Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Post-Exposure Prophylaxis: The prevention of infection or disease following exposure to a pathogen.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Mice, Inbred BALB CEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States. (1/196)

These recommendations concern the use of aluminum hydroxide adsorbed cell-free anthrax vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed [AVA], BioPort Corporation, Lansing, MI) in the United States for protection against disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. In addition, information is included regarding the use of chemoprophylaxis against B. anthracis.  (+info)

The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by anthrax spores. (2/196)

Vaccines which are efficacious against anthrax, such as the human vaccine, Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA), contain the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxins as the major protective immunogen. Although AVA protects against inhalational anthrax, the immune responses to and role in protection of PA and possibly other antigens have yet to be fully elucidated. Sera from animals immunized with a toxin-producing, unencapsulated live vaccine strain of Bacillus anthracis have been reported to have anti-spore activities associated with the antitoxin humoral response. The authors performed studies to determine whether anti-PA antibody (Ab)-containing preparations stimulated spore uptake by phagocytes and suppressed the germination of spores in vitro. AVA- and PA-immune sera from several species enhanced the phagocytosis by murine peritoneal macrophages of spores of the virulent Ames and the Sterne vaccine strains. Antitoxin Abs appeared to contribute significantly, although not solely, to the enhanced uptake. Rabbit antisera to PA purified from either Sterne or a PA-producing pX01-cured recombinant, affinity-purified anti-PA IgG, and monkey antisera to AVA were used to assess the role of anti-PA ABS: Rabbit anti-PA Abs promoted the uptake of spores of the PA-producing strains Sterne, Ames and RP42, a mutant of Sterne producing only PA, but not of the pX01-Sterne-1 strain, Ames strain, or RP4, a mutant of Sterne with deletions in the loci encoding PA and the oedema factor (EF) toxin component and producing only the lethal factor toxin component. Rabbit anti-PA and monkey anti-AVA Abs also significantly inhibited spore germination in vitro compared to preimmune serum or medium. Spore-associated proteins recognized by anti-PA Abs were detected by electron microscopy and confirmed by immunoblotting of spore coat extracts. Thus, the anti-PA Ab-specific immunity induced by AVA has anti-spore activity and might have a role in impeding the early stages of infection with B. anthracis spores.  (+info)

Protection against anthrax lethal toxin challenge by genetic immunization with a plasmid encoding the lethal factor protein. (3/196)

The ability of genetic vaccination to protect against a lethal challenge of anthrax toxin was evaluated. BALB/c mice were immunized via gene gun inoculation with eucaryotic expression vector plasmids encoding either a fragment of the protective antigen (PA) or a fragment of lethal factor (LF). Plasmid pCLF4 contains the N-terminal region (amino acids [aa] 10 to 254) of Bacillus anthracis LF cloned into the pCI expression plasmid. Plasmid pCPA contains a biologically active portion (aa 175 to 764) of B. anthracis PA cloned into the pCI expression vector. One-micrometer-diameter gold particles were coated with plasmid pCLF4 or pCPA or a 1:1 mixture of both and injected into mice via gene gun (1 microg of plasmid DNA/injection) three times at 2-week intervals. Sera were collected and analyzed for antibody titer as well as antibody isotype. Significantly, titers of antibody to both PA and LF from mice immunized with the combination of pCPA and pCLF4 were four to five times greater than titers from mice immunized with either gene alone. Two weeks following the third and final plasmid DNA boost, all mice were challenged with 5 50% lethal doses of lethal toxin (PA plus LF) injected intravenously into the tail vein. All mice immunized with pCLF4, pCPA, or the combination of both survived the challenge, whereas all unimmunized mice did not survive. These results demonstrate that DNA-based immunization alone can provide protection against a lethal toxin challenge and that DNA immunization against the LF antigen alone provides complete protection.  (+info)

Efficiency of protection of guinea pigs against infection with Bacillus anthracis spores by passive immunization. (4/196)

The efficacy of passive immunization as a postexposure prophylactic measure for treatment of guinea pigs intranasally infected with Bacillus anthracis spores was evaluated. Antisera directed either against the lethal toxin components (PA or LF) or against a toxinogenic strain (Sterne) were used for this evaluation. All antisera exhibited high enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers against the corresponding antigens, high titers of neutralization of cytotoxicity activity in an in vitro mouse macrophages cell line (J774A.1), as well as in vivo neutralization of toxicity when administered either directly to Fisher rats prior to challenge with the lethal toxin or after incubation with the lethal toxin. In these tests, anti-LF antiserum exhibited the highest neutralization efficiency, followed by anti-Sterne and anti-PA. The time dependence and antibody dose necessary for conferring postexposure protection by the various antibodies of guinea pigs infected with 25 50% lethal doses of Vollum spores was examined. Rabbit anti-PA serum was found to be the most effective. Intraperitoneal injections of anti-PA serum given 24 h postinfection protected 90% of the infected animals, whereas anti-Sterne and anti-LF were less effective. These results further emphasizes the importance of anti-PA antibodies in conferring protection against B. anthracis infection and demonstrated the ability of such antibodies to be effectively applied as an efficient postexposure treatment against anthrax disease.  (+info)

Anthrax spores make an essential contribution to vaccine efficacy. (5/196)

Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium. Septicemia and toxemia rapidly lead to death in infected mammal hosts. Currently used acellular vaccines against anthrax consist of protective antigen (PA), one of the anthrax toxin components. However, in experimental animals such vaccines are less protective than live attenuated strains. Here we demonstrate that the addition of formaldehyde-inactivated spores (FIS) of B. anthracis to PA elicits total protection against challenge with virulent B. anthracis strains in mice and guinea pigs. The toxin-neutralizing activities of sera from mice immunized with PA alone or PA plus FIS were similar, suggesting that the protection conferred by PA plus FIS was not only a consequence of the humoral response to PA. A PA-deficient challenge strain was constructed, and its virulence was due solely to its multiplication. Immunization with FIS alone was sufficient to protect mice partially, and guinea pigs totally, against infection with this strain. This suggests that spore antigens contribute to protection. Guinea pigs and mice had very different susceptibilities to infection with the nontoxigenic strain, highlighting the importance of verifying the pertinence of animal models for evaluating anthrax vaccines.  (+info)

A recombinant carboxy-terminal domain of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis protects mice against anthrax infection. (6/196)

The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of overlapping regions of the protective antigen (PA) polypeptide, cloned and expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, have been assessed. Results show that protection can be attributed to individual domains and imply that it is domain 4 which contains the dominant protective epitopes of PA.  (+info)

Mucosal or parenteral administration of microsphere-associated Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protects against anthrax infection in mice. (7/196)

Existing licensed anthrax vaccines are administered parenterally and require multiple doses to induce protective immunity. This requires trained personnel and is not the optimum route for stimulating a mucosal immune response. Microencapsulation of vaccine antigens offers a number of advantages over traditional vaccine formulations, including stability without refrigeration and the potential for utilizing less invasive routes of administration. Recombinant protective antigen (rPA), the dominant antigen for protection against anthrax infection, was encapsulated in poly-L-lactide 100-kDa microspheres. Alternatively, rPA was loosely attached to the surfaces of microspheres by lyophilization. All of the microspheric formulations were administered to A/J mice with a two-dose schedule by either the intramuscular route, the intranasal route, or a combination of these two routes, and immunogenicity and protective efficacy were assessed. An intramuscular priming immunization followed by either an intramuscular or intranasal boost gave optimum anti-rPA immunoglobulin G titers. Despite differences in rPA-specific antibody titers, all immunized mice survived an injected challenge consisting of 10(3) median lethal doses of Bacillus anthracis STI spores. Immunization with microencapsulated and microsphere-associated formulations of rPA also protected against aerosol challenge with 30 median lethal doses of STI spores. These results show that rPA can be encapsulated and surface bound to polymeric microspheres without impairing its immunogenicity and also that mucosal or parenteral administration of microspheric formulations of rPA efficiently protects mice against both injected and aerosol challenges with B. anthracis spores. Microspheric formulations of rPA could represent the next generation of anthrax vaccines, which could require fewer doses because they are more potent, are less reactogenic than currently available human anthrax vaccines, and could be self-administered without injection.  (+info)

The Anthrax Vaccine Program: an analysis of the CDC's recommendations for vaccine use. (8/196)

The anthrax vaccine was never proved to be safe and effective. It is one cause of Gulf War illnesses, and recent vaccinees report symptoms resembling Gulf War illnesses. The vaccine's production has been substandard. Without adequate evaluation, the Food and Drug Administration recently approved (retrospectively) significant changes made to the vaccine's composition since 1990. The vaccine's mandatory use for inhalation anthrax is "off-label." A skewed review of the vaccine literature by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) led to remunerative collaborative research with the army, involving civilian volunteers. Despite acknowledging possible fetal harm, the CDC offered the vaccine to children and pregnant women. New trends could weaken prelicensure efficacy and safety review of medical products intended for biodefense and avoid manufacturer liability for their use.  (+info)

*Vaccine-preventable diseases

Anthrax Plague Q fever Smallpox Vaccination policy World Immunization Week "WHO , Vaccine-preventable diseases". World Health ... Vaccine-preventable deaths are usually caused by a failure to obtain the vaccine in a timely manner. This may be due to ... If a vaccine-preventable disease is uncommon in a country, then residents of that country are unlikely to receive a vaccine ... A vaccine-preventable disease is an infectious disease for which an effective preventive vaccine exists. If a person acquires a ...

*Soviet biological weapons program

A laboratory on vaccine and serum research was also established near Moscow in 1928, within the Military Chemical Agency. This ... a weaponized anthrax center Aralsk-7, Vozrozhdeniya (Renaissance) Island, Aral Sea, this BW test site was built here and on ... Spores of weaponized anthrax were accidentally released from a military facility near the city of Sverdlovsk in 1979. The death ... anthrax) Yersinia pestis (plague) Francisella tularensis (tularemia) Burkholderia mallei (glanders) Brucella spp (brucellosis) ...

