Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.

Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998. (1/771)

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker specific for the Bacillus cereus group is diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis. (2/771)

Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group.  (+info)

The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir. (3/771)

The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.  (+info)

Genetic diversity in the protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis. (4/771)

Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes the disease anthrax. The anthrax toxin contains three components, including the protective antigen (PA), which binds to eucaryotic cell surface receptors and mediates the transport of toxins into the cell. In this study, the entire 2,294-nucleotide protective antigen gene (pag) was sequenced from 26 of the most diverse B. anthracis strains to identify potential variation in the toxin and to further our understanding of B. anthracis evolution. Five point mutations, three synonymous and two missense, were identified. These differences correspond to six different haploid types, which translate into three different amino acid sequences. The two amino acid changes were shown to be located in an area near a highly antigenic region critical to lethal factor binding. Nested primers were used to amplify and sequence this same region of pag from necropsy samples taken from victims of the 1979 Sverdlovsk incident. This investigation uncovered five different alleles among the strains present in the tissues, including two not seen in the 26-sample survey. One of these two alleles included a novel missense mutation, again located just adjacent to the highly antigenic region. Phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of the pag corresponded with previous strain grouping based on chromosomal variation, suggesting that plasmid evolution in B. anthracis has occurred with little or no horizontal transfer between the different strains.  (+info)

Role of toxin functional domains in anthrax pathogenesis. (5/771)

We investigated the role of the functional domains of anthrax toxins during infection. Three proteins produced by Bacillus anthracis, the protective antigen (PA), the lethal factor (LF), and the edema factor (EF), combine in pairs to produce the lethal (PA+LF) and edema (PA+EF) toxins. A genetic strategy was developed to introduce by allelic exchange specific point mutations or in-frame deletions into B. anthracis toxin genes, thereby impairing either LF metalloprotease or EF adenylate cyclase activity or PA functional domains. In vivo effects of toxin mutations were analyzed in an experimental infection of mice. A tight correlation was observed between the properties of anthrax toxins delivered in vivo and their in vitro activities. The synergic effects of the lethal and edema toxins resulted purely from their enzymatic activities, suggesting that in vivo these toxins may act together. The PA-dependent antibody response to LF induced by immunization with live B. anthracis was used to follow the in vivo interaction of LF and PA. We found that the binding of LF to PA in vivo was necessary and sufficient for a strong antibody response against LF, whereas neither LF activity nor binding of lethal toxin complex to the cell surface was required. Mutant PA proteins were cleaved in mice sera. Thus, our data provide evidence that, during anthrax infection, PA may interact with LF before binding to the cell receptor. Immunoprotection studies indicated that the strain producing detoxified LF and EF, isogenic to the current live vaccine Sterne strain, is a safe candidate for use as a vaccine against anthrax.  (+info)

Surveillance for adverse events associated with anthrax vaccination--U.S. Department of Defense, 1998-2000. (6/771)

Concerns about the potential use of anthrax as a biologic weapon prompted the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to announce on December 15, 1997, anthrax vaccination of all U.S. military personnel. This effort is coordinated by the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP). AVIP plans a phased vaccination process to achieve total force protection against anthrax by 2004. The current phase of implementation includes vaccination of all service members and mission-essential DoD civilian employees assigned or deployed to high-threat areas. On the basis of program monitoring, as of April 12, 2000, 425,976 service members had received 1,620,793 doses of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (Bioport, Inc., Lansing, Michigan). Some service members have cited concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy in their decision to refuse vaccination, despite the possibility of administrative or disciplinary actions. To assess anthrax vaccination safety, DoD has conducted surveys of vaccinated personnel. This report describes three completed or ongoing surveys. The findings indicate that rates of local reactions were higher in women than men and that no patterns of unexpected local or systemic adverse events have been identified.  (+info)

Attenuated nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated recombinant Bacillus anthracis spore vaccines protect against anthrax. (7/771)

Several highly attenuated spore-forming nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis vaccines differing in levels of expression of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) were constructed. Biochemical analyses (including electrospray mass spectroscopy and N terminus amino acid sequencing) as well as biological and immunological tests demonstrated that the rPA retains the characteristics of native PA. A single immunization of guinea pigs with 5 x 10(7) spores of one of these recombinant strains, MASC-10, expressing high levels of rPA (>/=100 microgram/ml) from a constitutive heterologous promoter induced high titers of neutralizing anti-PA antibodies. This immune response was long lasting (at least 12 months) and provided protection against a lethal challenge of virulent (Vollum) anthrax spores. The recombinant B. anthracis spore vaccine appears to be more efficacious than the vegetative cell vaccine. Furthermore, while results clearly suggest a direct correlation between the level of expression of PA and the potency of the vaccine, they also suggest that some B. anthracis spore-associated antigen(s) may contribute in a significant manner to protective immunity.  (+info)

Characterization of the operon encoding the alternative sigma(B) factor from Bacillus anthracis and its role in virulence. (8/771)

The operon encoding the general stress transcription factor sigma(B) and two proteins of its regulatory network, RsbV and RsbW, was cloned from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis by PCR amplification of chromosomal DNA with degenerate primers, by inverse PCR, and by direct cloning. The gene cluster was very similar to the Bacillus subtilis sigB operon both in the primary sequences of the gene products and in the order of its three genes. However, the deduced products of sequences upstream and downstream from this operon showed no similarity to other proteins encoded by the B. subtilis sigB operon. Therefore, the B. anthracis sigB operon contains three genes rather than eight as in B. subtilis. The B. anthracis operon is preceded by a sigma(B)-like promoter sequence, the expression of which depends on an intact sigma(B) transcription factor in B. subtilis. It is followed by another open reading frame that is also preceded by a promoter sequence similarly dependent on B. subtilis sigma(B). We found that in B. anthracis, both these promoters were induced during the stationary phase and induction required an intact sigB gene. The sigB operon was induced by heat shock. Mutants from which sigB was deleted were constructed in a toxinogenic and a plasmidless strain. These mutants differed from the parental strains in terms of morphology. The toxinogenic sigB mutant strain was also less virulent than the parental strain in the mouse model. B. anthracis sigma(B) may therefore be a minor virulence factor.  (+info)

*Anthrax toxin

... called anthrax toxin. Anthrax toxin is a mixture of three protein components: (i) protective antigen (PA), (ii) edema factor ( ... Bacillus anthracis-the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is ... Anthrax toxin is of the form A2B, where the two enzymes, EF and LF, are the A components and PA is the B component. Thus, PA ... The mechanism of anthrax toxin action is the result of the molecular structures of the three toxin proteins in combination with ...

*Soviet biological weapons program

... a weaponized anthrax center Aralsk-7, Vozrozhdeniya (Renaissance) Island, Aral Sea, this BW test site was built here and on ... Spores of weaponized anthrax were accidentally released from a military facility near the city of Sverdlovsk in 1979. The death ... anthrax) Yersinia pestis (plague) Francisella tularensis (tularemia) Burkholderia mallei (glanders) Brucella spp (brucellosis) ...

*Anthrax

It is the most common form (>90% of anthrax cases). Cutaneous anthrax is also the least dangerous form of anthrax (less than 1 ... Anthrax is especially rare in dogs and cats, as is evidenced by a single reported case in the United States in 2001. Anthrax ... "An Outbreak of Anthrax Among Drug Users in Scotland, December 2009 to December 2010. A report on behalf of the National Anthrax ... Anthrax vaccination is recommended for people who are at high risk. Immunizing animals against anthrax is recommended in areas ...

*Diasporus anthrax

The specific name anthrax is Greek for Greek, meaning a carbuncle, a red gemstone. It refers to the red patches on the hidden ... Diasporus anthrax are small frogs, with a body size of 14-19 mm (0.55-0.75 in). It is easily distinguished from related species ... Diasporus anthrax is a species of frogs in the Eleutherodactylidae family. It is endemic to Colombia where it is found along ... Acosta Galvis, A. R. & Cuentas, D. (2017). "Diasporus anthrax (Lynch, 2001)". Lista de los Anfibios de Colombia V.07.2017.0. ...

*The Anthrax

The book Everybody's Scene by Chris Daily is about The Anthrax. Everybody's Scene: The Story of Connecticut's Anthrax Club ... The Anthrax was an all-ages music venue that hosted punk and hardcore shows during the early/mid 1980s. The actual club was ... In 1986, The Anthrax closed its doors in Stamford, and within 3 months reopened at a larger location (41°08′10″N 73°25′40″W ... To the many national touring acts that played there, The Anthrax was as essential a stop as punk rock landmarks like New York ...

*Anthrax (fly)

Anthrax aethiops (Fabricius 1781) Anthrax alruqibi El-Hawagry, 2013 Anthrax analis Say, 1823 Anthrax anthrax (Schrank 1781) ... Anthrax slossonae (Johnson, 1913) Anthrax snowi Marston, 1970 Anthrax stellans (Loew, 1869) Anthrax sticticus Klug 1832 Anthrax ... Anthrax moursyi El-Hawagry 1998 Anthrax nidicola Cole, 1952 Anthrax nigriventris Marston, 1970 Anthrax nitidus Marston, 1970 ... 1970 Anthrax johanni Zaitzev 1997 Anthrax koebelei Marston, 1970 Anthrax larrea Marston, 1963 Anthrax laticellus Marston, 1970 ...

*Pseudolithoxus anthrax

... is a species of armored catfish endemic to Venezuela where it is found in the Orinoco River basin. This ...

*Anthrax discography

"Hy Pro Glo , Anthrax , Music Video". MTV Music. Viacom Media Networks. July 7, 2005. Retrieved March 5, 2013. "Fueled , Anthrax ... "Only , Anthrax , Music Video". MTV Music. Viacom Media Networks. May 2, 2005. Retrieved March 5, 2013. "Black Lodge , Anthrax ... "Discography Anthrax". charts.org.nz. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 5, 2013. "Anthrax - Chart History: Active Rock". Billboard. ... Madhouse (track listing). Anthrax. Island Records. 1985. 12ISP285. Hy Pro Glo (track listing). Anthrax. Elektra Records. 1993. ...

*Ancipitia anthrax

... is a species of orchid native to southern Colombia. In literature and on the internet the homotypic synonym ... Pleurothallis anthrax is still much in use.. ...

*Calosoma anthrax

... is a species of ground beetle in the subfamily of Carabinae. It was described by Semenov in 1900. "Calosoma ...

*Anthrax vaccines

"Anthrax and Anthrax Vaccine-Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Archived August 24, 2012, at the ... This discovery was the basis of the next generation of antigenic anthrax vaccines and for modern antitoxins to anthrax. The ... of anthrax which became, and remains today, the basis of most of the improved livestock anthrax vaccines throughout the world. ... who had reported a year earlier that carbolic-acid/heated anthrax serum would immunize against anthrax. These results were ...

*Anthrax mite

The Anthrax mite (Sarcoptes anthracis) is a pathogenic mite and an intermediate host of anthrax. Sarcoptes anthracis was ... They act as a vector that carries and transmits anthrax to their hosts causing an infection, which often results in death ...

*Anthrax anthrax

In the Netherlands Anthrax anthrax is a common visitor of insect hotels. Anthrax anthrax is a fairly large fly, the body length ... "Species Anthrax anthrax". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved March 21, 2016. "Species Anthrax anthrax". Observation.org. Retrieved ... The newly emerged Anthrax anthrax may be found sitting on a bee hotel. Their body is dull black with more transparent wings. ... Anthrax anthrax, is a species of fly in the family Bombyliidae but unlike for example Bombylius major this species does not ...

