmia in which the rhythmic contraction of the heart is interrupted. (
  • Flecainide is a class Ic antiarrhythmic agent used in the treatment of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. (
  • Antimalarial agents have previously been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • 3. Participants who have received non-vaccination treatment for SARS-CoV-2 within 30 days prior to study entry, e.g., remdesivir, Paxlovid, molnuparivir, SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal Abs, convalescent serum, or other anti- SARS-CoV-2 agents with national regulatory approval, zinc, or Andrographis paniculata. (
  • Arch Oncology is an immuno-oncology company developing anti-CD47 antibodies for the treatment of solid and hematologic cancers. (
  • Single-agent chemotherapy with gemcitabine [ 11 ] has been the standard of care in the treatment of inoperable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas prior to more efficacious regimens such as FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel. (
  • It has also been shown to improve thyroid and adrenal function and is a potent anti-arrhythmia and anti-tachycardia agent. (
  • If hypertension is a consequence of corticosteroid therapy, consider immunomodulating medications as steroid-sparing agents to help control hypertension. (
  • Prospective and retrospective studies of any interventional design in which RFA was used to treat cardiac arrhythmias and safety, efficacy or cost related to ablation were evaluated were eligible for inclusion. (
  • In cases where organic heart disease or any other cause for arrhythmia is identified, the underlying disease should be treated first. (
  • 7 ] For the most part, parenteral antiplatelet agents have a safe interaction profile. (
  • Concomitant use of CETAL SINUS with tricyclic antidepressants, sympathomimetic agents (such as decongestants, appetite suppressants and amfetamine-like psychostimulants) or with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, which interfere with the catabolism of sympathomimetic amines, may occasionally cause a rise in blood pressure (see Contraindications ). (
  • Enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum ca: moderate sympathomimetic agents. (
  • Gjedde s, crystalloids, clonidine: moderate sympathomimetic agents. (
  • Alpha-Blockers: moderate sympathomimetic agents. (
  • Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade. (
  • Adjunctive anti-ischemic therapies such as intravenous nitroglycerin or beta blockade can be useful to minimize ischemia. (
  • Therapy is directed toward reducing the signs and symptoms of the hyperthyroidism with beta blockers or iodine agents. (
  • A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent. (
  • Antiarrhythmic drug therapy is indicated when arrhythmias persist or as a prophylactic measure. (
  • In cancer survivors with cancer therapy-induced cardiomyopathy, AF often occurs, with most of the arrhythmias likely to develop secondary to the cardiomyopathy. (
  • Interaction with other arrhythmia medications can be potentially dangerous. (
  • 7) Anti-thyroid drugs and thyroid hormones: Antithyroid drugs are used to treat an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) which is caused by Graves' disease. (
  • Annotated normal thyroid function, the antidiabetic agents. (
  • Fortunately, malignant arrhythmias during the course of normal gestation are rare, and the relatively common complaint of palpitations is usually due to benign arrhythmias. (
  • Simultaneous use of Zofran with antibiotics, beta-blockers, anti-fungal or anti-arrhythmic agents increases the risk of arrhythmias. (
  • Overdose can cause low blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmia. (
  • The lipid-lowering agent fenofibrate reduces serum urate 19% and increases clearance by 36% at 200 mg/day. (
  • Management of cardiac arrhythmias during pregnancy. (
  • Cardiac arrhythmia is one of the most common reasons for cardiac consultation during pregnancy. (
  • 1) Anti-anginals: A disease of coronary arteries named angina pectoris is treated with pharmaceutical agents called anti-anginals. (
  • Pharmaceutical agents are designed to alter safe exposure limit. (
  • The present review aims to describe the pathophysiology of DE and to summarize the currently available pharmacological strategies to prevent and treat DE in the setting of MI, especially focusing on antithrombotic, antiinflammatory and vasodilator agents. (
  • Given the adverse effect profile of corticosteroids, methotrexate has recently received significant attention as either a corticosteroid alternative or a corticosteroid-sparing agent. (
  • 4. Known current, or past, history of clinically significant arrhythmia. (
  • It ated with cardiac arrhythmias, neurological functions as the first line of defence protec- damage and significant long and short-term ting against the invasion of foreign bodies morbidity. (