Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Emodin: Purgative anthraquinone found in several plants, especially Rhamnus frangula. It was formerly used as a laxative, but is now used mainly as tool in toxicity studies.Rheum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE. Members contain chrysophanic acid, rhein, EMODIN, and other ANTHRAQUINONES. The roots were formerly used as PURGATIVES.Senna Extract: Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.Morinda: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.Senna Plant: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. SENNA EXTRACT is obtained from members of this genus. Members contain ANTHRAQUINONES and have been an ingredient in laxatives (CATHARTICS). Many species of the CASSIA genus have been reclassified into this genus. This bush should not be confused with the Cassia tree (CINNAMOMUM).Rubia: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. The root is a source of red dyes (madder color and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione) and ANTHRAQUINONES.Sesamum: A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.Carmine: Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Cassia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).Anthracenes: A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.Aloe: A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).Rhamnaceae: The buckthorn plant family, of the order Rhamnales, includes some species with edible fruits and some that are medicinal.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Hedyotis: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain anthraquinones and iridoids. H. diffusa is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Clusiaceae: The mangosteen plant family (sometimes classified as Guttiferae; also known as Hypericaceae) of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes trees and shrubs with resinous, sticky sap, usually with broad-ended, oblong, leathery leaves with a strong, central vein, flowers with many stamens.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Eurotium: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. Health effects, allergenicity, and toxicity of Eurotium are closely related to its anamorph ASPERGILLUS.Secondary Metabolism: A physiochemical process which occurs in a wide range of organisms which unlike BASAL METABOLISM is not required for or essential to short-term survivability but to long-term general well-being of the organism.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enediynes: Compounds with triple bonds to each side of a double bond. Many of these are CYTOTOXINS and are researched for use as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS.Polygonum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is an ingredient of Shou-Wu-Pian, a Chinese herbal preparation (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). The common name of black bindweed also refers to TAMUS or Fallopia (use POLYGONACEAE).Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Naphthacenes: Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.Cissus: A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Photorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.Rhabditoidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order RHABDITIDA. Characteristics include an open tube stoma and an excretory system with lateral canals.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Vinyl CompoundsFood Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Tosyllysine Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES. Acts as an alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Tosylphenylalanyl Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of Serine Endopeptidases. Acts as alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether: A substance that is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract and may be carcinogenic.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.

A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of losoxantrone and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. (1/925)

A Phase I and pharmacological study was performed to evaluate the feasibility, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics of the anthrapyrazole losoxantrone in combination with paclitaxel in adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. Losoxantrone was administered as a 10-min infusion in combination with paclitaxel on either a 24- or 3-h schedule. The starting dose level was 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel (as a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion) without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Administration of these agents at the starting dose level and dose escalation was feasible only with G-CSF support. The following dose levels (losoxantrone/paclitaxel, in mg/m2) of losoxantrone and paclitaxel as a 3-h infusion were also evaluated: 50/135, 50/175, 50/200, 50/225, and 60/225. The sequence-dependent toxicological and pharmacological effects of losoxantrone and paclitaxel on the 24- and 3-h schedules of paclitaxel were also assessed. The MTD was defined as the dose at which >50% of the patients experienced DLT during the first two courses of therapy. DLTs, mainly myelosuppression, occurring during the first course of therapy were noted in four of six and five of eight patients treated with 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel over 24 and 3 h, respectively, without G-CSF. DLTs during the first two courses of therapy were observed in one of six patients at the 50/175 (losoxantrone/paclitaxel) mg/m2 dose level, two of four patients at the 50/200 mg/m2 dose level, one of four patients at the 50/225 mg/m2 dose level, and two of five patients at the 60/225 mg/m2 dose level. The degree of thrombocytopenia was worse, albeit not statistically significant, when 24-h paclitaxel preceded losoxantrone, with a mean percentage decrement in platelet count during course 1 of 80.7%, compared to 43.8% with the reverse sequence (P = 0.19). Losoxantrone clearance was not significantly altered by the sequence or schedule of paclitaxel. Cardiac toxicity was observed; however, it was not related to total cumulative dose of losoxantrone. An unacceptably high rate of DLTs at the first dose level of 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel administered as either a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion precluded dose escalation without G-CSF support. The addition of G-CSF to the regimen permitted further dose escalation without reaching the MTD. Losoxantrone at 50 mg/m2 followed by paclitaxel (3-h i.v. infusion) at 175 mg/m2 with G-CSF support is recommended for further clinical trials.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a novel peroxidase from Geotrichum candidum dec 1 involved in decolorization of dyes. (2/925)

A peroxidase (DyP) involved in the decolorization of dyes and produced by the fungus strain Geotrichum candidum Dec 1 was purified. DyP, a glycoprotein, is glycosylated with N-acetylglucosamine and mannose (17%) and has a molecular mass of 60 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 3.8. The absorption spectrum of DyP exhibited a Soret band at 406 nm corresponding to a hemoprotein, and its Na2S2O4-reduced form revealed a peak at 556 nm that indicates the presence of a protoheme as its prosthetic group. Nine of the 21 types of dyes that were decolorized by Dec 1 cells were decolorized by DyP; in particular, anthraquinone dyes were highly decolorized. DyP also oxidized 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and guaiacol but not veratryl alcohol. The optimal temperature for DyP activity was 30 degrees C, and DyP activity was stable even after incubation at 50 degrees C for 11 h.  (+info)

Stimulation of ultraviolet-induced apoptosis of human fibroblast UVr-1 cells by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (3/925)