*Anthrax Island

... may refer to one of three sites for hazardous biological disease testing: Gruinard Island, a Scottish island in ...

*Anthrax immune globulin

... is prepared from the plasma of donors who have been vaccinated against anthrax. Due to the ethical and ... Anthrax immune globulin, tradename Anthrasil, is a human immune globulin that is used in combination with antibiotics to treat ... Following efficacy testing, anthrax immune globulin was tested for safety in human volunteers, where the most common side ... "FDA approves treatment for inhalation anthrax". United States Food and Drug Administration. 25 March 2015. "Anthrasil Approval ...

*Sverdlovsk anthrax leak

The strain of anthrax produced in Military Compound 19 near Sverdlovsk was the most powerful in the Soviet arsenal ("Anthrax ... The Sverdlovsk anthrax leak was an incident in which spores of anthrax were accidentally released from the Sverdlovsk-19a ... The produced anthrax culture had to be dried to produce a fine powder for use as an aerosol. Large filters over the exhaust ... In the novel, a Russian immigrant named Yuri Davydov works with a neo-Nazi group to plan an anthrax attack on New York City. ...

*Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed

For anthrax vaccines generally, see Anthrax vaccines. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) - also called MDPH-PA or MDPH-AVA; trade ... U.S. anthrax vaccine package insert Gulf War Syndrome Fact or Fiction. Anthrax.osd.mil - 'AVIP: Anthrax Vaccine Immunization ... Vaxgen anthrax vaccine contract information. Archived December 31, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. U.S. cancels VaxGen anthrax ... Those findings included the fact that the "Anthrax vaccine efficacy against inhalation anthrax is not well documented," and ...

*Church of Anthrax

... is a collaborative studio album by musicians John Cale and Terry Riley. It was released in February 1971 by ... "Church of Anthrax - John Cale,John Cale & Terry Riley,Terry Riley , Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards , AllMusic". AllMusic. ... Church of Anthrax at Discogs (list of releases). ...

*Anthrax (American band)

"Anthrax Interviews with Scott Ian and John Bush". Metal Rules. Retrieved May 19, 2010. "Anthrax: Press Release". Anthrax.com. ... "Anthrax Setlist at 70,000 Tons of Metal 2017". setlist.fm. Retrieved December 26, 2017. "Anthrax Setlist at 70,000 Tons of ... In a post on the Anthrax website, Charlie Benante said that Worship Music would probably be out in May. In early 2009, Anthrax ... "Anthrax". grammy.com. May 14, 2017. Retrieved December 26, 2017. "Anthrax To Release 'For All Kings' Album In February". ...

*Anthems (Anthrax EP)

"Anthrax: Anthems". Metal Forces. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Maçek, J.C. "Anthrax: Anthems". PopMatters. Retrieved August 24, ... "Anthrax: Anthems". Revolver. Retrieved August 24, 2013. "Anthrax: "Anthems" First-Week Sales Revealed". Blabbermouth.net. March ... "Anthrax - Anthems Review". About.com. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Lymangrover, Jason. "Anthrax - Anthems". AllMusic. Retrieved ... if you ever came to an Anthrax sound check, you'd probably hear every other song but an Anthrax song." He further said that the ...

*Anthrax (UK band)

... www.razorcake.org/record-reviews/anthrax-all-for-the-cause "anthrax (uk)". Glasper p183 "He fell off his stool backwards ... Anthrax are an anarcho punk band formed in Gravesend, Kent, England in 1980. They recorded their first demo in 1981 and went on ... Dirt and Anthrax would play for 50p - great days!" ; Page 134 "Not to be confused with the fun-loving New York metal act of the ... quite a lot by then and had got to know the members of Anthrax who were from around there (I'd like to say we inspired them to ...

*E61 anthrax bomblet

The E61 anthrax bomblet was an American biological sub-munition for the E133 cluster bomb. This anti-personnel weapon was ... The cluster bomb was designed to hold about 540 of the E61 anthrax bomblets. The E61 held about 35 milliliters (1.2 U.S. fl oz ... Upon impact the E61 would detonate releasing an aerosol of its anthrax spore laden slurry into the air of its target area. E120 ... was a move away from weapons such as the M33 cluster bomb to the lethal E61 anthrax bomb. The E61 was first developed in ...

*Only (Anthrax song)

"Only" is a song by New York City heavy metal band Anthrax off their 1993 album Sound of White Noise. It is one of their most ...

*Anthrax lethal factor endopeptidase

... (EC 3.4.24.83, lethal toxin) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of mitogen- ... "The structural basis for substrate and inhibitor selectivity of the anthrax lethal factor". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 11 (1): 60- ... "Crystal structure of the anthrax lethal factor". Nature. 414 (6860): 229-33. doi:10.1038/n35101998. PMID 11700563. Molecular ...