*Anthrax vaccines

"Anthrax and Anthrax Vaccine-Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Archived August 24, 2012, at the ... The widely used British anthrax vaccine-sometimes called Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated (AVP) to distinguish it from the similar ... "Anthrax Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future", Vaccine, 533-9. Donegan S, Bellamy R, Gamble CL (2009). Donegan S, ed. "Vaccines ... the basis of most of the improved livestock anthrax vaccines throughout the world. Anthrax vaccines were developed in the ...

*Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed

For anthrax vaccines generally, see Anthrax vaccines. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) - also called MDPH-PA or MDPH-AVA; trade ... U.S. anthrax vaccine package insert Gulf War Syndrome Fact or Fiction. Anthrax.osd.mil - 'AVIP: Anthrax Vaccine Immunization ... U.S. cancels VaxGen anthrax vaccine contract The Washington Post [1]"VaxGen sells anthrax vaccine candidate to Emergent ... anthrax vaccine strain and the similar British anthrax vaccine (known as AVP), AVA lacks the capsule plasmid pXO2 (required for ...

*Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program

The anthrax vaccine program to which he had devoted his entire career of more than 20 years was failing. The anthrax vaccines ... the Clinton administration required the inoculation of all military members with the anthrax vaccine known as Anthrax Vaccine ... DoD's official anthrax vaccine immunization program website "Defense Employees Set For Another Suit to Halt Mandatory Anthrax ... FDA Citizen Petition, Docket 01P-0471 DoD News Article DoD Vaccines.mil Website) "Anthrax Vaccine, GEO's Survey of Guard and ...

*Gulf War syndrome

ISBN 978-0-275-96528-0. RAC-GWVI Minutes 2005, p. 73 Chan, KC (2000-10-11). "GAO-01-92T Anthrax Vaccine: Preliminary Results of ... Several potential causes of GWS have been ruled out, including "depleted uranium, anthrax vaccine, fuels, solvents, sand and ... Burdeau, C (2001-05-16). "Expert: Anthrax vaccine not proven". The Clarion-Ledger. Archived from the original on 2001-11-07. ( ... and anthrax and botulinum vaccines. The oil and smoke that spewed for months from hundreds of burning oil wells presented ...

*United States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories

... pursued anthrax vaccine work, etc. The USBWL was also a parent facility overseeing testing and production centers elsewhere, ... Joel Eugene Willard, a 53-year-old electrician, died in 1958 after contracting pulmonary anthrax. Willard Place, on Fort ... contracted anthrax and died on 25 November 1951. Broyles Street, on Fort Detrick, is named in his honor. ...

*Lev Tsenkovsky

He is known to have suggested methods of developing an effective anthrax vaccine. Lev Tsenkovsky contributed to the ...

*Squalene

It has also been determined that the anthrax vaccines given to those US military personnel did not use squalene as an adjuvant ... "Accountability of DoD, FDA and BioPort Officials for the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP)." Sox, Harold C.; Fulco, ... Asa, P; Wilson, R; Garry, RF (2002). "Antibodies to Squalene in Recipients of Anthrax Vaccine". Experimental and Molecular ... 2006). "Vaccines with the MF59 Adjuvant Do Not Stimulate Antibody Responses against Squalene". Clinical and Vaccine Immunology ...

*Emergent BioSolutions

Among the company's notable products is BioThrax (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed), the only anthrax vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food ... BioThrax (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed), a vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Following a study by ... warfare portal Biotechnology portal Companies portal Science portal Anthrax attacks of 2001 Anthrax toxin Anthrax Vaccine ... Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) Anthrasil (Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous) BAT (Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent) VIGIV (CNJ-016 ...

*Porter W Anderson Jr.

... and as an advisor to the Center for Disease Control's Anthrax Vaccine Program in 2002. He continues to volunteer his time ... Clinical trials in Finland demonstrated the vaccine's effectiveness in children, but not in infants. This vaccine was approved ... The conjugate vaccine technique Anderson and his colleagues developed led to a Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) vaccine ... "A lucky career in bacterial vaccines." (2012) Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, vol 8, issue 4, pp. 420-422 Clark, Thornton ...

*Aluminium hydroxide

Precipitated aluminium hydroxide is included as an adjuvant in some vaccines (e.g. anthrax vaccine). One of the well-known ... it also functions to stabilize vaccines by preventing the proteins in the vaccine from precipitating or sticking to the walls ... Vaccine Protocols - Volume 87 of Methods in Molecular Medicine Biomed Protocols (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 176. ISBN 1-59259-399-2 ... Petrovsky N, Aguilar JC (2004). "Vaccine adjuvants: current state and future trends". Immunol Cell Biol. 82 (5): 488-96. doi: ...

*Globalization and disease

The anthrax vaccine was administered to 25 sheep while another 25 were used as a control. On May 31, 1881 all of the sheep were ... Luckily, the BCG vaccine was developed, which prevents TB meningitis and miliary TB in childhood. But, the vaccine does not ... Finding vaccines at all for some diseases remains extremely difficult. Without vaccines, the global world remains vulnerable to ... The smallpox vaccine was developed in 1798 by Edward Jenner. By 1979 the disease had been completely eradicated, with no new ...

*First Responder Anthrax Preparedness Act

HHS shall determine whether an anthrax vaccine is eligible to be provided to DHS for the program based on determinations that ... Anthrax vaccine adsorbed Biological hazard Bioterrorism United States biological defense program "How Much Will the First ... "Senate passes bill to give anthrax vaccines to first responders". Homeland Preparedness News. 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2016-11-23 ... The law will set up a pilot program that provides anthrax vaccines from the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile to first ...

*Health Protection Agency

... including vaccines and therapeutics. For instance, the HPA is the sole licensed manufacturer of the anthrax vaccine in the UK [ ... including vaccines and therapeutics. Internationally recognised as a world leader in microbiology research and testing, HPA's ... bacterial vaccines, toxin therapeutics, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) and in-vivo testing of compounds, biodefence and ...

*Woollahra, New South Wales

Woollahra was the home of John McGarvie Smith, a metallurgist and biochemist who produced the first preservable anthrax vaccine ...

*Koch-Pasteur rivalry

Amid anthrax vaccine's success, Pasteur introduced rabies vaccine (1885), the first human vaccine since Jenner's smallpox ... Pasteur soon introduced his own anthrax vaccine in a highly successful public experiment, and entered commerce with it. Pasteur ... BCG vaccine was not used in the public health of America, which virtually eliminated tuberculosis without it. BCG vaccine's ... and introduced anthrax vaccine (1881). Koch had introduced pure culture and thus founded bacteriology while confirming Bacillus ...

*Project Jefferson

The goal was to determine whether or not the strain was resistant to the commercially available U.S. anthrax vaccine. The ... Project Jefferson was a covert U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency program designed to determine if the current anthrax vaccine ... Project Jefferson began in 1997 and was designed to reproduce a strain of genetically modified anthrax isolated by Russian ...

*Bacillus anthracis

A number of anthrax vaccines have been developed for preventive use in livestock and humans. Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) may ... The first vaccine containing live organisms was Louis Pasteur's veterinary anthrax vaccine. B. anthracis has a single ... However, this vaccine is only used for at-risk adults before exposure to anthrax and has not been approved for use after ... The goal of the Republic of Korea is to use this strain as a challenge strain to develop a recombinant vaccine against anthrax ...

*Maryland

... is home to defense contractor Emergent BioSolutions, which manufactures and provides an anthrax vaccine to U.S. ... "Emergent BioSolutions Receives Orphan Drug Designation for BioThrax for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of Anthrax Disease". ...

*Cutter Laboratories

Cutter's early products included anthrax vaccine, hog cholera (swine fever) virus, and anti-hog cholera serum-and eventually a ... Cutter withdrew its vaccine from the market on April 27 after vaccine-associated cases were reported. The mistake produced ... The hog cholera vaccine was the first tissue culture vaccine, human or veterinary, ever produced. The company expanded ... In anticipation of the demand for vaccine, the companies had already produced stocks of the vaccine and these were issued once ...

*Aftermath of the Gulf War

Some factors considered as possibilities include exposure to depleted uranium, chemical weapons, anthrax vaccines given to ...

*Bruce Edwards Ivins

Sourcing Anthrax Vaccine -- posts by Meryl Nass, M.D., August 2, 2008 "Prosecutor calls researcher sole culprit in 2001 anthrax ... for helping solve technical problems in the manufacture of anthrax vaccines. The 2001 anthrax attacks involved the mailing of ... 877.5 million to provide the vaccine under the Project Bioshield Act. However, biological warfare and anthrax vaccine expert Dr ... Ivins was a co-inventor on two United States patents for anthrax vaccine technology, U.S. Patent 6,316,006 and U.S. Patent ...

*Vaccine

... whole cell pertussis vaccine was used as an adjuvant for anthrax vaccine. This produces a more rapid immune response than ... Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.[citation needed] Some ... The first DIVA vaccines (formerly termed marker vaccines and since 1999 coined as DIVA vaccines) and companion diagnostic tests ... the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently ...

*Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority

Emergent manufactures the only FDA licensed vaccine against anthrax disease, called BioThrax, which is recommended by the CDC ... BioShield Pandemic Influenza Emergency Supplemental Fund Strategic National Stockpile Antiobiotics Vaccines Anthrax vaccine ... which makes the other anthrax vaccine, BioThrax. According to Homeland Preparedness News, NuThrax will be able to provide ... immunity to anthrax after two doses, versus the three doses under the currently stockpiled vaccine (BioThrax). Table source: ...

*Texas Biomedical Research Institute

... and vaccine development. Developing an animal model to test vaccines to protect people against the Zika virus. In 2015, it was ... and anthrax. Developed promising hormone-derived therapies with potential to treat breast and prostate cancer. Developed ... Developing vaccine strategies for Ebola, HIV, Lassa virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis viruses, and herpes. ... Developed vaccines, antibodies and antitoxins for deadly agents of bioterrorism such as Ebola, botulinum neurotoxins, ...