Damnacanthal is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the root of Morinda citrifolia and was reported to have a potent inhibitory activity towards tyrosine kinases such as Lck, Src, Lyn and EGF receptor. In the present study, we have examined the effects of damnacanthal on ultraviolet ray-induced apoptosis in ultraviolet-resistant human UVr-1 cells. When the cells were treated with damnacanthal prior to ultraviolet irradiation, DNA fragmentation was more pronounced as compared to the case of ultraviolet irradiation alone. The other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and genistein, also caused similar effects on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis but to a lesser extent. Serine/threonine kinase inhibitors, K252a, staurosporine and GF109203X, rather suppressed the ultraviolet-induced DNA cleavage. Immunoblot analysis showed that pretreatment with damnacanthal followed by ultraviolet irradiation increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and stress-activated protein kinases. However, the other tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not increase the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases but stimulated phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases. Consequently, the ultraviolet-induced concurrent increase in both phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and stress-activated protein kinases after pretreatment with damnacanthal might be characteristically related to the stimulatory effect of damnacanthal on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Diacerhein treatment reduces the severity of osteoarthritis in the canine cruciate-deficiency model of osteoarthritis. (4/925)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if diacerhein protects against the early stages of joint damage in a canine model of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: OA was induced in 20 adult mongrel dogs by transection of the anterior cruciate ligament of the left knee. Beginning the day after surgery, dogs in the active treatment group were dosed twice a day with capsules of diacerhein, providing a total daily dose of 40 mg/kg, for 32 weeks. Dogs in the control group received placebo capsules on the same schedule. Pathology in the unstable knee was assessed arthroscopically 16 weeks after surgery and by direct observation when the dogs were killed 32 weeks after surgery. The severity of gross joint pathology was recorded, and samples of the medial femoral condyle cartilage and the synovial tissue adjacent to the central portion of the medial meniscus were collected for histologic evaluation. Water content and uronic acid concentration of the articular cartilage from the femoral condyle were determined, and collagenolytic activity in extracts of cartilage pooled from the medial and lateral tibial plateaus was assayed against 14C-labeled collagen fibers. RESULTS: Diacerhein treatment slowed the progression of OA, as measured by grading of gross changes in the unstable knee at arthroscopy 16 weeks after cruciate ligament transection (P = 0.04) and at the time the animals were killed, 32 weeks after surgery (P = 0.05). However, 32 weeks after ACL transection, the mean proteoglycan concentration and water content of the OA cartilage and the level of collagenolytic activity in extracts of the cartilage were not significantly different in the diacerhein treatment group than in the placebo treatment group. CONCLUSION: Diacerhein treatment significantly reduced the severity of morphologic changes of OA compared with placebo. These findings support the view that diacerhein may be a disease-modifying drug for OA.  (+info)

Isolation of ekatetrone, a new metabolite of producing variants of Streptomyces aureofaciens. (5/925)

From a mixture of substances formed by producing strains of Streptomyces aureofaciens under conditions of submerged fermentation a new metabolite, ekatetrone, was isolated. Its isolation and basic physical and chemical data are described. Ekatetrone is a quinone derivative with a carboxamide group. In tests in vitro with cells of Ehrlich's ascites tumour evidence was provided that ekatetrone inhibits proteo- and nucleosynthesis.  (+info)

The structure of ekatetrone, a metabolite of strains of Streptomyces aureofaciens. (6/925)

The structure of ekatetrone has been determined from physico-chemical data obtained using the natural compound, its derivatives and products of degradation reactions. Ekatetrone was found to be the lactone of 1,8-dihydroxy-2-(1'-hydroxy-2'-carbamoyl)ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone-3-acetic acid (I). It is proposed that ekatetrone is related, biogenetically, to protetrone.  (+info)

Review article: anthranoid laxatives and their potential carcinogenic effects. (7/925)

Anthranoid laxatives are widely used laxatives of natural origin. Because of their chemical structure they are carried unabsorbed to the large bowel, where metabolism to the active aglycones takes place. These aglycones exert their laxative effect by damaging epithelial cells, which leads directly and indirectly to changes in absorption, secretion and motility. Damaged epithelial cells can be found as apoptotic bodies in the pigmented colonic mucosa, characteristic for pseudomelanosis coli. Pseudomelanosis coli is a condition caused by chronic (ab)use of anthranoid laxatives and has recently been associated with an increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. In vitro and animal studies have shown a potential role of anthranoid laxatives in both the initiation and promotion of tumorigenesis. Studies in humans have also suggested tumour promoting activities for these laxatives. Although the short-term use of these substances is generally safe, long-term use cannot be recommended.  (+info)

Stimulating effect of diacerein on TGF-beta1 and beta2 expression in articular chondrocytes cultured with and without interleukin-1. (8/925)

OBJECTIVE: Diacetylrhein or diacerein has shown efficacy in the treatment of both major forms of osteoarthritis (OA), coxarthrosis as well as gonarthrosis, improving clinical symptoms of the disease (pain reduction and algo-functional index). Both in-vitro and animal models studies suggest that diacerein may have also disease-modifying effects. The drug exerts inhibitory effects on interleukin-1-induced expression of cartilage degrading enzymes. However, its mechanism of action is not completely understood. In view of the role that could play the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta system in the repair potentialities of OA cartilage, we studied the effect of diacerein on the expression of TGF-beta isoforms 1, 2 and 3 and that of their receptor types I and II in cultured bovine chondrocytes. METHODS: Cultured bovine articular chondrocytes were treated with 10(-5) m diacerein, 10 ng/ml IL-1beta or the combination diacerein+interleukin (IL)-1, and the expression of both TGF-beta isoforms 1, 2 and 3 and that of their receptors TbetaR-I and TbetaR-II was determined by Northern-blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell transfections of cDNA constructs containing sequences of the 5'-upstream region of TGF-beta1 promoter were also performed to determine their transcriptional activity in diacerein-treated cultures. RESULTS: The data indicated that diacerein enhances the expression of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2. This effect was also found in the presence of IL-1, albeit with smaller intensity. In contrast, the levels of TGF-beta3 and receptors I and II remained unaffected or slighty modified by the compound. Treatment of cells transiently transfected with TGF-beta1 promoter constructs suggested that the stimulating effect on TGF-beta1 expression is mediated by the region -1038 to -1132 base pars. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that diacerein effects on matrix synthesis and turn-over previously reported in cultured articular chondrocytes might be explained in part by the ability of the drug to enhance TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 expression in these cells. This mechanism of action may account for the potential disease-modifying properties of diacerein and might give clues as to how future anti-osteoarthritic drugs should be designed.  (+info)

For the parent molecule 9,10-antraquinone, see anthraquinone Anthraquinones (also known as anthraquinonoids) are a class of naturally occurring phenolic compounds based on the 9,10-anthraquinone skeleton. A type II polyketide synthase is responsible for anthraquinone biosynthesis in the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. Chorismate, formed by isochorismate synthase in the shikimate pathway, is an important precursor of anthraquinones in Morinda citrifolia. 0.5g of plant extract is shaken with 10 ml of benzene and filtered. 5ml of 10% ammonia is added to the filtrate. The mixture is shaken and the presence of pink, red or violet colour indicates the presence of anthraquinones. Hypericin and fagopyrin are naphthodianthrones, anthraquinone-derivatives. Many quinones are stable in multiple redox states; as such they can absorb electrons when appropriate counterions are available to maintain the bulk neutrality of the material. As such, 2,6-dihydroanthraquinone can be used as a negative electrolyte ...