*List of Anthrax members

"Anthrax Debut New Axe!". Brave Words & Bloody Knuckles. August 15, 2001. Retrieved November 1, 2017. "It's Official: Anthrax ... "It's Official: Anthrax Taps Former Devilsize Singer". Blabbermouth.net. December 10, 2007. Retrieved November 1, 2017. "Anthrax ... "Joey Vera: 'My Time With Anthrax Is Done'". Blabbermouth.net. March 29, 2005. Retrieved November 1, 2017. "Anthrax Bassist ... "Shadows Fall Drummer To Play With Anthrax". Blabbermouth.net. January 18, 2006. Retrieved November 1, 2017. "Anthrax Taps ...
Anthrax exposure has hit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA. According to the agency, nearly 100 Atlanta-based workers for the CDC may have been unintentionally exposed to anthrax. This includes people who have come forward since the announcement Thursday and claimed they were in the area during the time of exposure.. The workers that have been identified at risk for exposure to anthrax are being monitored and/or provided antibiotics, as well as anthrax vaccine. Based on the agencys exposure scenarios, the CDC maintains the risk of infection is very low. Moreover, the CDC has stated other CDC staff, family members, and the general public are not at risk of exposure and do not need to take any protective action.. Early reports indicate anthrax exposure hit the CDC because labs involved did not properly inactivate samples, which were then transported and used for experimentation in three other laboratories at the CDC not equipped to handle live samples of ...
Cutaneous anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which typically presents with ulcers after contact with animals or animal products, and is rarely seen in high-income countries but is common in those with low- and middle-incomes. Objective. The aim of this study is to show the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in endemic areas.
Madhouse - The Very Best of Anthrax è una raccolta pubblicata nel 1999 dalla band thrash metal statunitense Anthrax. "Madhouse" (Anthrax) - 4:18 "A.I.R." (Anthrax) - 5:48 "Armed and Dangerous" (Anthrax/Lilker/Turbin) - 5:45 "I Am the Law" (Anthrax/Lilker) - 5:56 "Indians" (Anthrax) - 5:41 "Caught in a Mosh" (Anthrax) - 5:00 "Im the Man" (Belladonna/Bello/Benante/Ian/Moore/Rooney/Spitz) - 3:04 "Antisocial" (Bonvoisin/Krief) - 4:27 "Belly of the Beast" (Anthrax) - 4:47 "Got the Time" (Jackson) - 6:55 "Keep It in the Family" (Anthrax) - 7:09 "Bring the Noise" (Ridenhour/Shocklee/Sadler/Anthrax) - 3:28 (EN) Madhouse - The Very Best of Anthrax, su MusicBrainz, MetaBrainz Foundation ...
With the anthrax threat becoming a reality, it is very important to have an effective way to sterilize areas contaminated by anthrax. Anthrax spores are the dormant form of the anthrax bacteria. They can germinate in tissues, producing new bacteria that release lethal toxins. Neutrons can be a powerful tool in our defense against anthrax contamination. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge, which allows them to be very penetrating, killing the anthrax spores on the surface and inside the containers. So neutrons have an advantage over other forms of radiation if deep penetration is required to kill biological organisms. A Cf neutron source allows for a low cost method of decontamination. It emits most neutrons in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy regions, and a neutron in this energy region is 20 times more deadly than electrons or gamma rays in killing anthrax spores. If we just consider the first neutron collision with anthrax spores and that all the anthrax spores will not survive at the
The index case of inhalational anthrax in October 2001 was in a man who lived and worked in Florida. However, during the 3 days before illness onset, the patient had traveled through North Carolina, raising the possibility that exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores could have occurred there. The rapid response in North Carolina included surveillance among hospital intensive-care units, microbiology laboratories, medical examiners, and veterinarians, and site investigations at locations visited by the index patient to identify the naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related source of his exposure.
In October 2001, four cases of inhalational anthrax occurred in workers in a Washington, D.C., mail facility that processed envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores. We reviewed the envelopes paths and obtained exposure histories and nasal swab cultures from postal workers. Environmental sampling was performed. A sample of employees was assessed for antibody concentrations to B. anthracis protective antigen. Case-patients worked on nonoverlapping shifts throughout the facility, suggesting multiple aerosolization events. Environmental sampling showed diffuse contamination of the facility. Potential workplace exposures were similar for the case-patients and the sample of workers. All nasal swab cultures and serum antibody tests were negative. Available tools could not identify subgroups of employees at higher risk for exposure or disease. Prophylaxis was necessary for all employees. To protect postal workers against bioterrorism, measures to reduce the risk of occupational exposure are ...
Anthrax bacteria. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) bacteria (yellow) cultured from a blood sample. Seen here are endospores (pink ovals within bacterial cells) and free spores (pink ovals). The spores are reproductive cells that are able to survive dormant in unfavourable conditions for long periods of time. B. anthracis is the cause of anthrax. It can infect the skin (cutaneous anthrax), causing raised itchy lesions, the lungs (pulmonary anthrax), which is fatal unless treated quickly, and the digestive system (gastrointestinal anthrax), causing vomiting of blood and severe diarrhoea. All forms can be fatal if left untreated. Treatment is with antibiotics. Magnification: x9300, when printed 10 centimetres tall. - Stock Image C020/8537
Anthrax spores may survive traditional drinking water disinfection met... The purpose of this study was to determine the fate of anthrax spores...Calomiris investigated the ability of anthrax spores to survive in wat... Under those same conditions one minute exposure could kill 99.99 per...Higher concentrations of chlorine were much more effective. At 5mg/L ...,Anthrax,spores,may,survive,water,treatment,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
TREATMENT - ANTHRAX from emedicine.com A number of possible therapeutic strategies have yet to be fully explored experimentally or submitted for approval to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The recommendations provided do not represent uses currently approved by the FDA but are a consensus based on best available information of recent studies. Given the fulminant course of inhalation anthrax, early antibiotic administration is essential to maximize patient survival. Given the difficulty in achieving timely microbiologic diagnosis of anthrax, all persons with fever or evidence of systemic disease in an area where anthrax cases are occurring should be treated empirically for anthrax until the disease is excluded. No clinical studies exist of the treatment of inhalation anthrax in humans. Most naturally occurring strains of anthrax are sensitive to penicillin, and penicillin historically has been the preferred therapy for the treatment of anthrax. Penicillin and doxycycline are FDA-approved ...
Anthrax bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Bacillus anthracis bacteria, the cause of anthrax. These are rod-shaped, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria. The bacteria can infect the skin (cutaneous anthrax), causing raised itchy lesions, the lungs (pulmonary anthrax), which is fatal unless treated quickly, and the digestive system (gastrointestinal anthrax), causing vomiting of blood and severe diarrhoea. All forms can be fatal if left untreated. Treatment is with antibiotics. Magnification: x6550 when printed at 10 centimetres tall. - Stock Image C006/3118
Inhalational anthrax is the most serious form of anthrax infection, seen in the cases in Florida and Washington DC. The disease begins when aerosolized anthrax spores are inhaled. Once in the lungs, immune systems cells called macrophages, whose normal function is to ingest, kill, and degrade invading pathogens and activate other immune system cells. However, instead of being killed, the spores reactivate and grow into live bacterial cells. The macrophages transport the bacteria to the lymph nodes, where they proliferate and spread, eventually breaking out of the lymph system into the bloodstream. During this period of lymphatic replication, the patient only displays non-specific symptoms much like the flu. Once in the bloodstream, the bacteria proliferate further and begin producing anthrax toxin. Eventually the bacteria spread through the entire circulatory system at high concentrations. Death from inhalational anthrax is associated with shock and multiple organ failure. When untreated, ...
It was reported that the people had anthrax-like small blisters or bumps on their hands and arms after eating the meat.. It was reported that 30 villagers had consumed the meat in question, but most of them had already taken medicine and they could not be successfully tested for anthrax. Instead, the hospital team collected samples from animal carcasses for lab tests with the results expected soon.. The country has been free of livestock anthrax since 2000 and the last anthrax outbreak in Thailand was 17 years ago.. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is most common in wild and domestic animals but can also be seen in humans exposed to tissue from infected animals, contaminated animal products or directly to B anthracis spores under certain conditions.. LISTEN: Anthrax: An interview with Dr Buddy Faries. Depending on the route of infection, host factors, and potentially strain-specific ...
Anthrax is a bacterial disease of man and animals caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax bacteria form spores, which are extremely stable in the environment. There are three clinical presentations of the disease: 1) Cutaneous infections, the mildest form, occur when bacterial spores become embedded in the skin. 2) The gastrointestinal form, which is extremely rare, occurs when animals ill with anthrax are consumed as food. 3) Inhalation anthrax occurs when the spores are inhaled. Both the inhalation and gastrointestinal forms have high mortality rates. The reservoir of the bacteria is soil, where the spores can remain viable for years. The spores can be found worldwide and are found naturally in some western states in the U.S. and Canada. Animals, including livestock, can acquire the bacteria from contaminated soil. However, there have been no reported cases of anthrax in Indiana livestock since before 1960.. Anthrax is a disease of interest because of its high mortality rate, severe ...
TruStrip RDT Anthrax Protective antigen 83 (PA83) Rapid Test cards, 25/pk Rapid Test 800-100-RDT-25 TruStrip RDT Anthrax Protective antigen 83 (PA83) Rapid Test cards, 25/pk Rapid Test 800-100-RDT-25
On August 29, 2007, the Connecticut Department of Public Health was notified by a physician of suspect cutaneous anthrax involving a drum maker and one of his three children. The drum maker had been working with untreated goat hides from Guinea in West Africa. This report summarizes results of the joint epidemiologic and environmental investigation conducted by public health officials, environmental agencies, and law enforcement authorities. The investigation revealed that the drum maker was exposed while working with a contaminated goat hide from Guinea and that his workplace and home were contaminated with anthrax. His child was most likely exposed from cross-contamination of the home. The findings underscore the potential hazard of working with untreated animal hides from areas with epizootic anthrax and the potential for secondary cases from environmental contamination. On July 22, while sanding a newly assembled goat-hide drum in his backyard shed, the drum maker felt a sting on his right ...
Define anthrax bacillus. anthrax bacillus synonyms, anthrax bacillus pronunciation, anthrax bacillus translation, English dictionary definition of anthrax bacillus. Noun 1. anthrax bacillus - a species of bacillus that causes anthrax in humans and in animals ; can be used a bioweapon Bacillus anthracis B, bacillus -...
Their findings, which appeared online today in Nature, are based on testing in mice. However, the results may contribute to the development of anthrax treatments for humans, the researchers say.. Anthrax disease is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which produces two deadly toxins: lethal toxin and edema toxin. When B. anthracis infects a human or animal, both toxins seek out and bind to receptors on the surfaces of human and animal cells. Using two types of laboratory mice-those missing the anthrax toxin receptor on a single type of cell or those having the receptor present on a single type of cell-the scientists compared disease progression among the rodents. They concluded that anthrax-induced death is caused primarily by lethal toxin targeting heart cells and muscle cells surrounding blood vessels, and edema toxin targeting liver cells.. These results may help scientists studying anthrax disease in humans. For example, the study authors suggest, knowing the types of cells that ...
Until 2001, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax, was an obscure agricultural pathogen, but that fall someone sent letters stuffed with anthrax spores to several politicians and journalists. Nearly half (5/11) of those infected by breathing in the spores died from the disease. The anthrax mailings triggered a run on antibiotics, but these drugs only work in the early stages of anthrax infection, before the bacteria have had time to spread and secrete toxins. "These attacks called attention to the need for better therapies for anthrax infection," said Tang ...
Since the last report (1), six new anthrax cases have been reported. Three of these cases have occupational exposures similar to previously reported cases (1). A fourth case occurred in a mail handler at a facility not previously linked to cases but that receives mail from a facility at which cases have occurred previously. Two new cases have no discernable epidemiologic link with anthrax cases previously reported or sites that are associated with known cases. These new cases suggest that anthrax exposure has occurred or is continuing to occur through means that cannot be ascribed to known contaminated letters or the paths these letters took through the mail service. The public health response to these new anthrax cases will evolve based on ongoing epidemiologic and criminal investigations. Because exposures are being intentionally perpetrated, public health authorities must be vigilant for the appearance of new cases in previously unaffected populations. Prompt data sharing between law ...
A new anthrax antibody engineered by scientists at The University of Texas at Austin protects and defends against inhalation anthrax without the use of antibiotics and other more expensive antibodies. The high-affinity antibody, an anthrax antitoxin, successfully eliminated both anthrax bacteria and its deadly toxins in animal tests. If future tests concur, this could be the first successful treatment for late-stage anthrax infection, even for an anthrax strain that has been designed to resist antibiotics.
Anti-angiogenic therapies are effective for the treatment of cancer, a variety of ocular diseases, and have potential benefits in cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and psoriasis. We have previously shown that anthrax protective antigen (PA), a non-pathogenic component of anthrax toxin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis, apparently as a result of interaction with the cell surface receptors capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2) protein and tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8). Hence, molecules that bind the anthrax toxin receptors may be effective to slow or halt pathological vascular growth. Here we describe development and testing of an effective homogeneous steady-state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) high throughput screening assay designed to identify molecules that inhibit binding of PA to CMG2. Molecules identified in the screen can serve as potential lead compounds for the development of anti-angiogenic and anti-anthrax therapies. The assay to screen for inhibitors of this protein
In the United States, incidence of naturally-acquired anthrax is extremely rare (about 1-2 cases of cutaneous disease per year). Gastrointestinal anthrax is rare, but may occur as explosive outbreaks associated with ingestion of infected animals. Worldwide, the incidence is unknown, though B. anthracis is present in most of the world. Unreliable reporting makes it difficult to estimate the true incidence of human anthrax worldwide. However, in fall 2001, 22 cases of anthrax (11 inhalation, 11 cutaneous) were identified in the United States following intentional contamination of the mail. In the United States, the annual occurrences of naturally-occurring human anthrax declined from estimated 130 cases annually in the early 1900s to 2 cases each in 2000, 2001, and 2002 ...
Spores of Bacillus anthracis have for long been regarded as one of the most powerful bioterrorism threats due to their stability and high lethality [1]. The spores can be easily produced and stockpiled in large quantities, using simple microbial techniques by people having access to a virulent strain and incentive to be exposed to the risk connected with its propagation and handling. Previous deliberate spread of anthrax spores as agent of biowarfare has been as aerosol. However, they could also be disseminated through the food or water supply for targeting of the gastrointestinal tract.. Anthrax infections fall into three different categories, reflecting the route of entry; inhalational, gastrointestinal or cutaneous in order of severity of the infection. With regard to bioterrorism, the most realistic mode of mass exposure includes inhalational or gastrointestinal infections. Conceptually, the idea of targeting the food supply is not new [2] and a few records of planned use of anthrax spores ...
