An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.

Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998. (1/771)

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker specific for the Bacillus cereus group is diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis. (2/771)

Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group.  (+info)

The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir. (3/771)

The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.  (+info)

Genetic diversity in the protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis. (4/771)

Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes the disease anthrax. The anthrax toxin contains three components, including the protective antigen (PA), which binds to eucaryotic cell surface receptors and mediates the transport of toxins into the cell. In this study, the entire 2,294-nucleotide protective antigen gene (pag) was sequenced from 26 of the most diverse B. anthracis strains to identify potential variation in the toxin and to further our understanding of B. anthracis evolution. Five point mutations, three synonymous and two missense, were identified. These differences correspond to six different haploid types, which translate into three different amino acid sequences. The two amino acid changes were shown to be located in an area near a highly antigenic region critical to lethal factor binding. Nested primers were used to amplify and sequence this same region of pag from necropsy samples taken from victims of the 1979 Sverdlovsk incident. This investigation uncovered five different alleles among the strains present in the tissues, including two not seen in the 26-sample survey. One of these two alleles included a novel missense mutation, again located just adjacent to the highly antigenic region. Phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of the pag corresponded with previous strain grouping based on chromosomal variation, suggesting that plasmid evolution in B. anthracis has occurred with little or no horizontal transfer between the different strains.  (+info)

Role of toxin functional domains in anthrax pathogenesis. (5/771)

We investigated the role of the functional domains of anthrax toxins during infection. Three proteins produced by Bacillus anthracis, the protective antigen (PA), the lethal factor (LF), and the edema factor (EF), combine in pairs to produce the lethal (PA+LF) and edema (PA+EF) toxins. A genetic strategy was developed to introduce by allelic exchange specific point mutations or in-frame deletions into B. anthracis toxin genes, thereby impairing either LF metalloprotease or EF adenylate cyclase activity or PA functional domains. In vivo effects of toxin mutations were analyzed in an experimental infection of mice. A tight correlation was observed between the properties of anthrax toxins delivered in vivo and their in vitro activities. The synergic effects of the lethal and edema toxins resulted purely from their enzymatic activities, suggesting that in vivo these toxins may act together. The PA-dependent antibody response to LF induced by immunization with live B. anthracis was used to follow the in vivo interaction of LF and PA. We found that the binding of LF to PA in vivo was necessary and sufficient for a strong antibody response against LF, whereas neither LF activity nor binding of lethal toxin complex to the cell surface was required. Mutant PA proteins were cleaved in mice sera. Thus, our data provide evidence that, during anthrax infection, PA may interact with LF before binding to the cell receptor. Immunoprotection studies indicated that the strain producing detoxified LF and EF, isogenic to the current live vaccine Sterne strain, is a safe candidate for use as a vaccine against anthrax.  (+info)

Surveillance for adverse events associated with anthrax vaccination--U.S. Department of Defense, 1998-2000. (6/771)

Concerns about the potential use of anthrax as a biologic weapon prompted the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to announce on December 15, 1997, anthrax vaccination of all U.S. military personnel. This effort is coordinated by the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP). AVIP plans a phased vaccination process to achieve total force protection against anthrax by 2004. The current phase of implementation includes vaccination of all service members and mission-essential DoD civilian employees assigned or deployed to high-threat areas. On the basis of program monitoring, as of April 12, 2000, 425,976 service members had received 1,620,793 doses of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (Bioport, Inc., Lansing, Michigan). Some service members have cited concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy in their decision to refuse vaccination, despite the possibility of administrative or disciplinary actions. To assess anthrax vaccination safety, DoD has conducted surveys of vaccinated personnel. This report describes three completed or ongoing surveys. The findings indicate that rates of local reactions were higher in women than men and that no patterns of unexpected local or systemic adverse events have been identified.  (+info)

Attenuated nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated recombinant Bacillus anthracis spore vaccines protect against anthrax. (7/771)

Several highly attenuated spore-forming nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis vaccines differing in levels of expression of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) were constructed. Biochemical analyses (including electrospray mass spectroscopy and N terminus amino acid sequencing) as well as biological and immunological tests demonstrated that the rPA retains the characteristics of native PA. A single immunization of guinea pigs with 5 x 10(7) spores of one of these recombinant strains, MASC-10, expressing high levels of rPA (>/=100 microgram/ml) from a constitutive heterologous promoter induced high titers of neutralizing anti-PA antibodies. This immune response was long lasting (at least 12 months) and provided protection against a lethal challenge of virulent (Vollum) anthrax spores. The recombinant B. anthracis spore vaccine appears to be more efficacious than the vegetative cell vaccine. Furthermore, while results clearly suggest a direct correlation between the level of expression of PA and the potency of the vaccine, they also suggest that some B. anthracis spore-associated antigen(s) may contribute in a significant manner to protective immunity.  (+info)

Characterization of the operon encoding the alternative sigma(B) factor from Bacillus anthracis and its role in virulence. (8/771)

The operon encoding the general stress transcription factor sigma(B) and two proteins of its regulatory network, RsbV and RsbW, was cloned from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis by PCR amplification of chromosomal DNA with degenerate primers, by inverse PCR, and by direct cloning. The gene cluster was very similar to the Bacillus subtilis sigB operon both in the primary sequences of the gene products and in the order of its three genes. However, the deduced products of sequences upstream and downstream from this operon showed no similarity to other proteins encoded by the B. subtilis sigB operon. Therefore, the B. anthracis sigB operon contains three genes rather than eight as in B. subtilis. The B. anthracis operon is preceded by a sigma(B)-like promoter sequence, the expression of which depends on an intact sigma(B) transcription factor in B. subtilis. It is followed by another open reading frame that is also preceded by a promoter sequence similarly dependent on B. subtilis sigma(B). We found that in B. anthracis, both these promoters were induced during the stationary phase and induction required an intact sigB gene. The sigB operon was induced by heat shock. Mutants from which sigB was deleted were constructed in a toxinogenic and a plasmidless strain. These mutants differed from the parental strains in terms of morphology. The toxinogenic sigB mutant strain was also less virulent than the parental strain in the mouse model. B. anthracis sigma(B) may therefore be a minor virulence factor.  (+info)

