Manifest Anxiety Scale
Test Anxiety Scale
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Depressive Disorder, Major
Quality of Life
Severity of Illness Index
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
Analysis of Variance
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a
Life Change Events
Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring
Galvanic Skin Response
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Primary Health Care
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Solid-phase microextraction and GC-ECD of benzophenones for detection of benzodiazepines in urine. (1/1442)Benzodiazepines are common drugs that cause intoxication. Benzodiazepines and their metabolites can be converted by hydrolysis in acid to the corresponding benzophenones, which are easier to be separated from matrices because of their hydrophobic properties. In this study, a new separation technique called solid-phase microextraction (SPME), which can integrate extraction, concentration, sampling and sample introduction into one single procedure, has been employed to extract the products of benzodiazepines from urine after acid hydrolysis. The extracts were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The hydrolysis conditions were optimized by a statistic orthogonal design. Factors influencing direct-immersion (DI)-SPME process were also checked and chosen experimentally. The method was evaluated with spiked human urine samples. The recoveries of nine benzodiazepines ranged from 1 to 25%, with the highest for oxazolam and the lowest for bromazepam. The calibration curves were linear from 10 to 500 ng/mL for oxazolam, haloxazolam, flunitrazepam, nimetazepam, and clonazepam and from 20 to 1000 ng/mL for the others except bromazepam. The detection limits were 2-20 ng/mL for most drugs tested. The intraday and interday coefficients of variation of the developed method were within 10 and 17%, respectively. In addition, the utility of the method was confirmed by determining two ingested benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam and oxazolam) in a volunteer's urine; urine flunitrazepam was still detectable 32 h after a therapeutic dose (1.2 mg) of the drug. Finally, the DI-SPME was compared with the conventional liquid-liquid extraction with regard to detection limits and extraction efficiency of the analytes. By DI-SPME, more amounts of analytes could be introduced into GC column than by conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and thus lower detection limits of the analytes were reached, although benzophenone recoveries by DI-SPME were rather low. (+info)
Psychotropic drug use among women. (2/1442)The consistent 2:1 ratio of women to men in the receipt of prescriptions for psychotropic drugs is reflected in the higher rates for women of neurotic illness, symptoms of both physical and mental discomfort, and help-seeking and drug-taking behaviour. Physicians' perceptions of the problems presented by their male and female patients influence their prescribing of these drugs. Recent statistics in Ontario indicate that greater use of physicians' services by women is an inadequate explanation of the higher rate of prescribing of psychotropic drugs to women. A longitudinal study of a large insured population in Ontario showed that almost twice the proportion of females, compared with males, received a prescription for psychotropic drugs in 1970-71 and in 1973-74, a higher proportion of females received multiple prescriptions for each drug class, and males were more likely than females to have received only one prescription in a year. (+info)
Benzodiazepine premedication: can it improve outcome in patients undergoing breast biopsy procedures? (3/1442)BACKGROUND: Women awaiting needle-guided breast biopsy procedures may experience high anxiety levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the ability of midazolam and diazepam (in a lipid emulsion [Dizac]) to improve patient comfort during needle localization and breast biopsy procedures. METHODS: Ninety women received two consecutive doses of a study medication, one before the mammographic needle localization and a second before entering the operating room. Patients were assigned randomly to receive saline, 2.0 ml intravenously, at the two time points; midazolam, 1.0 mg intravenously and 2.0 mg intravenously; or diazepam emulsion, 2.0 mg intravenously and 5.0 mg intravenously, respectively. Patients assessed their anxiety levels before the needle localization, before entering the operating room, and on arrival in the operating room. Patients completed a questionnaire evaluating their perioperative experience at the time of discharge. RESULTS: Patient satisfaction during needle localization was significantly improved in both benzodiazepine treatment groups (vs. saline). The incidence of moderate-to-severe discomfort during needle localization was lower in the midazolam (20%) and diazepam emulsion (6%) groups compared with the saline group (70%) (P<0.05). The preoperative visual analogue scale anxiety scores were similar in all three groups. In the operating room, however, anxiety scores were 55% and 68% lower after midazolam (21+/-19) and diazepam emulsion (15+/-14) compared with saline (46+/-28). Finally, there was no difference in the time to achieve home-readiness or actual discharge time among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Premedication with midazolam or diazepam emulsion improved patients' comfort during needle localization procedures and significantly reduced intraoperative anxiety levels before breast biopsy procedures without prolonging discharge times. Use of diazepam emulsion may be an effective alternative to midazolam in this population. (+info)
Postoperative behavioral outcomes in children: effects of sedative premedication. (4/1442)BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies document the effect of sedative premedication on preoperative anxiety in children, there is a paucity of data regarding its effect on postoperative behavioral outcomes. METHODS: After screening for recent stressful life events, children undergoing anesthesia and surgery were assigned randomly to receive either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam in 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43) or 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43). Using validated measures of anxiety, children were evaluated before and after administration of the intervention and during induction of anesthesia. On postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14, the behavioral recovery of the children was assessed using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated significantly lower anxiety levels compared with the placebo group on separation to the operating room and during induction of anesthesia (F[1,77] = 3.95, P = 0.041). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, the authors found that the presence or absence of postoperative behavioral changes was dependent on the group assignment (R = 0.18, P = 0.0001) and days after operation (R = -0.20, P = 0.0001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that during postoperative days 1-7, a significantly smaller number of children in the midazolam group manifested negative behavioral changes. At week 2 postoperatively, however, there were no significant differences between the midazolam and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are premedicated with midazolam before surgery have fewer negative behavioral changes during the first postoperative week. (+info)
Meta-analysis of benzodiazepine use in the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. (5/1442)OBJECTIVE: To analyse the evidence for the efficacy and potential harmful effects of benzodiazepines compared with other therapies in the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry were searched for English-language articles published from 1966 to December 1997 that described randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of benzodiazepines in the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. Key words included "benzodiazepines" (exploded) and "randomized controlled trial." Bibliographies of relevant articles were reviewed for additional RCTs, and manufacturers of benzodiazepines were asked to submit additional RCT reports not in the literature. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were considered for the meta-analysis if they were RCTs involving patients experiencing acute alcohol withdrawal and comparing a benzodiazepine available in Canada with placebo or an active control drug. Of the original 23 trials identified, 11 met these criteria, representing a total of 1286 patients. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted regarding the participants, the setting, details of the intervention, the outcomes (including adverse effects) and the methodologic quality of the studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: The meta-analysis of benefit (therapeutic success within 2 days) showed that benzodiazepines were superior to placebo (common odds ratio [OR] 3.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-8.28). Data on comparisons between benzodiazepines and other drugs, including beta-blockers, carbamazepine and clonidine, could not be pooled, but none of the alternative drugs was found to be clearly more beneficial than the benzodiazepines. The meta-analysis of harm revealed no significant difference between benzodiazepines and alternative drugs in terms of adverse events (common OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.34-1.32) or dropout rates (common OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.97). INTERPRETATION: Benzodiazepines should remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. (+info)