4-Deoxybostrycin is a natural anthraquinone compound isolated from the Mangrove endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. collected from the South China Sea. Nigrosporin is the deoxy-derivative of 4-deoxybostrycin. They were tested against mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test, they both had inhibition zone sizes of over 25 mm. The results of the absolute concentration susceptibility test suggested that they had inhibitory effects against mycobacteria. Moreover, 4-deoxybostrycin exhibited good inhibition which was even better than that of first line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs against some clinical multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis strains. The gene expression profile of M. tuberculosis H37Rv after treatment with 4-deoxybostrycin was compared with untreated bacteria. One hundred and nineteen out of 3,875 genes were significantly different in M. tuberculosis exposed to 4-deoxybostrycin from control. There were 46 functionally known
The autophagy of human prostate cancer cells (PC3 cells) induced by a new anthraquinone derivative, 1-Hydroxy-3-[(E)-4-(piperazine-diium)but-2-enyloxy]-9,10-anthraquinone ditrifluoroactate (PA) was investigated, and the relationship between autophagy and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was studied. The results indicated that PA induced PC3 cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner, could inhibit PC3 cell growth by G1 phase cell cycle arrest and corresponding decrease in the G2/M cell population and induced S-phase arrest accompanied by a significant decrease G2/M and G1 phase numbers after PC3 cells treated with PA for 48 h, and increased the accumulation of autophagolysosomes and microtubule-associated protein LC3-ll, a marker of autophagy ...
Name: 1-Amino-4-bromo-5-acetamido-2-anthraquinone sulfonic acid CA Name: 2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid,5-(acetylamino)-1-amino-4-bromo-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo,monosodium salt Molecular Structure: 1-Amino-4-bromo-5-acetamido-2-anthraquinone sulfonic acid,2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid,5-(acetylamino)-1-amino-4-bromo-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo,monosodium salt,CAS 86277-89-6,439.24,C16H11BrN2O6S 1-Amino-4-bromo-5-acetamido-2-anthraquinone sulfonic acid,2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid,5-(acetylamino)-1-amino-4-bromo-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo,monosodium salt,CAS 86277-89-6,439.24,C16H11BrN2O6S Molecular Formula:C16H11BrN2O6S Molecular Weight: 439.24 CAS Registry Number: 86277-89-6
The effects of 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ), a stimulant laxative named danthron, on cell kinetics and prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis in the gastrointestinal tract were investigated in male 8-week-old F344 rats divided into three groups, each consisting of 10 animals. The animals in groups one, two and three were respectively given diets supplemented with 0%, 0.1% and 0.2% DHAQ for 24 days. PGE2 levels in the colorectal mucosa were significantly (P , 0.05 and 0.001) elevated after DHAQ treatment and showed some evidence of a dependence of DHAQ dose, consistent with the plasma PGE2 levels. BrdU-labeling indices in the large intestinal epithelium were also significantly (P , 0.01) increased, although the other portions of the gut such as the stomach and small intestine were not significantly affected. Excretion of the main urinary metabolite of PGE (PGE-MUM) was significantly (P , 0.001 or 0.01) increased whereas the urinary PGE2 concentration and total PGE2 excretion were not changed. Thus ...
Rhubarb, a well-known Chinese herbal medicine, is also used in Europe and other places of the world. Anthraquinones derivatives are thought to be the major active components. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation were developed for simultaneous determination of five anthraquinones including aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, and rhein in Rhubarb. The effects of the experimental variables on PLE and CZE have been optimized. The optimum conditions of PLE were: solvent, methanol; temperature, 1407C; particle size, 0.13-0.2 mm; static extraction time, 5 min; pressure, 1500 psi; and one extraction. The best separation of the five anthraquinones could be obtained using 50 mM borate buffer (pH 8.2) containing 25% isopropyl alcohol and 25% acetontrile as modifier, while the separation voltage was 25 kV and the temperature was at 207C. The method developed is accurate, simple, and reproducible, and could be used for quality control of Rhubarb ...
A set of aminoalkylamine substituted anthraquinones (AAQs) was successfully synthesised by aminating 1- or 1,5-chloroanthraquinones in a single reaction step. These substituted anthraquinones, 1C3 or 1,5C3, were tethered to minor groove binding polyamides with between 1 - 3 N-methyl pyrrole units (Py) to produce a library of Py-AAQ compounds. It was envisaged that these compounds could improve cytotoxicity through bimodal damage to DNA relative to the individual polyamide or AAQ moieties. A set of py-AAQ platinum complexes was also successfully synthesised by a platinum-mediated alkylamine to nitrile addition. The additional conjugation of a platinum nitrile complex to Py-AAQ conjugates was predicted to generate agents that are more cytotoxic than the Py-AAQ conjugates by damaging DNA via a minor groove binding (MGB)-intercalation-platination mechanism. All newly synthesised Py-AAQs and associated imino coordinated platinum(II) complexes were examined for cytotoxic activity in DLD-1 colon and ...
Disclosed are thermally-stable, anthraquinone colorant compounds (dyes) which contain one or more vinyl groups which render the compounds copolymerizable with reactive vinyl monomers to produce colored, polymeric compositions such as acrylate and methacrylate polymeric materials. The compounds possess good fastness (stability) to ultraviolet (UV) light, good solubility in vinyl monomers, good color strength and excellent thermal stability. Also disclosed are (1) coating composition comprising (i) one or more polymerizable vinyl compounds, (ii) one or more of the dye compounds described above, and (iii) a photoinitiator and (2) polymeric materials, i.e., polymers derived from one or more acrylic acid esters, one or more methacrylic acid esters, one or more other polymerizable vinyl compounds or mixtures of any two or more thereof, having copolymerized therein one or more of the anthraquinone colorant compounds.
A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of ∼82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to those of aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone
If you are willing to wholesale quality, advanced and durable the regenerated catalyst of hydrogen peroxide by anthraquinone from one of the famous China the regenerated catalyst of hydrogen peroxide by anthraquinone manufacturers, CHALCO is always at your service.