Cutaneous anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which typically presents with ulcers after contact with animals or animal products, and is rarely seen in high-income countries but is common in those with low- and middle-incomes. Objective. The aim of this study is to show the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in endemic areas.
With the anthrax threat becoming a reality, it is very important to have an effective way to sterilize areas contaminated by anthrax. Anthrax spores are the dormant form of the anthrax bacteria. They can germinate in tissues, producing new bacteria that release lethal toxins. Neutrons can be a powerful tool in our defense against anthrax contamination. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge, which allows them to be very penetrating, killing the anthrax spores on the surface and inside the containers. So neutrons have an advantage over other forms of radiation if deep penetration is required to kill biological organisms. A Cf neutron source allows for a low cost method of decontamination. It emits most neutrons in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy regions, and a neutron in this energy region is 20 times more deadly than electrons or gamma rays in killing anthrax spores. If we just consider the first neutron collision with anthrax spores and that all the anthrax spores will not survive at the
The index case of inhalational anthrax in October 2001 was in a man who lived and worked in Florida. However, during the 3 days before illness onset, the patient had traveled through North Carolina, raising the possibility that exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores could have occurred there. The rapid response in North Carolina included surveillance among hospital intensive-care units, microbiology laboratories, medical examiners, and veterinarians, and site investigations at locations visited by the index patient to identify the naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related source of his exposure.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved a new indication for BioThrax (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) to prevent disease following suspected or confirmed exposure to Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax disease. The vaccines new use is approved for people 18 through 65 years of age in conjunction with recommended antibiotic treatment. BioThrax was initially approved by the FDA in 1970 for the prevention of anthrax disease in persons at high risk of exposure.. Anthrax disease, especially the inhalation form, is often fatal if not promptly treated. Anthrax is considered one of the more likely agents to be used in a biological attack, primarily because its spores are very stable and easy to disperse. Although it is rare, people may contract anthrax disease through natural exposures, such as contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.. With todays approval of BioThrax, we now have a vaccine that can be used, together with antibiotic treatment, to ...
In October 2001, four cases of inhalational anthrax occurred in workers in a Washington, D.C., mail facility that processed envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores. We reviewed the envelopes paths and obtained exposure histories and nasal swab cultures from postal workers. Environmental sampling was performed. A sample of employees was assessed for antibody concentrations to B. anthracis protective antigen. Case-patients worked on nonoverlapping shifts throughout the facility, suggesting multiple aerosolization events. Environmental sampling showed diffuse contamination of the facility. Potential workplace exposures were similar for the case-patients and the sample of workers. All nasal swab cultures and serum antibody tests were negative. Available tools could not identify subgroups of employees at higher risk for exposure or disease. Prophylaxis was necessary for all employees. To protect postal workers against bioterrorism, measures to reduce the risk of occupational exposure are ...
Anthrax bacteria. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) bacteria (yellow) cultured from a blood sample. Seen here are endospores (pink ovals within bacterial cells) and free spores (pink ovals). The spores are reproductive cells that are able to survive dormant in unfavourable conditions for long periods of time. B. anthracis is the cause of anthrax. It can infect the skin (cutaneous anthrax), causing raised itchy lesions, the lungs (pulmonary anthrax), which is fatal unless treated quickly, and the digestive system (gastrointestinal anthrax), causing vomiting of blood and severe diarrhoea. All forms can be fatal if left untreated. Treatment is with antibiotics. Magnification: x9300, when printed 10 centimetres tall. - Stock Image C020/8537
TREATMENT - ANTHRAX from A number of possible therapeutic strategies have yet to be fully explored experimentally or submitted for approval to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The recommendations provided do not represent uses currently approved by the FDA but are a consensus based on best available information of recent studies. Given the fulminant course of inhalation anthrax, early antibiotic administration is essential to maximize patient survival. Given the difficulty in achieving timely microbiologic diagnosis of anthrax, all persons with fever or evidence of systemic disease in an area where anthrax cases are occurring should be treated empirically for anthrax until the disease is excluded. No clinical studies exist of the treatment of inhalation anthrax in humans. Most naturally occurring strains of anthrax are sensitive to penicillin, and penicillin historically has been the preferred therapy for the treatment of anthrax. Penicillin and doxycycline are FDA-approved ...
Anthrax bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Bacillus anthracis bacteria, the cause of anthrax. These are rod-shaped, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria. The bacteria can infect the skin (cutaneous anthrax), causing raised itchy lesions, the lungs (pulmonary anthrax), which is fatal unless treated quickly, and the digestive system (gastrointestinal anthrax), causing vomiting of blood and severe diarrhoea. All forms can be fatal if left untreated. Treatment is with antibiotics. Magnification: x6550 when printed at 10 centimetres tall. - Stock Image C006/3118
Inhalational anthrax is the most serious form of anthrax infection, seen in the cases in Florida and Washington DC. The disease begins when aerosolized anthrax spores are inhaled. Once in the lungs, immune systems cells called macrophages, whose normal function is to ingest, kill, and degrade invading pathogens and activate other immune system cells. However, instead of being killed, the spores reactivate and grow into live bacterial cells. The macrophages transport the bacteria to the lymph nodes, where they proliferate and spread, eventually breaking out of the lymph system into the bloodstream. During this period of lymphatic replication, the patient only displays non-specific symptoms much like the flu. Once in the bloodstream, the bacteria proliferate further and begin producing anthrax toxin. Eventually the bacteria spread through the entire circulatory system at high concentrations. Death from inhalational anthrax is associated with shock and multiple organ failure. When untreated, ...
Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) infection is rarely diagnosed in Romania, cases being sporadic, coming especially from the agrarian environment. Anthrax is a zoonotic infection, and humans are incidental hosts. Early nonspecific symptomatology makes detection of anthrax cases difficult, but compete anamnesis related to patient activity or exposure to animal products can raise suspicion of anthrax. A patient with a clinical suspicion of bacillus anthracis infection should receive an effective treatment very quickly to avoid neurological complications that have a high death rate.
It was reported that the people had anthrax-like small blisters or bumps on their hands and arms after eating the meat.. It was reported that 30 villagers had consumed the meat in question, but most of them had already taken medicine and they could not be successfully tested for anthrax. Instead, the hospital team collected samples from animal carcasses for lab tests with the results expected soon.. The country has been free of livestock anthrax since 2000 and the last anthrax outbreak in Thailand was 17 years ago.. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is most common in wild and domestic animals but can also be seen in humans exposed to tissue from infected animals, contaminated animal products or directly to B anthracis spores under certain conditions.. LISTEN: Anthrax: An interview with Dr Buddy Faries. Depending on the route of infection, host factors, and potentially strain-specific ...
In February 2002, scientist Bruce Ivins submitted a sample of the anthrax he has been using to FBI investigators, but it was destroyed because it was not submitted according to strict protocols. As a result, he is asked to submit a second sample in April 2002, and does. Ivins works at USAMRIID, the US Armys top bioweapons laboratory, and is helping with the anthrax investigation even as the FBI has reason to believe the anthrax could have come from USAMRIID (see Mid-October 2001 and Winter 2001). Ivins is using a variety of the Ames anthrax strain known as RMR-1029. Around early 2004, scientists will discover some unique genetic markers to the anthrax used in the 2001 attacks and will start comparing that anthrax to other anthrax. No match will be found between Ivinss April 2002 sample and the anthrax used in the attacks. As a result of this discrepancy, the FBI will raid Ivinss lab in July 2004 and seize more samples of RMR-1029 (see July 16, 2004). Additionally, Paul Keim, a biologist at ...
Anthrax is a bacterial disease of man and animals caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax bacteria form spores, which are extremely stable in the environment. There are three clinical presentations of the disease: 1) Cutaneous infections, the mildest form, occur when bacterial spores become embedded in the skin. 2) The gastrointestinal form, which is extremely rare, occurs when animals ill with anthrax are consumed as food. 3) Inhalation anthrax occurs when the spores are inhaled. Both the inhalation and gastrointestinal forms have high mortality rates. The reservoir of the bacteria is soil, where the spores can remain viable for years. The spores can be found worldwide and are found naturally in some western states in the U.S. and Canada. Animals, including livestock, can acquire the bacteria from contaminated soil. However, there have been no reported cases of anthrax in Indiana livestock since before 1960.. Anthrax is a disease of interest because of its high mortality rate, severe ...
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Define anthrax bacillus. anthrax bacillus synonyms, anthrax bacillus pronunciation, anthrax bacillus translation, English dictionary definition of anthrax bacillus. Noun 1. anthrax bacillus - a species of bacillus that causes anthrax in humans and in animals ; can be used a bioweapon Bacillus anthracis B, bacillus -...
Their findings, which appeared online today in Nature, are based on testing in mice. However, the results may contribute to the development of anthrax treatments for humans, the researchers say.. Anthrax disease is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which produces two deadly toxins: lethal toxin and edema toxin. When B. anthracis infects a human or animal, both toxins seek out and bind to receptors on the surfaces of human and animal cells. Using two types of laboratory mice-those missing the anthrax toxin receptor on a single type of cell or those having the receptor present on a single type of cell-the scientists compared disease progression among the rodents. They concluded that anthrax-induced death is caused primarily by lethal toxin targeting heart cells and muscle cells surrounding blood vessels, and edema toxin targeting liver cells.. These results may help scientists studying anthrax disease in humans. For example, the study authors suggest, knowing the types of cells that ...
Until 2001, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax, was an obscure agricultural pathogen, but that fall someone sent letters stuffed with anthrax spores to several politicians and journalists. Nearly half (5/11) of those infected by breathing in the spores died from the disease. The anthrax mailings triggered a run on antibiotics, but these drugs only work in the early stages of anthrax infection, before the bacteria have had time to spread and secrete toxins. These attacks called attention to the need for better therapies for anthrax infection, said Tang ...
Since the last report (1), six new anthrax cases have been reported. Three of these cases have occupational exposures similar to previously reported cases (1). A fourth case occurred in a mail handler at a facility not previously linked to cases but that receives mail from a facility at which cases have occurred previously. Two new cases have no discernable epidemiologic link with anthrax cases previously reported or sites that are associated with known cases. These new cases suggest that anthrax exposure has occurred or is continuing to occur through means that cannot be ascribed to known contaminated letters or the paths these letters took through the mail service. The public health response to these new anthrax cases will evolve based on ongoing epidemiologic and criminal investigations. Because exposures are being intentionally perpetrated, public health authorities must be vigilant for the appearance of new cases in previously unaffected populations. Prompt data sharing between law ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular determinants for a cardiovascular collapse in anthrax. AU - Brojatsch, Jurgen. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. AU - Goldman, David L.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Bacillus anthracis releases two bipartite proteins, lethal toxin and edema factor, that contribute significantly to the progression of anthrax-associated shock. As blocking the anthrax toxins prevents disease, the toxins are considered the main virulence factors of the bacterium. The anthrax bacterium and the anthrax toxins trigger multiorgan failure associated with enhanced vascular permeability, hemorrhage and cardiac dysfunction in animal challenge models. A recent study using mice that either lacked the anthrax toxin receptor in specific cells and corresponding mice expressing the receptor in specific cell types demonstrated that cardiovascular cells are critical for disease mediated by anthrax lethal toxin. These studies are consistent with involvement of the cardiovascular system, and with an increase of ...
A new anthrax antibody engineered by scientists at The University of Texas at Austin protects and defends against inhalation anthrax without the use of antibiotics and other more expensive antibodies. The high-affinity antibody, an anthrax antitoxin, successfully eliminated both anthrax bacteria and its deadly toxins in animal tests. If future tests concur, this could be the first successful treatment for late-stage anthrax infection, even for an anthrax strain that has been designed to resist antibiotics.
Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis). B. anthracis spores are highly infective and can cause inhalation, cutaneous, or gastrointestinal anthrax. Inhalation anthrax results from breathing in spores and is of great concern due to its high fatality rate.
Anti-angiogenic therapies are effective for the treatment of cancer, a variety of ocular diseases, and have potential benefits in cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and psoriasis. We have previously shown that anthrax protective antigen (PA), a non-pathogenic component of anthrax toxin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis, apparently as a result of interaction with the cell surface receptors capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2) protein and tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8). Hence, molecules that bind the anthrax toxin receptors may be effective to slow or halt pathological vascular growth. Here we describe development and testing of an effective homogeneous steady-state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) high throughput screening assay designed to identify molecules that inhibit binding of PA to CMG2. Molecules identified in the screen can serve as potential lead compounds for the development of anti-angiogenic and anti-anthrax therapies. The assay to screen for inhibitors of this protein
In the United States, incidence of naturally-acquired anthrax is extremely rare (about 1-2 cases of cutaneous disease per year). Gastrointestinal anthrax is rare, but may occur as explosive outbreaks associated with ingestion of infected animals. Worldwide, the incidence is unknown, though B. anthracis is present in most of the world. Unreliable reporting makes it difficult to estimate the true incidence of human anthrax worldwide. However, in fall 2001, 22 cases of anthrax (11 inhalation, 11 cutaneous) were identified in the United States following intentional contamination of the mail. In the United States, the annual occurrences of naturally-occurring human anthrax declined from estimated 130 cases annually in the early 1900s to 2 cases each in 2000, 2001, and 2002 ...