Randomised controlled trial of reminders to enhance the impact of audit in general practice on management of patients who use benzodiazepines. (6/1442)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether reminder cards in medical records enhance the effectiveness of audit with feedback in improving the care of patients taking long term benzodiazepine drugs. DESIGN: Randomised trial, practices receiving feedback only in one group and practices receiving feedback plus reminder cards in the other group. SETTING: 18 general practices in Leicestershire. SUBJECTS: Random samples of patients who had been taking a benzodiazepine anxiolytic or hypnotic drug for four weeks or longer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Entries in medical records indicating compliance with five criteria of care: assessment of suitability for withdrawal; being told about dependency; withdrawal being recommended; withdrawal or continuing medication; and a consultation with the general practitioner in the past year. Data were collected before and after feedback or feedback plus reminders. RESULTS: Of a total population of 125,846 registered with the 18 practices, 2409 (1.9%) had been taking a benzodiazepine for four weeks or longer. Of the 742 in the first samples, 543 (73.2%) were women, the mean (SD) age was 68.7 (14.9) years, and they had been taking a benzodiazepine for 10.1 (6.7) years. The number of patients whose care complied with the criteria rose after the interventions to implement change. The increase was greater in practices receiving feedback plus reminders for only two of the five criteria "told about dependency" increasing from 52 (11.1%) to 118 (25.8%) in the feedback only group, and from 27 (10.5%) to 184 (43.0%) in the feedback plus reminders group; odds ratio (OR) 1.46 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32 to 5.21); and "consulted in the past year" increasing from 434 (93.1%) to 411 (95.8%) in the feedback only group and 255 (96.6%) to 400 (99.8%) in the feedback plus reminders group, OR (95% CI) 13.5 (2.01 to 330.3). CONCLUSIONS: Reminder cards had only a limited effect and cannot be recommended for routine use. There were improvements in the care of patients of both groups of practices and further studies are indicated to determine the impact of both systematically developed criteria and reminders embedded into restructured medical records. (+info)
Outpatient antidepressant utilization in a Dutch sick fund. (7/1442)OBJECTIVE: To identify quality improvement opportunities in the management of depression by evaluating patterns of antidepressant use and concurrent use of anxiolytics or sedative/hypnotics among patients who initiated therapy with amitriptyline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, or paroxetine. DESIGN: A longitudinal, retrospective study using electronic prescription data from a Dutch sick fund, ZAO Zorgverzekeringen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study patients (n = 2,554) initiated therapy between October 1, 1994 and December 31, 1995. Follow-up periods were 6 months (antidepressant use) and 60 days (concurrent anxiolytic and sedative/hypnotic use). RESULTS: The three key findings were as follows: (1) the majority of patients received less than 4 months of therapy (more common for patients receiving amitriptyline); (2) the average daily doses for initial prescriptions for all four study drugs were below the recommended therapeutic minimums for depression (overall and final amitriptyline doses also were consistently low); and (3) the incidence of concurrent anxiolytic and sedative/hypnotic use during days 2-60 after antidepressant therapy initiation was 18.2%. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that patients in this Dutch sick fund were not likely to receive either adequate antidepressant doses or adequate durations of therapy relative to Dutch guidelines for the treatment of depression. These findings are consistent with findings in other Dutch, European, and US studies and may present opportunities for quality improvement. (+info)
Supraspinal neurotensin-induced antianalgesia in mice is mediated by spinal cholecystokinin. (8/1442)Intracerebral injection of neurotensin into specific brain loci in rats produces hyperalgesia due to the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the spinal cord. The present purpose was to show in another species that neurotensin can antagonize the antinociceptive action of morphine through the spinal CCK mechanism in mice. Neurotensin given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) at doses higher than 100 ng produced antinociception in the tail flick test. However, at lower doses between 1 pg to 25 ng, neurotensin antagonized the antinociceptive action of morphine given intrathecally (i.t.), thus demonstrating the antianalgesic activity of neurotensin. The rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve produced by i.c.v. neurotensin was eliminated by an i.t. pretreatment with CCK8 antibody (5 microl of antiserum solution diluted 1:1000). I.t. administration of lorglumide, a CCK(A)-receptor antagonist (10-1000 ng), and PD135,158, a CCK(B)-receptor antagonist (250-500 ng), also eliminated the antianalgesic action of neurotensin. Thus, the mechanism of the antianalgesic action of neurotensin given i.c.v. involved spinal CCK. This mode of action is similar to that for the antianalgesic action of supraspinal pentobarbital which also involves spinal CCK. (+info)
Anxiety is a common mental health condition characterized by excessive and persistent worry, fear, and unease about everyday situations or events. It can also manifest as physical symptoms such as restlessness, irritability, muscle tension, and difficulty sleeping. In the medical field, anxiety is typically diagnosed and treated by mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, and therapists. Treatment options for anxiety may include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. It is important to note that anxiety can be a symptom of other medical conditions, so it is important to consult a healthcare provider if you are experiencing symptoms of anxiety.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by excessive and persistent feelings of worry, fear, and unease. These disorders can interfere with a person's daily life, relationships, and ability to function normally. Anxiety disorders can be classified into several categories, including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment for anxiety disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
Dental anxiety is a common condition characterized by a fear or phobia of dental procedures or the dentist. It can range from mild discomfort to severe panic attacks and avoidance of dental care altogether. People with dental anxiety may experience physical symptoms such as sweating, shaking, nausea, and difficulty breathing during dental appointments. This condition can have a significant impact on a person's oral health and overall well-being, as it can lead to untreated dental problems and a reluctance to seek necessary dental care. Treatment options for dental anxiety may include relaxation techniques, sedation dentistry, and counseling.
Anxiety and separation are two related concepts that can have significant impacts on a person's mental health and well-being. Anxiety is a feeling of unease, worry, or fear that can be mild or severe. It is a normal human emotion, but when it becomes excessive or persistent, it can interfere with daily life and lead to a range of physical and mental health problems. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety and fear. Separation anxiety is a type of anxiety that occurs when a person experiences distress or anxiety when separated from a loved one or familiar environment. It is a common experience in children, but it can also occur in adults, particularly those who have experienced trauma or have a history of attachment difficulties. In the medical field, anxiety and separation can be diagnosed and treated through a variety of methods, including therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes. Treatment is typically tailored to the individual's specific needs and may involve a combination of approaches. It is important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing excessive or persistent anxiety or separation anxiety.