The report generally describes 9,10-anthraquinone monohydrazone, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 9,10-Anthraquinone monohydrazone market
ANTHRAQUINONE SALICYLIC ACID is an oral treatment. Learn more about Uses Side Effects Precautions and Brands of ANTHRAQUINONE SALICYLIC ACID.
[100 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Anthraquinone Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Anthraquinone market is valued at...
The natural agent rhein is an ananthraquinone derivative of rhubarb, which has anticancer effects. To determine the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of rhein, we detected the effect of rhein on several oncoproteins. Here, we show that rhein induces β-catenin degradation in both hepatoma cell HepG2 and cervical cancer cell Hela. Treatment of HepG2 and Hela cells with rhein shortens the half-life of β-catenin. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 blunts the downregulation of β-catenin by rhein. The induction of β-catenin degradation by rhein is dependent on GSK3 but independent of Akt. Treatment of HepG2 and Hela cells with GSK3 inhibitor or GSK3β knockdown abrogates the effect of rhein on β-catenin. GSK3β knockdown compromises the inhibition of HepG2 and Hela cell growth by rhein. Furthermore, rhein dose not downregulate β-catenin mutant that is deficient of phosphorylation at multiple residues including Ser33, Ser37, Thr41 and Ser45. Moreover, rhein induces cell cycle arrest at S ...
Diacerein (INN), also known as diacetylrhein, is a slow-acting medicine of the class anthraquinone used to treat joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (swelling and pain in the joints). It works by inhibiting interleukin-1 beta. An updated 2014 Cochrane review found diacerein had a small beneficial effect on pain. Diacerein-containing medications are registered in some European Union and Asian countries and included as a treatment option on several international therapeutic guidelines. Diacerein works by blocking the actions of interleukin-1 beta, a protein involved in the inflammation and destruction of cartilage that play a role in the development of symptoms of degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. Due to its specific mode of action, which does not involve the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, diacerein has been shown to have anti-osteoarthritis and cartilage stimulating properties in vitro and animal models. The most common side effects of diacerein treatment are ...
Chen, Xiaowen, Shengnan Peng, Huihong Zeng, Aixiang Fu, Qingxian Zhu (2015) Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in a protective effect of rhein on immunoglobulin A nephropathy. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
Anthraquinone derivatives are most important class of a system that absorb in the visible region. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic analyses were carried out on 1,4-bis(4-formylphenyl)anthraquinone. The interpretation of the spectra was aided by DFT calculations of the molecule. The vibrational wavenumbers were examined theoretically using the Gaussian09 set of quantum chemistry codes, and the normal modes were assigned by potential energy distribution (PED) calculations. A computation of the first hyperpolarizability of the compound indicates that this class of substituted anthraquinones may be a good candidate as a NLO material. Optimized geometrical parameters of the compound are in agreement with similar reported structures. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ...
anthraquinone: The most important quinone derivative of anthracene and the parent substance of a large class of dyes and pigments. It is prepared commercially by oxidation of anthracene or condensation...
China Pigment Blue 60 for Automobile Coating Plastic, Find details about China Anthraquinone Blue, Organic Pigment Blue from Pigment Blue 60 for Automobile Coating Plastic - Hangzhou Dimachema Imp & Exp Co., Ltd.
Detail záznamu - Anthraquinone as a Redox Label for DNA: Synthesis, Enzymatic Incorporation, and Electrochemistry of Anthraquinone-Modified Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and DNA - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
1,2-Anthraquinone | C14H8O2 | CID 101219 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
2-(Chloromethyl)anthraquinone | C15H9ClO2 | CID 344311 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 1594-08-7(9,10-Anthracenedione,1-hydroxy-4-[[4-[(methylsulfonyl)oxy]phenyl]amino]-),please inquire us for 1594-08-7(9,10-Anthracenedione,1-hydroxy-4-[[4-[(methylsulfonyl)oxy]phenyl]amino]-).
Spontaneously adsorbed monolayers, which are formed by the immersion o f an electrode into a dilute solution o f surface-active molecules have been studied extensively in recent years. The work presented in this thesis deals with the modification o f mercury electrode surfaces with 9,10-anthraquinone and two anthraquinone derivatives, 1-amino,2- sulphonic,4-hydroxyanthraquinone (1,2,4-AQASH), and 1,5-dimethoxyanthraquinone (1,5- DMAQ). These adsorbates form a n interaction with the electrode surface. The thermodynamics o f adsorption has been modeled using the Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherms. Binary monolayers formed by the coadsorption o f 1,2,4-AQASH and 1,5-DMAQ have been investigated to probe the extent o f interaction between adsorbed moieties. The kinetics o f single component 1,5-DMAQ adsorption has been modeled over a wide concentration range to probe the mode o f adsorption o f these molecules. It has been concluded from the CV and kinetic fits o f this data that 1,5-DMAQ ...
... is an anthraquinone dye used with Disperse Red 9 in colored smoke to introduce a violet color. It is also used in dyes and marine flares . Synthesis 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone is reacted with sodium dithionite to produce 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone. References Heyer, Thomas; Hans-Joachim Niclas, Stephan Dietzel (2010) 1,4-Diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone is an anthraquinone dye used with Disperse Red 9 in colored smoke to introduce a violet color. It is also used in dyes and marine flares . Synthesis 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone is reacted with sodium dithionite to produce 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone. References Heyer, Thomas; Hans-Joachim Niclas, Stephan Dietzel (2010) Express yourself. Organize your knowledge. Expand your mind. Discover the world. Revolvy connects you with interesting topics, lists and quizzes. Choose from hundreds of quizzes that test your knowledge. Search through millions of topics. Create a your personalized library of topics, and
55345-44-3 - QFYZUUMEXXFCKY-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 9,10-Anthracenedione, 1,5-bis((4-phenoxyphenyl)amino)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
29311-94-2 - SYZOCKFTUCTLFQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 9,10-Anthracenedione, 1,4-bis((3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)amino)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
In this in vitro study h-CLAT (Human Cell Line Activation Test), the skin sensitisation potential of the test item Mordand Red 11 was assessed according to the OECD 442E and under GLP without signiticant deviations. The in vitro h-CLAT enables detection of the sensitising potential of a test item by addressing the third molecular key event of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP), namely dendritic cell activation, by quantifying the expression of the cell surface markers CD54 and CD86 in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. The expression of these markers compared to the respective solvent controls is used to support discrimination between skin sensitisers and non-sensiters. In the present study, the test item was dissolved in DMSO. A dose finding assay was performed with stock solutions with concentrations ranging from 250 mg/mL to 1.96 mg/mL. The cells were treated with the different concentration and incubated for 24h at 37°C. After exposure, cells viability was measured by FACS ...
Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 0, 1,875, 3,750, 7,500, 15,000, or 30,000 ppm anthraquinone (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 135, 275, 555, 1,130, or 2,350 mg anthraquinone/kg body weight) for 14 weeks. All rats survived until the end of the study. Mean body weights of females were significantly less in the exposed groups than in the control group. Feed consumption by the exposed and control groups was similar at the end of the study. Liver and kidney weights of exposed groups were greater than those of the controls, as were testis weights of males exposed to 7,500 ppm or greater. A minimal, responsive anemia was apparent in groups of male and female rats exposed to 3,750 ppm or greater by day 26 of the study. The anemia persisted and involved all exposed groups of rats at the end of the study. Renal function was also affected by anthraquinone exposure as demonstrated by increases in urine protein and glucose concentrations and aspartate ...
Anthraquinone-lectin hybrids were effectively synthesized using water-soluble anthraquinone derivative with concanavalin A (ConA) and hygrophorus russula lectin (HRL) to give anthraquinone-ConA () and anthraquinone-HRL (17) hybrids, respectively. These anthraquinone-lectin hybrids effectively and selectively degraded oligosaccharides containing a mannose residue as a non-reducing terminal sugar, which has affinity for ConA and HRL, under photo-irradiation with long-wavelength UV light without additives and under neutral conditions. In addition, anthraquinone-HRL (17) selectively photo-degraded only Man(α1,6)Man, which has a high affinity for HRL, among several mannosides by recognition of both the type and glycosidic linkage profile of the sugar in an oligosaccharide. ...
A series of 2,6-bis(arylethynyl)anthraquinones was prepared via double Sonogashira coupling to 2,6-diiodoanthraquinone, and characterized with regard to their optical and electronic properties. Substitution with a derivatized phenylethynyl group produced a lambda(onset) of 366 nm (E-g = 3.4 eV), but the more highly conjugated 2,6-bis(9′-anthracylethynyl)anthraquinones exhibited a lambda(onset) of approximately 540 nm (E-g = 2.3 eV). Poor solubility in the unsubstituted 9′-anthracylethynyl system hampered complete characterization or purification, but the 10′-hexanoylanthrac-9′-ylethynyl analog exhibited significantly better solubility. The preparation of several other functionalized derivatives was also explored, and key synthetic findings are reported ...
The present work reports a smart design of a chemodosimeter, namely 4-(6,11-dihydro-6,11-dioxo-1H-anthra[1,2-d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl-4-nitrobenzenesulfonate (AH), which recognises F− specifically through a naked eye colour change from light yellow to light orange and remarkable ratiometric fluorescence from g
A 500-cc. three-necked flask fitted with a mechanical stirrer (Note 1) and a thermometer is half immersed in an oil bath mounted in a hood. In the flask are placed 120 g. of 19-22 per cent oleum and 1 g. of yellow mercuric oxide, the bath is warmed to 100°, and 100 g. (0.48 mole) of anthraquinone (Note 2) is added through a powder funnel attached by a piece of wide rubber tubing. The mixture is stirred vigorously and heated at 147-152° for forty-five to sixty minutes, after which the bath is removed and the flask is lowered from the stirrer and replaced by a 2-l. beaker containing 1 l. of hot water. While the water is being stirred, the hot acid solution is poured cautiously down the inner wall of the beaker; the mixture is then boiled for five minutes longer with stirring. After the unchanged anthraquinone (53-59 g.) (Note 3) is collected by suction on a 20-cm. Büchner funnel provided with a cotton filter cloth, it is washed with 200 cc. of hot water. The light brown filtrate, together with ...
This study attempted to screen selected phytochemicals in the ethanolic, methanolic and acetone extracts of Nonochlorum spp. The extracts were subjected to the following tests: Test tube method for Alkaloid Analysis (Confirmatory test, test for quaternary bases and/ or amine oxide), Test Tube Reaction Method for Steroids (Keller- Kiliani test: test for 2- deoxysugars), the Borntragers Test for Anthraquinones, Test tube Screening Methods for Flavonoids (Test for leucoanthocyanins: Bate- Smith and Metacalf method), and the Test tube Screening Method for Tannins (Ferric chloride test). Results showed that in all Nanochlorum spp. extract, steroids, anthraquinones and tannins were positive (with slight precipitation) but negative with alkaloids and flavonoids.. ...
Piroxantrone, also known as CI942; PD111815, is a n anthrapyrazole antineoplastic antibiotic. Piroxantrone intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Although less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin, this agent exhibits a narrow spectrum of antineoplastic activity.
Information for Kiton Red S 3520-42-1 including Kiton Red S CAS NO 3520-42-1, Kiton Red S Suppliers, Kiton Red S Manufacturers, related products of Kiton Red S.
Weak Acid Green GW is an anthraquinone dye. This product appears as a green powder. It can be used in paints and inks. It can also be used to dye pap...
Principal molecular axis and transition dipole moment orientations in liquid crystal systems: an assessment based on studies of guest anthraquinone dyes in a nematic host
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
RESULTS Diacerein reduced HbA1c compared with placebo by 0.35% (3.8 mmol/mol; P = 0.038) in the ITT analysis and by 0.41% (4.5 mmol/mol; P = 0.023) in the per-protocol analysis. The peak of effect occurred at the 24th week of treatment (−0.61% [6.7 mmol/mol; P = 0.014] and −0.78% [8.5 mmol/mol; P = 0.005], respectively), but it attenuated toward nonsignificant differences at the 48th week. No significant effect of diacerein was observed in other efficacy and safety measures. Diarrhea occurred in 65% of patients receiving diacerein and caused treatment interruption in 16%. Seven patients in the diacerein group reduced insulin dosage, whereas 10 in the placebo group increased it; however, mild hypoglycemic events were equally observed. ...