Spores of Bacillus anthracis have for long been regarded as one of the most powerful bioterrorism threats due to their stability and high lethality [1]. The spores can be easily produced and stockpiled in large quantities, using simple microbial techniques by people having access to a virulent strain and incentive to be exposed to the risk connected with its propagation and handling. Previous deliberate spread of anthrax spores as agent of biowarfare has been as aerosol. However, they could also be disseminated through the food or water supply for targeting of the gastrointestinal tract.. Anthrax infections fall into three different categories, reflecting the route of entry; inhalational, gastrointestinal or cutaneous in order of severity of the infection. With regard to bioterrorism, the most realistic mode of mass exposure includes inhalational or gastrointestinal infections. Conceptually, the idea of targeting the food supply is not new [2] and a few records of planned use of anthrax spores ...
Anthrax toxin is a three-protein exotoxin secreted by virulent strains of the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis-the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective antigen (PA), and two enzyme components, called edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF). These three protein components act together to impart their physiological effects. Assembled complexes containing the toxin components are endocytosed. In the endosome, the enzymatic components of the toxin translocate into the cytoplasm of a target cell. Once in the cytosol, the enzymatic components of the toxin disrupts various immune cell functions, namely cellular signaling and cell migration. The toxin may even induce cell lysis, as is observed for macrophage cells. Anthrax toxin allows the bacteria to evade the immune system, proliferate, and ultimately kill the host animal. Research on anthrax toxin also provides insight into the ...
Eleven known cases of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax (IA) were treated in the United States during 2001. We retrospectively compared 2 methods that have been proposed to screen for IA [1, 2]. The 2 screening protocols for IA were applied to the emergency department charts of patients who presented with possible signs or symptoms of IA at Inova Fairfax Hospital (Falls Church, Virginia) from 20 October 2001 through 3 November 2001. The Mayer criteria [1] would have screened 4 patients (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.1%-0.9%) and generated charges of $1900. If 29 patients (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.7%-3.7%) with ⩾5 symptoms (but without fever and tachycardia) were screened, charges were $13,325. The Hupert criteria [2] would have screened 273 patients (24%; 95% CI, 22%-27%) and generated charges of $126,025. In this outbreak of bioterrorism-related IA, applying the Mayer criteria would have identified both patients with IA and would have generated fewer charges than applying the Hupert criteria.. ...
In a newly published study, researchers from MIT show that a modified version of the anthrax toxin can be used to deliver antibody drugs to kill cancer cells.. Bacillus anthracis bacteria have very efficient machinery for injecting toxic proteins into cells, leading to the potentially deadly infection known as anthrax. A team of MIT researchers has now hijacked that delivery system for a different purpose: administering cancer drugs.. Anthrax toxin is a professional at delivering large enzymes into cells, says Bradley Pentelute, the Pfizer-Laubauch Career Development Assistant Professor of Chemistry at MIT. We wondered if we could render anthrax toxin nontoxic, and use it as a platform to deliver antibody drugs into cells.. In a paper appearing in the journal ChemBioChem, Pentelute and colleagues showed that they could use this disarmed version of the anthrax toxin to deliver two proteins known as antibody mimics, which can kill cancer cells by disrupting specific proteins inside the cells. ...
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics ...
Washington Two Washington-area postal workers have been diagnosed with inhalation anthrax and two more employees at the same facility have died of symptoms consistent with the disease, officials said Monday as the nation grappled with an unprecedented bioterrorism threat.. Dr. Ivan Walks, the citys chief health official, also said authorities are investigating as many as nine more cases that have aroused concern. He said he did not know how many of the nine were postal workers or how many were hospitalized.. The disclosures came as postal workers by the dozens lined up for testing, and city authorities urged anyone connected with the affected Brentwood central mail facility to come forward immediately for screening.. This is a different day, the city health official said at a news conference.. He said the unidentified man diagnosed with the disease was hospitalized in suburban Virginia, at the same facility where another postal worker was diagnosed over the weekend.. He said authorities were ...
human) RATIONALE FOR SURVEILLANCE Anthrax is a widespread zoonosis transmitted from domestic animals (cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloes, pigs and other) to humans by direct contact or through animal products. Human anthrax is a serious problem in several countries and has potential for explosive outbreaks (especially the gastrointestinal form); while pulmonary (inhalation) anthrax is mainly occupational, the threat of biological warfare attacks should not be forgotten. Anthrax has a serious impact on the trade of animal products. The control of anthrax is based on its prevention in livestock: programmes based only on prevention in humans are costly and likely to be ineffective except for those industrially exposed. There is an effective vaccine for those occupationally exposed, and successful vaccines for livestock, particularly for herds with ongoing exposure to contaminated soil. In most countries anthrax is a notifiable disease. Surveillance is important to monitor the control programmes and to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin inhibits endothelial invasion and neovasculature formation during in vitro morphogenesis. AU - Alfano, Randall W.. AU - Leppla, Stephen H.. AU - Liu, Shihui. AU - Bugge, Thomas H.. AU - Meininger, Cynthia J.. AU - Lairmore, Terry C.. AU - Mulne, Arlynn F.. AU - Davis, Samuel H.. AU - Duesbery, Nicholas S.. AU - Frankel, Arthur E.. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - Solid tumor growth is dependent on angiogenesis, the formation of neovasculature from existing vessels. Endothelial activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-jun NH 2-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways is central to this process, and thus presents an attractive target for the development of angiogenesis inhibitors. Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) has potent catalytic mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition activity. Preclinical studies showed that LeTx induced potent tumor growth inhibition via the inhibition of ...
MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Anthim (obiltoxaximab) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat inhalational anthrax, a rare disease stemming from infected animal products. Bacillus anthracis spores also pose a deadly bioterrorism threat if released intentionally.. Anthrax toxins can cause severe tissue damage and death, the FDA said Monday in a news release. Anthim, combined with certain antibacterial drugs, is designed to neutralize the toxins. The medications effectiveness was evaluated in studies conducted on animals, since it wasnt ethical or feasible to conduct such trials with human volunteers, the agency said.. The drugs safety was evaluated in 320 healthy human volunteers. The most common side effects included headache, itching, upper respiratory tract infection, cough, nasal congestion, hives and injection-site reactions including swelling, bruising and pain.. Anthims label includes a boxed warning of a potential severe and possibly fatal ...
Weve had anthrax down here for over a hundred years, and Ive been around it all my life, said Randy Hicks, a salesman at the Uvalde Farm and Ranch Supply Company. I can tell you this much, Im sure not scared of it.. State officials said more than 1,600 animals died of anthrax in Texas this summer, the most severe outbreak of the disease since 1987. But no people have died. One man in Del Rio contracted cutaneous anthrax while skinning a buffalo in June, the first confirmed case among humans here since 1988. Another Del Rio man is believed to have contracted the disease but recovered before he could be tested, said Dr. Terry Conger, the states epidemiologist at the Texas Animal Health Commission.. Among Texas ranchers, anthrax is just another occupational hazard among many, like drought, low beef prices or coyotes, that can be managed through care and caution.. There has been anthrax around for as long as there have been people and animals, all the way back to the Bible, Mr. Conger said. ...
Background Anthrax toxin is comprised of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). These proteins are individually nontoxic; however, when PA assembles with LF and EF, it produces lethal toxin and edema toxin, respectively. Assembly occurs either on cell surfaces or in plasma. In each milieu, PA assembles into a mixture of heptameric and octameric complexes that bind LF and EF. While octameric PA is the predominant form identified in plasma under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37°C), heptameric PA is more prevalent on cell surfaces. The difference between these two environments is that the anthrax toxin receptor (ANTXR) binds to PA on cell surfaces. It is known that the extracellular ANTXR domain serves to stabilize toxin complexes containing the PA heptamer by preventing premature PA channel formation-a process that inactivates the toxin. The role of ANTXR in PA oligomerization and in the stabilization of toxin complexes containing octameric PA are not understood.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends 60 days of oral antibiotics along with a three-dose regimen of BioThraxT anthrax vaccine (zero, two weeks, four weeks) as an emergency public health intervention for people exposed to anthrax. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro ) and doxycycline are approved in adults and children for post exposure prophylaxis (preventing infection in people exposed to anthrax). Levofloxacin (Levaquin ) is approved for post exposure prophylaxis in adults 18 and older. Common side effects of Cipro include upset stomach, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, dizziness, or headache. Patients taking doxycycline should be aware of the following side effects: upset stomach, vomiting, and diarrhea. Additionally, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin should not be taken with antacids, calcium supplements, and dairy products. These may bind with the medications, decreasing their effectiveness. Common side effects of Levaquin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, headache, ...
Maj. Gen. John Parker. [Source: Public domain]On October 25, 2001, Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge tells reporters that the anthrax used in a letter sent to Sen. Tom Daschle (D-SD) was highly concentrated and pure and that a binding material was used, resulting in small spore clusters that are more easily spread. In contrast, the anthrax in a letter sent to the New York Post was coarser and less concentrated. Both letters used the same Ames strain of anthrax bacterium. (The Post letter was part of a less sophisticated first wave of letters (see September 17-18, 2001) and the Daschle letter was from the second wave (see October 6-9, 2001).) On October 29, Major General John Parker, commanding general of USAMRIID, the US Armys top bioweapons laboratory, makes similar comments at a White House briefing. He says silica was found in the Daschle letter anthrax and the anthrax spore concentration in the Daschle letter was ten times that of the New York Post letter. The presence of a binding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective antigen antibody augments hemodynamic support in anthrax lethal toxin shock in canines. AU - Barochia, Amisha V.. AU - Cui, Xizhong. AU - Sun, Junfeng. AU - Li, Yan. AU - Solomon, Steven B.. AU - Migone, Thi Sau. AU - Subramanian, G. Mani. AU - Bolmer, Sally D.. AU - Eichacker, Peter Q.. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - Background. Anthrax-associated shock is closely linked to lethal toxin (LT) release and is highly lethal despite conventional hemodynamic support. We investigated whether protective antigen-directed monoclonal antibody (PA-mAb) treatment further augments titrated hemodynamic support.Methods and Results.Forty sedated, mechanically ventilated, instrumented canines challenged with anthrax LT were assigned to no treatment (controls), hemodynamic support alone (protocol-titrated fluids and norepinephrine), PA-mAb alone (administered at start of LT infusion [0 hours] or 9 or 12 hours later), or both, and observed for 96 hours. Although all 8 controls died, ...
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Imagine researchers in hazmat suits moving slowly and deliberately through a lab. One of them holds up a beaker. Its glowing.. This light - or the absence of it - could save millions of dollars for governments and save the lives of anthrax victims.. Scientists at the University of Missouri Laboratory of Infectious Disease Research proved a new method for anthrax detection can identify anthrax quicker than any existing approach.. When the bioluminescent reporter phage - an engineered virus - infects anthrax bacteria, it takes on a sci-fi-movie-type glow.. George Stewart, a medical bacteriologist at MUs Bond Life Sciences Center, and graduate student Krista Spreng, observed the virus against a variety of virulent strains of bacillus anthracis, the bacteria causing anthrax disease.. For this technique, within a few hours, youll have a yes or no answer, Stewart said.. The research, funded by the USDA, was published in the Journal of Microbiological Methods in Aug. 2013. David Schofield at ...
It has been a while since the 2001 anthrax attacks but anthrax remains a potent bio-weapon that is notoriously hard to clean up. Anthrax spores can survive
As Vera and I pointed out to the Commission, and confirmed by CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, after the anthrax letters between 10 and 30 thousand people potentially exposed to anthrax spores took antibiotics. Not a single one developed anthrax. One hundred ninety-eight also took vaccine. They failed to get anthrax. Does vaccine improve the effect of antibiotics? It is impossible to improve on 100% protection, though the Commission would like us to forget this human efficacy experiment. If you give the vaccine with something that is highly (100%) protective, the vaccine will naturally appear to be most effective under those circumstances. ...
Source: Washington Post, July 28, 2003. OPINION. Unready for Anthrax By Lawrence M. Wein and Edward H. Kaplan. In any attempted terrorist attack against this country, smallpox and anthrax would be the only two biological agents capable of causing mass casualties. And while the government has invested considerable effort in planning for a potential smallpox attack, no equivalent plan exists for anthrax.. In a recently completed study, we looked into various emergency responses to an airborne anthrax attack and concluded that the United States is woefully unprepared. Two pounds of weapons-grade anthrax dropped on a large American city could result in more than 100,000 deaths, even if early cases were successfully diagnosed, antibiotics were distributed broadly and drug adherence was high. The reason for the catastrophic death toll: Not enough people would receive antibiotics quickly enough to prevent symptoms from developing, and those who developed symptoms would overwhelm the medical ...
The litany of mistakes that were made, detailed in the reports Findings, is breathtaking. Lack of understanding of anthrax. Lack of SOPs. Lack of appropriate experimental design. Failure to follow CDCs own protocols, where they existed. Lack of supervision. Lack of timely communication when the incident was discovered, including identifying employees who may have been exposed so they could receive prophylaxis. (See page 16 of the Report.) However, I disagree that it was highly unlikely that staff were exposed to anthrax: they were, more likely, simply not exposed to enough anthrax spores, along with receiving prophylactic antibiotics, to induce disease. ...
This undated file electronmicrograph from the official U.S. Department of Defense anthrax information Web Site shows Bacillus anthracis vegetative cells in a monkey spleen. Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus anthracis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Thursday, June 19, 2014, that some of its staff in Atlanta may have been accidentally exposed to dangerous anthrax bacteria because of a safety problem at some of its labs. less ...
B. anthracis remains a bioterrorism threat, with the potential for thousands or tens of thousands to be exposed after spore release in a densely populated setting5,6,30,31. Such numbers of casualties would likely strain and possibly overwhelm the public health and medical care system and it is highly plausible that some patients may not receive immediate prophylaxis or treatment when symptoms are just beginning to manifest. With large numbers of patients presenting to emergency departments seeking care, it is crucial that emergency physicians, intensivists and other clinicians understand the importance of therapeutic options and timing available to them. For patients with inhalational anthrax who progress to severe disease, morbidity and mortality are largely due to the detrimental effects of toxemia, so the timing for effective treatment of toxin-mediated disease must be understood in order to effectively plan for and respond to such a public health emergency. The United States Strategic ...