Phobic disorders are a type of anxiety disorder characterized by excessive and persistent fear or anxiety in response to specific objects, situations, or activities. People with phobic disorders often experience intense and overwhelming fear that is out of proportion to the actual danger posed by the feared object or situation. This fear can lead to avoidance behaviors, which can significantly impact a person's daily life and functioning. Phobic disorders are classified into several categories, including specific phobias, social anxiety disorder, and agoraphobia. Specific phobias involve an intense fear of a specific object or situation, such as heights, spiders, or flying. Social anxiety disorder involves an intense fear of social or performance situations, such as public speaking or being evaluated by others. Agoraphobia involves an intense fear of being in situations or places where escape may be difficult or embarrassing if an anxiety attack were to occur. Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves a combination of therapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of therapy used to treat phobic disorders. CBT helps people identify and challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs about the feared object or situation, and gradually expose themselves to it in a safe and controlled environment. Medications such as antidepressants and benzodiazepines may also be used to help manage symptoms of anxiety and panic.
A dentigerous cyst is a type of developmental cyst that forms around a developing tooth, usually in the jawbone. It is the most common type of cyst that affects the jawbone and is usually found in young adults and children. The cyst is named because it is attached to the tooth germ, which is the developing tooth inside the jawbone. The cyst is lined with a layer of epithelial cells and contains fluid. It usually does not cause any symptoms until it becomes large enough to press on the surrounding bone or teeth, causing pain, swelling, or difficulty chewing. Treatment for a dentigerous cyst usually involves surgical removal of the cyst and the affected tooth. In some cases, the cyst may resolve on its own without treatment. Dentigerous cysts are generally considered to be benign, but in rare cases, they can become cancerous. Therefore, it is important to have any cysts in the jawbone evaluated by a dentist or oral surgeon.
Panic disorder is a mental health condition characterized by recurrent and unexpected panic attacks. Panic attacks are sudden and intense episodes of fear, anxiety, and physical symptoms that come on quickly and reach their peak within 10 minutes. During a panic attack, a person may experience symptoms such as a racing heart, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness, and a sense of impending doom or loss of control. Panic attacks can be very distressing and can lead to avoidance behaviors and a fear of having another attack. Panic disorder is diagnosed when a person experiences at least four panic attacks in a four-week period and is significantly distressed by the attacks or by the fear of having another attack. Treatment for panic disorder typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
Depressive disorder, also known as major depressive disorder or clinical depression, is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable. People with depressive disorder may also experience changes in appetite, sleep patterns, energy levels, and cognitive function. Depressive disorder can be a chronic condition that affects a person's ability to function in daily life, and it can also increase the risk of developing other mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders and substance abuse disorders. Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, and it is important for individuals with depressive disorder to seek professional help as soon as possible to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.
Mood disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, emotions, and behavior. These disorders are typically classified into two main categories: depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. Depressive disorders include major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and dysthymia. These disorders are characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable. Symptoms may also include changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating. Bipolar disorders, on the other hand, are characterized by extreme mood swings that alternate between periods of mania or hypomania (elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, and decreased need for sleep) and periods of depression. The most common bipolar disorder is bipolar I disorder, which is characterized by at least one manic episode, while bipolar II disorder is characterized by at least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode. Other mood disorders include seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is a type of depression that occurs during the winter months, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) that affects mood and behavior. Mood disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, relationships, and ability to function in daily activities. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes.
Cognitive therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on the relationship between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. It is based on the idea that negative or distorted thinking patterns can contribute to emotional distress and mental health problems. The goal of cognitive therapy is to help individuals identify and change these negative thought patterns, in order to improve their mood and overall well-being. In cognitive therapy, the therapist works with the individual to identify and challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, and to develop more balanced and realistic ways of thinking. This can involve a variety of techniques, such as cognitive restructuring, behavioral experiments, and mindfulness exercises. The therapist may also teach the individual skills for managing stress and anxiety, and for improving their relationships with others. Cognitive therapy is often used to treat a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It can be used on its own, or in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication or other forms of psychotherapy.
Comorbidity refers to the presence of two or more medical conditions in the same individual at the same time. These conditions can be related or unrelated to each other, and they can affect the severity and treatment of each other. Comorbidity is common in many medical conditions, and it can complicate the diagnosis and management of the underlying condition. For example, a patient with diabetes may also have high blood pressure, which is a common comorbidity. The presence of comorbidity can affect the patient's prognosis, treatment options, and overall quality of life.
Agoraphobia is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being in situations or places where escape might be difficult or embarrassing, or where help may not be available if an anxiety attack were to occur. People with agoraphobia may avoid these situations altogether, leading to a restricted range of activities and social isolation. Symptoms of agoraphobia can include: - Panic attacks in certain situations or places - Intense fear or anxiety about being in open or crowded spaces - Fear of using public transportation or being in enclosed spaces like elevators or tunnels - Avoidance of situations or places that trigger anxiety, such as shopping malls, airports, or crowded events - Physical symptoms such as sweating, shaking, and rapid heartbeat during anxiety attacks Agoraphobia can be treated with a combination of therapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is often used to help people with agoraphobia identify and challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs about certain situations or places. Medications such as antidepressants and benzodiazepines may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.
In the medical field, "Adaptation, Psychological" refers to the process by which individuals adjust to and cope with stressors, trauma, and other challenging life events. This can involve a range of psychological mechanisms, such as cognitive restructuring, emotional regulation, and social support seeking. Psychological adaptation can be influenced by a variety of factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, social support network, and access to resources. It is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as individuals who are able to effectively adapt to stressors are more likely to experience positive outcomes and maintain good mental health over time. Psychological adaptation can also be studied in the context of specific populations, such as refugees, military personnel, and individuals with chronic illnesses, to better understand the unique challenges they face and develop effective interventions to support their adaptation.
Hypochondriasis is a mental health condition characterized by persistent and excessive preoccupation with the belief that one has a serious illness, even when medical evidence indicates otherwise. People with hypochondriasis may experience intense anxiety and worry about their health, and may seek multiple medical consultations or tests in an attempt to confirm or rule out their fears. Hypochondriasis can be a debilitating condition that significantly impacts a person's quality of life, relationships, and ability to function in daily activities. It is often comorbid with other mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment for hypochondriasis typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of psychotherapy used to treat hypochondriasis, as it helps individuals identify and challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs about their health.