Anthrax toxin is a three-protein exotoxin secreted by virulent strains of the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis-the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective antigen (PA), and two enzyme components, called edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF). These three protein components act together to impart their physiological effects. Assembled complexes containing the toxin components are endocytosed. In the endosome, the enzymatic components of the toxin translocate into the cytoplasm of a target cell. Once in the cytosol, the enzymatic components of the toxin disrupts various immune cell functions, namely cellular signaling and cell migration. The toxin may even induce cell lysis, as is observed for macrophage cells. Anthrax toxin allows the bacteria to evade the immune system, proliferate, and ultimately kill the host animal. Research on anthrax toxin also provides insight into the ...
Eleven known cases of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax (IA) were treated in the United States during 2001. We retrospectively compared 2 methods that have been proposed to screen for IA [1, 2]. The 2 screening protocols for IA were applied to the emergency department charts of patients who presented with possible signs or symptoms of IA at Inova Fairfax Hospital (Falls Church, Virginia) from 20 October 2001 through 3 November 2001. The Mayer criteria [1] would have screened 4 patients (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.1%-0.9%) and generated charges of $1900. If 29 patients (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.7%-3.7%) with ⩾5 symptoms (but without fever and tachycardia) were screened, charges were $13,325. The Hupert criteria [2] would have screened 273 patients (24%; 95% CI, 22%-27%) and generated charges of $126,025. In this outbreak of bioterrorism-related IA, applying the Mayer criteria would have identified both patients with IA and would have generated fewer charges than applying the Hupert criteria.. ...
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics ...
The anthrax protective antigen (PA) is an 83 kDa protein that is one of three protein components of the anthrax toxin, an AB toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis. PA is capable of undergoing several structural changes, including oligomerization to either a heptameric or octameric structure called the prepore, and at acidic pH a major conformational change to form a membrane-spanning pore. To follow these structural changes at a residue-specific level, we have conducted initial studies in which we have biosynthetically incorporated 5-fluorotryptophan (5-FTrp) into PA, and we have studied the influence of 5-FTrp labeling on the structural stability of PA and on binding to the host receptor capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2) using F-19 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There are seven tryptophans in PA, but of the four domains in PA, only two contain tryptophans: domain 1 (Trp65, -90, -136, -206, and -226) and domain 2 (Trp346 and -477). Trp346 is of particular interest because of its ...
Washington Two Washington-area postal workers have been diagnosed with inhalation anthrax and two more employees at the same facility have died of symptoms consistent with the disease, officials said Monday as the nation grappled with an unprecedented bioterrorism threat.. Dr. Ivan Walks, the citys chief health official, also said authorities are investigating as many as nine more cases that have aroused concern. He said he did not know how many of the nine were postal workers or how many were hospitalized.. The disclosures came as postal workers by the dozens lined up for testing, and city authorities urged anyone connected with the affected Brentwood central mail facility to come forward immediately for screening.. "This is a different day," the city health official said at a news conference.. He said the unidentified man diagnosed with the disease was hospitalized in suburban Virginia, at the same facility where another postal worker was diagnosed over the weekend.. He said authorities were ...
human) RATIONALE FOR SURVEILLANCE Anthrax is a widespread zoonosis transmitted from domestic animals (cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloes, pigs and other) to humans by direct contact or through animal products. Human anthrax is a serious problem in several countries and has potential for explosive outbreaks (especially the gastrointestinal form); while pulmonary (inhalation) anthrax is mainly occupational, the threat of biological warfare attacks should not be forgotten. Anthrax has a serious impact on the trade of animal products. The control of anthrax is based on its prevention in livestock: programmes based only on prevention in humans are costly and likely to be ineffective except for those industrially exposed. There is an effective vaccine for those occupationally exposed, and successful vaccines for livestock, particularly for herds with ongoing exposure to contaminated soil. In most countries anthrax is a notifiable disease. Surveillance is important to monitor the control programmes and to ...
MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Anthim (obiltoxaximab) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat inhalational anthrax, a rare disease stemming from infected animal products. Bacillus anthracis spores also pose a deadly bioterrorism threat if released intentionally.. Anthrax toxins can cause severe tissue damage and death, the FDA said Monday in a news release. Anthim, combined with certain antibacterial drugs, is designed to neutralize the toxins. The medications effectiveness was evaluated in studies conducted on animals, since it wasnt ethical or feasible to conduct such trials with human volunteers, the agency said.. The drugs safety was evaluated in 320 healthy human volunteers. The most common side effects included headache, itching, upper respiratory tract infection, cough, nasal congestion, hives and injection-site reactions including swelling, bruising and pain.. Anthims label includes a boxed warning of a potential severe and possibly fatal ...
Weve had anthrax down here for over a hundred years, and Ive been around it all my life, said Randy Hicks, a salesman at the Uvalde Farm and Ranch Supply Company. I can tell you this much, Im sure not scared of it.. State officials said more than 1,600 animals died of anthrax in Texas this summer, the most severe outbreak of the disease since 1987. But no people have died. One man in Del Rio contracted cutaneous anthrax while skinning a buffalo in June, the first confirmed case among humans here since 1988. Another Del Rio man is believed to have contracted the disease but recovered before he could be tested, said Dr. Terry Conger, the states epidemiologist at the Texas Animal Health Commission.. Among Texas ranchers, anthrax is just another occupational hazard among many, like drought, low beef prices or coyotes, that can be managed through care and caution.. There has been anthrax around for as long as there have been people and animals, all the way back to the Bible, Mr. Conger said. ...
Background Anthrax toxin is comprised of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). These proteins are individually nontoxic; however, when PA assembles with LF and EF, it produces lethal toxin and edema toxin, respectively. Assembly occurs either on cell surfaces or in plasma. In each milieu, PA assembles into a mixture of heptameric and octameric complexes that bind LF and EF. While octameric PA is the predominant form identified in plasma under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37°C), heptameric PA is more prevalent on cell surfaces. The difference between these two environments is that the anthrax toxin receptor (ANTXR) binds to PA on cell surfaces. It is known that the extracellular ANTXR domain serves to stabilize toxin complexes containing the PA heptamer by preventing premature PA channel formation-a process that inactivates the toxin. The role of ANTXR in PA oligomerization and in the stabilization of toxin complexes containing octameric PA are not understood.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends 60 days of oral antibiotics along with a three-dose regimen of BioThraxT anthrax vaccine (zero, two weeks, four weeks) as an emergency public health intervention for people exposed to anthrax. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro ) and doxycycline are approved in adults and children for post exposure prophylaxis (preventing infection in people exposed to anthrax). Levofloxacin (Levaquin ) is approved for post exposure prophylaxis in adults 18 and older. Common side effects of Cipro include upset stomach, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, dizziness, or headache. Patients taking doxycycline should be aware of the following side effects: upset stomach, vomiting, and diarrhea. Additionally, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin should not be taken with antacids, calcium supplements, and dairy products. These may bind with the medications, decreasing their effectiveness. Common side effects of Levaquin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, headache, ...
Maj. Gen. John Parker. [Source: Public domain]On October 25, 2001, Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge tells reporters that the anthrax used in a letter sent to Sen. Tom Daschle (D-SD) was "highly concentrated" and "pure" and that a binding material was used, resulting in small spore clusters that are more easily spread. In contrast, the anthrax in a letter sent to the New York Post was coarser and less concentrated. Both letters used the same Ames strain of anthrax bacterium. (The Post letter was part of a less sophisticated first wave of letters (see September 17-18, 2001) and the Daschle letter was from the second wave (see October 6-9, 2001).) On October 29, Major General John Parker, commanding general of USAMRIID, the US Armys top bioweapons laboratory, makes similar comments at a White House briefing. He says silica was found in the Daschle letter anthrax and the anthrax spore concentration in the Daschle letter was ten times that of the New York Post letter. The presence of a binding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective antigen antibody augments hemodynamic support in anthrax lethal toxin shock in canines. AU - Barochia, Amisha V.. AU - Cui, Xizhong. AU - Sun, Junfeng. AU - Li, Yan. AU - Solomon, Steven B.. AU - Migone, Thi Sau. AU - Subramanian, G. Mani. AU - Bolmer, Sally D.. AU - Eichacker, Peter Q.. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - Background. Anthrax-associated shock is closely linked to lethal toxin (LT) release and is highly lethal despite conventional hemodynamic support. We investigated whether protective antigen-directed monoclonal antibody (PA-mAb) treatment further augments titrated hemodynamic support.Methods and Results.Forty sedated, mechanically ventilated, instrumented canines challenged with anthrax LT were assigned to no treatment (controls), hemodynamic support alone (protocol-titrated fluids and norepinephrine), PA-mAb alone (administered at start of LT infusion [0 hours] or 9 or 12 hours later), or both, and observed for 96 hours. Although all 8 controls died, ...
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Imagine researchers in hazmat suits moving slowly and deliberately through a lab. One of them holds up a beaker. Its glowing.. This light - or the absence of it - could save millions of dollars for governments and save the lives of anthrax victims.. Scientists at the University of Missouri Laboratory of Infectious Disease Research proved a new method for anthrax detection can identify anthrax quicker than any existing approach.. When the "bioluminescent reporter phage" - an engineered virus - infects anthrax bacteria, it takes on a sci-fi-movie-type glow.. George Stewart, a medical bacteriologist at MUs Bond Life Sciences Center, and graduate student Krista Spreng, observed the virus against a variety of virulent strains of bacillus anthracis, the bacteria causing anthrax disease.. "For this technique, within a few hours, youll have a yes or no answer," Stewart said.. The research, funded by the USDA, was published in the Journal of Microbiological Methods in Aug. 2013. David Schofield at ...
It has been a while since the 2001 anthrax attacks but anthrax remains a potent bio-weapon that is notoriously hard to clean up. Anthrax spores can survive
Don Foster. [Source: Al Novak]October 12, 2001, the FBI contracted Don Foster to help with the newly formed anthrax attacks investigation. Foster is a professor of English literature at Vassar College who has been advising the FBI and other government agencies for years due to his expertise in writing analysis. He has sometimes correctly guessed the identities of anonymous authors by analyzing their word usage, not their handwriting styles. By studying news reports of hoax anthrax letters, Foster begins to get interested in Steven Hatfill as a potential suspect. Hatfill had appeared as an expert on biological attacks in some articles dating back to 1998, and he has a curious history while living in Zimbabwe and South Africa in the late 1970s and early 1980s, a time when the racist white government of Zimbabwe (then known as Rhodesia) possibly launched an anthrax attack on their own black citizens. Foster will write in 2003, "When I lined up Hatfills known movements with the postmark locations ...
As Vera and I pointed out to the Commission, and confirmed by CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, after the anthrax letters between 10 and 30 thousand people potentially exposed to anthrax spores took antibiotics. Not a single one developed anthrax. One hundred ninety-eight also took vaccine. They failed to get anthrax. Does vaccine improve the effect of antibiotics? It is impossible to improve on 100% protection, though the Commission would like us to forget this human efficacy experiment. If you give the vaccine with something that is highly (100%) protective, the vaccine will naturally appear to be "most effective" under those circumstances. ...
Source: Washington Post, July 28, 2003. OPINION. Unready for Anthrax By Lawrence M. Wein and Edward H. Kaplan. In any attempted terrorist attack against this country, smallpox and anthrax would be the only two biological agents capable of causing mass casualties. And while the government has invested considerable effort in planning for a potential smallpox attack, no equivalent plan exists for anthrax.. In a recently completed study, we looked into various emergency responses to an airborne anthrax attack and concluded that the United States is woefully unprepared. Two pounds of weapons-grade anthrax dropped on a large American city could result in more than 100,000 deaths, even if early cases were successfully diagnosed, antibiotics were distributed broadly and drug adherence was high. The reason for the catastrophic death toll: Not enough people would receive antibiotics quickly enough to prevent symptoms from developing, and those who developed symptoms would overwhelm the medical ...
This undated file electronmicrograph from the official U.S. Department of Defense anthrax information Web Site shows Bacillus anthracis vegetative cells in a monkey spleen. Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus anthracis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Thursday, June 19, 2014, that some of its staff in Atlanta may have been accidentally exposed to dangerous anthrax bacteria because of a safety problem at some of its labs. less ...
B. anthracis remains a bioterrorism threat, with the potential for thousands or tens of thousands to be exposed after spore release in a densely populated setting5,6,30,31. Such numbers of casualties would likely strain and possibly overwhelm the public health and medical care system and it is highly plausible that some patients may not receive immediate prophylaxis or treatment when symptoms are just beginning to manifest. With large numbers of patients presenting to emergency departments seeking care, it is crucial that emergency physicians, intensivists and other clinicians understand the importance of therapeutic options and timing available to them. For patients with inhalational anthrax who progress to severe disease, morbidity and mortality are largely due to the detrimental effects of toxemia, so the timing for effective treatment of toxin-mediated disease must be understood in order to effectively plan for and respond to such a public health emergency. The United States Strategic ...
With my admittedly limited resources (time/access to journals), I tried to do as extensive a search on safety studies of the anthrax vaccine as possible. Report after report stated that the most common reactions to the vaccine tended to be local and of mild to moderate severity, being limited mainly to erythema, edema and pruritis. Severe reactions of these types were rare, and none of the studies found any connection between the vaccine and long-term health issues, like autoimmune disorders or chronic fatigue. My best guess is that chronic issues are most likely unrelated to the vaccine and may be due to other factors (e.g., other environmental causes, stress and/or psychogenic illness, etc.). If they are connected to the vaccine, they seem to be so exceedingly rare that, for individuals at risk of anthrax exposure, the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the remote risks of a serious AE. Of course, research on the anthrax vaccine should continue. For one thing, we should have more than one ...
With my admittedly limited resources (time/access to journals), I tried to do as extensive a search on safety studies of the anthrax vaccine as possible. Report after report stated that the most common reactions to the vaccine tended to be local and of mild to moderate severity, being limited mainly to erythema, edema and pruritis. Severe reactions of these types were rare, and none of the studies found any connection between the vaccine and long-term health issues, like autoimmune disorders or chronic fatigue. My best guess is that chronic issues are most likely unrelated to the vaccine and may be due to other factors (e.g., other environmental causes, stress and/or psychogenic illness, etc.). If they are connected to the vaccine, they seem to be so exceedingly rare that, for individuals at risk of anthrax exposure, the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the remote risks of a serious AE. Of course, research on the anthrax vaccine should continue. For one thing, we should have more than one ...