*Jean Joseph Henri Toussaint

... credit for creation of the anthrax vaccine went to Louis Pasteur, following Pasteur's celebrated demonstration with the vaccine ... On the Anthrax Inoculation by Robert Koch Parts of this article are based on a translation of the equivalent article from the ... At Pouilly-le-Fort, Pasteur used a vaccine attenuated by potassium dichromate, employing a process similar to Toussaint's, who ... Pasteur's nephew, bacteriologist Adrien Loir (1862-1941) was aware of Toussaint's work with the vaccine, of which he documented ...
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease, occurring in wild and domestic mammals, caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis). Anthrax occurs in humans when they are exposed to infected animals, tissue from infected animals or when they are directly exposed to B. anthracis or its spores. Depending on the route of infection, anthrax disease can occur in three forms: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation. In the United States of America (USA), the annual incidence of human anthrax has declined from approximately 130 cases annually in the early 1900s to no cases during 1999 to 2000. However, in the USA, shortly after September 11th, 2001, there were 22 cases (18 confirmed) of inhaled and cutaneous anthrax infection that were related to contaminated mail. The development of a new anthrax vaccine is necessary because the current AVA vaccine requires the growth of B. anthracis in its manufacturing process and has a complex administration regimen of six administrators of vaccine ...
But Emergent BioSolutions, the anthrax vaccine manufacturer, has understandably high hopes and great expectations. The company has been repeatedly smiled upon by the US government, earning billions of dollars for anthrax vaccine itself, for testing the vaccine, for developing new vaccines, for storing the vaccine, and for promises. Now the company is making another promise, to produce drugs for Ebola. You see, the company gets paid for the promise to try and develop such a product. The company will earn considerably more if a product actually emerges and is manufactured. But so far, all the other products EBS was paid to develop have not panned out ...
PURPOSE: In the 1960s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) held the investigational new drug (IND) application for the anthrax vaccine and collected short-term safety data from approximately 16,000 doses administered to almost 7000 individuals. While some recent anthrax vaccine safety studies have suggested that women experience more injection site reactions (ISRs), to our knowledge the IND safety data were not previously examined for a gender-specific difference. METHODS: We identified and analyzed a subset of the IND study data representing a total of 1749 persons who received 3592 doses from 1967 to 1972. Original data collection forms were located and information extracted, including: vaccine recipients name, age at vaccination, gender, dose number, date of vaccination, lot number, grading of ISR, presence and type of systemic reactions. Overall and gender-specific rates for adverse reactions to anthrax vaccine were calculated and we performed a multivariable analysis. ...
HHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson today announced that NIAID has awarded two companies contracts designed to spur development of a new anthrax vaccine. The two contracts total $22.5 million through Fiscal Year 2003.
But as recently as this spring, the Government Accountability Office, the investigative arm of Congress, said questions remain about the vaccine. "The long term safety of the licensed vaccine has not been studied," the agency said in a May 9 report. ". . . Also, there is some evidence that the current anthrax vaccine may have diminished efficacy against certain virulent strains of anthrax." Barbara Loe Fisher, president of the National Vaccine Information Center, said her nonprofit advocacy group is adding more information to its Web site about the research and development of biological defense vaccines. "The DOD has a moral duty to fully disclose anthrax vaccine risks, as well as benefits, to soldiers and allow them to make an informed, voluntary decision," she said in a statement" - Christopher Lee, Washington Post, October 17, 2006 Mandatory Anthrax Shots to Return ...
Use of the Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA) expanded in 1991, when the U.S. military, concerned that Iraq possessed anthrax bioweapons, administered the vaccine. As more service members were vaccinated, however, some of them raised concerns about the safety and efficacy of AVA, and some also suggested a possible link between AVA vaccination and the illnesses experienced by some veterans. In October 2000, the IOM convened the Committee to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Anthrax Vaccine to evaluate these difficult issues.
Dr. Kwai Chan testified on 29 April 1999, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee:. We are pleased to be here today to discuss the results of our ongoing examination of the safety and efficacy of the anthrax vaccine, which is being done at your request. My testimony presents preliminary findings on (1) the short- and long-term safety of the vaccine, (2) the efficacy of the vaccine, and (3) problems the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found in the vaccine production facility in Michigan that could compromise the safety, efficacy, and quality of the vaccine. We plan to issue the final report on our review this fall.. As you know, concerns have been raised about the Department of Defense s (DOD) anthrax immunization program since the Department began vaccinating the first of 2.4 million active duty and reserve members. For example, some Gulf War veterans are suffering from unexplained illnesses that they believe might have been caused by anthrax vaccines that they received during the war. ...
Host genetic variation, particularly within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci, reportedly mediates heterogeneity in immune response to certain vaccines; however, no large study of genetic determinants of anthrax vaccine response has been described. We searched for associations between the immunoglobulin G antibody to protective antigen (AbPA) response to Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) in humans, and polymorphisms at HLA class I (HLA-A,-B, and-C) and class II (HLA-DRB1,-DQA1,-DQB1,-DPB1) loci. The study included 794 European-Americans and 200 African-Americans participating in a 43-month, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial of AVA (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00119067). Among European-Americans, genes from tightly linked HLA-DRB1,-DQA1,-DQB1 haplotypes displayed significant overall associations with longitudinal variation in AbPA levels at 4, 8, 26 and 30 weeks from baseline in response to vaccination with three or four doses of AVA (global P6.53 × 10 4). In particular, ...
Learn more about Anthrax Vaccine at Grand Strand Medical Center What Is Anthrax?What Is the Anthrax Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the Risks...
AHRP) Whose children will be sacrificed in an illegal and unethical experiment in the name of Biodefense Preparedness? According to BioPrepWatch.com , the Obama administration is seeking to obtain a green light to conduct an anthrax vaccine safety experiment on US children. The stated rationale for such a trial, articulated by Dr. Nicole Lurie, US Dept. of Health and Human Services, is that there are no data about the safety of exposing children to the anthrax vaccine. And if an emergency arises, a trial "would present an array of logistical, clinical and communication challenges during a public health crisis.". No child would benefit from exposure to a vaccine that has generated thousands of adverse event reports-including deaths-in adults.. Current law allows the FDA to issue an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for "protections against biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear agents that may be used to attack the American people." The FDA Commissioner "may allow countermeasures to be ...
Passport Health is one of very few providers of the anthrax vaccine. Anthrax vaccines are available nationwide and should be considered by first responders.
No anthrax vaccine testing on children _ for now - AP News: Should the anthrax vaccine be tested in children? It will .09/26/2017 19:19:31PM EST.
The Pentagon is reviving its mandatory anthrax vaccinations despite allegations that the shots have contributed to as many as 23 deaths and sickened hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of soldiers....The Pentagon has been rocked by criticism that it has failed to adequately track whether the shots have caused diseases. Indeed, as occurred with Francis, many soldiers are injected with several vaccines on the same day, making it harder to identify the cause of illnesses....Col. Randall Anderson, who runs the Military Vaccine Agency, said the Pentagon believes health risks from the anthrax vaccine "are equal to those of other vaccines" that cause illnesses in only a tiny percentage of those vaccinated.....Numerous public health experts believe BioThrax causes a range of problems, particularly among women and people prone to autoimmune diseases. They list Guillain-Barre, which can kill or paralyze; other neurological disorders; diabetes; arthritis; chronic fatigue syndrome; chronic muscle and joint ...
BIOTHRAX (Anthrax vaccine) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
(CIDRAP News) In a new chapter in a 2-year legal battle over the US militarys anthrax vaccination program, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reaffirmed its earlier finding that the anthrax vaccine used by the military is safe and effective for preventing all forms of anthrax.
This study will examine the recombinant, that is, produced by genetic engineering, protective antigen (rPA) that brings about antibodies to neutralize the anthrax toxin and that could therefore be predicted to offer protection against anthrax. Today, anthrax is rarely encountered in the United States, since the introduction of vaccines for cattle in the 1930s. A human vaccine was licensed in 1970. Vaccination against anthrax has been confined to people at risk, such as wool sorters and some veterinarians. However, the rising prospects of B. anthracis being used as a weapon have led to routine administration of the anthrax vaccine to members of the armed forces.. Adults who are in good health may be eligible for this study. The involvement of 300 adults is planned.. Participants will have a general physical exam and test for vital signs. There will also be collection of blood for chemistry and hematology; urinalysis; tests for HIV, hepatitis B and C, and liver function; and a pregnancy test, if ...
As thousands of Iowans are now on active military duty, a federal judge ruled Monday that military personnel cannot be forced to take an anthrax vaccine. The ruling says some of the vaccine is experimental and therefore servicemen and women should be given the choice on whether or not to take it. Iowa Senator Chuck Grassley says soldiers should not be used as "guinea pigs" and says he agrees with the ruling. More than 900-thousand soldiers have received the anthrax shots, and Grassley says hes not sure they should have been forced to have the vaccines in the first place, given their experimental nature. The Pentagon says hundreds of troops have been punished or discharged for refusing the vaccines. The court ruling could lead to a reversal of those consequences of non-compliance.. ...
... Anthrax is a bacterial infection that is contracted by humans from the livestock like cattle and sheep. The bacteria
After sifting through the scientific, social and ethical conundrums raised by this question, the eight-member working group concluded that it would be ethically justifiable to conduct a study, which would provide crucial information, such as whether the vaccine is safe and how many doses would be needed. "A lot of things have happened that we didnt think could happen. I think the threat is real, and we should be prepared," said Fagbuyi, an assistant professor of pediatrics and emergency medicine at the George Washington University School of Medicine. Fagbuyi and others dispute concerns about the vaccines safety, noting that the Food and Drug Administration, the National Academy of Sciences and many other independent authorities have concluded that it is as safe as other commonly used vaccines, producing serious complications very rarely. [This is not actually true. What happened was that the IOM committee studying anthrax vaccine in 2001 requested a report that made this claim, but there have ...
The culture of political correctness has meant, in medicine, that we ignore how the foundations of our science are being undermined by commercialism. Clinical data generated or presented by the manufacturers of drugs, vaccines and devices cannot be trusted: there are hundreds of studies proving this. But this fraudulent information continues to be the only data informing the approval of vaccines, drugs and devices ...
June 19, 2005. More than 1,200 military personnel who received the anthrax vaccine before going to Iraq have developed serious illnesses, according to an Army report released last month, though local military officials contend the shots still are safe and necessary.
The federal government must perform more tests on adults before it can ethically move forward with controversial anthrax vaccine trials in children, members of a federal bioethics panel said.