The amygdala is a small almond-shaped structure located deep within the temporal lobes of the brain. It is part of the limbic system, which is responsible for regulating emotions, memory, and behavior. The amygdala plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. It receives sensory information from the thalamus and evaluates it for potential threats or danger. If a threat is detected, the amygdala sends signals to other parts of the brain, such as the hypothalamus and the brainstem, to initiate a fight-or-flight response. The amygdala is also involved in the formation and retrieval of emotional memories. It helps to consolidate emotional memories and store them in long-term memory, which can be important for learning from past experiences and avoiding similar situations in the future. In addition to its role in emotion regulation and memory, the amygdala is also involved in other functions, such as social behavior, decision-making, and addiction. Damage to the amygdala can result in a range of emotional and behavioral problems, including anxiety disorders, depression, and aggression.
Depressive Disorder, Major, also known as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is a mental health condition characterized by persistent and severe feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable. People with MDD may also experience changes in appetite and sleep patterns, feelings of fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. MDD is a common disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. It can occur at any age and can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. MDD can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, including their ability to work, socialize, and take care of themselves. Treatment for MDD typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). It is important for people with MDD to seek professional help as soon as possible to receive appropriate treatment and support.
In the medical field, "affect" typically refers to a patient's emotional state or mood. It is often used in conjunction with the term "psychiatric assessment" to evaluate a patient's mental health and emotional well-being. Affect can be assessed through various means, such as observation of the patient's facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language, as well as through self-reporting and standardized rating scales. Changes in affect can be an important indicator of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Therefore, assessing a patient's affect is an important part of a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation.
In the medical field, mental disorders are conditions that affect a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, causing significant distress or impairment in daily functioning. Mental disorders are diagnosed based on a set of criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM-5 categorizes mental disorders into several broad categories, including: 1. Anxiety disorders: conditions characterized by excessive fear or worry, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. 2. Mood disorders: conditions characterized by significant changes in mood, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and dysthymia. 3. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders: conditions characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and abnormal behavior, such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and delusional disorder. 4. Neurodevelopmental disorders: conditions that begin in childhood and affect cognitive and social development, such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 5. Personality disorders: conditions characterized by enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that deviate from societal norms and cause significant distress or impairment, such as borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. 6. Substance-related and addictive disorders: conditions characterized by the use of substances or behaviors that cause significant impairment in daily functioning, such as alcohol use disorder, opioid use disorder, and gambling disorder. 7. Eating disorders: conditions characterized by abnormal eating behaviors that cause significant distress or impairment, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Mental disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Treatment for mental disorders typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Somatoform Disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition. People with somatoform disorders often experience persistent and distressing physical symptoms, such as chronic pain, fatigue, and gastrointestinal problems, that are not relieved by medical treatment. The symptoms of somatoform disorders are often vague and difficult to diagnose, and they may mimic the symptoms of a physical illness. Some common somatoform disorders include fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and conversion disorder. Somatoform disorders are often comorbid with other mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Treatment for somatoform disorders typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication, with a focus on addressing the underlying emotional and psychological factors that contribute to the physical symptoms.
In the medical field, "Behavior, Animal" refers to the study of the actions, responses, and interactions of animals, including humans, with their environment. This field encompasses a wide range of topics, including animal behavior in the wild, animal behavior in captivity, animal behavior in domestic settings, and animal behavior in laboratory settings. Animal behaviorists study a variety of behaviors, including social behavior, mating behavior, feeding behavior, communication behavior, and aggression. They use a variety of research methods, including observational studies, experiments, and surveys, to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive animal behavior. Animal behavior research has important applications in fields such as conservation biology, animal welfare, and veterinary medicine. For example, understanding animal behavior can help conservationists develop effective strategies for protecting endangered species, and it can help veterinarians develop more effective treatments for behavioral disorders in animals.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can develop after a person experiences or witnesses a traumatic event, such as a natural disaster, military combat, sexual assault, or physical violence. PTSD is characterized by a cluster of symptoms that can include intrusive thoughts or memories of the traumatic event, avoidance of reminders of the event, negative changes in mood or cognition, and increased arousal or reactivity. These symptoms can significantly impair a person's daily functioning and quality of life. PTSD is typically diagnosed by a mental health professional using a standardized set of criteria, and treatment may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both.
Cross-sectional studies are a type of observational research design used in the medical field to examine the prevalence or distribution of a particular health outcome or risk factor in a population at a specific point in time. In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of individuals who are all measured at the same time, rather than following them over time. Cross-sectional studies are useful for identifying associations between health outcomes and risk factors, but they cannot establish causality. For example, a cross-sectional study may find that people who smoke are more likely to have lung cancer than non-smokers, but it cannot determine whether smoking causes lung cancer or if people with lung cancer are more likely to smoke. Cross-sectional studies are often used in public health research to estimate the prevalence of diseases or conditions in a population, to identify risk factors for certain health outcomes, and to compare the health status of different groups of people. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or to identify potential risk factors for disease outbreaks.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more groups. In the medical field, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments, interventions, or medications on a particular outcome or variable of interest. For example, a researcher may want to compare the effectiveness of three different medications for treating a particular disease. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean response (e.g., improvement in symptoms) between the three groups of patients who received each medication. If the results show a significant difference between the groups, it would suggest that one medication is more effective than the others. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different groups of patients based on a categorical variable, such as age, gender, or race. For example, a researcher may want to compare the mean blood pressure of patients in different age groups. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean blood pressure between the different age groups and determine if there are significant differences. Overall, ANOVA is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare the means of different groups in the medical field, helping researchers to identify which treatments or interventions are most effective and to better understand the factors that influence health outcomes.
In the medical field, arousal refers to the state of being awake and alert, and the ability to respond to stimuli. It is a fundamental aspect of consciousness and is closely related to other aspects of consciousness such as attention, perception, and memory. Arousal can be influenced by a variety of factors, including physical factors such as sleep, hunger, and thirst, as well as psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and mood. In some cases, disorders of arousal can occur, such as sleep disorders, which can affect a person's ability to stay awake and alert during the day, or sexual arousal disorders, which can affect a person's ability to experience sexual pleasure. In the context of medical treatment, arousal can be an important factor to consider when evaluating a patient's overall health and well-being. For example, a patient with a low level of arousal may be more susceptible to infections or other health problems, and may require additional support or interventions to maintain their level of alertness and responsiveness.