Q: Is there an approved treatment for anthrax? A: Yes. Three types of antiobiotics are approved for anthrax: ciprofloxacin, tetracyclines (including doxycycline), and penicillins. For people who have been exposed to anthrax but do not have symptoms, 60 days of one of these antibiotics is given to reduce the risk or progression of disease due to inhaled anthrax. Q: Does the government have a plan in place to make Cipro available if there were mass exposure to anthrax? A: Yes. Under emergency plans, the Federal government would ship appropriate antibiotics from its stockpile to wherever they are needed. Q: Should individual consumers ask their physicians to write a prescription for Cipro, so they have it on hand in case its needed? A: No. Any needed antibiotics from the current stockpile will be made available if they are needed. In the meantime, Cipro should not be prescribed unless there is a clearly indicated need, so that the drug will be available as the need arises for the standard ...
The anthrax letter attacks after September 11, 2001 demonstrated the ease of using the anthrax spore as a weapon in a bioterrorist attack. Anthrax is a lethal i...
Anthrax is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming bacillus, primarily infecting herbivores. Although rare in the developed world the organism remains a threat to livestock in African and Asian countries where control depends on appropriate animal husbandry approaches such as vaccination and disposal/decontamination of carcasses. Animals are thought to contract anthrax by ingesting spores from contaminated soil while humans become infected via contact with diseased animals, their products or as a consequence of acts of bio-terrorism such as occurred in 2001. This unprecedented act has stimulated a burst of research, shedding new light on the biology of the organism and its ability to cause disease. It is to be hoped that this renewed interest will see anthrax once more regain the status of an exotic disease of antiquity. ...
Since October 3, 2001, CDC and state and local public health authorities have been investigating cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. This report updates findings as of October 31, and includes interim guidelines for the clinical evaluation of pers ...
Results A 14-year-old male previously misdiagnosed as cutaneous anthrax was referred with a 2-month history of multiple wide and deep ulceronecrotic lesions in lower extremities, started after contact with animals (1a). Complete blood count (CBC) revealed anemia (hemoglobin: 8.5 g/dl, hematocrit: 26.9%), eosinophilia (4100/mm3) and thrombocytopenia (34000/mm3). Peripheral blood smear also revealed marked eosinophilia (42%). Infectious etiologies such as cutaneous anthrax, leishmaniosis, aspergillosis and nonspecific agents were excluded by gram staining, wound-blood-bone marrow cultures and serological investigations. Bone marrow aspiration was performed owing to the prominent eosinophilia, anemia and thrombocytopenia. However, the result was also pointing out eosinophilia without signs of eosinophilic leukemia. Although ANCAs were negative, the robust clinical manifestations concordant with EGPA (e.g. eosinophilia, increased Ig E level, history of asthma, vasculitic lesions) had led us to ...
Release Date: 10/02/2002. The popular press has been filled with reports of anthrax exposure since September 11th. Usually a disease that strikes mostly livestock and wild animals, and occasionally workers in wool mills or tanneries being exposed to contaminated animal wool and skin, it has become a household word since its use as a weapon of terror. The most severe form of the disease results from inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores which are engulfed or phagocytised by macrophages in the lung. Phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages is a normal and effective method of the innate immune system to fight the spread of infection. However, in the case of anthrax, the bacteria survive phagocytosis, reproduce within the cells, and use the macrophages as a transport mechanism to invade lymph nodes and eventually the blood stream leading to widespread infection, disease, and death. Until now, the mechanisms by which B. anthracis kills macrophages and avoids detection by the host immune system has ...
Abstract Protective immunity to anthrax can be achieved by antibodies raised against the secreted protective antigen (PA) and this forms the basis of the current acellular vaccines..
Anthrax is a serious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that forms spores. A spore is a cell that is dormant (asleep) but may come to life with the right conditions. In the case of anthrax, the spore may form the anthrax toxin when it enters the warm, moist environment inside the skin, stomach or lungs of a person.. Anthrax is not contagious. It cannot be transmitted from one person to another. A person must come in direct contact with the spores in order to develop disease.. ...
BS, 1967, University of Texas at Arlington. Overview: Toxins; inflammation; molecular pathogenesis of bacterial infections of the intestine; therapeutics against diarrheal disease and anthrax. Research Interests. Dr. Petersons research activities have been in the areas of toxin-mediated bacterial diseases, including cholera, anthrax, and salmonellosis. The majority of the labs current research is focused on the evaluation of drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines that block the pathogenesis of anthrax. Screening of potential therapeutics is performed in tissue culture assays with the B. anthracis toxins before they are selected for further evaluation in small animal models of inhalation anthrax. Through collaboration, Dr. Peterson is investigating the molecular mechanism(s) by which the anthrax lethal factor kills macrophage cells designing and synthesizing more effective inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor and edema factor, as well as enterotoxins that stimulate intestinal adenylate ...
Yale alumnus Mark Cunningham 85, an editor at the New York Post, has been diagnosed as having skin anthrax.. His case was confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Nov. 2, making it the 18th anthrax case in the United States since the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks.. Cunningham, an editorial page editor, said he likely had contact with a suspicious letter mailed to the Post Sept. 18. Cunningham said this same letter is thought to have been responsible for the skin anthrax diagnosed in two other Post employees.. "How or when I came into touch with [the letter], Ill probably never know," Cunningham said.. Post spokeswoman Suzi Halpin said Cunningham is being treated with Cipro and is expected to make a full recovery.. Cunningham said he went to the emergency room on the evening of Sunday, Oct. 28.. "What looked like a pimple on my forehead became swollen with a collapsed gray thing," Cunningham said.. He said he suspected anthrax because the "thing" on his forehead matched a ...
Anthrax is a gram positive rod shaped bacterium from the genome Bacillus anthracis. When the body is exposed to anthrax, it release toxins that potentially disturb immune system by destroying macrophages. This eventually leads the body to fall under septic shock and death may occur.. Anthrax is contain a D-glutamic acid capsule that is unrecognizable by white blood cells. White blood cells carry out phagocytosis and destroy foreign bacteria but it cannot recognize the D-glutamic acid therefore phagocytosis is inhibited.. If you have been found to be exposed to anthrax, go to a doctor and see if you can get some antibiotics:. ...
Tom Daschle, the other Democratic senator targeted, believes Ivins was the sole culprit.[142] Though the motive according to the FBIs final Amerithrax report related to Ivinss goal to save the failing anthrax vaccine program, the FBI omitted any reference in the report about Sen. Daschle questioning the vaccine. Considering Sen. Daschle was the only targeted entity who had questioned the anthrax vaccine, which tied directly to the stated motive, it remains uncertain as to why the FBI did not report to the American people the fact that Sen. Daschle co-signed a letter on 21 June 2001 with Rep. Gephardt to SecDef Rumsfeld questioning the vaccine and the punishments of U.S. troops for refusing to be inoculated.[143] Instead, the FBI implied witnesses had no "inkling" as to why the Senator was attacked, and that there was no "ostensible" connection to the motive.[144] Although the FBI matched the genetic origin of the attack spores to the spores in Ivinss flask RMR-1029, the spores within flask ...
Posted on 10/13/2006 3:46:10 PM PDT by Shermy. Nobody has been arrested for the anthrax mailings of 2001, but many people have paid for the crime. Five died and at least 17 others got sick. The Federal Bureau of Investigation has been frustrated. Careers have crumbled. Taxpayers have gotten socked for billions of dollars to shore up bioterror defenses that some experts say still fall short. Now, an analysis from the FBI itself, buried in a microbiology journal, is raising more questions about the investigation. In the August issue of Applied and Environmental Microbiology, FBI scientist Douglas Beecher sought to set the record straight. Anthrax spores mailed to politicians and journalists in September and October 2001, Beecher wrote, were not prepared using advanced techniques and additives to make them more lethal, contrary to a widely circulated misconception. The notion the anthrax spores were weaponized had fueled conjecture that only a government insider could have carried out the ...
The intentional use of Bacillus anthracis in 2001 as a bioterrorism weapon with fatal consequences renewed interest in past epidemiological and animal research about pathogenesis and posed new dilemmas about diagnosis and treatment. Cases in the October 2001 US outbreak were theoretically exposed via one dispersal method: aerosolization of Ames strain spores. While some developed the cutaneous anthrax form, others sustained the more serious inhalational disease. Inhaled spores are known to travel to alveolar macrophages and then onto the mediastinal lymph nodes where germination to the bacterium form and toxin release are thought to occur. Infective dose, significance of dormant spores after long-term antibiotic therapy, spectrum of disease and even precise cause of death remain unknown. This observational, prospective natural history study was developed during the 2001 outbreak and is set up to follow participants from the time of exposure through post-recovery (greater than ten years). Healthy ...
Anthrax toxin, one of the two major virulence factors produced by Bacillus anthracis, is composed of three independent polypeptide chains: the protective antigen (PA), which is involved in target cell binding; the edema factor (EF), a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase; and the lethal factor (LF), a zinc-dependent metalloprotease (for reviews see Collier and Young, 2003; Abrami et al., 2005; Scobie and Young, 2005). Only PA is able to bind to target cells; thus, EF and LF must always act in binary combination with PA to be transported to the target cell cytosol, where they exert their activities. The two identified PA receptors, tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2), are type I transmembrane proteins sharing ∼60% homology in their extracellular von Willebrand factor A domains and 68% identity in the first 145 residues of their cytoplasmic tails (Scobie and Young, 2005).. A relatively clear view of the mode of action of anthrax toxin has emerged over ...
The Epidemiology of Anthrax. Anthrax occurs worldwide. The organism exists in the soil as a spore. Animals, domestic or wild, become infected when they ingest spores while grazing on contaminated land or eating contaminated feed. Only when the organism in the carcass is exposed to air does sporulation occur. Environmental conditions such as drought, which may promote trauma in the oral cavity on grazing, are thought to increase the chances of acquiring anthrax, as Pasteur originally reported1. Anthrax in humans is associated with agricultural, horticultural, or industrial exposure to infected animals or contaminated animal products. In the less-developed countries, primarily in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, disease occurs from contact with infected domesticated animals or contaminated animal products. This includes handling contaminated carcasses, hides, wool, hair, and bones; and ingesting contaminated meat. Cases associated with industrial exposure, rarely seen today, occur in workers ...
Ten years ago today, George W. Bush signed the Patriot Act into law in what many consider to be the single biggest blow to civil liberties our country has seen. I will leave it to others to detail the damage done to our rights, but a quick list of that damage can be seen here on the History Commons website. Instead, what I want to focus on is the prominent role played by the anthrax attacks in the passage of the Patriot Act.. Although most would say that the Patriot Act was a direct result of the 9/11 attacks, timeline analysis shows that key events in the anthrax attacks took place during the critical days leading up to passage of the act. The timeline I have assembled here draws on data in timelines prepared by Marcy Wheeler, History Commons (anthrax), History Commons (Patriot Act) and Ed Lake, along with my own contributions.. September 4, 2001 Exactly one week before the 9/11 attacks, Judy Miller disclosed Project Bacus, in which the Defense Threat Reduction Agency demonstrated that they ...
Two more cows have died from anthrax exposure in northeast Colorado, expanding the first outbreak of the disease in the state in 31 years to three ranches. Last week, 60 cows died on a Logan County ranch, where anthrax was positively identified...
The present work was aimed at characterizing the process of cell entry of the anthrax EF and of the modification of the concentration and distribution of cAMP that EF induces in living cells. These goals were reached by using fluorescent PKA‐based probes for optical imaging of cAMP with subcellular spatial resolution and appropriate biochemical assays. An important finding presented here is that EF reaches its cytosolic substrate ATP with a time course, determined with both biochemical and imaging assays, similar to that of the anthrax LF. LF was previously shown to enter the cytosol via the endocytic route at the late endosomal stage (Abrami et al, 2005). Similarly to LF, EF entry depends strictly on the activity of the vacuolar ATPase proton pump; the effect of its specific inhibitor bafilomycin A1, added at different time periods after the toxin, also indicates a sorting out of EF from late endosomes. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that EF is endocytosed together with ...
London, Feb 7 : One per cent of the population have a natural genetic resistance to deadly disease such as HIV, malaria, leprosy and hepatitis, scientists have revealed, scientists have revealed.. The findings came after research into anthrax found susceptibility to the acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis varied from person to person.. There are effective vaccines against anthrax and some forms of the disease respond well to antibiotic treatment.. However, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine in the United States have discovered that susceptibility to anthrax toxin is a heritable genetic trait.. Professor Stanley Cohen, the senior author of the new study, and his colleagues found that variation in the level of expression of a gene that produces a cell-surface protein called CMG2 affects the success of the anthrax toxin in gaining entry into human cells.. The research suggests that analogous effects may occur in people exposed to anthrax ...
Bacillus anthracis, the agent of anthrax, has gained virulence through its exotoxins produced by vegetative bacilli and is composed of three components forming lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET). So far, little is known about the effects of these toxins on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Here, we provide an overview on the general effects of toxin upon the cytoskeleton architecture. Thus, we shall discuss how anthrax toxins interact with their receptors and may disrupt the interface between extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. We then analyze what toxin molecular effects on cytoskeleton have been described, before discussing how the cytoskeleton may help the pathogen to corrupt general cell processes such as phagocytosis or vascular integrity.
Scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences have uncovered how the bodys immune system launches its survival response to the notorious and deadly bacterium anthrax. The findings, reported online today and published in the June 22 issue of the journal Immunity, describe key emergency signals the body sends out when challenged by a life-threatening infection.
The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA). LF is a metalloproteinase with specificity for selected mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), but its activity is not directly lethal to many types of primary and transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment of several animal species with the combination of LF and PA (termed lethal toxin or LT) leads to morbidity and mortality, suggesting that LT-dependent toxicity is mediated by cellular interactions between host cells. Decades of research have revealed that a central hallmark of this toxicity is the disruption of key cellular barriers required to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the effects of LT on barrier function, highlighting recent progress in establishing the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.