1. Berenbeim, J.A., Owens, S., Schmidt Patterson, C.M., de Vries, M.S., "Molecular Mechanisms of the Photostability of Common Madder Chromophores Alizarin and Purpurin and Hydroxy-Substituted Anthraquinones" Manuscript in Preparation. 2. Berenbeim, J.A., Siouri, F., Boldissar, S., Gate, G., Haggmark, M., Aboulache, B., Cohen, T., de Vries, M.S.,"Excited State Dynamics of Isocytosine; a Hybrid Case of Canonical Nucleobase Photodynamics" Manuscript Submitted. 3. Siouri, F., Boldissar, S., Berenbeim, J.A., de Vries, M.S., "Excited State Dynamics of 6-Thioguanine" J. Phys. Chem. 2017.. 4. Owens, S., Berenbeim, J.A., Ligare, M., Gulian, L., Siouri, F., Boldissar, S., Tyson-Smith, S., Wilson, G., Ford, A.,De Vries, M.S., "Direct Analysis of Xanthine Stimulants in Archaeological Vessels by laser desorption REMPI" Anal. Chem. 2017.. 5. Owens, S. C., Berenbeim, J. A., Patterson, C. S., Dillon, E. P., de Vries, M.S., "Sub-Micron Proximal Probe Thermal Desorption and Laser Mass Spectrometry on Painting ...
Transparent Blue 2RA is a dye in the anthraquinone chemical family. This product appears as a blue powder. It can be used in plastics, transparent pai...
Name:C.I.Disperse Red 164,C.I. 607564 Molecular Structure: anthraquinones C.I.Disperse Red 164,C.I. 607564,CAS 80892-58-6,C20H13NO5,347.32,Kayalon Polyester Light Red BLF C.I.Disperse Red 164,C.I. 607564,CAS 80892-58-6,C20H13NO5,347.32 Molecular Formula:C20H13NO5 Molecular Weight: 347.32 CAS Registry Number: 80892-58-6
Name:C.I.Acid Brown 27,C.I.66710 Molecular Structure: anthraquinones C.I.Acid Brown 27,C.I.66710,CAS 1324-45-4,582.56,C32H19N2NaO6S C.I.Acid Brown 27,C.I.66710,CAS 1324-45-4,582.56,C32H19N2NaO6S Molecular Formula:C32H19N2NaO6S Molecular Weight: 582.56 CAS Registry Number: 1324-45-4
Product Number , 44470621. CAS Number , 584-42-9. EC , 209-536-1. Molecular Formula , C13H8N3NaO5. Molecular Weight , 309.21. Storage Temp , +20°C. Harmonized Tariff code , 32041200. Signal Word , ...
... Pirtek racing logo signs. Gelado a cem letra. Decoraciones de corredores modernos cortes. Free amazon ebooks download.
ここ2,3週間は毎日のように日が変わるころに帰宅が続いて、ストレス食い&平日乗ってないで、ちょっと太ったし( ̄⊥ ̄lll ...
... Machine. Automatic sunflower seed oil planting equipment Grade: Semi-Automatic Sunflower Seeds Oilseeds Pressing Machine (Model: Goyum-150) Oil Expeller, Oil Press and Oil Refinery Machine Supplier are the leading manufacturer of rice bran oil refining process workshop machine,rice bran oil refining equipment project,rice bran oil refining equipment. Sunflower Solvent Plant. Sunflower Seeds Oil Press Expeller. Sunflower Seeds Oil Extraction
Morinda ellipfica or locally known as "mengkudu kecil" is a medicinal plant commonly used by the Malays i n Peninsular Malaysia. The plant parts are used in various ways to treat many health problems and ailments. Literature search did not reveal any reports on its chemical constituents or biological activity. So, it is believed tl1at this is the first study on the chemical constituents and biological activity of Morinda ellipfica. Phytochemical studies on roots of this plant have resulted in the isolation of a new anthraquinone, 2-formyl-1-hydroxyanthraquinone, and ten known anthraquinones, 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone, nordamnacanthal, damnacanthal, lucidin-w-methylether, rubiadin, soranjidiol, morindone, rubiadin-1-methylether, morindone-5-methyl ether and a lizarin-1-methylether. The structures of the anthraquinones were established based on spectral studies using ultravioletvisible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, one and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass ...
The solubility of an anthraquinone dye, 1,4-bis-(n-propylamino)-9,10-anthraquinone in supercritical carbon dioxide have been correlated with two equation of state. All critical properties have been estimated with a group contribution method (GCM). As far we know, solubility data for this dye never has been correlated using an equation of state (EOS). Therefore, it is worthwhile to model the solubility of this dye. In this work, the aim is correlating reported data with a new EOS and comparing obtained results with the results of Peng-Robinson EOS (PR-EOS) together with two adjustable parameter van der Waals mixing and combining rules. The calculated results showed that new EOS is more accurate than PR-EOS ...
As a naturally occurring anthraquinone pigment, chrysophanol (MHAQ) has attracted considerable attention in recent years owing to its efficient photosensitivity under the solar spectrum. Considering the successful use of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in investigating the photo-physicochemical behaviors of dyes and pigments, we performed a study by means of TD-DFT calculations, which provided us with various excited state properties of chrysophanol, including absorption spectrum, lowest triplet excited-state energy, vertical electron affinity and vertical ionization potential. On the basis of the calculated results, the photosensitive mechanisms of chrysophanol were discussed and some deeper insights were gained. First, we indicated that the experimentally observed chrysophanols photo-damage to DNA in oxygen-free media is more likely to arise from MHAQ •+ rather than from T1 state chrysophanol. Second, we revealed that it is the MHAQ •− that is responsible for the O2•−
CIR Safety Review: The cells just below the surface of the aloe plant produce a bitter yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones. Reported to be phototoxic, anthraquinones are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for the laxative effects claimed with aloe. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for non-medicinal use is 50 ppm or lower.. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that anthraquinone levels in the several Aloe barbadensis extracts are well understood and can conform to the industry-established level of 50 ppm. Although the phototoxicity of anthraquinone components of aloe plants has been demonstrated, several clinical studies of preparations derived from Aloe barbadensis plants demonstrated no phototoxicity, confirming that the concentrations of anthraquinones in such preparations are too low to induce phototoxicity. The characterization of Aloe barbadensis-derived ingredients from other species of aloe is not clear. In aloe-derived ...