Researchers at the US Department of Energys Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a device, dubbed ThraxVac, that can collect and kill anthrax and other bacterial spores. The patent-pending device has been licensed to Circle Group Holdings, Inc, a public company based in Mundeen, Illinois.. ThraxVac vacuums up anthrax and other bacterial spores, then tricks the spores into germinating through heat and moisture, making them vulnerable to injury. The newly activated spores are then bombarded with alpha particles, which kill the spores, rendering them non-toxic.. Carl Czajkowski, a Brookhaven Lab scientist, and Barbara Panessa-Warren, a biology consultant for Brookhaven, thought of the idea for the invention together in 2001 shortly after several anthrax incidents in the US were widely reported.. We thought there must be a better way to clean up anthrax, other than using harsh chemicals that are dangerous to humans and to the environment. Also, chemicals often cant do the job ...
The findings came after Stanford University research into anthrax found susceptibility to the acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis varied from person to person.
With my admittedly limited resources (time/access to journals), I tried to do as extensive a search on safety studies of the anthrax vaccine as possible. Report after report stated that the most common reactions to the vaccine tended to be local and of mild to moderate severity, being limited mainly to erythema, edema and pruritis. Severe reactions of these types were rare, and none of the studies found any connection between the vaccine and long-term health issues, like autoimmune disorders or chronic fatigue. My best guess is that chronic issues are most likely unrelated to the vaccine and may be due to other factors (e.g., other environmental causes, stress and/or psychogenic illness, etc.). If they are connected to the vaccine, they seem to be so exceedingly rare that, for individuals at risk of anthrax exposure, the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the remote risks of a serious AE. Of course, research on the anthrax vaccine should continue. For one thing, we should have more than one ...
Looking for online definition of gastrointestinal anthrax in the Medical Dictionary? gastrointestinal anthrax explanation free. What is gastrointestinal anthrax? Meaning of gastrointestinal anthrax medical term. What does gastrointestinal anthrax mean?
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease, occurring in wild and domestic mammals, caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis). Anthrax occurs in humans when they are exposed to infected animals, tissue from infected animals or when they are directly exposed to B. anthracis or its spores. Depending on the route of infection, anthrax disease can occur in three forms: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation. In the United States of America (USA), the annual incidence of human anthrax has declined from approximately 130 cases annually in the early 1900s to no cases during 1999 to 2000. However, in the USA, shortly after September 11th, 2001, there were 22 cases (18 confirmed) of inhaled and cutaneous anthrax infection that were related to contaminated mail. The development of a new anthrax vaccine is necessary because the current AVA vaccine requires the growth of B. anthracis in its manufacturing process and has a complex administration regimen of six administrators of vaccine ...
The only known effective pre-exposure prevention against anthrax is the anthrax vaccine. The vaccine was developed from an attenuated strain of B. anthracis. The vaccine derives from the cell-free culture filtrate of this strain and, in its final formulation, is adsorbed onto an aluminum salt. A well controlled clinical trial using an anthrax vaccine similar to the licensed anthrax vaccine was conducted in U.S. mill workers processing imported animal hair. During the trial, 26 cases of anthrax were reported at the mills - five inhalation and 21 cutaneous cases. Of the five inhalation cases, two individuals had received the placebo, while three individuals were in the observational group. Four of the five people who developed inhalation anthrax died. No cases of inhalation anthrax occurred in anthrax vaccine recipients. Based upon a comparison between the anthrax vaccine and placebo recipients, the authors calculated a vaccine efficacy level of 92.5 percent ...
Jupiter Images / iStockphoto. The bacterium Bacillus anthracis occurs worldwide, its natural habitat is the soil. The pathogen causes the often fatal ending anthrax (Anthrax) in humans and in herbivorous animals such as cows or sheep. 95 percent by a Bacillus anthracis infection lead to all cutaneous anthrax, initially manifested by a painless, itchy papules on the hands, forearms or face, the black turns later from the center. but the bacterium can other forms of anthrax as Inhalation anthrax or Gastrointestinal anthrax trigger. All three forms can include one anthrax sepsis entail that ends in a few hours fatal. The bacteria form resistant survival structures (spores), which can remain viable for decades in nature. In the body, Bacillus anthracis is a special capsule of D-glutamic acid, which protects the pathogen from the scavenger cells of the immune system.. Especially in southern Europe and South America there are often anthrax disease caused by Bacillus anthracis in farm animals. The ...
In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamus deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent
Looking for online definition of Anthrax disease in the Medical Dictionary? Anthrax disease explanation free. What is Anthrax disease? Meaning of Anthrax disease medical term. What does Anthrax disease mean?
Anthrax, the zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is nowadays rare in northern parts of Europe including Finland and Scandinavia. Only two minor outbreaks of anthrax in 1988 and in 2004 and one sporadic infection in 2008 have been detected in animals in Finland since the 1970s. Here, we report on two Finnish B. anthracis strains that were isolated from spleen and liver of a diseased calf related to the outbreak in 1988 (strain HKI4363/88) and from a local scrotum and testicle infection of a bull in 2008 (strain BA2968). These infections occurred in two rural Finnish regions, i.e., Ostrobothnia in western Finland and Päijänne Tavastia in southern Finland, respectively. The isolates were genetically characterized by PCR-based methods such as multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome-sequence analysis (WGS). Phylogenetic comparison of the two strains HKI4363/88 and BA2968 by chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis
Read chapter 3 Anthrax Vaccine Efficacy: The vaccine used to protect humans against the anthrax disease, called Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA), was licens...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anthrax lethal toxin inhibits growth of and vascular endothelial growth factor release from endothelial cells expressing the human herpes virus 8 viral G protein-coupled receptor. AU - Depeille, Philippe. AU - Young, John J.. AU - Boguslawski, Elissa A.. AU - Berghuis, Bree D.. AU - Kort, Eric J.. AU - Resau, James H.. AU - Frankel, Arthur E.. AU - Duesbery, Nicholas S.. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - Purpose: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKK) inhibits tumor growth by acting on angiogenic signaling and by extension may form the basis of an effective strategy for treatment of Kaposis sarcoma. Experimental Design: Murine endothelial cells expressing the human herpes virus 8 G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR-SVEC) were treated with anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx). LeTx is a binary toxin ordinarily secreted by Bacillus anthracis and is composed of two proteins: protective antigen (the binding moiety) and ...
Article Identification and characterization of bacillus anthracis spores by multiparameter flow cytometry. In response to the need for methods that can rapidly detect potentially virulent Bacillus anthracis spores, we developed a two-color flow cytom...
BioAssay record AID 329453 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of cytopathic effect in Bacillus anthracis Sterne infected mouse RAW264.7 macrophage after 6 hrs by propidium iodide exclusion assay.
The pathogen Bacillus anthracis secretes two potent toxins during anthrax infection, known as lethal factor (LF) and oedema factor (EF). Using transgenic Drosophila as a model system for the identification of pathways that might be involved in anthrax pathogenesis, Ethan Bier and colleagues show that these two toxins interact synergistically to block Rab11/Sec15 exocyst-dependent endocytic recycling, resulting in reduced Notch signalling and cadherin-dependent adhesion at the adherens junction. Tests in human endothelial cells indicate that the toxins have a similar effect on Rab11/Sec15 activity and Notch signalling. During infection, Bacillus anthracis secretes two potent toxins called lethal factor and oedema factor. Using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, these authors show that these toxins interact with the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst, which is involved in endocytic recycling. This interaction may explain vascular leakage during infection. Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax in
Uchida, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Terakado, N., 1986: Virulence and immunogenicity in experimental animals of Bacillus anthracis strains harbouring or lacking 110 MDa and 60 MDa plasmids
But as recently as this spring, the Government Accountability Office, the investigative arm of Congress, said questions remain about the vaccine. The long term safety of the licensed vaccine has not been studied, the agency said in a May 9 report. . . . Also, there is some evidence that the current anthrax vaccine may have diminished efficacy against certain virulent strains of anthrax. Barbara Loe Fisher, president of the National Vaccine Information Center, said her nonprofit advocacy group is adding more information to its Web site about the research and development of biological defense vaccines. The DOD has a moral duty to fully disclose anthrax vaccine risks, as well as benefits, to soldiers and allow them to make an informed, voluntary decision, she said in a statement - Christopher Lee, Washington Post, October 17, 2006 Mandatory Anthrax Shots to Return ...
PURPOSE: In the 1960s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) held the investigational new drug (IND) application for the anthrax vaccine and collected short-term safety data from approximately 16,000 doses administered to almost 7000 individuals. While some recent anthrax vaccine safety studies have suggested that women experience more injection site reactions (ISRs), to our knowledge the IND safety data were not previously examined for a gender-specific difference. METHODS: We identified and analyzed a subset of the IND study data representing a total of 1749 persons who received 3592 doses from 1967 to 1972. Original data collection forms were located and information extracted, including: vaccine recipients name, age at vaccination, gender, dose number, date of vaccination, lot number, grading of ISR, presence and type of systemic reactions. Overall and gender-specific rates for adverse reactions to anthrax vaccine were calculated and we performed a multivariable analysis. ...
Anthrax was first tested as a biological warfare agent by Unit 731 of the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria during the 1930s; some of this testing involved intentional infection of prisoners of war, thousands of whom died. Anthrax, designated at the time as Agent N, was also investigated by the allies in the 1940s. The British army tested experimental anthrax weapons on Gruinard Island, off the northwest coast of Scotland, in 1943. Gruinard was burned over at least once, yet as of the late 1980s, it was still too heavily contaminated with spores to allow unprotected human access, indicating the hardiness of anthrax spores. Weaponized anthrax was part of the U.S. stockpile prior to its destruction in 1972.. ...
In 1855, Aloys Pollender - a German Physician - published his findings on anthrax in which he described a group of stick-shaped bacteria that were present in the blood of infected animals. He is credited with recognizing the pathogen Bacillus anthracis. In 1864, Casimir Davaine - a French physician - studied the bacteria found in the blood of people infected with anthrax, and found that they physically resembled the bacteria described by Dr. Pellender, and thus concluded that the symptoms of anthrax occurred when these bacteria were present in the blood. Later in 1876, Robert Koch provided conclusive evidence that Bacillus anthracis was the cause of anthrax (Théodoridès 159 ...
Use of the Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA) expanded in 1991, when the U.S. military, concerned that Iraq possessed anthrax bioweapons, administered the vaccine. As more service members were vaccinated, however, some of them raised concerns about the safety and efficacy of AVA, and some also suggested a possible link between AVA vaccination and the illnesses experienced by some veterans. In October 2000, the IOM convened the Committee to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Anthrax Vaccine to evaluate these difficult issues.
Dr. Kwai Chan testified on 29 April 1999, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee:. We are pleased to be here today to discuss the results of our ongoing examination of the safety and efficacy of the anthrax vaccine, which is being done at your request. My testimony presents preliminary findings on (1) the short- and long-term safety of the vaccine, (2) the efficacy of the vaccine, and (3) problems the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found in the vaccine production facility in Michigan that could compromise the safety, efficacy, and quality of the vaccine. We plan to issue the final report on our review this fall.. As you know, concerns have been raised about the Department of Defense s (DOD) anthrax immunization program since the Department began vaccinating the first of 2.4 million active duty and reserve members. For example, some Gulf War veterans are suffering from unexplained illnesses that they believe might have been caused by anthrax vaccines that they received during the war. ...
Anthrax toxin. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores caused by gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. Humans are accidental hosts through the food of animal origin and animal products. Anthrax is prevelant in most parts of the globe, and cases of anthrax have been reported from almost every country. Three forms of the disease have been recognized: cutaneous (through skin), gastrointestinal (through alimentary tract), and pulmonary (by inhalation of spores). The major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis are a poly-D glutamic acid capsule and a three-component protein exotoxin. The genes coding for the toxin and the enzymes responsible for capsule production are carried on plasmid pXO1 and pXO2, respectively. The three proteins of the exotoxin are protective antigen (PA, 83 kDa), lethal factor (LF, 90 kDa), and edema factor (EF, 89 kDa). The toxins follow the A-B model with PA being the B moeity and LF/EF, the alternative A moeities. LF and EF are individually ...
Whilst various remedial human monoclonal antibodies have been developed to treat the potentially life-threatening systemic complications associated with anthrax infection, an optimal and universally effective administration route has yet to be established. In the later stages of infection when antibody administration by injection is more likely to fail one possible route to improve outcome is via the use of an antibody-bound, adsorbent haemoperfusion device. We report here the development of an adsorbent macroporous polymer column containing immobilised B. anthracis exotoxin-specific antibodies, PANG (a non-glycosylated, version of a plant-produced human monoclonal antibody) and Valortim (a fully human monoclonal N-linked glycosylated antibody), for removal of anthrax protective antigen (PA) from freshly frozen human plasma and human whole blood. In addition, we have demonstrated that continuous extracorporeal blood recirculation through a Valortim-bound haemoperfusion column significantly ...
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Host genetic variation, particularly within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci, reportedly mediates heterogeneity in immune response to certain vaccines; however, no large study of genetic determinants of anthrax vaccine response has been described. We searched for associations between the immunoglobulin G antibody to protective antigen (AbPA) response to Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) in humans, and polymorphisms at HLA class I (HLA-A,-B, and-C) and class II (HLA-DRB1,-DQA1,-DQB1,-DPB1) loci. The study included 794 European-Americans and 200 African-Americans participating in a 43-month, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial of AVA ( identifier NCT00119067). Among European-Americans, genes from tightly linked HLA-DRB1,-DQA1,-DQB1 haplotypes displayed significant overall associations with longitudinal variation in AbPA levels at 4, 8, 26 and 30 weeks from baseline in response to vaccination with three or four doses of AVA (global P6.53 × 10 4). In particular, ...