Not all biological weapons are created equal. They are separated into categories A through C, category A biological agents being the scariest: They are easy to spread, kill effectively and call for special actions by the pubic health system. One of these worrisome organisms is anthrax, which has already received its fair share of media attention. But work in Vince Fischettis laboratory at Rockefeller University suggests that A bacteriums final gasp. A bacillus bacterium, a close relative of anthrax, begins to explode after being treated with PlyPH. The PlyPH protein, discovered by Rockefeller scientists, offers several advantages over existing anthrax treatments. a newly discovered protein could be used to fight anthrax infections and even decontaminate areas in which anthrax spores have been released. More on this story ...
Home page for all CDC anthrax information. Includes basic information as well as information for health and lab professionals. Part of the CDC Emergency Preparedness & Response site.
CASE CLOSED is a novel which answers the question … Why did the FBI fail to solve the 2001 anthrax case? Heres an early discussion by the (fictional) DIA team investigation the FBI anthrax investigation ...
Biologists at the University of California, San Diego have determined how toxin produced by anthrax bacteria blocks a persons normal immune response, a discovery that could lead to new treatments for anthrax infection.
Cellular adaptation to microbial stresses has been demonstrated in several cell types. Macrophages (MФ) are sentinel immune cells fending off invading microbes. Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is a key virulence factor released by Bacillus anthracis that causes rapid cell death, pyroptosis. A small number of RAW246.7 macrophages (~4%) exposed to a non-lethal dose of LeTx become resistant to LeTx-induced pyroptosis for ~ 4 weeks, termed
Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming rod capable of causing cutaneous, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. It has a number of virulence factors of which, the two toxins are of great importance. Lethal toxin is a zinc metaloprotease that cleaves the N terminus of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase family 1-7, with the exception of MEK5. This kinase family is responsible for activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. This cascade includes extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 kinases. The disruption of these signaling pathways has a number of deleterious downstream effects that vary by cell type. Edema factor is a powerful calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase that forms 3,5-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This enzymatic reaction causes an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) in host cells. As cAMP is a prominent second messenger in cellular ...
ATLANTA - About 75 employees at the Atlanta-based U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are being monitored or given antibiotics after possibly being exposed to anthrax, the federal agency said today.. No one has shown symptoms of anthrax following the accidental exposure, CDC spokesman Tom Skinner said in an email to The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. There is no risk of exposure to the deadly bacteria for other CDC staff, family members or the general public, according to a separate statement released by the agency. Anthrax is not contagious and cannot be caught like the cold or flu.. "Out of an abundance of caution, CDC is taking aggressive steps to protect the health of all involved, including protective courses of antibiotics for potentially exposed staff," the agency stated.. Investigators found that the unintentional exposure occurred sometime between June 6 and June 13 - the day it was discovered. Staff took environmental samples and decontaminated the labs and hallways. The ...
Im not tooting my own horn," said King in an interview Thursday, "but Im pretty proud of my business model. You call and place an order, and no matter where you are in the world, we will have live, weaponized Anthrax right to your cave opening or tent flap within 24 hours.". Kings corporate headquarters will be in Whitemarsh, just up the road from Aberdeen where he currently works.. People whove worked with the one-star general know that his business will fill a niche market that so far has never been serviced. They also know that King brings a unique level of experience to the endeavor.. "The general really knows about this since as commander at Dugway back in his previous assignment, he was in charge of shipping anthrax all over the place," said Col. Marty Muchow, the 20ths deputy commander. "Youre really not going to find anybody else in the world whos sent Anthrax to more places.". ...
Diagnosis Code A22.0 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM A22.0 - includes detailed coding rules & notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index & annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [M K Karahocagil, N Akdeniz, H Akdeniz, O Calka, H Karsen, A Bilici, S G Bilgili, O Evirgen].
Researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, have determined a key mechanism by which Bacillus anthracis bacteria initiate anthrax infection ...
Did you ever dream of a State-of-the-art medical spa (MediSpa) in your pioneering hotel or resort, a benchmark in the field regarding Asia-Pacific region, PLENITUDE, as Expert Operator can bring you to the goal by providing a full range of business solutions along a total management.. ...
Anthrax is a bacterial disease of livestock, humans and dogs, often with fatal consequences. Anthrax spores can contaminate the environment for many years.
Anthrax Protein Detection Set Catalog Number: PSI-1811 Set Contents: ATR, Anthrax PA, Anthrax LF, Anthrax EF, Anthrax PA peptide, Anthrax LF peptide, Anthrax EF peptide Tested Applications: IF, IHC, WB Size: 1 Set ...
Anthrax Protein Detection Set Catalog Number: PSI-1811 Set Contents: ATR, Anthrax PA, Anthrax LF, Anthrax EF, Anthrax PA peptide, Anthrax LF peptide, Anthrax EF peptide Tested Applications: IF, IHC, WB Size: 1 Set ...
A new study published this month by a Saint Louis University vaccine r...This new type of anthrax vaccine produced the immune response doctors ...In its first human testing the vaccine was given to 100 volunteers at... This type of research five years after 9/11 continues to be very im...Gorse said the study was able to answer some important questions about...,Combating,anthrax:,Results,of,study,published,this,month,as,researchers,look,for,a,better,vaccine,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
An acute bacterial infection caused by ingestion of BACILLUS organisms. Carnivores may become infected from ingestion of infected carcasses. It is transmitted to humans by contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. The most common form in humans is cutaneous anthrax.. ...
Biodefense biopharma firm Elusys Therapeutics was awarded an additional $14.5 million in funding from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to support expanded human safety trials with ETI-204 (Anthim), its Phase II-stage monoclonal antibody candidate for treating anthrax infection.
Anthrax definition, an infectious, often fatal disease of cattle, sheep, and other mammals, caused by Bacillus anthracis, transmitted to humans by contaminated wool, raw meat, or other animal products. See more.
From a structural perspective, the most compelling conclusion emerging from our findings is that the channels entire β-barrel stem region participates in the gating process. Absent a high resolution structure of the pore form of the anthrax channel in both the closed and open states, we cannot draw a detailed picture of the gating motions from our data. Nevertheless, we can gain some insight into the magnitude of the conformational changes that might occur during gating by considering the x-ray crystal structure of α-hemolysin, which likely shares structural features with the stem domain of the anthrax channel (Song et al., 1996; Benson et al., 1998; Nassi et al., 2002; Krantz et al., 2004; Nguyen, 2004).. The luminal diameter (Cα-Cα) of α-hemolysins β-barrel is ∼26 Å (accounting for sidechain volume, which is relevant to LF or EF translocation, yields a diameter of ∼19 Å [Krantz et al., 2004]), with residues of adjacent subunits being an average distance (Cβ-Cβ) of ∼11 Å from ...
The Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is one component of a tripartite exotoxin partly responsible for persistent anthrax cytotoxicity after initial bacterial infection. Inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but LF is a challenging target because inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity or possess poor pharmaceutical properties. These structural studies reveal an alternate conformation of the enzyme, induced upon binding of specific inhibitors, that opens a previously unobserved deep pocket termed S1* which might afford new opportunities to design selective inhibitors that target this subsite. ...
Elusys Therapeutics announced on Thursday promising preclinical trial results for treatments against Anthrax infections during the American Society for Microbiology Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research meeting.
A child has died of anthrax in Siberia in the first fatal outbreak of the bacterial disease reported in Russia in 75 years, the regional governors office said on Tuesday.
Brett Smith for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online For years, doctors have wondered why someone with an anthrax infection can die days after the bacteria responsible is wiped out from their body. A new study claims the toxin produced by the bacteria uses a Trojan horse-like method to elude the bodys natural
A drug addict in Blackpool, UK, died from an anthrax infection, sparking concerns of a pan-European outbreak of the rare disease.
what organism produces this disease and how?what are the four different locations where an anthrax infection can occur?, Hire Biology Expert, Ask Academics Expert, Assignment Help, Homework Help, Textbooks Solutions
Resembles Staph. aureus food poisoning by symptoms and incubation period. • Caused by preformed heat-stable enterotoxin 2. Diarrheal form - abdominal cramps and diarrhea with an incubation period of 8 - 16 h ("long-incubation" ). Diarrhea, small volume or profuse and watery. • Resembles food poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens. • Mediated by a heat-labile enterotoxin Bacillus anthracis • Large, Gram-positive, sporing rod, 1 - 1.2µm in width x 3 - 5µm in length • Anthrax is primarily a disease of domesticated and wild animals, particularly herbivorous animals, such as cattle, sheep, horses, mules, and goats. • Humans become infected incidentally from diseased animals - flesh, bones, hair and excrement Cutaneous anthrax. • The most common form of anthrax in humans. • Acquired via injured skin or mucous membranes - minor scratch or abrasion, usually on an exposed area of the face, neck or arms. • Characteristic gelatinous edema develops at the site. This develops into ...
Imagine researchers in hazmat suits moving slowly and deliberately through a lab. One of them holds up a beaker. Its glowing.. This light - or the absence of it - could save millions of dollars for governments and save the lives of anthrax victims.. Scientists at the University of Missouri Laboratory of Infectious Disease Research proved a new method for anthrax detection can identify anthrax quicker than any existing approach.. When the "bioluminescent reporter phage" - an engineered virus - infects anthrax bacteria, it takes on a sci-fi-movie-type glow.. George Stewart, a medical bacteriologist at MUs Bond Life Sciences Center, and graduate student Krista Spreng, observed the virus against a variety of virulent strains of bacillus anthracis, the bacteria causing anthrax disease.. "For this technique, within a few hours, youll have a yes or no answer," Stewart said.. The research, funded by the USDA, was published in the Journal of Microbiological Methods in Aug. 2013. David Schofield at ...
Bacillus Anthrax is a common disease in livestock and occasionally humans. It causes Anthrax, which is a fatal skin infection. It is found in soil.
A fully automated anthrax smoke detector (ASD) has been developed and tested. The ASD is intended to serve as a cost effective front-end monitor for anthrax surveillance systems. The principle of operation is based on measuring airborne endospore con
Looking for online definition of gastrointestinal anthrax in the Medical Dictionary? gastrointestinal anthrax explanation free. What is gastrointestinal anthrax? Meaning of gastrointestinal anthrax medical term. What does gastrointestinal anthrax mean?
TURNBULL, P.C.B. et al. Naturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern Africa. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2008, vol.75, n.2, pp.95-102. ISSN 2219-0635.. Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63 %) wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a whole and the other groups (P , 0.001) and no significant difference between the South African and control groups (P , 0.05). Numbers in the Namibian group were too small ...
Bacillus anthracis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can cause cutaneous, gastrointestinal or respiratory disease in many vertebrates, including humans. Commercially available anthrax vaccines for immunization of humans are of limited duration and do not protect against the respiratory form of the disease. Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in animals and humans. As with other intracellular pathogens, cell mediated immune responses (CMI) are crucial in affording protection against brucellosis. B. abortus strain RB51 has been shown to be useful in eliciting protective cell mediated immunity and humoral responses against Brucella in cattle and other animal species. Since the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis is known to induce protective antibodies, it was decided that the objective of this research was to test whether the gene encoding PA could be expressed in Brucella producing a bivalent vaccine to protect against ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diffusion limitation in the block by symmetric tetraalkylammonium ions of anthrax toxin channels in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes. AU - Blaustein, Robert O.. AU - Finkelstein, Alan. PY - 1990/11. Y1 - 1990/11. N2 - Current flow through the channel formed in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes by the PA65 fragment of anthrax toxin is blocked, in a voltage-dependent manner, by tetraalkylammonium ions (at micromolar concentrations), which bind to a blocking site within the channel lumen. We have presented evidence that diffusion plays a significant role in the kinetics of blocking by tetrabutylammonium ion (Bu4N+) from the cis (toxin-containing) side of the membrane (Blaustein, R. O., E. J. A. Lea, and A. Finkelstein. 1990. J. Gen. Physiol. 96:921-942); in this paper we examine the implications and consequences of diffusion control for binding kinetics. As expected for a diffusion-affected reaction, both the entry rate constant (k1cis) of Bu4N+ from the cis solution to the ...
Background: Anthrax and plague are diseases caused by Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis respectively. These bacteria are etiological agents for worldwide zoonotic diseases and are considered among the most feared potential bioterror agents. Strain differentiation is difficult for these microorganisms because of their high intraspecies genome homogeneity. Moreover, fast strain identification and comparison with known genotypes may be crucial for naturally occurring outbreaks versus bioterrorist events discrimination. Results: Thirty-nine B. anthracis and ten Y. pestis strains, representative of the species genetic diversity, were genotyped by Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer using previously described Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis assays (MLVA). Results were compared to previous data obtained by standard genotyping system (capillary electrophoresis on automatic sequencer) and, when necessary, direct amplicon sequencing. A reference comparison table containing actual fragment sizes, sequencer sizes ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
A stones throw from Tactical Technologies was 1911 North Fort Myer Drive, the brown building in the center and the headquarters of CIA fronts involving Ted Shackley, Thomas Clines, Edwin Wilson, and the shipping agent for the ill-fated SS Poet.. In a May 25, 1981, Wackenhut Inter-Office memo, Fair is named as "Dr. Harry D. Fair, Chief, Propulsion Technology, Applied Science Division" of the U.S. Armys Picatinny Arsenal in Dover, New Jersey. The same memo states that the Santa Rosa Indians pledged to the Cabazons that their land could be used for the testing of a "rail gun.". It is unclear what Nichols meant by using biological warfare agents in small countries bordering Albania, then a Chinese ally, and large countries bordering the Soviet Union, which included China. However, the possibility that the CIA and its contractors were contemplating a "false flag" biological attack on Albania from non-aligned Yugoslavia that may have been blamed on Moscow and a "false flag" retaliatory biological ...
Looking for online definition of postexposure prophylaxis in the Medical Dictionary? postexposure prophylaxis explanation free. What is postexposure prophylaxis? Meaning of postexposure prophylaxis medical term. What does postexposure prophylaxis mean?
Due to continuing concerns about bioterrorism and the potential for future anthrax attacks, GAO was asked to audit controls over public sales of excess DOD biological equipment and chemical and biological protective clothing that could be used to produce and disseminate biological warfare agents. GAO used a case study approach to determine (1) the extent to which DOD is selling biological equipment and protective clothing that can be used to make and disseminate biological agents, such as anthrax, and (2) whether existing federal regulations and guidance in DOD policies and procedures address the risk of public sales of these items. GAO will be issuing a report with recommendations that DOD, in conjunction with its scientific community, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Health and Human Services, perform a risk assessment as part of an overall effort to develop and implement appropriate controls over sales of selected excess biological equipment. GAO also recommends that DOD