The presidential office on Sunday confirmed it imported anthrax vaccines this year, but denied claims that it has only vaccinated its officials against the disease.Cheong Wa Dae spokesperson Park Soo-hyun said in a press release that the purchase was planned by the former administration in early 2016 and that this was reflected in the budget this year. Presidential office spokesman Park Soo-hyun (Yonhap)
A controversial government proposal to test the anthrax vaccine in children would be unethical without first conducting much more research, a presidential
​The Israeli government will pay out thousands of dollars in compensation to 716 soldiers who took part in an anthrax vaccine trial that ended in 2005. 92 of the servicemen sued the state, saying they were forced into the study and suffered side effects.
By Chris Strohm. December 17, 2004. The vice chairman of the House Government Reform Committee has raised questions about the Pentagons recent request for emergency authority to resume its anthrax vaccination program, Government Executive has learned. Rep. Christopher Shays, R-Conn., sent letters on Thursday to the Health and Human Services Department and CIA concerning the Pentagons request. Shays also is chairman of the House Government Reform Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations. "The Department of Defense request presents a number of unique, potentially troubling legal and procedural issues, and the subcommittee requests information on how the Department of Health and Human Services will approach this precedent-setting matter," Shays wrote in a letter to HHS Secretary Tommy Thompson. Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz asked Thompson on Dec. 10 to declare an emergency so the Pentagon could begin giving all military personnel anthrax ...
This 1449 word essay is about Medicine, Health, Clinical medicine, Vaccines, Anthrax, Biological warfare, RTT, Vaccination, Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed. Read the full essay now!
Anthtrax is a highly lethal acute disease in humans caused by bacterium Bacillus Anthracis. Read the NVIC special report to learn more about anthrax vaccine.
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The book describes weeks of anxious discussions about the possibility that Iraq would unleash its presumably limited inventory of anthrax spores and botulinum toxin against coalition forces. U.S. military planners guessed that the Iraqis would target frontline troops with botulinum and would direct anthrax against the rear. The logic arose from the fact that the toxin disables its victims in minutes or hours, whereas the incubation period for anthrax is a day or more. The planners figured that by the time untreated rear-guard troops were moved forward, anthrax infections would have incapacitated them. These presumptions appeared critical in the face of inadequate vaccine supplies. To the chagrin of the commanders, although a half-million American troops would be sent to the Gulf area, there was enough anthrax vaccine only for 150,000 and botulinum vaccine for 10,000. Layered onto the scarcity problem were uncertainties about the safety and effectiveness of the anthrax vaccine. The uncertainties ...
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Crystal Communications. 2009 Family Circle, #3 Lexington, KY 40505. PH: (859) 255-0076 FAX: (859) 255-0938. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: MAY 20, 2002. CONTACT: ED PUTERBAUGH, (859) 255-0076 or [email protected] or LT. COL. THOMAS S. HEEMSTRA (Ret. U.S.A.F.) (859) 621-8982.. AS MILITARY DECIDES ABOUT CIVILIAN NEEDS FOR ANTHRAX VACCINE, NEW BOOK DETAILS ITS HISTORY, HIGH REACTION RATE, DANGERS. Lexington, KY: Even as the Defense Department is in discussions with other agencies to assess civilian vaccination needs - particularly for emergency first responders - in the event of a bioterrorist attack (Washington Post, May 20, 2002), a new book written by a former F-16 squadron commander, Anthrax: A Deadly Shot in the Dark aims to educate the civilians and the public health community about the hazards of the anthrax vaccine, its flawed manufacturing history, and its devastating effects on the military. (See www.anthraxadeadlyshotinthedark.com ) You may have to face the same decision, whether to ...
Anthrax vaccine patches stimulated robust and functional immune responses that protected against lethal challenge. Demonstration of responses in the lung suggests that a mechanism exists for protection against challenge with aerosolized anthrax spores. A formulated, pressure-sensitive, dry adhesive …
Abstract The current vaccine for anthrax has been licensed since 1970 and was developed based on the outcome of human trials conducted in the 1950s. This vaccine, known as anthrax ..
In response to the attacks on Sept 11, 2001 (9/11), and the related security concerns, the USA and its coalition partners began a war in Afghanistan and subsequently invaded Iraq. The wars caused many deaths of non-combatant civilians, further damaged the health-supporting infrastructure and the environment (already adversely affected by previous wars), forced many people to migrate, led to violations of human rights, and diverted resources away from important health needs. After 9/11 and the anthrax outbreak shortly afterwards, the USA and other countries have improved emergency preparedness and response capabilities, but these actions have often diverted attention and resources from more urgent health issues. The documentation and dissemination of information about the adverse health effects of these wars and about the diversion of resources could help to mitigate these consequences and prevent their recurrence ...
The nations only vaccine approved against anthrax has never been a best-seller. The only civilians who ever needed it were ranchers, hide handlers, veterinarians and the few scientists who worked with the deadly soil bacterium.. Sept. 11 changed all that. Doctors offices and travel clinics around the country have been swamped with requests for the vaccine amid concern that the tragedies in New York and Washington might foreshadow a bioterrorist attack. More than 1,000 people in the past two weeks have tried to get shots directly from the vaccines maker, BioPort of Lansing, Mich. Callers there are being shunted to a recorded message that reflects what doctors everywhere are saying:. "All the stockpile that currently exists is owned by the Department of Defense. At this time there is no opportunity for any commercial sales.". That reality has infuriated some. "After all, we are all now soldiers in the war trenches of our offices, hospitals and backyards," said Robert Gray, an Atlanta area ...
A vaccine against anthrax that is more effective and easier to administer than the present vaccine has proved highly effective in tests in mice and guinea pigs, report University of Michigan Medical School scientists in the ...
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New details have been released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concerning recommendations made in February by its vaccine advisory group about Americans receiving anthrax shots.
The truth is, biological and chemical weapons are terrifying because they are so hard to defend against. Soldiers in a rich countrys army can improve their chances of survival with hi-tec equipment and relentless training. The British have invented a new anthrax vaccine since the Gulf War (which is only fair, since they worked so hard to develop anthrax in the first place). NBC suits, NAPS tablets and Atropine injections used by highly trained troops will reduce the numbers killed in a nerve gas attack.. But what if youre an Iraqi who just happens to live next door to an office block where your government has been storing nerve gas in the basement? What do you do when the Americans bomb the building and crack the vats so the gas leaks out? What if youre an Indian migrant worker in Kuwait when Saddam fires a short-range missile loaded with anthrax at US troops?. You probably die. ...
Greenmedinfo.com - Natural Health Resource - The worlds most widely referenced, open access, natural medicine database, with 30,000+ study abstracts and growing daily
In Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment Thats Killing Our Soldiers-and Why GIs Are Only the First Victims, Gary Matsumoto struggles for nearly ...
Since at least 1987, biowarfare development trumped the welfare of tens of thousands of GIs used as human guinea pigs for inoculation with experimental unlicensed anthrax vaccines containing squalene - an oil-based adjuvant (claimed to enhance immunity) known for decades to cause severe autoimmune diseases in lab animals, yet administered involuntarily without disclosure of its harmful effects to human health. Matsumoto wrote: "Other research shows that squalene is the experimental anthrax vaccine ingredient that caused devastating autoimmune diseases and deaths for many Gulf War veterans from the US, UK, and Australia, yet it continues in use today and for new vaccines development in labs. Theres a close match between the squalene-induced diseases in animals and those observed in humans injected with this oil: rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. "Matsumoto says that the real problem with using squalene (isnt) that it mimics a molecule found in the ...
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Vol 6: Engineering Venoms Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Fragments and Its Therapeutic Potential.. This article is from Toxins, volume 6.AbstractSerum therapy remains the only specific treatment against envenoming, but . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
(2003) Rosovitz et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry. A panel of variants with alanine substitutions in the small loop of anthrax toxin protective antigen domain 4 was created to determine individual amino acid residues critical for interactions with ...
A double blessing has dawned upon Emergent BioSolutions: The CDC signed a contract to stockpile the companys anthrax vaccine, BioThrax, worth about $911 million, while another agency expressed its intention to buy another $100 million worth of the shot.
For the second time in less than a year, a federal judge in Washington blocked the Pentagon from forcing troops to take the anthrax vaccine, saying the vaccine was not properly approved by the Food
My husband was in the military and received the anthrax vaccines because it was mandatory. I begged him to refuse them; showing him evidence of how they had been sitting in a warehouse for 40 years (waaay past expiration date), how they were totally ineffective for airborne anthrax attacks, etc. Unless the military expected their enemies in Desert Storm to throw infected sheep at our soldiers, the vaccines would be useless even if they had not been out of date. He got the vaccines anyway (military mandatory) and it ruined his health. With only 3 years to retirement he was told that he could accept a paltry 30% for medical discharge or he could be administratively discharged since he could no longer pass the physical. Thats supporting our troops, eh? The worst of it is that it was totally unnnecessary ...
Enzymatic activity of the recombinant Pa×gGolSI (homologue of PtGolS2) and Pa×gGolSII (homologue of PtGolS3) in response to pH at 37.5 °C. Relative expressio
Animals injected with squalene always develop painful, incurable, autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus according to investigative journalist Gary Matsumoto, former reporter for NBC and Fox News. (Gary Matsumoto, Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment Thats Killing Our Soldiers and Why GIs Are Only the First Victims, Basic Books, 2004) Dangers of squalene have been known since 1956 when Dr. Jules Freund, creator of this oil-based adjuvant, warned that animals injected with his formulation developed terrible, incurable conditions: allergic aspermatogenesis (stoppage of sperm production), experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (the animal version of MS), allergic neuritis (inflammation of the nerves that can lead to paralysis) and other severe autoimmune disorders. Squalene (MF 59) was added to the anthrax vaccine. This vaccine caused tens of thousands of U.S. Iraq Desert Storm soldiers to suffer permanent neurological damage called "Gulf War ...
I first heard his name in 2003 when I was providing information to UPI reporter Mark Benjamin, who had been given the green light by his editor, Dan Olmsted, to investigate the safety of anthrax vaccine being forced on U.S. military without their informed consent. Dan supported Marks pursuit of the vaccine risk topic, even though it was not one that mainstream media wanted to touch during the post-911 era after Congress handed more money and power to federal agencies, including the Department of Defense (DoD), to develop a public-private partnership with the pharmaceutical industry and fast track "bioterrorism" and other types of vaccines and drugs to market. ...
CIDRAP News) - A new report from the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) offers a few predictions on when certain new countermeasures against biological threats will become available, including a forecast for two novel influenza drugs and possibly a next-generation anthrax vaccine within the next 5 years. ...
CIDRAP News) - A new report from the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) offers a few predictions on when certain new countermeasures against biological threats will become available, including a forecast for two novel influenza drugs and possibly a next-generation anthrax vaccine within the next 5 years. ...