Staged health picture showing the symptoms of cutaneous anthrax due to B. anthracis. This slide was created to help a person suspect an illness, not diagnose the illness, in this case anthrax was the etiologic pathogen. Anthrax infection can occur in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Photographed in 1963. This image was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Stock Photography of a Man with Cutaneous Bacillus Anthracis On His Face.
Lack of available iron is one of many environmental challenges that a bacterium encounters during infection and adaptation to iron starvation is important for the pathogen to efficiently replicate within the host. Here we define the transcriptional response of B. anthracis Sterne (34F2) to iron depleted conditions. Genome-wide transcript analysis showed that B. anthracis undergoes considerable changes in gene expression during growth in iron-depleted media, including the regulation of known and candidate virulence factors. Two genes encoding putative internalin proteins were chosen for further study. Deletion of either gene (GBAA0552 or GBAA1340) resulted in attenuation in a murine model of infection. This attenuation was amplified in a double mutant strain. These data define the transcriptional changes induced during growth in low iron conditions and illustrate the potential of this dataset in the identification of putative virulence determinants for future study.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial proteins Bnip3 and Bnip3L are involved in anthrax lethal toxin-induced macrophage cell death. AU - Ha, Soon-Duck. AU - Ng, Dennis. AU - Lamothe, Julie. AU - Valvano, Miguel A. AU - Han, Jiahuai. AU - Kim, Sung Ouk. PY - 2007/9/7. Y1 - 2007/9/7. N2 - Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) induces rapid cell death of RAW246.7 macrophages. We recently found that a small population of these macrophages is spontaneously and temporally refractory to LeTx-induced cytotoxicity. Analysis of genome-wide transcripts of a resistant clone before and after regaining LeTx sensitivity revealed that a reduction of two closely related mitochondrial proteins, Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) and Bnip3-like (Bnip3L), correlates with LeTx resistance. Down-regulation of Bnip3 and Bnip3L was also found in toxin-induced resistance whereby sublethal doses of LeTx induce resistance to subsequent exposure to cytolytic toxin doses. The role of Bnip3 and Bnip3L in LeTx-induced ...
AHRP) Whose children will be sacrificed in an illegal and unethical experiment in the name of Biodefense Preparedness? According to , the Obama administration is seeking to obtain a green light to conduct an anthrax vaccine safety experiment on US children. The stated rationale for such a trial, articulated by Dr. Nicole Lurie, US Dept. of Health and Human Services, is that there are no data about the safety of exposing children to the anthrax vaccine. And if an emergency arises, a trial would present an array of logistical, clinical and communication challenges during a public health crisis.. No child would benefit from exposure to a vaccine that has generated thousands of adverse event reports-including deaths-in adults.. Current law allows the FDA to issue an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for protections against biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear agents that may be used to attack the American people. The FDA Commissioner may allow countermeasures to be ...
The book describes weeks of anxious discussions about the possibility that Iraq would unleash its presumably limited inventory of anthrax spores and botulinum toxin against coalition forces. U.S. military planners guessed that the Iraqis would target frontline troops with botulinum and would direct anthrax against the rear. The logic arose from the fact that the toxin disables its victims in minutes or hours, whereas the incubation period for anthrax is a day or more. The planners figured that by the time untreated rear-guard troops were moved forward, anthrax infections would have incapacitated them. These presumptions appeared critical in the face of inadequate vaccine supplies. To the chagrin of the commanders, although a half-million American troops would be sent to the Gulf area, there was enough anthrax vaccine only for 150,000 and botulinum vaccine for 10,000. Layered onto the scarcity problem were uncertainties about the safety and effectiveness of the anthrax vaccine. The uncertainties ...
0109]An example of a positive control is one that contains an amount of lymphocyte-associated LT activity present (such as the functional activity, for example an amount of cell proliferation or amount of secreted MAPKK-dependent cytokine) when cells are infected with LT and contacted with an agent known to decrease anthrax pathogenicity (such as a neutralizing antibody to anthrax LT). For example, the control can include an amount of cell proliferation or an amount of MAPKK-dependent cytokine (such as an amount of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, or IFN-γ). When comparing the lymphocyte-associated LT activity present in the experimental to the positive control, similar or even reduced lymphocyte-associated LT activity relative to the positive control indicates the test agent decreases pathogenicity of anthrax. For example, when comparing the lymphocyte-associated LT activity present in the experimental to the positive control, similar or increased cell proliferation or MAPKK-dependent cytokine activity (such ...
Crystal Communications. 2009 Family Circle, #3 Lexington, KY 40505. PH: (859) 255-0076 FAX: (859) 255-0938. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: MAY 20, 2002. CONTACT: ED PUTERBAUGH, (859) 255-0076 or [email protected] or LT. COL. THOMAS S. HEEMSTRA (Ret. U.S.A.F.) (859) 621-8982.. AS MILITARY DECIDES ABOUT CIVILIAN NEEDS FOR ANTHRAX VACCINE, NEW BOOK DETAILS ITS HISTORY, HIGH REACTION RATE, DANGERS. Lexington, KY: Even as the Defense Department is in discussions with other agencies to assess civilian vaccination needs - particularly for emergency first responders - in the event of a bioterrorist attack (Washington Post, May 20, 2002), a new book written by a former F-16 squadron commander, Anthrax: A Deadly Shot in the Dark aims to educate the civilians and the public health community about the hazards of the anthrax vaccine, its flawed manufacturing history, and its devastating effects on the military. (See ) You may have to face the same decision, whether to ...
Anthrax is caused by spore exposure of the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Its a disease that can come from grazing animals, and under certain conditions the anthrax can thrive for decades as spores germinate and multiply.. Treaments:penicillin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxicin functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, which is an enzyme necessary to separate replicated DNA, thereby inhibiting cell division. It is effective against Bacillus Anthracis.. *Penicillin G not just penicillin i believe they are different from each other ...
The Pentagon is reviving its mandatory anthrax vaccinations despite allegations that the shots have contributed to as many as 23 deaths and sickened hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of soldiers....The Pentagon has been rocked by criticism that it has failed to adequately track whether the shots have caused diseases. Indeed, as occurred with Francis, many soldiers are injected with several vaccines on the same day, making it harder to identify the cause of illnesses....Col. Randall Anderson, who runs the Military Vaccine Agency, said the Pentagon believes health risks from the anthrax vaccine are equal to those of other vaccines that cause illnesses in only a tiny percentage of those vaccinated.....Numerous public health experts believe BioThrax causes a range of problems, particularly among women and people prone to autoimmune diseases. They list Guillain-Barre, which can kill or paralyze; other neurological disorders; diabetes; arthritis; chronic fatigue syndrome; chronic muscle and joint ...
Excellent results in the treatment of infected livestock by penicillin therapy have been reported from different parts of the United States and France. In cattle, intramuscular administration of 1 to 3 million units or more of penicillin during the early stages of the disease resulted in marked improvement in 36 hours or less, with complete recovery in 1 to 5 days. Large doses of penicillin (9 to 12 million units) in combination with injections of anthrax antiserum have given good results in the treatment of animals affected with postvaccination anthrax. Postvaccination anthrax in cattle and horses showing advanced symptoms has been successfully treated with a combination of penicillin intramuscular and oxytetracycline intravenously, or oxytetracycline alone intravenously. The administration of anthrax antiserum or penicillin, singly or in combination, to infected swine also hastens recovery. In the past, veterinary officials in some States recommended prophylactic treatment of exposed cattle in ...
Anthtrax is a highly lethal acute disease in humans caused by bacterium Bacillus Anthracis. Read the NVIC special report to learn more about anthrax vaccine.
BIOTHRAX (Anthrax vaccine) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of Infectious Diseases (CDC OID). Published: 3/21/2018. This two-page fact sheet provides basic information on anthrax, the anthrax vaccine, who should get the vaccine, and the risks of the vaccine. (PDF)...
Is Anthrax Vaccine Safe Anthrax is a bacterial infection that is contracted by humans from the livestock like cattle and sheep. The bacteria
Description of disease Bacillus anthracis. Treatment Bacillus anthracis. Symptoms and causes Bacillus anthracis Prophylaxis Bacillus anthracis
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Research published by Army scientists indicates that a minor reduction in levels of one particular gene, known as CD45, can provide protection against two divergent microbes: the virus that causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever and the bacterium that causes anthrax. Taken together, the results suggest a common host restriction factor and a promising approach to drug development for treating two completely different infections.
We evaluated the abilities of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequences of intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) between two highly conserved genes, 16S-23S rDNA and gyrB-gyrA ISRs, to detect variation in strains of Bacillus anthracis as well as two closely related species, B. cereus ATCC 14579 and B. mycoides ATCC 6462. For each restriction enzyme, (NotI, SfiI, and SmaI), the PFGE banding patterns for three B. anthracis strains (Ames, Vollum, and Sterne) were identical. However, closely related species could be differentiated from B. anthracis and from each other. PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA ISR yielded a 143- to 144-bp fragment, showing identical sequences for B. anthracis strains, one nucleotide deletion between B. cerus and B. anthracis, and 13 nucleotide differences between B. mycoides and B. anthracis. The gyrase ISR sequences (121 bp) in B. anthracis strains were also identical, but those in B. cereus and B. mycoides differed from that in B. anthracis by 1 and 2 ...
TV documentary reveals army tested experimental anthrax vaccines on elite combat soldiers, but refused to treat them after adverse symptoms appeared
"Injection Anthrax , Anthrax , CDC". 28 January 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2020. Anthrax - Chapter 4 - 2020 ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anthrax (disease). Anthrax at Curlie Anthrax in humans and animals - Textbook from WHO ... Anthrax is especially rare in dogs and cats, as is evidenced by a single reported case in the United States in 2001. Anthrax ... Cutaneous anthrax, also known as hide-porter's disease, is when anthrax occurs on the skin. It is the most common form (>90% of ...
Everybody's Scene: The Story of Connecticut's Anthrax Club The Anthrax FaceBook Page (Articles lacking in-text citations from ... The Anthrax was a highly regarded all-ages music venue that hosted punk and hardcore shows in Connecticut. To the many touring ... The Anthrax is often mentioned in books about hardcore history. The book Everybody's Scene by Chris Daily is solely about The ... The Stamford location closed its doors and within 3 months the Anthrax reopened at a much larger location at 23 Perry Avenue in ...
The Anthrax mite (Sarcoptes anthracis) is a pathogenic mite and an intermediate host of anthrax. Sarcoptes anthracis was ... They act as a vector that carries and transmits anthrax to their hosts causing an infection, which often results in death ...
... is a species of fly in the family Bombyliidae. United States, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras. Macquart, P.J. ...
... is a moth of the family Sesiidae. It is known from Sierra Leone. Afro Moths Wikispecies has information ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paranthrene anthrax. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ...
Marston, N.L. (1970). "Revision of the New World species of Anthrax (Diptera: Bombyliidae) other than Anthrax albofasciatus ... Anthrax striatipennis is a species of bee flies (insects in the family Bombyliidae). United States. ...
Marston, N.L. (1970). "Revision of the New World species of Anthrax (Diptera: Bombyliidae) other than Anthrax albofasciatus ... Anthrax nigriventris is a species of bee flies (insects in the family Bombyliidae). Mexico, United States. ...
... is a species of fly in the family Bombyliidae. United States. Wiedemann, Christian Rudolph Wilhelm (1828). ...
... is a species of ground beetle in the subfamily of Carabinae. It was described by Semenov in 1900. "Calosoma ...
"Search for: Anthrax feat. Chuck D." Hung Medien. Retrieved March 5, 2013. Soldiers of Metal (track listing). Anthrax ... "Hy Pro Glo , Anthrax , Music Video". MTV Music. Viacom Media Networks. July 7, 2005. Retrieved March 5, 2013. "Fueled , Anthrax ... "Only , Anthrax , Music Video". MTV Music. Viacom Media Networks. May 2, 2005. Retrieved March 5, 2013. "Black Lodge , Anthrax ... Official website Anthrax at AllMusic Anthrax discography discography at Discogs (CS1 German-language sources (de), CS1 Japanese ...
... is a species of ant in the subgenus Camponotus (Myrmentoma). It is endemic to western North America. AntWeb ... "Camponotus anthrax Species Information". Retrieved 29 August 2020. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
... is a 2009 documentary film about the 2001 anthrax attacks and the rise of today's biomilitary industrial complex ... "Anthrax War". CBC Documentaries. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2009-09-11. Official website Anthrax War at IMDb ... Shortly after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, anthrax-laced letters were mailed to offices of media outlets in New York City and ... 2001 anthrax attacks, 2000s English-language films, 2000s American films, All stub articles, Historical documentary film stubs) ...
... is a species of hoverfly in the family Syrphidae. Borneo. Hippa, H. (1990). "The genus Milesia Latreille ( ...
... is an A-B toxin. Each individual anthrax toxin protein is nontoxic. Toxic symptoms are not observed when these ... called anthrax toxin. Anthrax toxin is a mixture of three protein components: (i) protective antigen (PA), (ii) edema factor ( ... Bacillus anthracis-the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is ... Anthrax toxin is of the form A2B, where the two enzymes, EF and LF, are the A components and PA is the B component. Thus, PA ...
Anthrax may also refer to: Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium responsible for anthrax, the disease Anthrax toxin, the virulent ... Look up anthrax in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. ... "Anthrax", a song by that band from their album Fistful of Metal Anthrax (British band), a British anarcho-punk band formed in ... in which letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to US media outlets and politicians Anthrax (fly), a genus of bombyliid ...
... is a species of bee flies (insects in the family Bombyliidae). United States. Marston, N.L. (1963). "A revision ... of the Nearctic species of the albofasciatus group of the genus Anthrax Scopoli (Diptera: Bombyliidae)" (PDF). Technical ...
The specific name anthrax is Greek for Greek, meaning a carbuncle, a red gemstone. It refers to the red patches on the hidden ... Diasporus anthrax are small frogs, with a body size of 14-19 mm (0.55-0.75 in). It is easily distinguished from related species ... Diasporus anthrax is a species of frogs in the family Eleutherodactylidae. It is endemic to Colombia where it is found along ... Acosta Galvis, A. R. & Cuentas, D. (2017). "Diasporus anthrax (Lynch, 2001)". Lista de los Anfibios de Colombia V.07.2017.0. ...
... are vaccines to prevent the livestock and human disease anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. ... "Anthrax and Anthrax Vaccine-Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Archived August 24, 2012, at the ... This discovery was the basis of the next generation of antigenic anthrax vaccines and for modern antitoxins to anthrax. The ... 2017). "Chapter 13: Anthrax". Immunisation against infectious disease. Public Health England. Turnbull, P.C.B. (1991), "Anthrax ...
... is a species of flat-footed flies (insects in the family Platypezidae). "Platypeza anthrax Report". ... "Platypeza anthrax species details". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 2018-04-29. "Platypeza anthrax". GBIF. Retrieved 2018-04-29. " ... "Platypeza anthrax Species Information". Retrieved 2018-04-29. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
... is a species of orchid native to southern Colombia and Venezuela. "Pleurothallis anthrax Luer & R.Escobar ...