Biodefense vaccines for category A priority pathogens - Anthrax and Botulism - Vaccine NationBiodefense vaccines for category A priority pathogens - Anthrax and Botulism - Vaccine Nation

Licensed vaccines include anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA / BioThrax) in the US, and anthrax vaccine precipitated (AVP) in ... anthrax vaccinebotulism vaccineNIAIDNIH Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields ... Anthrax (caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis) usually affects livestock far more than humans. However, it still poses a ... Biodefense vaccines for category A priority pathogens - Anthrax and Botulism. The NIH list on their Biodefense and Emerging ...
more infohttp://www.vaccinenation.org/2013/05/03/biodefense-vaccines-category-priority-pathogens-anthrax-botulism/

Training for Biological Warfare - Army TechnologyTraining for Biological Warfare - Army Technology

An electron micrograph of the anthrax-causing bacteria, bacillus anthracis.. An electron micrograph of the anthrax-causing ... In 2001, letters containing anthrax spores killed five people and infected 17 others throughout the country. This was a case of ... In 2001, letters containing anthrax spores killed five people and infected 17 others throughout the US. This letter sent to ... In 2001, letters containing anthrax spores killed five people and infected 17 others throughout the US. This letter sent to ...
more infohttp://www.army-technology.com/features/feature78174

Biologic Warfare Agent Toxicity Article - StatPearlsBiologic Warfare Agent Toxicity Article - StatPearls

Anthrax has clinical relevance as a potential cause of infection either environmentally or as a weaponized agent. Anthrax is ... Cutaneous anthrax causes a characteristic black eschar. Strains of weaponized anthrax may be penicillin-resistant. Thus the ... Inhalational anthrax is the most lethal form and presents clinically with four to ten days of flu-like symptoms followed by ... Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance., Goel AK,, World journal of clinical cases, 2015 Jan 16 [PubMed ...
more infohttps://statpearls.com/as/toxicology/19045/

Symptoms | Anthrax | CDCSymptoms | Anthrax | CDC

Symptoms of anthrax depend on the type of infection but all forms of this infection can be deadly if untreated. Read more about ... Injection anthrax symptoms are similar to those of cutaneous anthrax, but injection anthrax can spread throughout the body ... The symptoms of anthrax depend on the type of infection and can take anywhere from 1 day to more than 2 months to appear. All ... Emergency Use Instructions (EUI) for Doxycycline and Ciprofloxacin for Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) of Anthrax ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/basics/symptoms.html

Diagnosis | Anthrax | CDCDiagnosis | Anthrax | CDC

Doctors rarely see a patient with anthrax but CDC guidance and case definitions are available to help them diagnose the ... which are X-ray findings typically seen in patients with inhalation anthrax.. The only ways to confirm an Anthrax diagnosis are ... If inhalation anthrax is suspected, chest X-rays or CT scans can confirm if the patient has mediastinal widening or pleural ... Doctors in the United States rarely see a patient with anthrax. CDC Guidance and case definitions are available to help doctors ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/basics/diagnosis.html

Anthrax: MedlinePlusAnthrax: MedlinePlus

We offer information about anthrax symptoms, causes, vaccine, and treatment. ... You probably wont have to worry about getting anthrax disease. ... Anthrax - blood test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * ... Cutaneous Anthrax (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in Spanish * Inhalation Anthrax (Centers for Disease ... Anthrax: Diagnosis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in Spanish * Laboratory Testing for Anthrax: Frequently ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/anthrax.html

Anthrax toxin - WikipediaAnthrax toxin - Wikipedia

... called anthrax toxin. Anthrax toxin is a mixture of three protein components: (i) protective antigen (PA), (ii) edema factor ( ... Bacillus anthracis-the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is ... Anthrax toxin is of the form A2B, where the two enzymes, EF and LF, are the A components and PA is the B component. Thus, PA ... The mechanism of anthrax toxin action is the result of the molecular structures of the three toxin proteins in combination with ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthrax_toxin

Anthrax | Summary | NNDSSAnthrax | Summary | NNDSS

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) , 2018 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/anthrax/case-definition/2018/) ... Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) , 2010 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/anthrax/case-definition/2010/) ... Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/anthrax/case-definition/1996/) ... Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/anthrax/case-definition/1990/) ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/anthrax/

anthrax - Postsanthrax - Posts

Treatments and Tools for anthrax. Find anthrax information, treatments for anthrax and anthrax symptoms. ... anthrax - MedHelps anthrax Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... How many of you and your partners had to get anthrax immunization? At least anyone in the m... ... I wrote alot under Anthrax. Check my message or comment there too. Thanks. I have been re... ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/tags/show/740/anthrax?section=subjects

What Is Anthrax?What Is Anthrax?