Diazepam is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It is primarily used to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety disorders, panic attacks, muscle spasms, and seizures. Diazepam works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the brain and reduce anxiety and muscle tension. Diazepam is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, injectable solutions, and intravenous infusions. It is usually taken orally, although it can also be given intravenously or intramuscularly in certain situations. Diazepam can be habit-forming and can cause dependence if used for extended periods of time or in high doses. It can also cause side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. As with any medication, it is important to use diazepam only as directed by a healthcare professional and to avoid using it for longer than necessary.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health condition characterized by persistent and intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) that an individual feels driven to perform. OCD can significantly impair an individual's daily functioning and quality of life. Obsessions are persistent, unwanted, and intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses that cause significant distress or anxiety. They can be related to a variety of themes, such as contamination, harm to oneself or others, symmetry, or orderliness. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession. Compulsions can be physical or mental and may include washing hands, checking locks, counting, or repeating certain phrases. Individuals with OCD may experience both obsessions and compulsions, or they may only experience one or the other. OCD can also be accompanied by other mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse. Treatment for OCD typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapy that has been shown to be effective in treating OCD. It involves identifying and challenging negative thought patterns and replacing them with more positive and realistic ones.
Antidepressive agents, also known as antidepressants, are a class of medications that are used to treat depression and other mood disorders. They work by altering the levels of certain chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, which are believed to play a role in regulating mood and emotions. There are several different types of antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and others. Each type of antidepressant works in a slightly different way, and they may be prescribed for different types of depression or other mood disorders. Antidepressants are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed by a healthcare provider. However, they can have side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and sexual dysfunction, and they may interact with other medications or medical conditions. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the risks and benefits of antidepressants, and to follow their instructions carefully.
Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.
In the medical field, anger is a complex emotional response that involves a range of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral responses. It is a natural human emotion that can be triggered by a variety of factors, including stress, frustration, disappointment, and injustice. Anger can manifest in different ways, such as irritability, aggression, hostility, and physical aggression. It can also lead to physical symptoms such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension. In some cases, anger can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as depression, anxiety, or a neurological disorder. It can also be a side effect of certain medications or a symptom of a substance abuse problem. In the medical field, anger management is an important aspect of mental health treatment. It involves teaching individuals how to recognize and regulate their anger in a healthy and constructive way, such as through relaxation techniques, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or medication.
The receptor for Anaphylatoxin C5a, also known as C5aR, is a protein found on the surface of various cells in the immune system. It is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the inflammatory mediator Anaphylatoxin C5a, which is produced during the complement cascade, a series of chemical reactions that occurs in response to an infection or injury. When C5a binds to its receptor, it triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that activate various immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, and promote inflammation. This can lead to the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection or injury, the release of inflammatory mediators, and the destruction of pathogens. C5aR is also expressed on non-immune cells, such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells, and can play a role in regulating various physiological processes, such as blood pressure and inflammation. In some cases, excessive activation of C5aR can lead to the development of various inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and asthma.
Guanine is a nitrogenous base that is found in DNA and RNA. It is one of the four nitrogenous bases that make up the genetic code, along with adenine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Guanine is a purine base, which means it has a double ring structure consisting of a six-membered pyrimidine ring fused to a five-membered imidazole ring. It is one of the two purine bases found in DNA and RNA, the other being adenine. Guanine plays a critical role in the structure and function of DNA and RNA, as it forms hydrogen bonds with cytosine in DNA and with uracil in RNA, which helps to stabilize the double helix structure of these molecules.
In the medical field, pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain is a complex phenomenon that involves both physical and emotional components, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, illness, inflammation, and nerve damage. Pain can be acute or chronic, and it can be localized to a specific area of the body or can affect the entire body. Acute pain is typically short-lived and is a normal response to injury or illness. Chronic pain, on the other hand, persists for more than three months and can be caused by a variety of factors, including nerve damage, inflammation, and psychological factors. In the medical field, pain is typically assessed using a pain scale, such as the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), which measures pain intensity on a scale of 0 to 10. Treatment for pain depends on the underlying cause and can include medications, physical therapy, and other interventions.
Neurotic disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by excessive anxiety, worry, and emotional distress. These disorders are often referred to as anxiety disorders and include conditions such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Individuals with neurotic disorders may experience a range of symptoms, including excessive fear or worry, physical symptoms such as sweating or trembling, avoidance of certain situations or activities, and difficulty concentrating or sleeping. These symptoms can significantly impact an individual's daily life and ability to function normally. Treatment for neurotic disorders typically involves a combination of therapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of therapy used to treat these disorders, as it helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to their anxiety and distress. Medications such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.
In the medical field, heterocyclic compounds, bridged-ring refer to a class of organic compounds that contain at least one heteroatom (such as nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur) in the ring structure. These heteroatoms are connected to the carbon atoms of the ring through single or double bonds, and the resulting ring structure is referred to as a bridged-ring heterocycle. Bridged-ring heterocycles are important in the medical field because they often exhibit unique chemical and biological properties that make them useful as drugs or drug candidates. For example, many antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and anti-cancer drugs contain bridged-ring heterocycles as key structural features. The synthesis and modification of bridged-ring heterocycles is an active area of research in medicinal chemistry, as scientists seek to develop new drugs with improved efficacy and reduced side effects.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.
In the medical field, base pairing refers to the specific pairing of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA and RNA) with each other. In DNA, adenine (A) always pairs with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) always pairs with guanine (G). This specific pairing is due to the hydrogen bonds that form between the nitrogenous bases of the nucleotides. The base pairing is essential for the stability and function of DNA, as it allows the genetic information encoded in the DNA to be accurately replicated and transmitted to daughter cells during cell division. Additionally, the base pairing is also important for the process of transcription, where the genetic information in DNA is used to synthesize RNA.
Deoxyguanosine is a nucleoside, which is a building block of DNA and RNA. It is composed of a deoxyribose sugar molecule, a nitrogenous base (guanine), and a phosphate group. In DNA, deoxyguanosine is paired with cytosine through hydrogen bonding, forming the base pair G-C. Deoxyguanosine is an important component of DNA and plays a crucial role in the storage and transmission of genetic information. In the medical field, deoxyguanosine is used as a component of antiviral drugs, such as zidovudine (AZT), which are used to treat HIV infection. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as acute myeloid leukemia and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
The Mediator Complex is a large multi-subunit protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in eukaryotic cells. It functions as a bridge between the RNA polymerase II enzyme and the transcriptional machinery, allowing the polymerase to transcribe specific genes in response to various signals. The Mediator Complex is composed of around 30 different subunits, which can be divided into several distinct modules. These modules interact with different components of the transcriptional machinery, including the promoter region of the gene, the general transcription factors, and the coactivators or corepressors that modulate gene expression. In addition to its role in transcriptional regulation, the Mediator Complex has also been implicated in various cellular processes, including chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and cell cycle regulation. Dysregulation of the Mediator Complex has been linked to several human diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and neurological diseases.