1935 Anthrax albofasciatus Macquart, 1840 Anthrax alruqibi El-Hawagry, 2013 Anthrax analis Say, 1823 Anthrax anthrax (Schrank, ... Anthrax moursyi El-Hawagry, 1998 Anthrax nidicola Cole, 1952 Anthrax nigriventris Marston, 1970 Anthrax nitidus Marston, 1970 ... 1804 Anthrax vallicola Marston, 1963 Anthrax varius Fabricius, 1794 Anthrax virgo Egger, 1859 Anthrax zohrayensis El-Hawagry, ... 1805 Anthrax painteri Marston, 1970 Anthrax pauper (Loew, 1869) Anthrax pelopeius François, 1966 Anthrax picea Marston, 1963 ...
The newly emerged Anthrax anthrax may be found sitting on a bee hotel. Their body is dull black with more transparent wings. A ... A. anthrax hovering near a nest entrance of a mason bee A. anthrax hovering above a flower Schrank, F. von Paula (1781). ... Anthrax anthrax is a species of fly in the family Bombyliidae. Unlike, for example, Bombylius major, this species does not ... Woods, M. J (2020). "First records of breeding of the bee-fly Anthrax anthrax (Schrank) (Diptera, Bombyliidae) in Britain in ...
... is a species of bee flies (insects in the family Bombyliidae). United States. Loew, H. (1869). "Diptera Americae ...
... is a species of bee fly in the family Bombyliidae. Canada, Mexico, United States, Costa Rica, Cuba, Nicaragua. ...
... is a species of armored catfish endemic to Venezuela where it is found in the Orinoco River basin. This ... Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Pseudolithoxus anthrax" in FishBase. December 2011 version. v t e (Articles with ...
43 people tested positive to anthrax exposure and 22 cases of anthrax illness were diagnosed, where 11 were inhalation anthrax ... 96 cases of anthrax infection were reported where 79 were gastrointestinal anthrax and 17 were cutaneous, of these cases 64 out ... A mathematical model of a simulated large-scale airborne anthrax attack in a large city (1 kg anthrax spores in a city of 10 ... Similar to a warhead, an anthrax filled bomb, such as the E61 Anthrax Bomblet or other N-bomb cluster munition filled with ...
... is a species of bee fly in the family Bombyliidae. Mexica, United States. Osten Sacken, C.R. (1886). " ...
... is a species of bee flies (insects in the family Bombyliidae). Canada, United States. Marston, N.L. (1963 ... "A revision of the Nearctic species of the albofasciatus group of the genus Anthrax Scopoli (Diptera: Bombyliidae)" (PDF). ...
... involving the use of white powder or labels to falsely suggest the use of anthrax are frequently reported in the ... "US anthrax hoax suspect arrested". BBC News. 6 December 2001. Retrieved 10 December 2009. "Man is convicted in anthrax hoax ... Hoaxes have increased following the 2001 anthrax attacks, after which no genuine anthrax attacks have occurred. The FBI and U.S ... 2001 anthrax attacks, Anthrax, Hoaxes in the United States, 2001 hoaxes). ...
... may refer to one of three sites for hazardous biological disease testing: Gruinard Island, a Scottish island in ...
Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by bacteria that can cause severe illness in both people and animals. ... How people get infected with anthrax. People get infected with anthrax when spores get into the body. When anthrax spores get ... Guide to understanding anthrax. CDC has created "Guide to Understanding Anthrax pdf icon[PDF - 751K]" with the basic ... Anthrax can cause severe illness in both humans and animals.. Anthrax is not contagious, which means you cant catch it from ...
We offer information about anthrax symptoms, causes, vaccine, and treatment. ... You probably wont have to worry about getting anthrax disease. ... Anthrax (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Anthrax blood ... Antibiotics often cure anthrax if it is diagnosed early. But many people dont know they have anthrax until it is too late to ... Anthrax is rare. It affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats more often than people. People can get anthrax from ...
Concurrent epidemiological investigation of anthrax cases in five geographic regions required rapid development of field ... The Anthrax Epidemiologic Tool Kit: An Instrument for Public Health Preparedness Dori B. Reissman, Ellen B. Steinberg, Julie M ... Cite this: The Anthrax Epidemiologic Tool Kit: An Instrument for Public Health Preparedness - Medscape - Apr 01, 2003. ... Table 2. Data Elements Used to Describe Case-Finding Strategies for the Anthrax Investigation Tool Kit ...
2008)‎. Anthrax in humans and animals, 4th ed.. World Health Organization. ...
Anthrax is a zoonotic infection caused by Bacillus anthracis (see the image below) . Most anthrax is cutaneous (95%). ... Pulmonary anthrax results from inhaling anthrax spores. GI anthrax results from ingesting meat products that contain anthrax. ... Anthrax meningitis. Anthrax meningitis may complicate any form of anthrax, with bacteremia and hematogenous spread to the CNS. ... Patients with oropharyngeal anthrax may develop airway obstruction (as may those with inhalational anthrax or cutaneous anthrax ...
Wein LM, Craft DL; Anthrax Modeling working Group. Evaluation of public health interventions for Anthrax: a report to the ... Meselson M, Guillemin J, Hugh-Jones M, Langmuir A, Popova I, Shelokov A, et al. The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979. ... SteelFisher G, Blendon R, Ross LJ, Collins BC, Ben-Porath EN, Bekheit MM, et al. Public response to an anthrax attack: ... Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, Bradley JS, Morrow MG, Pavia AT, et al.; Workgroup on Anthrax Clinical Guidelines. Centers ...
Pakistans experience of a bioterrorism-related anthrax scare  Ahmad, K.; Dil, A.S.; Kazi, B.M.; Us Saba, N.; Ansari, J.; ... Anthrax in humans and animals  World Health Organization; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; World ... WHO Consultation on Anthrax Control and Research (‎1990: Geneva)‎; World Health Organization. Veterinary Public Health Unit (‎ ... Anthrax, like tuberculosis, shows a new epidemic spread in industrialized countries, revealing some ambiguous aspects to the ...
Not to mention, on any given day of the cruise, Anthrax frontman Joey Belladonna could usually be found by the Sprinkles soft ... Angra and Amorphis played the Deck Stage in the evening and everyone war-danced on the Deck when Anthrax delivered their ... 70,000 Tons of Metal Cruise 2017: Days 1 and 2 - Death Angel, Arch Enemy, Anthrax, Carcass, More. ...
... DOCTORS VIEW ARCHIVE. (December 28, 1997) - All of a sudden anthrax is in the news since the December ... Anthrax can take different forms. As an agent of biological warfare, anthrax is designed to cause the lung form of the ... But most human anthrax over the years has come from skin contact with animal products. Cutaneous (skin) anthrax was once well ... People inhale the anthrax spores and, if untreated, are likely to die. Eating meat contaminated with anthrax causes an ...
Anthrax. Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly ... Meningeal or brain anthrax disease usually cannot be treated successfully.. Injectional (blood) anthrax is a new type of ... Anthrax does not typically occur in New York City. In the fall of 2001, an outbreak of cutaneous and inhalation anthrax in New ... While cutaneous anthrax infections account for about 95% of all human anthrax cases, there are other, more serious forms of ...
Army scientist alone committed the deadly 2001 anthrax attacks, according to Justice Department documents released on Friday. ... Bruce Ivins was the anthrax mailer," according to the documents, citing direct evidence about the anthrax spores and what it ... Ivins was alone in his lab for long stretches of time in the evenings and on the weekends leading up to the anthrax mailing ... By 2007, investigators conclusively determined that a single-spore batch of anthrax created and maintained by Ivins at his ...
Anthrax Vaccine -- posts by Meryl Nass, M.D. This blog began in 2007, focusing on anthrax vaccine, and later expanded to other ... Watch Frontlines "The Anthrax Files"/ PBS See Part I of The Anthrax Files. This terribly important 1 hour documentary ... Scientific Research Expands our Understanding of Anthrax. *New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of anthrax toxin- ... Most-cited papers of mine include one investigating Zimbabwes major anthrax epidemic and a review of anthrax vaccines ...
Anthrax has become known as a sort of Biological weapon. It became notable in the news in 2001, due to anthrax scares caused by ... The strain of anthrax used in the attacks was first developed in a U.S. Army facility in Fort Detrick, Maryland. The wife of ... Anthrax is important in the history of medicine. In 1875, the pioneering bacteriologist Robert Koch convincingly proved for the ... According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anthrax is "an acute infectious disease caused by the spore- ...
If you havent heard of Anthrax by now, you are either very lucky or very lucky. The fact is I have now heard that word more ... If you havent heard of anthrax by now, you are either very lucky or very lucky. The fact is I have now heard that word more ... Lets talk about anthrax. It is a bacterium, which means that it can be treated with antibiotics. Okay?? Nuff said. ...
The Ames strain used in the anthrax attacks, for example, naturally occurs only in Texas, but differs from Eurasian anthrax by ... Anthrax bacteria can live in soil for decades as tough spores, until they are inhaled by a grazing animal. Then they multiply ... For anthrax, at least, Columbus is off the hook. But the finding may also have implications for the extinction of many American ... Anthrax initially evolved in southern Africa, earlier work has demonstrated. Paul Keim of the Northern Arizona University, who ...
Anthrax bacteria can survive in the environment for decades by forming spores. In its most common natural form called cutaneous ... Anthrax in humans is not generally regarded as contagious, although rare records of person-to-person transmission exist. ... Control of anthrax among humans depends on the integration of veterinary and human health surveillance and control programmes. ... Anthrax is primarily a zoonotic disease in herbivores caused by a bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Humans generally acquire ...
The 2001 Anthrax Deception: The Case for a Domestic Conspiracy, has been vindicated by the head of the FBIs Anthrax ... The Anthrax Coverup Exposed. by Paul Craig Roberts / April 18th, 2015. Graeme MacQueens 2014 book, The 2001 Anthrax Deception ... Scientists have conclusively proven that the anthrax in the letters was advanced bio-weapons technology to which Ivins had no ... MacQueens conclusion stands vindicated by Richard Lambert, the agent in charge of the FBI anthrax investigation who has turned ...
See members of Run-DMC, Anthrax and more team up for charity medley. See members of Run-DMC, Anthrax and more team up for ... Hear Billie Eilish get a heavy twist from Anthrax and Suicidal Tendencies. Hear Billie Eilish get a heavy twist from Anthrax ... anthrax. Mikey Way, Shaun Simon & other Z2 Comics artists to appear at Comic Con. Mikey Way, Shaun Simon & other Z2 Comics ... Members of Anthrax and Suicidal Tendencies are linking up for a virtual cover of Billie Eilish's "bad guy." ...
Anthrax continues to be a concern for cattle producers in North Dakota. ...
All about Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis). Though the word "anthrax" conjures up fearsome thoughts of biological weapons, anthrax ... Anthrax comes from the Greek: Anthrax = coal because of the black and inflamed appearance of cutaneous anthrax. ... Anthrax was used as biological warfare in WWI. Germans infected animals that they traded to the Allies. Anthrax has been ... By contrast, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax infections - which result from ingesting or inhaling anthrax - can be ...
... by ANTHRAX: Im wiping the slate spotless / I vow this is your final chance / Almost all but little faith has been thrown out ...
Anthrax, the disease caused by Bacillus anthracis bacteria spores, is one of the most feared and potentially deadly agents used ... No Evidence of Anthrax Attack at Conspiracy Event. Some stated without evidence that they believed they were sickened at " ... Some stated that they believed they were attacked with anthrax.. We found no evidence, however, that any such attack occurred. ... A spokesman for Frisco police told Snopes in an email that there have been "no reports" of anthrax or any biological agent ...
... library with Among The Living by Anthrax Bring something new to your mixes with this additional playable track, available ... Expand your FUSER™ library with "Among The Living" by Anthrax! Bring something new to your mixes with this additional playable ...
... By Stefano Panzeri Gennaio ... chitarrista Anthrax) e a Tom Cato Visnes (basso God Seed, Gorgoroth) a proposito della loro collaborazione per il progetto ...
Find patient medical information for anthrax vaccine intramuscular on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, ... Anthrax Vaccine Suspension - Uses, Side Effects, and More. Common Brand(S): Biothrax Generic Name(S): anthrax vaccine View Free ... Does Anthrax Vaccine Suspension interact with other medications? * Should I avoid certain foods while taking Anthrax Vaccine ... How to use Anthrax Vaccine Suspension Read all vaccine information available from your health care professional before ...
Anthrax Meningitis. Anthrax meningitis may develop from hematogenous spread of any of the clinical forms of anthrax, or it may ... Worldwide, the most commonly reported form of anthrax in humans is cutaneous anthrax (95%-99%). Anthrax can occur after playing ... A map of anthrax-endemic countries and guidance for travelers visiting those countries can be found at ... Injection Anthrax. Anthrax in injection drug users usually develops within 1-4 days of exposure; death occurs in more than a ...
Executive editor John Arthur to the L.A. Times newsroom early this morning, about the papers scoop on the suicide of anthrax ... LAT kudos on anthrax suicide. By Kevin Roderick , August 1, 2008 10:28 AM ... for a sustained and brilliant reporting job that resulted in todays anthrax story. ...
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Over 1,000 possible suspects faced scrutiny before investigators finally concluded a U.S. Army scientist alone committed the deadly 2001 anthrax attacks, according to Justice Department documents released on Friday. (
  • The military Ames strain behind the 2001 anthrax attacks, however, is a recent Asian immigrant. (
  • The Government Accountability Office says the science the FBI used to investigate the 2001 anthrax attacks was flawed. (
  • The FBI used flawed scientific methods to investigate the 2001 anthrax attacks that killed five people and sickened 17 others, federal auditors said Friday in a report sure to fuel skepticism over the FBI's conclusion that Army biodefense researcher Bruce Ivins was the sole perpetrator. (
  • CDC and FBI during the investigation of the 2001 anthrax attacks and highlight the challenges and suc- cesses of public health and law enforcement collaborations in general. (
  • On Oct. 4, 2001, CDC confirmed the first case of the 2001 anthrax attacks in a 63-year-old Palm Beach County, FL, man who was exposed to B. anthracis at his workplace. (
  • Oh well, I'm sure that the same federal government whose highly trained police force persecuted the wrong people for the Atlanta Olympic bombing and the 2001 anthrax attacks won't ever persecute the wrong employees when countless bureaucrats are casting suspicions. (
  • The court imposed $5000 a day on her personally for refusing to disclose her sources in the case filed by former Army scientist, Steven J. Hatfill related to the 2001 anthrax attacks. (
  • Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis . (
  • Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a germ that lives in soil. (
  • Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. (
  • Anthrax is primarily a zoonotic disease in herbivores caused by a bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. (
  • Though the word "anthrax" conjures up fearsome thoughts of biological weapons, anthrax is a once-common disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which is often found in soil. (
  • Koch isolated Bacillus anthracis and verified that it caused the anthrax disease. (
  • Anthrax, the disease caused by Bacillus anthracis bacteria spores, is one of the most feared and potentially deadly agents used in bioterrorism attacks. (
  • Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. (
  • The Washington DC-based team combined toxins from the bacteria Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, which cause anthrax and the pneumonic plague, respectively. (
  • Anthrax is a severe disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. (
  • Although human anthrax was historically known to be contracted from high exposures to animals and animal products that were infected with Bacillus Anthracis spores, the spread of human anthrax in the United States took on a different approach. (
  • Anthrax is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and spreads when the anthrax spores are inhaled, ingested, or come into contact with the skin lesion on a host. (
  • Until the new study that was published by Dr. Khan and his colleagues, however, it was not known if lysozyme could also be effective against Bacillus anthracis, the microbe that causes anthrax. (
  • Based on our results, it looks like that lysozyme could be used to either slow down or prevent the growth of an avirulent form of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis that causes anthrax," Khan said. (
  • Bacillus anthracis , the bacteria that causes anthrax, is commonly found in soils all over the world and can cause serious, and often fatal, illness in both humans and animals. (