RPA32 antibody [RPA34-20] (replication protein A2, 32kDa) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-RPA32 mAb (GTX16850) is tested in Human, Mouse, Yeast samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
RPA70 antibody [8C3-D12-H10] (replication protein A1, 70kDa) for WB. Anti-RPA70 mAb (GTX49157) is tested in Human, Mouse, Monkey, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
1.1 Scope. 1.1.1 This standard shall specify the minimum selection, care, and maintenance requirements for utility technical rescue protective, rescue and recovery technical rescue, and chemicals, biological agents, and radiological particulate [also known as chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) technical rescue] ensembles and the individual ensemble elements that include garments, helmets, gloves, footwear, and interface components that are compliant with NFPA 1951, Standard on Protective Ensembles for Technical Rescue Incidents. 1.1.2 This standard shall also specify requirements for USAR operation protective ensembles, ensemble elements, clothing, and equipment certified as compliant with the previous edition of NFPA 1951, Standard on Protective Ensemble for USAR Operations.
Creative Biolabs provides Chimeric anti-PA T cell receptor (6218), pCDTCR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
Mouse polyclonal RPA32/RPA2 antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to full length native protein (purified)
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If you have multiple, parallel reactions set up in AVA (in one AVA software instance/window), you can view a summary of all the reactions together in the Overview tab (which is between the Reporting and Reaction 1 tabs).. In the Schedule section of the Overview tab, there is a play (triangle) button to start all reactions, and a stop (square) button to stop all reactions.. ...
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TURNBULL, P.C.B. et al. Naturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern Africa. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2008, vol.75, n.2, pp.95-102. ISSN 2219-0635.. Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63 %) wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a whole and the other groups (P , 0.001) and no significant difference between the South African and control groups (P , 0.05). Numbers in the Namibian group were too small ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA). T2 - Measurement of human anti-PA antibodies. AU - Iacono-Connors, L. C.. AU - Novak, J.. AU - Rossi, C.. AU - Mangiafico, J.. AU - Ksiazek, Thomas. PY - 1994/1. Y1 - 1994/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027975977&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027975977&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7496927. AN - SCOPUS:0027975977. VL - 1. SP - 78. EP - 82. JO - Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. JF - Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. SN - 1556-6811. IS - 1. ER - ...
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BioAssay record AID 289164 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen 63 reconstituted in diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine lipid membranes assessed as inhibition of channel conductance at 5 uM.
References for Abcams Anti-Bacillus anthracis protective antigen antibody [BAP0102] (HRP) (ab1990). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
TruStrip RDT Anthrax Protective antigen 83 (PA83) Rapid Test cards, 25/pk Rapid Test 800-100-RDT-25 TruStrip RDT Anthrax Protective antigen 83 (PA83) Rapid Test cards, 25/pk Rapid Test 800-100-RDT-25
Protective Antigen antibody LS-C505586 is an AP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen (PA ). Validated for ELISA and WB.
Emergent BioSolutions, Inc. is co-hosting Anthrax: Threat and Response, a conference organized by the French High Committee for Civil Defense to discuss anthrax preparedness and response - EBSI.com
Anti-angiogenic therapies are effective for the treatment of cancer, a variety of ocular diseases, and have potential benefits in cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and psoriasis. We have previously shown that anthrax protective antigen (PA), a non-pathogenic component of anthrax toxin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis, apparently as a result of interaction with the cell surface receptors capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2) protein and tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8). Hence, molecules that bind the anthrax toxin receptors may be effective to slow or halt pathological vascular growth. Here we describe development and testing of an effective homogeneous steady-state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) high throughput screening assay designed to identify molecules that inhibit binding of PA to CMG2. Molecules identified in the screen can serve as potential lead compounds for the development of anti-angiogenic and anti-anthrax therapies. The assay to screen for inhibitors of this protein
The anthrax letter attacks after September 11, 2001 demonstrated the ease of using the anthrax spore as a weapon in a bioterrorist attack. Anthrax is a lethal i...
With my admittedly limited resources (time/access to journals), I tried to do as extensive a search on safety studies of the anthrax vaccine as possible. Report after report stated that the most common reactions to the vaccine tended to be local and of mild to moderate severity, being limited mainly to erythema, edema and pruritis. Severe reactions of these types were rare, and none of the studies found any connection between the vaccine and long-term health issues, like autoimmune disorders or chronic fatigue. My best guess is that chronic issues are most likely unrelated to the vaccine and may be due to other factors (e.g., other environmental causes, stress and/or psychogenic illness, etc.). If they are connected to the vaccine, they seem to be so exceedingly rare that, for individuals at risk of anthrax exposure, the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the remote risks of a serious AE. Of course, research on the anthrax vaccine should continue. For one thing, we should have more than one ...
With my admittedly limited resources (time/access to journals), I tried to do as extensive a search on safety studies of the anthrax vaccine as possible. Report after report stated that the most common reactions to the vaccine tended to be local and of mild to moderate severity, being limited mainly to erythema, edema and pruritis. Severe reactions of these types were rare, and none of the studies found any connection between the vaccine and long-term health issues, like autoimmune disorders or chronic fatigue. My best guess is that chronic issues are most likely unrelated to the vaccine and may be due to other factors (e.g., other environmental causes, stress and/or psychogenic illness, etc.). If they are connected to the vaccine, they seem to be so exceedingly rare that, for individuals at risk of anthrax exposure, the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the remote risks of a serious AE. Of course, research on the anthrax vaccine should continue. For one thing, we should have more than one ...
Marti Oakley (c)copyright 2011 All Rights Reserved Originally posted in May of 2011. ____________________________________________________ On May 2, 2011, Department of Health and Human Services announced it will buy 3.42 million doses of Bio-thrax a vaccine developed by the military to counter its weaponized anthrax that it also developed. The problem is, the vaccine is known…
Tarit conducted his undergraduate studies in Biochemical Engineering at UCL and his Masters at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He conducted his engineering doctorate in a joint venture between UCL and the Health Protection Agency, working on 2 vaccine of commercial interest, a novel Meningitis B vaccine based upon the outer membrane proteins of N.lactamica and the UK licensed Anthrax vaccine. As part of his doctoral studies in a joint project with the Health Protection Agency and Prof Gary Lye in the IMRC in Bioprocessing, Tarit focused on the development of a microwell platform for rapid vaccine development. This platform was applied to the development of a new Meningitis B vaccine now in clinical trials. The platforms usefulness and robustness was also tested with the UK Anthrax Vaccine, (AVP) - utilised to gather deeper process insight under ACDP Class 3 conditions ...
After establishing that squalene MF59 was admittedly experimental, Capt. Rovet went on to explain how the U.S. government willfully ignored all documented evidence showing that the anthrax vaccine, and squalene MF59 in particular, was directly responsible for triggering an epidemic of Gulf War syndrome that left hundreds of thousands of servicemen seriously injured or dead. Not only this, but the U.S. Department of Defense actually ordered that both the anthrax vaccine and a related botulism toxoid vaccine, both of which contained experimental squalene MF59, not be annotated in soldiers medical records -- they were instead generically identified as "Vac A" and "Vac B" in order to conceal their identity ...
Madhouse - The Very Best of Anthrax è una raccolta pubblicata nel 1999 dalla band thrash metal statunitense Anthrax. "Madhouse" (Anthrax) - 4:18 "A.I.R." (Anthrax) - 5:48 "Armed and Dangerous" (Anthrax/Lilker/Turbin) - 5:45 "I Am the Law" (Anthrax/Lilker) - 5:56 "Indians" (Anthrax) - 5:41 "Caught in a Mosh" (Anthrax) - 5:00 "Im the Man" (Belladonna/Bello/Benante/Ian/Moore/Rooney/Spitz) - 3:04 "Antisocial" (Bonvoisin/Krief) - 4:27 "Belly of the Beast" (Anthrax) - 4:47 "Got the Time" (Jackson) - 6:55 "Keep It in the Family" (Anthrax) - 7:09 "Bring the Noise" (Ridenhour/Shocklee/Sadler/Anthrax) - 3:28 (EN) Madhouse - The Very Best of Anthrax, su MusicBrainz, MetaBrainz Foundation ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends 60 days of oral antibiotics along with a three-dose regimen of BioThraxT anthrax vaccine (zero, two weeks, four weeks) as an emergency public health intervention for people exposed to anthrax. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro ) and doxycycline are approved in adults and children for post exposure prophylaxis (preventing infection in people exposed to anthrax). Levofloxacin (Levaquin ) is approved for post exposure prophylaxis in adults 18 and older. Common side effects of Cipro include upset stomach, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, dizziness, or headache. Patients taking doxycycline should be aware of the following side effects: upset stomach, vomiting, and diarrhea. Additionally, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin should not be taken with antacids, calcium supplements, and dairy products. These may bind with the medications, decreasing their effectiveness. Common side effects of Levaquin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, headache, ...
A new anthrax antibody engineered by scientists at The University of Texas at Austin protects and defends against inhalation anthrax without the use of antibiotics and other more expensive antibodies. The high-affinity antibody, an anthrax antitoxin, successfully eliminated both anthrax bacteria and its deadly toxins in animal tests. If future tests concur, this could be the first successful treatment for late-stage anthrax infection, even for an anthrax strain that has been designed to resist antibiotics.
TREATMENT - ANTHRAX from emedicine.com A number of possible therapeutic strategies have yet to be fully explored experimentally or submitted for approval to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The recommendations provided do not represent uses currently approved by the FDA but are a consensus based on best available information of recent studies. Given the fulminant course of inhalation anthrax, early antibiotic administration is essential to maximize patient survival. Given the difficulty in achieving timely microbiologic diagnosis of anthrax, all persons with fever or evidence of systemic disease in an area where anthrax cases are occurring should be treated empirically for anthrax until the disease is excluded. No clinical studies exist of the treatment of inhalation anthrax in humans. Most naturally occurring strains of anthrax are sensitive to penicillin, and penicillin historically has been the preferred therapy for the treatment of anthrax. Penicillin and doxycycline are FDA-approved ...
Abstract Protective immunity to anthrax can be achieved by antibodies raised against the secreted protective antigen (PA) and this forms the basis of the current acellular vaccines..
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Chikritzhs, T. and Naimi, T. and Stockwell, T. and Liang, W. 2014. Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis sheds doubt on protective associations between moderate alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease. Evidence-Based Medicine. 20: 38 ...
Oklahoma State University (OSU) administrators have aborted a federally-funded study of anthrax vaccines because the project involved sacrificing the baboons involved in the research -- even though the project had already received approval by a unanimous vote from the university committee overseeing animal research. A photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis bacteriaImage: Wikimedia commons, CDCIt was a considerable surprise to pretty much everybody involved,