But what exactly is anthrax, and should you be concerned about it? Find out all you need to know. ... You may have heard about anthrax in the news. ... What is anthrax?. Anthrax is an infection caused by bacteria (a ... Should I worry about anthrax?. Anthrax is very rare. In the fall of 2001, a few people became infected with anthrax after ... Is anthrax contagious?. Anthrax is not contagious, which means it does not spread from person to person the way the flu can ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/Inova/en/kids/anthrax.html

Anthrax.  - PubMed - NCBIAnthrax. - PubMed - NCBI

Anthrax.. Mock M1, Fouet A.. Author information. 1. Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, (CNRS URA 2172), Institut Pasteur, Paris ... Bacillus anthracis was shown to be the etiological agent of anthrax by R. Koch and L. Pasteur at the end of the nineteenth ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11544370?dopt=Abstract

ISDH: Anthrax 2004ISDH: Anthrax 2004

Current: Anthrax 2004. Anthrax 2004. Anthrax is a bacterial disease of man and animals caused by the bacteria Bacillus ... There were no reported human or animal cases of anthrax in Indiana in 2004.. You can learn more about anthrax by visiting the ... Anthrax is a disease of interest because of its high mortality rate, severe illness, and potential for use as a Category A ... Anthrax bacteria form spores, which are extremely stable in the environment. There are three clinical presentations of the ...
more infohttp://in.gov/isdh/21977.htm

AnthraxAnthrax

Inhalation anthrax. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980;353:83-93. 5. Elkina AV. The epidemiology of a pulmonary form of anthrax. Zh ... The Epidemiology of Anthrax. Anthrax occurs worldwide. The organism exists in the soil as a spore. Animals, domestic or wild, ... epidemics of anthrax. The largest reported epidemic of human anthrax occurred in Zimbabwe from 1978 through 1980, with an ... In the United States, the annual incidence of human anthrax has steadily declined-from about 127 cases in the early years of ...
more infohttp://www.iaff.org/hs/Resi/Anthrax/Epidemiology.htm

AnthraxAnthrax

History of Anthrax. Anthrax, is an animal disease caused by Bacillus anthracis that occurs in domesticated and wild animals- ... Anthrax has a long association with human history. The fifth and sixth plagues described in Exodus may have been anthrax in ... Owing to the infectiousness of anthrax spores by the respiratory route and the high mortality of inhalational anthrax, the ... inhalational anthrax4. This occurred among wool sorters in England, due to the generation of infectious aerosols of anthrax ...
more infohttp://www.iaff.org/HS/Resi/Anthrax/History.htm

Tracking Anthrax | PBS NewsHourTracking Anthrax | PBS NewsHour

Ray Suarez examines the medical implications of anthrax with Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy ... Fauci, a lot of attention is being paid to the people who contracted, not contracted, who came in contact with anthrax at the ... Ray Suarez examines the medical implications of anthrax with Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy ... except under the circumstance when you talk about the number of spores that would be required to give you inhalation anthrax. ...
more infohttps://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/tracking-anthrax-2

Anthrax - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlusAnthrax - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

Health Information on Anthrax: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Anthrax: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Ántrax: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Anthrax Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English PDF Vaccine Information Statement (VIS ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/anthrax.html Other topics A-Z. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/languages/anthrax.html

Anthrax | 2018 Case DefinitionAnthrax | 2018 Case Definition

One or more of these signs are usually present in patients with ingestion anthrax, inhalation anthrax, and injection anthrax ... Ingestion anthrax: presents as two sub-types:. Oropharyngeal: When anthrax spores germinate in the oropharynx, a mucosal lesion ... Anthrax meningitis: may complicate any form of anthrax, and may also be a primary manifestation. Primary symptoms include fever ... Inhalation anthrax: Often described as a biphasic illness. Early nonspecific symptoms of inhalation anthrax include fever and ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/anthrax/case-definition/2018/

Three-Minute Anthrax SensorThree-Minute Anthrax Sensor

... A new detector uses living cells that light up in the presence of airborne bioterror agents, such ... Bacteria like anthrax are infective within two to three minutes of exposure, so the faster a building can be evacuated and the ... The Lincoln Lab system can detect anthrax and other agents at concentrations as low as 10 individual particles per 30 liters of ... A sensor system that can rapidly detect six potential airborne bioterror agents, including anthrax, is now on the market. The ...
more infohttps://www.technologyreview.com/s/409759/three-minute-anthrax-sensor/amp/

anthraxanthrax

... Menstuff® has compiled information concerning anthrax.. A Message from the United States Postal Service. Study Suggests ... Study Of Army Soldiers Suggests Anthrax Vaccine Doesnt Hurt Womens Fertility. The anthrax vaccine does not appear to harm ... San Diego-Based Biotech Firm Corvas Explores Using Anthrax to Fight Cancer. Small Pox as Biological Weapon. War Gases. ... "Our concerns are not limited to anthrax," said Dr. James M. Hughes, who directs the agencys center for infectious diseases. ...
more infohttp://www.menstuff.org/issues/byissue/anthrax.html

How Anthrax Works | HowStuffWorksHow Anthrax Works | HowStuffWorks

Find out where anthrax bacteria comes from, how it infects people and how its treated. ... There have been several anthrax scares in the U.S. since 9/11. ... Anthrax is a disease caused not by a virus, but rather by ... In this edition of HowStuffWorks, well look at what anthrax is and how it affects the body. Well also discuss new research ... There arent any known cases of anthrax passing from one person to another, so it is considered to be noncontagious. It is ...
more infohttps://science.howstuffworks.com/anthrax.htm

ANTHRAX - Evil Twin (Lyric video) - YouTubeANTHRAX - Evil Twin (Lyric video) - YouTube

The Brand New Single from ANTHRAX - EVIL TWIN. Evil Twin is now available digitally, and can be purchased NOW - USA: https:// ... ANTHRAX - Blood Eagle Wings OFFICIAL - Brian Posehn, Brendon Small - Duration: 8:15. Anthrax 1,102,688 views ... ANTHRAX - The Devil You Know (OFFICIAL VIDEO) - Duration: 4:49. Anthrax 4,206,007 views ... Website: http://www.Anthrax.com. Like: https://www.facebook.com/anthrax. Follow: https://twitter.com/anthrax ...
more infohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xPmLkF3e6Fc

ANTHRAX TARGETS AUTHOR-HER BOOK SURVIVESANTHRAX TARGETS AUTHOR-HER BOOK SURVIVES

... herself a target of the Anthrax virus when a scheduled appearance on the Rosie O Donnell Show was cancelled due to Anthrax ... s Cancer-tankerous Mommy has appeared on The Rosie O Donnell Show she can add the Anthrax virus to her list.. ...
more infohttp://www.prweb.com/releases/2001/11/prweb29710.htm

Eurosurveillance | Anthrax bioterrorismEurosurveillance | Anthrax bioterrorism

Anthrax bioterrorism. Euro Surveill. 1999;3(7):pii=1455. https://doi.org/10.2807/esw.03.07.01455-en ...
more infohttps://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/esw.03.07.01455-en

2001 Anthrax Attacks2001 Anthrax Attacks

All of the anthrax letters used anthrax containing these four indels. The FBI finally has a unique signature for the anthrax ... His anthrax vaccinations are up to date, he unquestionably had the ability to make first-rate anthrax, and he was upset at the ... The anthrax in the Leahy letter and the letter to Sen. Tom Daschle (D-SD) has been considered deadlier than the other anthrax ... Highly Pure Anthrax, but No Coating or Milling - Several months later, two scientists will claim they saw the anthrax from one ...
more infohttp://www.historycommons.org/timeline.jsp?timeline=anthraxattacks&startpos=100

AnthraxAnthrax

... Start module. <;url> onclick=return prtflo_click(); target=_blank class=add_to_portfolio_link>. Add to ... How anthrax may be used in bioterrorism. Alert! Consider coronavirus disease 2019 in any patient with symptoms including cough ... He is a co-author of the BMJ Best Practice monograph on Anthrax on which this module is based. ... He is a co-author of the BMJ Best Practice monograph on Anthrax on which this module is based. ...
more infohttps://learning.bmj.com/learning/module-intro/anthrax.html?locale=en_GB&moduleId=10058205
  • During times of economic hardship and disruption of veterinary and human public health practices, such as occurs during war, there have been large epidemics of anthrax. (iaff.org)
  • Some people are worried that the germ that causes anthrax could be spread and used as a weapon. (kidshealth.org)
  • Anthrax is a potential weapon in germ warfare and bioterrorism . (dictionary.com)
  • The American company that provided the most biological materials to Iraq in the 1980s was American Type Culture Collection of Maryland and Virginia, which made seventy shipments of the anthrax-causing germ and other pathogenic agents, according to a 1996 Newsday story. (progressive.org)
  • 2) The gastrointestinal form, which is extremely rare, occurs when animals ill with anthrax are consumed as food. (in.gov)
  • All types of anthrax have the potential, if untreated, to spread throughout the body and cause severe illness and even death. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Fauci, a lot of attention is being paid to the people who contracted, not contracted, who came in contact with anthrax at the Hart Senate Office Building. (pbs.org)
  • Most patients with anthrax meningitis have cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities consistent with bacterial meningitis, and the CSF is often described as hemorrhagic. (cdc.gov)
  • Anthrax is a disease of interest because of its high mortality rate, severe illness, and potential for use as a Category A bioterrorism agent. (in.gov)
  • For intestinal infection, the risk of death is 25 to 75%, while respiratory anthrax has a mortality of 50 to 80%, even with treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authorities seem equally oblivious to another round of intriguing anthrax hoaxes in February 1999. (nytimes.com)
  • I found a local policeman in Columbus willing to dig out his file on that 1999 anthrax hoax. (nytimes.com)
  • In contrast to the 1997 package with fake anthrax gelatin, the 1999 letters each contained a teaspoon of fake anthrax powder (roughly the same amount as of real anthrax in 2001). (nytimes.com)
  • That's interesting because as of 1997, U.S. bio-defense scientists were working basically only with wet anthrax, while by 1999 some had experimented with making powders. (nytimes.com)
  • Anthrax has been a notifiable condition since 1944 1 and has historically been caused by the organism B. anthracis . (cdc.gov)
  • Environmental conditions such as drought, which may promote trauma in the oral cavity on grazing, are thought to increase the chances of acquiring anthrax, as Pasteur originally reported 1 . (iaff.org)
  • Skin and injection site infections associated with injection drug use are common and do not necessarily mean the person has anthrax. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunizing animals against anthrax is recommended in areas where previous infections have occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until the 20th century, anthrax infections killed hundreds of thousands of people and animals each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • pl. an·thra·ces (-thrə-sēz') A lesion caused by anthrax. (dictionary.com)
  • Is anthrax contagious? (kidshealth.org)
  • Anthrax is not contagious, which means it does not spread from person to person the way the flu can spread between family members or classmates. (kidshealth.org)
  • Contagious Anthrax - transmitted by entering the body through a cut or other sore in your skin. (smore.com)
  • A new detector uses living cells that light up in the presence of airborne bioterror agents, such as anthrax and smallpox. (technologyreview.com)
  • A sensor system that can rapidly detect six potential airborne bioterror agents, including anthrax, is now on the market. (technologyreview.com)
  • The specific name anthrax is Greek for Greek, meaning a carbuncle, a red gemstone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hampshire in 1957 and suspected accidental release of B. anthracis aerosols from a bioweapons facility in Sverdlovsk, 1Members of the National Anthrax Epidemiologic Investigation Team were Paul P. Abamonte, Joel Ackelsberg, S. (cdc.gov)
  • An echo of that deliberate misspelling came last fall when the anthrax letters suggested taking ''penacilin. (nytimes.com)
  • The FBI first begins to suspect Ivins in April when it is discovered he had failed to quickly report anthrax had been found near his desk, away from the laboratory area where he usually works with anthrax. (historycommons.org)
  • CDC Guidance and case definitions are available to help doctors diagnose anthrax, take patient histories to determine how exposure may have occurred, and order necessary diagnostic tests. (cdc.gov)
  • The threat of anthrax as a biological weapon has become a -real concern for everyone. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In this edition of HowStuffWorks , we'll look at what anthrax is and how it affects the body. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Anthrax toxin is of the form A2B, where the two enzymes, EF and LF, are the A components and PA is the B component. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process starts when the 83-kDa form of PA, called PA83, binds to an anthrax toxin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. Elkina AV. The epidemiology of a pulmonary form of anthrax. (iaff.org)
  • It is the most common form (>90% of anthrax cases). (wikipedia.org)
  • A death of unknown cause AND organ involvement consistent with anthrax 4 . (cdc.gov)
  • Anthrax has been developed as a weapon by a number of countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Anthrax toxin protein components must assemble into holotoxin complexes to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors in the United States rarely see a patient with anthrax. (cdc.gov)