Zeng, Guang-Zhi,Fan, Jun-Ting,Xu, Jun-Ju,et al. Apoptosis induction and G2/M arrest of 2-methyl-1,3,6-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone from Rubia yunnanensis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells[J]. PHARMAZIE,2013,68(4):293-299 ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Nacala \ Anthraquinone_ 2_ sulfonic Acid Sodium Salt \ 03116-94 for more molecular products just contact us
Rheochrysin belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anthraquinones. These are organic compounds containing either anthracene-9,10-quinone, 1,4-anthraquinone, or 1,2-anthraquinone. Thus, rheochrysin is considered to be an aromatic polyketide lipid molecule. Rheochrysin is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. Outside of the human body, Rheochrysin has been detected, but not quantified in, green vegetables. This could make rheochrysin a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods ...
The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of rhein on cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. The present study focused on the effect of rhein on oxidative stress and apoptotic factors, which are considered to serve an important role in the onset of I/R injury. Sprague‑Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neurological functional scores (NFSs) were evaluated according to the Zea Longas score criteria and the area of brain infarct was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The morphology of the nerve cells in the cortex was observed following hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, levels of oxidative stress were assessed by measuring the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione‑peroxidase (GSH‑Px), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Levels of B‑cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl‑2), apoptosis regulator Bax (BAX), caspase-9, caspase‑3 and cleaved caspase‑3 expression were analyzed using western blot ...
Listing your company for Aloe-emodin allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
Listing your company for Aloe-emodin allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
PROJECT SUMMARYfluorouracilFUhas been the first choice chemotherapy drug for colorectal cancerCRCfor many yearshoweverits clinical utility remains hindered by hematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicities resulting from its non selectivitySide effects include fatigueloss of appetiteand diarrhea among othersall of which can lead to reduced quality of lifeThe economic burden associated with chemotherapy toxicity is substantiala single hospitalization for prevention of neutropeniaa common side effect of chemotherapycan cost $Given that inflammation has been linked toFU associated toxicitiestargeting inflammation may minimize anticancer agent associated toxicityoptimize cancer treatment dosingand improve clinical outcomesThusidentifying strategies to reduce toxicity ofFU is critical to prevent discontinued or de escalated treatmentEmodina natural anthraquinone derivative found in various Chinese medicinal herbs has been recognized for its ability to target NFB and subsequently reduce ...
0043] A major disadvantage of many anthraquinone derivatives such as emodin is its potential intercalation into DNA (Wang et al., 2006). This property makes the substrate group unusable for CK2-specific investigations in cellular systems and for targeted therapeutic CK2 inhibition. TBB, on the other hand, is suitable for in vitro experiments but because of its relatively poor solubility in water, this CK2 inhibitor is not suitable for clinical use (Battistutta et al., 2000). IQA is also potent and highly selective for CK2, but is unstable in aqueous media since its lactam ring is prone to slow hydrolysis (Sarno et al., 2003; Sarno et al., 2005). As shown in these examples, until now only very few of published ATP-competitive CK2 inhibitors satisfy the basic requirements for a pharmaceutical candidate. This is also a reason for the development of inhibitors with alternative mechanisms, which are gaining significance. For DRB, by co-crystallization with CK2, it was noticed by chance that this ...
Background: Radix et Rhizoma Rhei has a gastric mucosal protective effect, major anti-gastritis and anti-peptic ulcer active constituents were emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, rhein, etc. The objective of the study was the extraction process of total anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma rhei and their antilipemic effects ...
Hydroxyrurea acts by suppressing dihydrophosphate reductase, an enzyme that reduces ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides necessary for DNA synthesis.. This drug causes a sharp increase in the amount of white blood cells in severe leukemias. It is used for leukemias, meanomas, and carcinomas. Synonyms of this drug are litalir, hydrea, onco-carbide, and others.. Mitoxantrone: Mitoxantrone, 1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-bis[[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl) amino) ethyl]amino]]-9,10-anthracendione (30.6.3), is structurally related to the antibiotic dox-orubicine. It is synthesized from danthron (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone), which when reacted with nitric acid, and then a mixture of sodium sulfide and thiosulfate in a base, is transformed to 1,4,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthraquinone (30.6.2). Reacting this with 2-amino-ethylaminoethanol in the presence of chloranyl (2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobenzoquinone-1,4) gives the desired mitoxantrone (30.6.3), [142-145].. 1. hno3. Was this article helpful?. ...
Page contains details about anthraquinone-2-sulfonate/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Patented July 7, 1953 UNITED smrss PATENT oF-FIcs w H Y m Qfiflfiflftfifff 1:53,. as zerland, assignors to San zerlandsa Swissfirm j ubgnrawilig; T The present invention elatesto new valuable dyestuffs of the anthrapyridone series; A primary object "of" the? present invention is the embodiment of anew group 01f arithrapyri- done dyestuffs characterizedby superior fastness properties, particularly with respect-to fastness tolight and fastness tofulling. This object; as well asother objects whichwill hereinafter appear, is realized bythe present invention, according to" which an anthraquinone compound which corresponds totheiormula .1 wherein X stands for phenyl or alkylphenyl, and Y stands for phenyl or tetrahydronaphthyl, either of which may carry any desiredsubstituent or substituents other than SOlubiliZiIlg groups, such as sulfonic acid or carboxylic acid groups, is heated with .a benzoylacetic acid ester, whereby conversion of the starting compoundfinto the corresponding ...
Nisha Shrestha*, Renuka Itani and Dharma Prasad Khanal. ABSTRACT. The aim of the present study is to extend the scientific knowledge for utilization of traditionally used medicinal plant Begonia picta. It includes the macroscopic, microscopic, phytochemical studies, antioxidant and antibacterial activity evaluation of leaves and stems of Begonia picta. The transverse section (T.S) of leaves showed the presence of upper and lower epidermis, mesophyll and mid rib region with numerous vascular bundle. The epidermal layer of leaf shows the presence of anisocytic type of stomata. The T.S of stem showed the epidermis, cortex, vascular bundle arranged in ring and pith with parenchymatous cells consisting abundant starch grains. Phytochemical present in different extract of Begonia picta were alkaloid, tannin, saponnin, terpenoid, glycoside, carbohydrate, flavonoid, phenol, cardiac glycoside and anthraquinone glycoside. TPC was measures by using Folin-ciocalteaus reagent. And TFC of Begonia picta was ...