Oklahoma State University (OSU) administrators have aborted a federally-funded study of anthrax vaccines because the project involved sacrificing the baboons involved in the research -- even though the project had already received approval by a unanimous vote from the university committee overseeing animal research. A photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis bacteriaImage: Wikimedia commons, CDCIt was a considerable surprise to pretty much everybody involved,
In the United States, incidence of naturally-acquired anthrax is extremely rare (about 1-2 cases of cutaneous disease per year). Gastrointestinal anthrax is rare, but may occur as explosive outbreaks associated with ingestion of infected animals. Worldwide, the incidence is unknown, though B. anthracis is present in most of the world. Unreliable reporting makes it difficult to estimate the true incidence of human anthrax worldwide. However, in fall 2001, 22 cases of anthrax (11 inhalation, 11 cutaneous) were identified in the United States following intentional contamination of the mail. In the United States, the annual occurrences of naturally-occurring human anthrax declined from estimated 130 cases annually in the early 1900s to 2 cases each in 2000, 2001, and 2002 ...
The Alliance for Natural Health commented that this is not the first shady behavior to be exposed in the CDC. ANH explained, "This is not the first scandal to hit the CDC in recent years. Earlier this year, Dr. Poul Thorsen, one of the co-authors of the Pediatrics article and "scientist-in-residence" at the CDC from 2000 to 2002, was indicted in Atlanta for fraud and money laundering in relation to his $11 million grant from the CDC. And just last week, Dr. Kimberly Quinlan Lindsey, a top CDC official, was arrested and charged with two counts of child molestation and one count of bestiality.". And just when you think vaccination news couldnt get any worse, last week the San Francisco Chronicle reported that the National Biodefense Science Board, which advises the federal government on bioterrorism issues, voted 12-1 to recommend that the Health and Human Services Department endorse and sponsor a study to test the anthrax vaccine in children! (Do these advisory panels not think 36 federally ...
The DOD (Department of Defense) announced the experiential and mandatory anthrax vaccine, which was not FDA approved, in 1997. Since then many of Americas finest have become extremely ill with Gulf War Syndrome, a collection of symptoms ranging from severe fatigue, joint pain, respiratory and memory problems. Firstly, the military doesnt track any vaccine related effects…
Its one of the worst Ebola outbreaks the world has seen and theres no vaccine. Emergent Biosolutions in Lansing makes the anthrax vaccine, and tells us what it takes to create one.
I was diagnosed with Psoriasis in 1998 after having a bad reaction to a Anthrax Vaccine. Soon after I started experiencing severe bursitis in both my hips. In hindsight this was probably the beginning of PsA. Swelling of the bursa in your large joints is a common start to the damage of the actual joints that happens in PsA. I was discharged from the Army because the swelling and pain in my hips from the bursitis had gotten to the point I couldnt do "soldiering" such as qualifying with my weapon in the prone position, run the 2 miles for my PT test, pass the sit up portion of my PT test because my hip flexors were already starting to be compromised, among others. When I had my VA appointment the Army decided that my P was service connected. I moved forward with life, found a job in my military trained career field, and got the typical creams, steroids and muck that was available for p at the time. Around 2000 I started having many more symptoms that again in hindsight were probably PsA. Pain ...
Q: Is there an approved treatment for anthrax? A: Yes. Three types of antiobiotics are approved for anthrax: ciprofloxacin, tetracyclines (including doxycycline), and penicillins. For people who have been exposed to anthrax but do not have symptoms, 60 days of one of these antibiotics is given to reduce the risk or progression of disease due to inhaled anthrax. Q: Does the government have a plan in place to make Cipro available if there were mass exposure to anthrax? A: Yes. Under emergency plans, the Federal government would ship appropriate antibiotics from its stockpile to wherever they are needed. Q: Should individual consumers ask their physicians to write a prescription for Cipro, so they have it on hand in case its needed? A: No. Any needed antibiotics from the current stockpile will be made available if they are needed. In the meantime, Cipro should not be prescribed unless there is a clearly indicated need, so that the drug will be available as the need arises for the standard ...
Anthrax is a bacterial disease of livestock, humans and dogs, often with fatal consequences. Anthrax spores can contaminate the environment for many years.
ATLANTA - About 75 employees at the Atlanta-based U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are being monitored or given antibiotics after possibly being exposed to anthrax, the federal agency said today.. No one has shown symptoms of anthrax following the accidental exposure, CDC spokesman Tom Skinner said in an email to The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. There is no risk of exposure to the deadly bacteria for other CDC staff, family members or the general public, according to a separate statement released by the agency. Anthrax is not contagious and cannot be caught like the cold or flu.. "Out of an abundance of caution, CDC is taking aggressive steps to protect the health of all involved, including protective courses of antibiotics for potentially exposed staff," the agency stated.. Investigators found that the unintentional exposure occurred sometime between June 6 and June 13 - the day it was discovered. Staff took environmental samples and decontaminated the labs and hallways. The ...
Im not tooting my own horn," said King in an interview Thursday, "but Im pretty proud of my business model. You call and place an order, and no matter where you are in the world, we will have live, weaponized Anthrax right to your cave opening or tent flap within 24 hours.". Kings corporate headquarters will be in Whitemarsh, just up the road from Aberdeen where he currently works.. People whove worked with the one-star general know that his business will fill a niche market that so far has never been serviced. They also know that King brings a unique level of experience to the endeavor.. "The general really knows about this since as commander at Dugway back in his previous assignment, he was in charge of shipping anthrax all over the place," said Col. Marty Muchow, the 20ths deputy commander. "Youre really not going to find anybody else in the world whos sent Anthrax to more places.". ...
METHODS FOR MAINTAINING PEGYLATION OF POLYPEPTIDES | POLYALKYLENE POLYMER COMPOUNDS AND USES THEREOF | COMPLEXING AGENTS FOR COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING INCLUSION COMPLEXES | Polythioaminals and Uses Thereof | BIS-POLYMER LIPID-PEPTIDE CONJUGATES AND NANOPARTICLES THEREOF |
Anthrax Protein Detection Set Catalog Number: PSI-1811 Set Contents: ATR, Anthrax PA, Anthrax LF, Anthrax EF, Anthrax PA peptide, Anthrax LF peptide, Anthrax EF peptide Tested Applications: IF, IHC, WB Size: 1 Set ...
Anthrax Protein Detection Set Catalog Number: PSI-1811 Set Contents: ATR, Anthrax PA, Anthrax LF, Anthrax EF, Anthrax PA peptide, Anthrax LF peptide, Anthrax EF peptide Tested Applications: IF, IHC, WB Size: 1 Set ...
Bacillus anthracis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can cause cutaneous, gastrointestinal or respiratory disease in many vertebrates, including humans. Commercially available anthrax vaccines for immunization of humans are of limited duration and do not protect against the respiratory form of the disease. Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in animals and humans. As with other intracellular pathogens, cell mediated immune responses (CMI) are crucial in affording protection against brucellosis. B. abortus strain RB51 has been shown to be useful in eliciting protective cell mediated immunity and humoral responses against Brucella in cattle and other animal species. Since the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis is known to induce protective antibodies, it was decided that the objective of this research was to test whether the gene encoding PA could be expressed in Brucella producing a bivalent vaccine to protect against ...
Looking for online definition of Anthrax disease in the Medical Dictionary? Anthrax disease explanation free. What is Anthrax disease? Meaning of Anthrax disease medical term. What does Anthrax disease mean?
In October 2001, four cases of inhalational anthrax occurred in workers in a Washington, D.C., mail facility that processed envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores. We reviewed the envelopes paths and obtained exposure histories and nasal swab cultures from postal workers. Environmental sampling was performed. A sample of employees was assessed for antibody concentrations to B. anthracis protective antigen. Case-patients worked on nonoverlapping shifts throughout the facility, suggesting multiple aerosolization events. Environmental sampling showed diffuse contamination of the facility. Potential workplace exposures were similar for the case-patients and the sample of workers. All nasal swab cultures and serum antibody tests were negative. Available tools could not identify subgroups of employees at higher risk for exposure or disease. Prophylaxis was necessary for all employees. To protect postal workers against bioterrorism, measures to reduce the risk of occupational exposure are ...
Protective antigen component of B. anthracis toxin was produced and purified to the |99% level. Toxin was purified from culture supernatant utilizing concentration and liquid chromatography techniques. Purity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protective antigen retained biological and antigenic activity as evidenced respectively by lethality in Fischer 344 rats when injected in combination with lethal factor, and by positive results on the Ouchterlony double diffussion assay. Radioiodinated protective antigen was used both in the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. In vivo distribution of labelled protective antigen was determined in Fischer 344 rats. Assay of organ tissues for labelled protective antigen aided in the decision to use Maden-Darby bovine kidney cells for the cell cultures in the protective antigen binding studies. Protective antigen binding studies, all performed at 37°C, evaluated criteria for receptor existence. Labelled
In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamus deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent
Anthrax toxin, one of the two major virulence factors produced by Bacillus anthracis, is composed of three independent polypeptide chains: the protective antigen (PA), which is involved in target cell binding; the edema factor (EF), a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase; and the lethal factor (LF), a zinc-dependent metalloprotease (for reviews see Collier and Young, 2003; Abrami et al., 2005; Scobie and Young, 2005). Only PA is able to bind to target cells; thus, EF and LF must always act in binary combination with PA to be transported to the target cell cytosol, where they exert their activities. The two identified PA receptors, tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2), are type I transmembrane proteins sharing ∼60% homology in their extracellular von Willebrand factor A domains and 68% identity in the first 145 residues of their cytoplasmic tails (Scobie and Young, 2005).. A relatively clear view of the mode of action of anthrax toxin has emerged over ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective antigen antibody augments hemodynamic support in anthrax lethal toxin shock in canines. AU - Barochia, Amisha V.. AU - Cui, Xizhong. AU - Sun, Junfeng. AU - Li, Yan. AU - Solomon, Steven B.. AU - Migone, Thi Sau. AU - Subramanian, G. Mani. AU - Bolmer, Sally D.. AU - Eichacker, Peter Q.. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - Background. Anthrax-associated shock is closely linked to lethal toxin (LT) release and is highly lethal despite conventional hemodynamic support. We investigated whether protective antigen-directed monoclonal antibody (PA-mAb) treatment further augments titrated hemodynamic support.Methods and Results.Forty sedated, mechanically ventilated, instrumented canines challenged with anthrax LT were assigned to no treatment (controls), hemodynamic support alone (protocol-titrated fluids and norepinephrine), PA-mAb alone (administered at start of LT infusion [0 hours] or 9 or 12 hours later), or both, and observed for 96 hours. Although all 8 controls died, ...
Lack of available iron is one of many environmental challenges that a bacterium encounters during infection and adaptation to iron starvation is important for the pathogen to efficiently replicate within the host. Here we define the transcriptional response of B. anthracis Sterne (34F2) to iron depleted conditions. Genome-wide transcript analysis showed that B. anthracis undergoes considerable changes in gene expression during growth in iron-depleted media, including the regulation of known and candidate virulence factors. Two genes encoding putative internalin proteins were chosen for further study. Deletion of either gene (GBAA0552 or GBAA1340) resulted in attenuation in a murine model of infection. This attenuation was amplified in a double mutant strain. These data define the transcriptional changes induced during growth in low iron conditions and illustrate the potential of this dataset in the identification of putative virulence determinants for future study.