  • The LRN played a pivotal role in the quick detection of Bacillus anthracis , the bacteria that causes anthrax. (
  • Bacillus anthracis , the cause of Anthrax infections, was isolated from buccal and nasal swabs collected from the dead zebra, making it the first confirmed anthrax infection in a wildlife species in the Namib Desert. (
  • Bacterial cultures from highly susceptible animals that quickly die are often anthrax negative, because the animals might die already at a low presence of bacteria in the blood or from a high load of toxin released by Bacillus anthracis when destroyed by the immune system. (
  • This outbreak was caused by anthrax bacillus transmitted to contacts from the tissues of the sick cow. (
  • Among the documents seized was a direction to purchase bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax disease. (
  • Intentional contamination of food with anthrax spores could cause gastrointestinal anthrax after a person eats uncooked or undercooked food that is contaminated with anthrax spores or bacteria. (
  • It can occur in the upper (throat) or lower (abdominal) intestinal tracts, typically after a person eats uncooked or undercooked food that is contaminated with anthrax spores or bacteria. (
  • Meningeal (brain) can occur if anthrax bacteria enter the bloodstream following cutaneous, inhalation, gastrointestinal or injectional anthrax infection. (
  • Bioterrorism has occurred in New York only in 2001, when media outlets received letters that were intentionally contaminated with anthrax bacteria. (
  • Anthrax bacteria can live in soil for decades as tough spores, until they are inhaled by a grazing animal. (
  • Anthrax bacteria can survive in the environment for decades by forming spores. (
  • Ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic drug, is prescribed for treating patients suffering from anthrax and other bacteria. (
  • Bacteria behind anthrax and pneumonic plague are two of the deadliest pathogens that could be used in warfare and researchers from The Catholic University of America therefore created a single vaccine that could provide completion protection against the two diseases. (
  • When inhaled, the anthrax bacteria replicate in the body and produce toxins that can cause massive and irreversible tissue injury and death. (
  • The anthrax bacteria is not contagious and cannot be spread from person to person. (
  • Anthrax vaccine is licensed for use in adults between the ages of 18 and 65 who are at high risk for exposure to anthrax bacteria. (
  • A heat wave is blamed for thawing a 75-year-old reindeer carcass, along with dormant spores of anthrax bacteria that infected it. (
  • In this case, the bacteria were anthrax, and more than 75 years ago, they killed a reindeer. (
  • After 15 years of work, John Collier has made discoveries that he expects will lead to new drugs to neutralize the lethal poison produced by anthrax bacteria. (
  • Recent discoveries about how anthrax bacteria inject their poisons reveal vulnerable sites where novel drugs could treat or prevent lethal infections. (
  • The most common type of anthrax, cutaneous (skin) anthrax, happens when a person has a cut of some type on the skin, allowing the bacteria to enter. (
  • Anthrax bacteria form spores that can survive in the environment for long periods of time. (
  • caused by inhaling anthrax bacteria into the lungs. (
  • Cutaneous anthrax - caused when anthrax bacteria make contact with cut or damaged skin. (
  • Gastrointestinal anthrax - caused by swallowing anthrax bacteria. (
  • This failure to grasp the reason for genetic mutations that were used to differentiate between samples of anthrax bacteria was a "key scientific gap" in the investigation, the report says. (
  • Data from this study could be used in developing safer foods for human consumption," said Saeed A. Khan, Ph.D. "The data from our study shows that lysozyme application has the potential to eliminate anthrax producing bacteria in processed foods. (
  • According to a new study, anthrax-causing bacteria can be engineered to shed their invisibility cloaks, which will making it easier for the immune system to eradicate it. (
  • At least 84 workers maybe more were potentially exposed to the deadly anthrax bacteria. (
  • In October 2001, the first inhalational anthrax case in the United States since 1976 was identified in a media company worker in Florida. (
  • the cials, leading to the first bioterrorism-related cases of anthrax last reported case of inhalational anthrax in the United States in the United States. (
  • Outbreaks of conducted through coordinated efforts of medical and labora- inhalational anthrax among humans were linked to occupa- tory communities and local, state, and federal public health tional exposures at a goat-hair-processing plant in New and law enforcement agencies. (
  • Bioterrorism must be suspected in any case of inhalational anthrax. (
  • Bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the United States. (
  • By contrast, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax infections - which result from ingesting or inhaling anthrax - can be deadly. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announces that it has approved Anthim (obiltoxaximab) injection to treat inhalational anthrax in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs. (
  • Anthim is also approved to prevent inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or not appropriate. (
  • Inhalational anthrax is a rare disease that can occur after exposure to infected animals or contaminated animal products, or as a result of an intentional release of anthrax spores. (
  • Anthim's effectiveness for treatment and prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax was demonstrated in studies conducted in animals based on survival at the end of the studies. (
  • John Jernigan] Well, I think that my role was sort of the lead investigation for the clinical aspects of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax. (
  • The last case of inhalational anthrax in the United States had been 25 years earlier, very rare disease, and so it wasn't clear at all at first that this was related to with anything having to do with bioterrorism, but anyway, I was aware that there was this investigation in Florida. (
  • And so, I found myself on a plane a couple of hours later, and my specific role was to investigate the clinical aspects of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax. (
  • Would this behave differently from, sort of, natural inhalational anthrax infections? (
  • Anthrax is typically associated with, you know, the sporadic cases that we see are--are, sort of, with animal exposure, and there are three basic forms: you can inhale it and get inhalational anthrax which causes essentially a bad pulmonary disease and rapid progression. (
  • In areas where domestic animals have had anthrax in the past, routine vaccination can help prevent outbreaks. (
  • In the Eastern Mediterranean region outbreaks of human anthrax have been reported from Afghanistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Morocco, Pakistan and Sudan. (
  • Although outbreaks still occur in livestock and wild herbivores in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, human anthrax in these areas is now rare. (
  • Outbreaks of cutaneous and ingestion anthrax have been associated with handling infected animals and butchering and eating meat from those animals. (
  • The Yamal-Nenets autonomous region authorities stopped vaccinating reindeer 10 years ago because there had been no anthrax outbreaks for more than half a century, he added. (
  • In the early 20th century, there were repeated anthrax outbreaks in Siberia. (
  • That means anthrax outbreaks in Siberia could occur every summer, she says. (
  • They made spatial locations of anthrax outbreaks diagnosed by registered veterinary laboratories in the study area's zone of influence. (
  • And one of those events occurred in the watershed public health year of 2001, when in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, anthrax outbreaks were detected in several places. (
  • How soon after anthrax infection do symptoms appear? (
  • In addition, high levels of exposure to anthrax spores are required to cause infection, and most wide-spread dispersion methods would significantly dilute spore concentration. (
  • A limited quantity of anthrax vaccine is currently available to individuals with an elevated risk of infection (such as military personnel and veterinarians). (
  • This skin infection, called cutaneous anthrax, is the most common and the least deadly form of the disease. (
  • Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin discovered why lung, but not skin, anthrax infections are lethal. (
  • Nine people have so far been officially diagnosed with anthrax and 72 people are currently in hospital suspected of suffering from the infection in the Yamal-Nenets autonomous region, according to the statement from Kobylin. (
  • Anthrax is a rare but serious bacterial infection. (
  • It is important that following the first detection of an anthrax infection in a herd, the surrounding animals should be removed and isolated from the field. (
  • There are three types of anthrax and symptoms vary according to the how the infection occurred. (
  • This type of anthrax infection is often fatal if not treated promptly. (
  • Since anthrax is not spread from person to person, there is no need to immunize or treat contacts of persons ill with anthrax, such as household members, friends, or coworkers, unless they were exposed to the same source of infection. (
  • The state public health laboratory confirmed the anthrax infection and alerted CDC. (
  • The laboratory worked with LRN-B partners to collect, test, and confirm 145 samples, tracing the infection to a drumming event-anthrax spores can be found in animal hides used on drums. (
  • But most human anthrax over the years has come from skin contact with animal products. (
  • While cutaneous anthrax infections account for about 95% of all human anthrax cases, there are other, more serious forms of anthrax: inhalation, gastrointestinal, meningeal and injectional. (
  • Human anthrax is most common in agricultural areas where anthrax in animals occurs, including South and Central America, Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. (
  • Worldwide, the estimated incidence of human anthrax decreased from between 20,000 - 100,000 cases per year in 1958, to 2,000 per year during the 1980s. (
  • Nearly all human anthrax infections are found on the skin. (
  • The problem arises during early October to November in 2001, as the United States of America announced its first ten confirmed cases of human anthrax from bioterrorism. (
  • There are occasional cases of anthrax among livestock populations in countries across the world, including Russia, but human deaths are very rare since the disease was largely eradicated after the development of an effective vaccine in the middle of the 20th century. (
  • There's likely to be more cases of anthrax resurfacing, says Birgitta Evengar d, a microbiologist at Umea University in Sweden. (
  • Following recognition of the first cases of anthrax in Florida in early October 2001, investigators from the Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion (CDC) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) were mobilized to assist investigators from state and local public health and law enforcement agencies. (
  • Gastrointestinal (throat or abdomen) is the rarest form of anthrax. (
  • This discovery might now pave the way towards the development of new therapiesfor the fatal lung form of anthrax. (
  • Interestingly, the lung form of anthrax is almost always fatal, whereas skin infections remain localized and are rarely lethal. (
  • In contrast to the lung form, the skin form of anthrax can be treated without problems and most patients recover. (
  • This mechanism is not effective in the lung form of anthrax. (
  • The scientists in Berlin now hope that their discovery will help to develop new drugs against the lung form of anthrax. (
  • [ 1 ] In the most common cutaneous form of anthrax, spores inoculate a host through skin lacerations, abrasions, or biting flies. (
  • It can enter the bloodstream from a cut in the skin, inhaling anthrax spores into the lungs, swallowing anthrax spores, or injecting anthrax contaminated heroin. (
  • A vaccine to prevent anthrax is available for people in the military and others at high risk. (
  • Anthrax Vaccine -- posts by Meryl Nass, M.D. (
  • This blog began in 2007, focusing on anthrax vaccine, and later expanded to other public health and political issues. (
  • Reports say that scientists have created a vaccine that protects against both anthrax and plague amid fears of terror threats. (
  • Speaking about it, lead author Dr Pan Tao said that the dual anthrax-plague vaccine is a strong candidate for stockpiling against a potential bioterror attack involving either one or both of these biothreat agents. (
  • The anthrax vaccine (Biothrax manufactured by Emergent BioSolutions, Inc.) is FDA approved for use in persons between 18 and 65 years of age who are at high risk of exposure to anthrax. (
  • No anthrax vaccine is approved for persons under 18 or over 65 years of age. (
  • NVIC strongly recommends reading the vaccine manufacturer product information insert before receiving any vaccine, including the anthrax vaccine. (
  • There is no anthrax vaccine licensed for use in children, and the vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women. (
  • Biothrax anthrax vaccine manufactured by Emergent BioSolutions is recommended for persons considered high-risk for anthrax exposure. (
  • NVIC encourages you to become fully informed about anthrax and the anthrax vaccine by reading all sections in the Table of Contents below, which contain many links and resources such as the manufacturer product information inserts, and to speak with one or more trusted health care professionals before making a vaccination decision for yourself or your child. (
  • The mutants involve minor changes in a protein already used in the only available anthrax vaccine. (
  • And, in addition to blunting the syringe, they stimulate an immune response against anthrax the way the vaccine does. (
  • Only one facility in the United States is licensed by the Food and Drug Administration to produce the anthrax vaccine. (
  • Image courtesy of Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program Agency, Office of the Army Surgeon General, United States. (
  • 1%). Anthrax caused by inhalation is usually fatal, and symptoms usually begin days after exposure. (
  • However, it is possible for inhalation anthrax to develop up to 2 months after exposure to anthrax spores. (
  • Indeed, the fifth plague of the Bible (widespread death of livestock) may be a description of an anthrax outbreak - as well as the sixth plague, which describes the skin boils typically found after human exposure to infected animals or animal products. (
  • In addition, experimental evidence suggests that immediate treatment with antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin can provide an effective response to anthrax exposure - and help ward off a modern outbreak of biblical proportions. (
  • Occasional anthrax cases have occurred, in the United States and elsewhere, in which the exposure source remains unidentified. (
  • Cutaneous anthrax usually develops 1-7 days after exposure, but incubation periods as long as 17 days have been reported. (
  • It can also be used in this population after a potential or confirmed exposure to anthrax but must be given in conjunction with antibiotic therapy. (
  • The outbreak of this disease was caused by inhalation of anthrax from exposure of the disease. (
  • Proper disposal of anthrax infected carcasses and vaccination of at risk herds can help reduce exposure. (
  • Five people died in October and November 2001 from anthrax inhalation or exposure linked to the letters. (
  • Ingestion of B anthracis spores may result in oropharyngeal anthrax 2-7 days after exposure. (
  • Testing performed by LRN laboratories helped determine that exposure occurred at work after being exposed to anthrax that was mailed to the man's office. (
  • Cheetahs scavenge only rarely, which reduces their exposure to anthrax infected prey. (
  • EPA employees were concerned about the potential for exposure to anthrax and other microorganisms during planned remediation activities. (
  • The potential for remediation worker exposure to anthrax spores at the former tannery appears to be minimal. (
  • We sought many types of items, such as questionnaires, fact sheets, training and orientation materials, shipping and laboratory protocols, descriptions of surveillance systems used to detect persons with possible anthrax infections (i.e., case-finding), and press releases. (
  • Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic livestock (such as cattle, sheep and goats), but infections also can occur in humans. (
  • Twenty-two people developed anthrax infections, and five of them died. (
  • As reported in the newest issue of PloS Pathogen (November 2005) Neutrophils, a form of white blood cells, play a key role in anthrax infections. (
  • Even with treatment, about 50% of oropharyngeal anthrax infections are fatal. (
  • Injectional (blood) anthrax is a new type of anthrax caused when contaminated heroin is injected (usually in the skin). (
  • Of these 22 people with anthrax 11 were cutaneous, infecting the skin which is the less severe form and 11 were inhalational -- the more dangerous type of anthrax which can infect the tissues of the chest and even spread to the brain. (
  • Oropharyngeal anthrax develops 2-7 days after ingestion. (
  • There are 2 main types of ingestion anthrax: oropharyngeal and intestinal. (