Deoxycytosine nucleotides are a type of nucleotide that is a building block of DNA. They are composed of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base called cytosine. Deoxycytosine nucleotides are essential for the replication and transcription of DNA, and are involved in various cellular processes such as gene expression and DNA repair. In the medical field, deoxycytosine nucleotides are often used as a component of antiviral and anticancer drugs.
Guanosine is a nucleoside that is composed of the nitrogenous base guanine and the sugar ribose. It is a building block of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, and plays a crucial role in various cellular processes. In the medical field, guanosine is used as a medication to treat certain types of cancer, such as acute myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It works by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Guanosine is also used as a supplement to support immune function and to treat certain viral infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is believed to work by stimulating the production of immune cells and by inhibiting the replication of viruses. In addition, guanosine is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, such as gene expression, signal transduction, and energy metabolism. It is also a precursor of the nucleotide guanosine triphosphate (GTP), which plays a key role in many cellular processes, including protein synthesis and cell division.
Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a group of alkaloids found in plants belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family, which includes bulbs such as garlic, onions, and leeks. These alkaloids have a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Some of the most well-known Amaryllidaceae alkaloids include alliin, which is the precursor to allicin, the active compound in garlic that is responsible for its characteristic odor and flavor, and galantamine, which is used as a medication for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In the medical field, Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are of interest for their potential therapeutic applications, and ongoing research is exploring their use in the treatment of a range of conditions, including cancer, infections, and neurological disorders. However, it is important to note that some Amaryllidaceae alkaloids can also have toxic effects, and their use should be carefully monitored and supervised by a healthcare professional.
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a group of physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a person stops using a substance that they have been dependent on. These symptoms can be severe and can cause significant distress and discomfort. Substance withdrawal syndrome can occur when a person stops using alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines, stimulants, or other addictive substances. The symptoms of substance withdrawal syndrome can vary depending on the substance that was being used and the length and severity of the addiction. Treatment for substance withdrawal syndrome typically involves medical supervision and the use of medications to manage the symptoms and prevent complications.
Case-control studies are a type of observational study used in the medical field to investigate the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. In a case-control study, researchers identify individuals who have experienced a particular outcome (cases) and compare their exposure history to a group of individuals who have not experienced the outcome (controls). The main goal of a case-control study is to determine whether the exposure was a risk factor for the outcome. To do this, researchers collect information about the exposure history of both the cases and the controls and compare the two groups to see if there is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the exposure between the two groups. Case-control studies are often used when the outcome of interest is rare, and it is difficult or unethical to conduct a prospective cohort study. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to recall bias, where participants may not accurately remember their exposure history. Additionally, because case-control studies only provide information about the association between an exposure and an outcome, they cannot establish causality.
Affective symptoms refer to a group of emotional and mood-related symptoms that are commonly associated with mental health disorders. These symptoms can include changes in mood, such as feelings of sadness, anxiety, irritability, or anger, as well as changes in energy levels, appetite, and sleep patterns. In the medical field, affective symptoms are often used to diagnose and treat mental health conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorders. These symptoms can also be associated with other medical conditions, such as chronic pain, hormonal imbalances, and neurological disorders. Affective symptoms can be severe and can significantly impact a person's daily functioning and quality of life. Treatment for affective symptoms typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms.
In the medical field, "age factors" refer to the effects of aging on the body and its various systems. As people age, their bodies undergo a variety of changes that can impact their health and well-being. These changes can include: 1. Decreased immune function: As people age, their immune system becomes less effective at fighting off infections and diseases. 2. Changes in metabolism: Aging can cause changes in the way the body processes food and uses energy, which can lead to weight gain, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. 3. Cardiovascular changes: Aging can lead to changes in the heart and blood vessels, including increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. 4. Cognitive changes: Aging can affect memory, attention, and other cognitive functions, which can lead to conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Joint and bone changes: Aging can cause changes in the joints and bones, including decreased bone density and increased risk of osteoporosis and arthritis. 6. Skin changes: Aging can cause changes in the skin, including wrinkles, age spots, and decreased elasticity. 7. Hormonal changes: Aging can cause changes in hormone levels, including decreased estrogen in women and decreased testosterone in men, which can lead to a variety of health issues. Overall, age factors play a significant role in the development of many health conditions and can impact a person's quality of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of these changes and to take steps to maintain their health and well-being as they age.
Postpartum depression, also known as postnatal depression, is a type of depression that occurs after childbirth. It is a common condition that affects many women, and can occur within the first few weeks to several months after giving birth. Symptoms of postpartum depression can include feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness, as well as difficulty sleeping, changes in appetite, and difficulty bonding with the baby. In severe cases, postpartum depression can lead to thoughts of self-harm or suicide. Postpartum depression is typically treated with a combination of therapy and medication, and it is important for women who are experiencing symptoms to seek help as soon as possible. Early intervention can help to prevent the condition from becoming more severe and can improve the mother's overall well-being and ability to care for her baby.
Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. Antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of these foreign substances, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. There are five main classes of antibodies: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class of antibody has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Antibodies play a critical role in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease. They can neutralize pathogens by binding to them and preventing them from entering cells, or they can mark them for destruction by other immune cells. In some cases, antibodies can also help to stimulate the immune response by activating immune cells or by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection. Antibodies are often used in medical treatments, such as in the development of vaccines, where they are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a response to a specific pathogen. They are also used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of specific pathogens or to monitor the immune response to a particular treatment.
Substance-related disorders are a group of mental health conditions that are caused by the use of drugs or alcohol. These disorders can range from mild to severe and can have a significant impact on a person's life. Substance-related disorders are diagnosed when a person's use of drugs or alcohol causes problems in their daily life, such as problems at work or school, problems with relationships, or legal problems. Substance-related disorders can also lead to physical health problems, such as liver damage or heart disease. Treatment for substance-related disorders typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy and medication.
Avoidance learning is a type of learning that occurs when an organism learns to avoid a negative outcome or consequence by performing a specific behavior. In the medical field, avoidance learning is often studied in the context of addiction and substance abuse. For example, an individual who experiences a negative consequence, such as withdrawal symptoms or a negative emotional state, after using a drug may learn to avoid using the drug in the future in order to avoid the negative consequence. This type of learning is thought to play a role in the development and maintenance of addiction. Avoidance learning can also be studied in other contexts, such as in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In this case, individuals may learn to avoid situations or stimuli that trigger their anxiety in order to avoid the negative emotional state associated with the anxiety. Overall, avoidance learning is an important concept in the field of psychology and is studied in order to better understand how individuals learn and adapt to their environment.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.
Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs that are commonly used as sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics in the medical field. They work by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the brain and reduce anxiety, fear, and tension. Benzodiazepines are often prescribed to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety disorders, insomnia, muscle spasms, seizures, and alcohol withdrawal. They are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed, but they can also be habit-forming and may cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, memory problems, and impaired coordination. Long-term use of benzodiazepines can also lead to physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms when the medication is stopped abruptly. Therefore, it is important to use these drugs only as directed by a healthcare professional and to follow a gradual tapering schedule when discontinuing their use.
Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) are short chains of DNA or RNA that are synthesized in the laboratory. They are typically used as tools in molecular biology research, as well as in therapeutic applications such as gene therapy. ODNs can be designed to bind to specific DNA or RNA sequences, and can be used to modulate gene expression or to introduce genetic changes into cells. They can also be used as primers in PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to amplify specific DNA sequences. In the medical field, ODNs are being studied for their potential use in treating a variety of diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. For example, ODNs can be used to silence specific genes that are involved in disease progression, or to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells.
Deoxyadenine nucleotides are a type of nucleotide that contains the nitrogenous base adenine and the sugar deoxyribose. They are one of the four types of nitrogenous bases found in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material that carries the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of all living organisms. Deoxyadenine nucleotides are essential components of DNA and play a crucial role in the process of DNA replication and transcription, which are the mechanisms by which genetic information is copied and used to produce proteins.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. In the medical field, alcoholism is diagnosed based on a set of criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). These criteria include: 1. The presence of tolerance, which is the need to consume more alcohol to achieve the same desired effect. 2. The presence of withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is reduced or stopped. 3. The presence of cravings or a strong desire to drink. 4. The continuation of alcohol use despite negative consequences, such as health problems, relationship problems, or legal problems. 5. The presence of significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning due to alcohol use. Alcoholism is a complex disorder that can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups.
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- Pharmacotherapy for phobic disorders (ie, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and agoraphobia) includes antidepressant agents (eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]), benzodiazepines, serotonin (5HT) 1 agonists, antihypertensive agents, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). (medscape.com)
- SSRIs are greatly preferred to other classes of antidepressants for the treatment of anxiety disorders, and they all appear to be similarly efficacious. (medscape.com)
- This agent is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of anxiety disorders, but data from randomized, controlled trials support its use for treatment of agoraphobia. (medscape.com)
- Although this agent is not approved by the FDA for treatment of phobic disorders, its class membership and good tolerability make it an attractive option for long-term treatment. (medscape.com)
- Off-label use of escitalopram for anxiety disorders includes social anxiety disorder (social phobia), panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). (medscape.com)
- Although some drug targets for anxiety disorders are established, it is hard to modify and selectively choose the active principle for those targets. (okcmassageclinic.com)
- Thus, the ethno medical approach to treating anxiety disorders remains one of the most prevalent ways for (self)managing the symptoms. (okcmassageclinic.com)
- Waslick B. Psychopharmacology interventions for pediatric anxiety disorders: a research update. (umassmed.edu)
- Social anxiety, as well as the other anxiety disorders, can be successfully treated today. (socialphobia.org)
- Genetics of Pediatric Anxiety Disorders. (medscape.com)
- A prospective study of childhood anxiety disorders. (medscape.com)
- Irritability and Severity of Anxious Symptomatology Among Youth With Anxiety Disorders. (medscape.com)
- Treating anxiety disorders in youth. (medscape.com)
- Treating anxiety disorders in children with group cognitive-behaviorial therapy: a randomized clinical trial. (medscape.com)
- Telephone-based mental health interventions for child disruptive behavior or anxiety disorders: randomized trials and overall analysis. (medscape.com)
- Currently, there is a growing recognition that anxiety disorders are frequently chronic and/or recurrent. (omeka.net)
- For the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety, withdrawal symptoms of acute alcoholism, and preoperative apprehension and anxiety. (minclinic.ru)
- Comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, coexist and negatively affect the condition. (bvsalud.org)
- Diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders / edited by Robert O. Pasnau. (who.int)
- Paroxetine is FDA-approved for use in social anxiety disorder (social phobia), panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, OCD, major depressive disorder (MDD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (medscape.com)
- Manassis K. Generalized anxiety disorder in the classroom. (medscape.com)
- A Multicenter Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Escitalopram in Children and Adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. (medscape.com)
- A 2013 randomized controlled trial compared an aqueous kava extract to placebo for generalized anxiety disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
- Thus, this casts doubt on the use of kava for generalized anxiety disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
- For social anxiety, research indicates use of the anti-anxiety agents, and (perhaps) certain antidepressants in conjunction with CBT have proven most beneficial. (socialphobia.org)
- Medical cannabis may also enhance PTSD behavior therapy treatments as an anti-anxiety agent that resets a damaged amygdala and may act as a superior psychiatric medicine to present-day antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. (tokeofthetown.com)
- Medications such as anti-depressants, anti-anxiety agents, and mood stabilizers do not cure the patient. (beliefnet.com)
- SSRIs can help prevent panic attacks and alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression. (medscape.com)
- Lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis ) is a widely used medicinal plant, for the treatment of depression, anxiety, insomnia, anxiety-induced palpitation, and stress. (okcmassageclinic.com)
- True, most patients come for help because of some symptom (i.e. anxiety or depression), but that is not they are. (beliefnet.com)
- The USPSTF recommends screening children 12 years and older for depression and, for the first time, recommends screening children ages 8 years and older for anxiety. (medscape.com)
- Screening for Depression, Anxiety, and Suicide Risk in Children and Adolescents: An Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (medscape.com)
- The aim of this case-control study was to examine the effect of music on the levels of anxiety, stress, and depression experienced by patients undergoing coronary angiography, as measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (who.int)