HHS announces contracts for developing a new anthrax vaccine | EurekAlert! Science NewsHHS announces contracts for developing a new anthrax vaccine | EurekAlert! Science News

Thompson today announced that NIAID has awarded two companies contracts designed to spur development of a new anthrax vaccine. ... This type of vaccine is called a recombinant protective antigen (rPA) anthrax vaccine. The companies challenge will be to take ... Under the terms of the contracts, the companies will base their vaccine candidates on a promising vaccine concept. The vaccine ... The new vaccine will be required to provide immunity to inhalation anthrax in three or fewer doses, which is expected to reduce ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2002-10/nioa-hac100302.php

Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine Compared With Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed - Full Text View ...Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine Compared With Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed - Full Text View ...

Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine Compared With Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed. This study has ... dose ranging study comparing different primary vaccine schedules of rPA Anthrax vaccine to the licensed dose of Anthrax Vaccine ... Anthrax Vaccine Compared With Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed in a Healthy Population. ... This is a dose ranging study comparing different vaccine schedules of rPA vaccine, for Anthrax, to the licensed dose of AVA, ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00170469

Expression of Bacillus Anthracis Protective Antigen in Vaccine Strain Brucella Abortus Rb51Expression of Bacillus Anthracis Protective Antigen in Vaccine Strain Brucella Abortus Rb51

Commercially available anthrax vaccines for immunization of humans are of limited duration and do not protect against the ... gene encoding PA could be expressed in Brucella producing a bivalent vaccine to protect against both brucellosis and anthrax. ... Expression of Bacillus Anthracis Protective Antigen in Vaccine Strain Brucella Abortus Rb51. ... Preliminary results demonstrate that the bivalent vaccine is capable of producing protection against a live challenge with B. ...
more infohttps://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/10039

Naturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern AfricaNaturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern Africa

Vaccine-induced protection against anthrax in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Vaccine, 22: ... Anthrax, in Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. Paris: Office International des Épizooties. [ Links ]. ... Epidemiology of anthrax in wild animals and the control of anthrax epizootics in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. ... Anthrax, in Infectious diseases of livestock, with special reference to Southern Africa, edited by J.A.W. Coetzer & R.C. Tustin ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652008000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Training for Biological Warfare - Army TechnologyTraining for Biological Warfare - Army Technology

An electron micrograph of the anthrax-causing bacteria, bacillus anthracis.. An electron micrograph of the anthrax-causing ... Developing multiagent vaccines fast. Medical research in the US focuses on developing countermeasures to make pre-treatments, ... In 2001, letters containing anthrax spores killed five people and infected 17 others throughout the country. This was a case of ... One new to be fielded is the recombinant A/B botulinum vaccine (rBOT) that will provide protection against weaponised botulinum ...
more infohttp://www.army-technology.com/features/feature78174

Anthrax Vaccine: What You Need to KnowAnthrax Vaccine: What You Need to Know

2 Anthrax vaccine. Anthrax vaccine can prevent anthrax.. Anthrax vaccine is approved by the Food and Drug People can get ... www.cdc.gov/anthrax. serious injury, or death.. Vaccine Information Statement. Anthrax Vaccine. Office use only. 01/08/2020. ... After getting a shot of anthrax vaccine, you may injured by the anthrax vaccine, you can learn more have:. about this Program ... anthrax vaccine.. is only for reporting reactions, and VAERS staff do not If you are receiving the vaccine because you have ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/anthrax.pdf

About the Anthrax Vaccine | CDCAbout the Anthrax Vaccine | CDC

... and effectiveness of Anthrax vaccine. Link to Anthrax vaccine package insert. ... The vaccine contains no dead or live bacteria.. Immunogenicity and Vaccine Effectiveness. The anthrax vaccine is effective at ... Composition of the Anthrax Vaccine. Each 0.5 milliliter (mL) dose of anthrax vaccine adsorbed or BioThrax® (Emergent ... protecting most people from anthrax, including inhalation anthrax. The effectiveness of the anthrax vaccine is around 93% for ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/anthrax/hcp/about-vaccine.html

Anthrax Vaccine: MedlinePlus Drug InformationAnthrax Vaccine: MedlinePlus Drug Information

Anthrax Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... The vaccine used in the United States does not contain B. anthracis cells and it does not cause anthrax. Anthrax vaccine was ... Anthrax vaccine is also recommended for unvaccinated people who have been exposed to anthrax in certain situations. These ... Gastrointestinal anthrax can lead to blood poisoning, shock, and death.. Inhalation Anthrax. This form of anthrax occurs when B ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a607013.html

The Anthrax Vaccine SanfuThe Anthrax Vaccine Sanfu

... the anthrax vaccine has regained prominence in the news. In that respect, there is bad news and worse news, both for those who ... There is only one source for the vaccine in the United States and that is Bioport located in Lansing, Michigan. The company has ... of foul-ups that could portend long range health problems and even death for American servicemen forced to take the vaccine. ... want the vaccine and those who have taken it. ... 10, 2001.With the possibility of an anthrax terrorist incident ...
more infohttp://educate-yourself.org/vcd/vcdanthraxvacsanfu10oct01.shtml

Anthrax Vaccine, Treatment & SymptomsAnthrax Vaccine, Treatment & Symptoms

Anthrax is a disease caused by exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores. Learn about vaccination, treatment, symptoms, signs, and ... Anthrax Prevention - Patient Experience Have you had an anthrax vaccine? Please describe your experience. ... Anthrax meningitis*This type of anthrax may complicate any form of anthrax and spread throughout the lining tissues of the ... Anthrax, however, can be lethal. There are several ways anthrax can cause illness. These are the three main ways anthrax ...
more infohttps://www.emedicinehealth.com/anthrax/article_em.htm

ANTHRAX VACCINE DEBATE MOVES TO CONGRESS - Hartford CourantANTHRAX VACCINE DEBATE MOVES TO CONGRESS - Hartford Courant

The Department of Defense is in the midst of an effort to immunize all 2.4 million active duty personnel against deadly anthrax ... The concerns of some servicemen and women that anthrax immunization shots may be harmful to their health will be addressed at a ... Apparent problems with the use of the anthrax vaccine first began surfacing among some veterans of the Persian Gulf War. And ... The Defense Department insists the vaccine has been proved safe over years of use. Cohen took the vaccine himself to show the ...
more infohttps://www.courant.com/news/connecticut/hc-xpm-1999-03-24-9903240226-story.html

Did the military secretly doctor the anthrax vaccine?Did the military secretly doctor the anthrax vaccine?

In Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment Thats Killing Our Soldiers-and Why GIs Are Only the First Victims, Gary ... Developed in the 1950s and approved by the FDA in 1970, the anthrax vaccine requires an extraordinary six doses-most vaccines ... To read more about the anthrax vaccine, click here. .) Yet in his strained attempt to expose what the jacket calls the "worst ... The adjuvant used in the FDA-licensed anthrax vaccine is aluminum hydroxide, or alum, which has a long safety record in other ...
more infohttp://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2004/11/anthrax_scare.single.html

Did the military secretly doctor the anthrax vaccine?Did the military secretly doctor the anthrax vaccine?

In Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment Thats Killing Our Soldiers-and Why GIs Are Only the First Victims, Gary ... Anthrax Scare. Did the military secretly doctor its anthrax vaccine?. By Jon Cohen ... Developed in the 1950s and approved by the FDA in 1970, the anthrax vaccine requires an extraordinary six doses-most vaccines ... To read more about the anthrax vaccine, click here.) Yet in his strained attempt to expose what the jacket calls the "worst ...
more infohttps://slate.com/technology/2004/11/did-the-military-secretly-doctor-the-anthrax-vaccine.html

Statement on anthrax vaccine safetyStatement on anthrax vaccine safety

The anthrax vaccine being given to U.S. military personnel was licensed in 1970. Before the vaccine was licensed, the vaccine ... VACCINE SAFETY. Studies have been performed to examine the safety of both the original vaccine and the licensed vaccine. These ... The studies on the licensed vaccine focused on the efficacy of the vaccine in protecting animals against inhalation of anthrax ... The study on the original vaccine concluded that the vaccine offered protection against anthrax penetrating human skin. ...
more infohttp://www.whale.to/vaccines/anthrax2.html

FDA approves shortened anthrax-vaccine course | CIDRAPFDA approves shortened anthrax-vaccine course | CIDRAP

... recently approved a new version of BioThrax-the nations only licensed anthrax vaccine-that requires fewer doses and changes ... The vaccine is required for US military members who are deployed to the Middle East, but some have objected to the vaccine ... recently approved a new version of BioThrax-the nations only licensed anthrax vaccine-that requires fewer doses and changes ... The goal of the study is to evaluate if as few as three doses of the vaccine administered over 6 months with booster doses up ...
more infohttp://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2008/12/fda-approves-shortened-anthrax-vaccine-course

Presidential office admits importing anthrax vaccines, only for treatmentPresidential office admits importing anthrax vaccines, only for treatment

The presidential office on Sunday confirmed it imported anthrax vaccines this year, but denied claims that it has only ... "The need to introduce anthrax vaccines came after the anthrax delivery accident at the US military base here in 2015. And we ... Cheong Wa Dae said it imported 350 doses of anthrax vaccines on Nov. 2, after getting approval from the Ministry of Food and ... Following the report, a local media outlet said the presidential office had purchased 500 doses of anthrax vaccines for its ...
more infohttp://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20171225000166

Making a safer anthrax vaccine using spinach - ScienceBlog.comMaking a safer anthrax vaccine using spinach - ScienceBlog.com

Purified PA is currently used as a vaccine against anthrax. However, the licensed vaccine derived from apathogenic B. anthracis ... Protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis is one of the three components of the anthrax toxin, says Alexander Karasev, a ... Researchers have developed a strategy for making a safer anthrax vaccine: enlisting the help of spinach plants to manufacture a ... has side effects and a more efficacious and safer vaccine is needed. ...
more infohttps://scienceblog.com/1206/making-a-safer-anthrax-vaccine-using-spinach/

post by Masinatorpost by Masinator

No anthrax vaccine testing on children for now usatoday30.usatoday.com... The National Biodefense Science Board said Friday a ... Vaccine to Protect Children from Anthrax: Public Engagement Workshop www.phe.gov... (Note this is a government link and this ... I was given the Anthrax vaccine while on active duty. Its not just one shot, its actually a series of six shots over a period ... The Obama Administration is NOT seeking to test the Anthrax vaccine on children. So many lies and hoaxes, its just ridiculous ...
more infohttp://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread916938/pg2

CDC changes anthrax vaccine recommendations | BioPrepWatchCDC changes anthrax vaccine recommendations | BioPrepWatch

... and Prevention concerning recommendations made in February by its vaccine advisory group about Americans receiving anthrax ... CDC changes anthrax vaccine recommendations Friday, Jul 23, 2010 @ 5:47pm by BioPrepWatch Reports ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practicess report outlines five changes to the administration of anthrax vaccines, two ... Pregnant women are currently exempted from anthrax vaccination by a Department of Defense policy.. According to the study, ...
more infohttps://bioprepwatch.com/stories/510507006-newsinator-cdc-changes-anthrax-vaccine-recommendations

The vaccine adjuvant squalene in anthrax vaccines given to soldiersThe vaccine adjuvant squalene in anthrax vaccines given to soldiers

... in the Gulf War resulted in the formation of antibodies to ... Pathol 68, 196-197, 2000). The United States Department of Defense initiated the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP) in ... suggest that the production of ASA in GWS patients is linked to the presence of squalene in certain lots of anthrax vaccine. ... Diseases : Anthrax : CK(47) : AC(9), Gulf War Syndrome : CK(43) : AC(6) ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/vaccine-adjuvant-squalene-anthrax-vaccines-given-soldiers-gulf-war-resulted

Anthrax vaccine produces immunity with nanoparticles, not needlesAnthrax vaccine produces immunity with nanoparticles, not needles

A vaccine against anthrax that is more effective and easier to administer than the present vaccine has proved highly effective ... Anthrax vaccine produces immunity with nanoparticles, not needles. August 16, 2007 A vaccine against anthrax that is more ... No anthrax vaccine testing on children -- for now. October 29, 2011 Should the anthrax vaccine be tested in children? It will ... Alternative anthrax vaccine is tested. August 15, 2006 A U.S. vaccine researcher is scrutinizing what in the future could ...
more infohttps://phys.org/news/2007-08-anthrax-vaccine-immunity-nanoparticles-needles.html

US Government PlansTo Test Anthrax Vaccine on Children - AHRPAHRPUS Government PlansTo Test Anthrax Vaccine on Children - AHRPAHRP

FACT: Antibiotics-not the anthrax vaccine-are the proven protection against anthrax. Antibiotics proved to be 100% effective ... Resist ever-widening use of a dangerous vaccine that yields no medical benefit, no proven protection against anthrax, and stop ... US Government PlansTo Test Anthrax Vaccine on Children. The Alliance for Human Research Protection (AHRP) is urging citizens to ... Categorized Unsafe Vaccines , Tagged FDA, DHHS, false claims, Guinea Pigs, Bioethics, anthrax, JAMA, CDC Bookmark the permalink ...
more infohttps://ahrp.org/us-government-plansto-test-anthrax-vaccine-on-children/

US Army, Emisphere To Study Oral Anthrax VaccineUS Army, Emisphere To Study Oral Anthrax Vaccine

Should an oral anthrax vaccine be developed, Emisphere would be eligible to receive royalties under a license agreement with a ... The current anthrax vaccine is manufactured and distributed by BioPort Corp. out of Lansing, Mich. The immunization consists of ... The studies are being conducted solely to determine if its possible to take an anthrax vaccine orally. ... potential way to administer the anthrax vaccine orally rather than as a series of shots, Emisphere said. ...
more infohttp://www.ph.ucla.edu/EPI/bioter/armyoralanthraxvac.html

Bioethics Panel Warns Against Anthrax Vaccine Testing On Kids | WKARBioethics Panel Warns Against Anthrax Vaccine Testing On Kids | WKAR

A controversial government proposal to test the anthrax vaccine in children would be unethical without first conducting much ... The anthrax vaccine has been given to more than 1 million adults in the military. But no one knows how well it would work in ... Bioethics Panel Warns Against Anthrax Vaccine Testing On Kids By Rob Stein • Mar 19, 2013 ... He led a federal panel that started the push to study the anthrax vaccine in kids. More than a million adults in the military ...
more infohttp://wkar.org/post/bioethics-panel-warns-against-anthrax-vaccine-testing-kids

Anthrax vaccines - WikipediaAnthrax vaccines - Wikipedia

"Anthrax and Anthrax Vaccine-Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Archived August 24, 2012, at the ... The widely used British anthrax vaccine-sometimes called Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated (AVP) to distinguish it from the similar ... "Anthrax Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future", Vaccine, 533-9. Donegan S, Bellamy R, Gamble CL (2009). Donegan S, ed. "Vaccines ... the basis of most of the improved livestock anthrax vaccines throughout the world. Anthrax vaccines were developed in the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthrax_vaccines
  • There is an urgent need to devise more effective measures to protect U.S. citizens from the harmful effects of anthrax spores used as instruments of terror," said Secretary Thompson. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is hoped that a quicker administration time and other technological improvements would allow the vaccine to protect individuals from anthrax spores even if the vaccine was given shortly after exposure. (eurekalert.org)
  • Anthrax occurs in humans when they are exposed to infected animals, tissue from infected animals or when they are directly exposed to B. anthracis or its spores. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, in the USA, shortly after September 11th, 2001, there were 22 cases (18 confirmed) of inhaled and cutaneous anthrax infection that were related to contaminated mail. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The companies' challenge will be to take this experimental vaccine strategy through several stages of development, including manufacturing pilot lots of the vaccine, testing for safety in laboratory and clinical trials, testing for efficacy in animals, and preparing and submitting all necessary Food and Drug Administration (FDA) applications. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, the vaccines must be safe, easy to administer, and capable of inducing an immediate protective immune response. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the United States of America (USA), the annual incidence of human anthrax has declined from approximately 130 cases annually in the early 1900s to no cases during 1999 to 2000. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Furthermore, the vaccine could offer improved protection against inhaled B. anthracis, and could, when used in conjunction with antibiotics, form part of the management of anthrax exposed individuals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Vaccines are the best method of protecting the public against infectious diseases," said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "At NIAID, one of our top priorities is to work with industry to create new and improved vaccines against possible agents of bioterrorism. (eurekalert.org)
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