  • Gastrointestinal anthrax can also occur in the oropharyngeal - the symptoms then become a sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and toxaemia. (
  • Oropharyngeal anthrax is a more common form of GI anthrax and has occurred in epidemic settings. (
  • The "ReAwaken America" event in Texas in December 2021 was the target of an anthrax or other biological agent attack. (
  • Vice, 22 Dec. 2021, (
  • Hampshire in 1957 and suspected accidental release of B. anthracis aerosols from a bioweapons facility in Sverdlovsk, 1Members of the National Anthrax Epidemiologic Investigation Team were Paul P. Abamonte, Joel Ackelsberg, S. (
  • Officially closing its investigation, the department said various steps taken in the past year only confirmed its earlier conclusion that the scientist, Dr. Bruce Ivins, who committed suicide in 2008, had mailed the anthrax-laced letters. (
  • The evidence gathered in this seven-year investigation establishes that Dr. Bruce Ivins was the anthrax mailer," according to the documents, citing direct evidence about the anthrax spores and what it called "compelling circumstantial evidence. (
  • Paul Keim of the Northern Arizona University, who led the genetic investigation of the attacks , says that normally anthrax spores do not move far from their dead victims, so it was probably humans carrying scavenged, spore-infested hair and hides who moved one anthrax "family" into northern Africa, then across Eurasia. (
  • Graeme MacQueen's 2014 book, The 2001 Anthrax Deception: The Case for a Domestic Conspiracy , has been vindicated by the head of the FBI's Anthrax Investigation. (
  • MacQueen's conclusion stands vindicated by Richard Lambert , the agent in charge of the FBI anthrax investigation who has turned whistleblower. (
  • A week or so ago the US National Research Council which is under the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine released a review of the scientific approaches and conclusions of the controversial FBI investigation into a deadly anthrax scare nearly ten years ago. (
  • It will be the second segment in the show, so if you have an interest in this topic, check your local PBS listings for NOVA scienceNOW, and watch for the 'Anthrax Investigation' segment. (
  • The Anthrax Attacks represented the first time sophisticated biological weaponry was unleashed within the United States and precipitated the largest investigation in FBI history. (
  • Decker is a retired FBI special agent assigned to the investigation of the Anthrax Attacks of late 2001. (
  • Hatfill wants to know who told her that he was a "person of interest" in the anthrax investigation. (
  • In the fall of 2001, an outbreak of cutaneous and inhalation anthrax in New York City, New Jersey, the Washington, D.C. area and Florida resulted from a still unsolved act of bioterrorism involving letters intentionally contaminated with anthrax spores. (
  • Without immediate treatment, inhalation anthrax is usually fatal. (
  • Public response to an anthrax attack: reactions to mass prophylaxis in a scenario involving inhalation anthrax from an unidentified source. (
  • Aerosolized spores from contaminated hides or wool can cause inhalation anthrax. (
  • Against the backdrop of September 11th terrorist attacks in the U.S., the anthrax attacks in late 2001 raised highly controversial issues related to intellectual property rights. (
  • Because of al Qaeda's limited sophistication, the documents do not support a theory that al Qaeda had a role in the anthrax letters mailed in late 2001 to Senate and news media offices that killed five people. (
  • December 28, 1997) - All of a sudden anthrax is in the news since the December 15 announcement from the Pentagon that the entire U.S. military, 2.4 million strong including a million reservists, was to be vaccinated against this potentially deadly biological agent. (
  • As an agent of biological warfare, anthrax is 'designed' to cause the lung form of the disease. (
  • Anthrax has become known as a sort of Biological weapon . (
  • Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: updated recommendations for management. (
  • Anthrax was used as biological warfare in WWI. (
  • A spokesman for Frisco police told Snopes in an email that there have been "no reports" of anthrax or any biological agent deployed against the event. (
  • Overnight a man, liked and respected by his colleagues, who had worked on American biological warfare weapons for years, became a deranged homicidal maniac who decided to murder Americans at random in the immediate aftermath of 9/11 by sending them letters containing anthrax. (
  • Anthrax is very interesting from a purely biological perspective," he notes. (
  • The Laboratory Response Network for Biological Threats (LRN-B) was created to strengthen the nation's ability to detect biological threat agents, like smallpox and anthrax. (
  • There have been ample warnings of the potential for catastrophic biological events in the nearly 15 years since the anthrax attacks of 2001, and several key events highlight U.S. shortfalls in this area. (
  • According to PCAST, the biological threats that were focused on in the past two decades only included 'known human and agricultural pathogens' such as anthrax, Ebola and smallpox. (
  • Not to mention, on any given day of the cruise, Anthrax frontman Joey Belladonna could usually be found by the Sprinkles soft serve ice cream machine. (
  • Joey Belladonna 's signature voice enters, employing strong melodies as he truly feels freed up from the typically angsty Anthrax sound. (
  • Actually anthrax is not a human disease. (
  • Some 60,000 people in southern Europe died of anthrax in 1613 and the disease has been recognized in America since colonial days. (
  • Anthrax, like tuberculosis, shows a new epidemic spread in industrialized countries, revealing some ambiguous aspects to the disease and providing new challenges to medicine. (
  • What are the different types of anthrax disease? (
  • Meningeal or brain anthrax disease usually cannot be treated successfully. (
  • Although the risk of acquiring anthrax from drums imported from anthrax-endemic countries appears low, life-threatening or fatal disease is possible. (
  • In 2006, a case of travel-associated anthrax (the cutaneous form of the disease) was reported in a woman who traveled with a small group of tourists to Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa. (
  • Spreading the Disease is the second studio album by the American thrash metallic band Anthrax, launched on October 30, 1985 by Megaforce Records and Island Records. (
  • Anthrax is a bacterial disease that most commonly affects animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. (
  • used a surrogate bacterial strain that is considered as a stand-in for anthrax in their research because it behaves in more or less similar fashion as the actual anthrax strain, except that it does not cause the disease. (
  • Anthrax is an unstudied disease in arid habitats. (
  • We do not know the prevalence of anthrax in the Namib desert and how wildlife populations are affected by the disease. (
  • This first confirmed case of anthrax in the Namib Desert in wildlife demonstrates that the disease might by endemic in the desert and other arid environments. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened panels of anthrax experts to review and update guidelines for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis and treatment. (
  • Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores. (
  • Anthrax essentially ceased to be regarded as a disease of major health or economic importance after the enormous successes of Max Sterne's veterina. (
  • Intestinal anthrax develops 2-5 days after ingestion. (
  • Eating meat contaminated with anthrax causes an intestinal form. (
  • Gastrointestinal anthrax causes severe inflammation of the intestinal tract and is usually fatal. (
  • By 2007, investigators conclusively determined that a single-spore batch of anthrax created and maintained by Ivins at his laboratory in Maryland was the parent material for the spores in the letters. (
  • Dr. Ivins was alone in his lab for long stretches of time in the evenings and on the weekends leading up to the anthrax mailing events. (
  • Scientists have conclusively proven that the anthrax in the letters was advanced bio-weapons technology to which Ivins had no access. (
  • If Ivins had spent months growing anthrax in plates in trash bags or other odd places, then he would have tracked the spores to his car and home. (
  • No one would know if Ivins removed the anthrax from the plates and put empty plates back into the bags. (
  • Besides, Ivins was accustomed to handling plates with anthrax in them. (
  • The anthrax matter was again news last week when another US government scientist, Bruce E. Ivins, "committed suicide. (
  • Blaming the anthrax letters on Ivins does not resolve the issue of why the Bush Regime lied to Brian Ross and used ABC to put the blame on Saddam Hussein in order to invade an innocent country. (
  • The report adds fuel to the debate among experts, including many of Ivins' co-workers at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Maryland, over whether Ivins could have made and mailed the anthrax-filled envelopes. (
  • The GAO didn't take a position whether Ivins, who worked at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Maryland, made and mailed the anthrax-filled envelopes. (
  • The genetic markers were the basis for investigators' conclusion that the parent material of the Ames strain of anthrax spores used in the attacks came from a flask labeled RMR-1029 that was created and solely maintained by Ivins. (
  • Unless antibiotic treatment is started shortly after symptoms begin, gastrointestinal anthrax is usually fatal. (
  • How common is gastrointestinal anthrax and how is it usually caused? (
  • In the United States, gastrointestinal anthrax is extremely rare. (
  • In 2009, a New Hampshire woman contracted gastrointestinal anthrax after attending a drumming event where she presumably had contact with an African drum that was made with a contaminated hide. (
  • Gastrointestinal anthrax cannot be spread from person to person. (
  • Eating meat from infected animals can result in ingestion (also called gastrointestinal) anthrax. (
  • Gastrointestinal anthrax usually results from eating infected meat. (
  • In 2009, the New Hampshire Public Health Laboratory diagnosed a young woman with gastrointestinal anthrax, a very rare illness. (
  • Anthrax can cause severe illness in both humans and animals. (
  • But the analysis also shows that most of the anthrax lurking in the grasslands from northern Canada to Mexico differs by up to 106 mutations, showing it branched off from the Eurasian form long ago - roughly when humans and animals entered the Americas from Siberia then moved south as grasslands opened up in central Canada around 13,000 years ago. (
  • In 2001, just weeks after terrorists attacked the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., letters containing spores of anthrax destined for Florida, New York City, and Washington, D.C., infected 22 people, killing five. (
  • Touching diseased animals or animal products affects the skin, and anthrax presents itself as boils or lesions with black centers. (
  • On June 28th, the Los Angeles Times reported that Hatfill, "The former Army scientist who was the prime suspect in the deadly 2001 anthrax mailings agreed Friday to take $5.82 million from the government to settle his claim that the Justice Department and the FBI invaded his privacy and ruined his career. (
  • Donais has been touring with ANTHRAX since Rob Caggiano 's departure in January, and will continue to play with ANTHRAX for the foreseeable future. (
  • Pyro", uno show radiofonico norvegese, ha recentemente condotto una intervista al frontman dei Cradle Of Filth Dani "Filth" Davey , a Rob Caggiano (chitarrista Anthrax) e a Tom Cato Visnes (basso God Seed, Gorgoroth) a proposito della loro collaborazione per il progetto Temple Of The Black Moon . (
  • The first photo of the new ANTHRAX lineup - featuring the band's latest addition, guitarist Jon Donais ( SHADOWS FALL ) - can be seen below (photo by Stephanie Cabral ). (
  • ATSDR also assisted in the response to the anthrax contamination of postal facilities, government, and media offices. (
  • Although public health and criminal investigations have been conducted in concert in the past, the response to the anthrax attacks required close collabora- tion because of the immediate and ongoing threat to public safety. (
  • Hupert N , Wattson D , Cuomo J , Hollingsworth E , Neukermans K , Xiong W . Predicting hospital surge after a large-scale anthrax attack: a model-based analysis of CDC's cities readiness initiative prophylaxis recommendations. (
  • This article updates antimicrobial postexposure prophylaxis and antimicrobial and antitoxin treatment options and describes potentially beneficial critical care measures for persons with anthrax, including clinical procedures for infected nonpregnant adults. (
  • Anthrax does not typically occur in New York City. (
  • Carnivores are typically less susceptible to anthrax than herbivores. (
  • Megaforce quickly became a seminal heavy metal/thrash label after releasing the first two Metallica albums (1983's Kill 'Em All and 1984's Ride the Lightning ), and they also released classic albums by Mercyful Fate, Anthrax, Overkill, Testament, Vio-lence, and more, and they also branched out from metal and put out records by Bad Brains, Meat Puppets, and more. (
  • The body wastes and carcasses of infected animals, or flies that eat infected carcasses, and contaminated hides and meat are all sources of anthrax. (
  • Even eating rare meat from an infected animal is enough to cause anthrax. (
  • Humans seldom get anthrax but when they do it is through handling infected animals or other materials containing anthrax spores, eating infected meat or breathing in spores. (
  • For example, ingestion of contaminated water buffalo meat caused an outbreak of 24 cases, concurrently with 52 cases of cutaneous anthrax, in Thailand in 1982. (
  • They included physicians, scientists, researchers, a disgruntled foreign scientist, a microbiologist who committed suicide after the attacks and a microbiology student with alleged ties to al Qaeda's anthrax program. (
  • Scientists had thought that anthrax was one of them. (
  • The pathogen was not detected in any of the three cheetahs found in the Namib, but the scientists consider it very likely that anthrax was the direct cause of their death. (
  • He's always had the option of coming clean, of complying with the resolution, of giving up all of his weapons of mass destruction, of making his scientists available without fear of retribution, turning over the anthrax, and the VX nerve agent, and the sarin, and of the other capabilities he has developed, and he has consistently refused. (
  •, (
  • In February 2006, a New York City resident was diagnosed with inhalation (lungs) anthrax. (
  • Inhaling anthrax spores affects the lungs, and it is very frequently fatal. (
  • The few reported cases in which diseases such as anthrax were tested in the arid environments of Namibia are when livestock or people were directly affected", says Portas. (
  • Medical providers are required to report 55 diseases to the state Health and Human Services Department, everything from the typical, such as a hepatitis strain, to the unusual, anthrax. (
  • So the question for researchers is: Could these pathogens - like anthrax - ever be reactivated? (
  • The Ames strain used in the anthrax attacks, for example, naturally occurs only in Texas, but differs from Eurasian anthrax by only about eight mutations, showing it is a recent immigrant. (
  • 2) the entire lineage of every flask of Ames anthrax DNA in the world is traced back to the cow or as closely as possible. (
  • Anthrax is not contagious, which means you can't catch it from another person like the cold or flu. (
  • Anthrax in humans is not generally regarded as contagious, although rare records of person-to-person transmission exist. (
  • Because anthrax is non-contagious, can be deadly, and can form durable, long-lived spores, it has long been considered a prime candidate for weaponization. (
  • Cutaneous anthrax develops 2-5 days (range, 1-7 days) postexposure. (
  • No doubt, it is unfair to compare the AIDS pandemic in South Africa with the current anthrax crisis in America. (
  • Anthrax most commonly occurs in hoofed mammals and can also infect humans. (
  • Inhalation (lung) anthrax has initial symptoms that may resemble the common "flu,' including fever, muscle ache, mild cough and chest pain. (
  • I am concerned that I have or someone who I know has anthrax symptoms. (
  • Anyone with the symptoms of anthrax should contact their medical provider immediately. (
  • None of the animals that got the mixture developed any symptoms of anthrax, while rats that received the toxin alone fell critically ill in 90 minutes. (
  • They are also close to a feasible production plan for anthrax, a far more lethal weapon, which kills 90 percent of untreated victims if spread by inhalation and as many as 75 percent of those treated when the first symptoms become evident. (
  • After the events on 9/11, THE HOT ZONE: ANTHRAX follows the team of experts tracking down the killer and mailer of the anthrax letters. (
  • A top secret Canadian Security Intelligence Service report leaked on August 27, 2004 may provide the missing piece of evidence needed to identify the long elusive Anthrax Mailer of 2001. (
  • After notification of a suspected case of anthrax following the slaughtering of a sick cow in Banlu village, an area that has not had any anthrax cases for decades, we aimed to confirm the outbreak, determine the transmission mechanism and implement control measures. (