- Differences in pre- and post-intervention scores demonstrated that there were significant decreases in mean scores of state anxiety (P = 0.006), stress (P = 0.001) and depression P = 0.02) in the intervention group, who listened to 20 minutes of relaxing music, as compared with the control group who had 20 minutes of bed rest. (who.int)
- L'objectif de cette étude cas/témoins était d'examiner les effets de la musique sur les niveaux d'anxiété, de stress et de dépression ressentis par les patients subissant une angiographie coronarienne, en les mesurant à l'aide de l'échelle DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales) composée de 21 items. (who.int)
- The herb kava (Piper methysticum) has a sedative effect and is used for anxiety and insomnia. (epnet.com)
- Data revealed a higher concentration of women aged between 40 and 60 years old who used benzodiazepines for between one month and 37 years to treat insomnia, anxiety, headaches, and sadness. (bvsalud.org)
- This stimulant may cause side effects like insomnia, anxiety, and irritability. (formulazone.com)
- There is also less optimism than a decade ago that benzodiazepines will be replaced by alternative agents that are not active at the benzodiazepine receptor. (omeka.net)
Symptoms of anxiety1
- Due to the mentioned effects, Melissa officinalis is officially recommended for the treatment of mild symptoms of anxiety. (okcmassageclinic.com)
- Social anxiety medication is useful for many, but not all, people with social anxiety disorder. (socialphobia.org)
- Objectives: This study sought to assess the level of anti-glycaemic medication-taking and its predictors among adults living with diabetes receiving treatment at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH). (bvsalud.org)
- Data on socio-demographic characteristics and anti-glycaemic medication-taking were gathered using a structured questionnaire. (bvsalud.org)
- practising behavioural modifications and showing up for follow-up appointments) and eight items was used to measure the level of anti-glycaemic medication-taking. (bvsalud.org)
- Main outcome measures: Anti-glycaemic medication-taking Results: Out of 250 participants studied, 42% had high anti-glycaemic medication-taking. (bvsalud.org)
- Fears and anxieties. (medscape.com)
- Normal anxiety levels represent our body alarm system, which improves people's attention and problem-solving, motivates work towards goal, and does not negatively interfere with daily functioning. (okcmassageclinic.com)
- You could say social anxiety is the fear and anxiety of being negatively judged and evaluated by other people. (socialphobia.org)
- In one case report, a 54-year-old man was hospitalized for lethargy and disorientation, side effects attributed to his having taken the combination of kava and the anti-anxiety agent alprazolam (Xanax) for 3 days. (epnet.com)
- Kava is used as an antianxiety agent and sleep aid. (msdmanuals.com)
- A 2003 Cochrane review evaluated 11 trials (total of 645 participants) to assess the effectiveness and safety of kava extract in clinical trials for treating anxiety. (msdmanuals.com)
- Compared to placebo, kava had a greater likelihood of response in 3 of the 7 trials and comparable response to prescribed antianxiety drugs. (msdmanuals.com)
- What is Social Anxiety Disorder? (socialphobia.org)
- Social Anxiety Disorder (social phobia) is the third largest mental health care problem in the world today. (socialphobia.org)
- Thousands of research studies now indicate that, after the completion of social anxiety-specific CBT, people with social anxiety disorder are changed. (socialphobia.org)
- The person with social anxiety disorder must be compliant and do what is necessary to overcome this disorder. (socialphobia.org)
- Both are essential to alleviating anxiety symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. (socialphobia.org)
Melissa Essential Oil3
- A recent preclinical study analyzed the ability of Melissa Essential Oil, also known as Lemon Balm, to be used as an anti-anxiety agent. (barefut.com)
- In conclusion, we could say that the results of the present study provide a base for future mechanistic studies that would evaluate the activity of Melissa essential oil on various neurotransmitter systems involved in the generation, propagation, and maintenance of anxiety. (barefut.com)
- Thus, a recent preclinical study evaluated the effects of exposure to Melissa essential oil in reducing anxiety. (okcmassageclinic.com)
- Child/Adolescent anxiety multimodal study: evaluating safety. (medscape.com)
- The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. (bvsalud.org)
- 1-5 It has also been suggested that ginkgo might interfere with the effectiveness of some anti-seizure medications, including phenytoin. (epnet.com)
- An Israeli study finds that the cannabinoids in cannabis provide relief from anxiety due to stress. (tokeofthetown.com)
- This sample expert has 24 years of experience, and specializes in the field of organic chemistry, cardiovascular and CNS drugs with specific knowledge in the areas of antipsychotic, anti-anxiety, analgesia, hypertension, cardiotonic agents, ion channel modulators, vaccine adjuvants and drug delivery. (roundtablegroup.com)
- According to Carvalho and Dimenstein (2003), among psychoactive drugs, anxiolytics are the most widely used and have the effect of calming, reassuring and sedating as they act on the central nervous system, affecting an individual's responses and reactions to anxiety. (bvsalud.org)
- The anxiety is an important, if not the bigger, stress component of the odontologic patients. (bvsalud.org)
- Ashwagandha Root is an Ayurvedic herb that's often used to treat stress and anxiety. (formulazone.com)
- ABSTRACT Control of stress and anxiety and the promotion of comfort are challenges facing health practitioners involved in catheterization. (who.int)
- Constant, intense anxiety (fear) is the most common symptom. (socialphobia.org)
- Social anxiety treatment must include an active behavioral therapy group , where members can work on their "anxiety" hierarchies in the group, and later, in real-life situations with other group members. (socialphobia.org)
- Family treatment of childhood anxiety: a controlled trial. (medscape.com)
- The treatment of anxiety has evolved through various phases. (omeka.net)
- Pharmacological treatment of anxiety. (who.int)
- Available at https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/draft-recommendation/screening-anxiety-children-adolescents . (medscape.com)
- Hydroxyzine is not known to interfere with the action of digitalis in any way and it may be used concurrently with this agent. (nih.gov)
- Local anesthetic agents are used for digital block to facilitate reduction or examination of fingers. (medscape.com)
- This study found no difference in anxiety reduction between groups, a higher percentage of anxiety remission in placebo groups at the study conclusion, and no evidence of association of genetic polymorphisms with anxiety reduction. (msdmanuals.com)
- Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant agent used primarily to prevent seizures in conditions such as epilepsy. (epnet.com)
- Nevertheless, thoughts and feelings of anxiety persist and are chronic (i.e., show no signs of going away). (socialphobia.org)
- The effectiveness of hydroxyzine as an antianxiety agent for long-term use, that is, more than 4 months, has not been assessed by systematic clinical studies. (nih.gov)
- The literature shows us that the Valeriana officinalis is efficient against anxiety, anguish, light disequilibria of the nervous system and does not have contraindications. (bvsalud.org)
- The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC): factor structure, reliability, and validity. (medscape.com)
- Other anticonvulsant agents include carbamazepine , phenobarbital , primidone , and valproic acid . (epnet.com)
- Volatility of both agents is significant at high ambient temperatures. (cdc.gov)
- See journal citation on the Social Anxiety Association home page. (socialphobia.org)