0090] Specific examples of pigments include SUNSPERSE 6000, FLEXIVERSE and AQUATONE water based pigment dispersions from SUN Chemicals, HELIOGEN BLUE L6900®, D6840®, D7080®, D7020®, PYLAM OIL BLUE®, PYLAM OIL YELLOW®, PIGMENT BLUE 1® available from Paul Uhlich & Company, Inc., PIGMENT VIOLET 1®, PIGMENT RED 48®, LEMON CHROME YELLOW DCC 1026®, E.D. TOLUIDINE RED® and BON RED C® available from Dominion Color Corporation, Ltd., Toronto, Ontario, NOVAPERM YELLOW FGL®, HOSTAPERM PINK E® from Hoechst, and CINQUASIA MAGENTA® available from E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company, and the like. Generally, colorants that can be selected are black, cyan, magenta, or yellow, and mixtures thereof. Examples of magentas are 2,9-dimethyl-substituted quinacridone and anthraquinone dye identified in the Color Index as CI-60710, CI Dispersed Red 15, diazo dye identified in the Color Index as CI-26050, CI Solvent Red 19, and the like. Illustrative examples of cyans include copper tetra(octadecyl ...
This invention concerns thermoplastic polyester molding compositions containing iron oxides, particularly Fe2 O3 which compositions exhibit markedly reduced heat up times and are especially useful in molding operations such as blow molding of beverage bottles. The polyester polymer may have incorporated therein by copolymerization certain anthraquinone dyes having functional groups which condense during polymerization into the polyester chain. The dye moieties are thermally stable at the polymer processing temperatures and are colorfast and nonextractable from the polymer.
7592377] Cloning and characterization of a polyketide synthase gene from Streptomyces fradiae Tu2717, which carries the genes for biosynthesis of the angucycline antibiotic urdamycin A and a gene probably involved in its oxygenation. (J Bacteriol. , 1995 ...
7592377] Cloning and characterization of a polyketide synthase gene from Streptomyces fradiae Tu2717, which carries the genes for biosynthesis of the angucycline antibiotic urdamycin A and a gene probably involved in its oxygenation. (J Bacteriol. , 1995 ...
Background: Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Fibrous cap microcalcifications can promote atherosclerotic plaque failure, and large calcifications can stabilize the plaque. Therefore, calcification morphology can determine cardiovascular morbidity, but temporal patterns of calcific mineral deposition and growth remain unknown.. Results: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice on an atherogenic diet develop plaque calcification. Longitudinal studies were performed using two different fluorescent calcium tracers injected intravenously into Apoe-/- mice: calcein injection following 18 weeks of atherogenic diet (n=7) and alizarin red S injection into the same mice 1 (n=4) or 3 (n=3) weeks later. Imaging green (calcein) and red (alizarin red S) fluorescence provided snapshots of aortic calcification at 18, 19, and 21 weeks. Observations within histological sections revealed green microcalcifications at 18 weeks embedded within alizarin red stained larger ...
Table 4: Effect of diacerein (5, 10mg/kg) pretreatment on Suzuki score of hepatic histopathological changes in IR liver injury in rats. ...
藥品名稱: 便通樂 膜衣錠(番瀉甘) Drug name: Through FC tab 20 mg (Sennosides) 外觀標記: 淡棕、圓形、單面刻痕 Appearance. ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Sennosides Chewable Tablets. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Diagnosis of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer High likelihood of anthracycline resistance due to prior anthracycline exposure in the adjuvant or metastatic setting Prior anthraquinone (e.g., mitoxantrone) insufficient Prior cumulative anthracycline dose limited to doxorubicin-equivalent 350 mg/m2 by IV bolus or 450 mg/m2 by prolonged (at least 48 hours) infusion Measurable or evaluable disease Brain metastases treated by prior surgery and/or radiotherapy allowed if neurologic status stable 2 weeks after discontinuation of dexamethasone Hormone receptor status: Not specified. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Age: 18 and over Sex: Male or female Menopausal status: Not specified Performance status: Zubrod 0-2 Life expectancy: At least 12 weeks Hematopoietic: Absolute granulocyte count greater than 1,500/mm3 Platelet count greater than 100,000/mm3 Hepatic: Bilirubin no greater than 1.5 mg/dL Renal: Creatinine no greater than 1.5 mg/dL Cardiovascular: No history of heart ...
Methods, employing a polycyclic hydrocarbon or a polycyclic heteroaromatic compound as sensitizers, are provided to increase the efficiency of removing, by irradiation, photolabile protecting groups that mask reactive sites on synthesis intermediaries. Preferred groups of photolabile protecting moieties include: ((α-methyl-2-nitropiperonyl)-oxy)carbonyl (MeNPOC), ((Phenacyl)-oxy)carbonyl (PAOC), O-(9-phenylxanthen-9-yl) (PIXYL), and ((2-methylene-9,10-anthraquinone)-oxy)carbonyl (MAQOC). In conjunction with using the sensitizers and protecting groups described above, a method of forming, from component molecules, a plurality of compounds on a support, each compound occupying a separate predefined region of the support is provided. These resulting solid-phase arrays are useful, for example, to assay for the presence of biochemical products in biological samples.
The enzyme cleaves the anthraquinone ring of questin to form a benzophenone. Involved in the biosynthesis of the seco-anthraquinone (+)-geodin.
A. Dass, C. Sotiriou-Leventis, N. Leventis, 230th National ACS Meeting, Washington, DC, Aug. 28-Sept. 1, 2005 (POLY 604 / Sci Mix). 32. Aspects of Bioorganic and Materials Chemistry C. Sotiriou-Leventis, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, April 22, 2005. 31. Redox-Active Star Molecules Incorporating the 4-Benzoylpyridinium Cation: Implications for the Charge Transfer Efficiency along Branches vs. Across the Perimeter in Dendrimers, J. Yang, A.-M. M. Rawashdeh, W. S. Oh, C. Sotiriou-Leventis, N. Leventis, 17th Annual Organic Chemistry Day, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, April 24, 2004 (ORGN 34). 30. Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Arylethynyl Substituted 9,10- anthraquinones, J. Yang, A. Dass, C. Sotiriou-Leventis, N. Leventis, 17th Annual Organic Chemistry Day, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, April 24, 2004 (ORGN 22). 29. Silica Aerogels Doped with Ru(II) Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads: Improving the Dynamic Range, ...
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important oxidant, used in various fields of industry, such as paper manufacturing, production of polymers, detergents, and cosmetics. Considering that the molecule degrades only to H2O and O2, it is regarded as a green chemical. Unfortunately, the incumbent method of H2O2 synthesis, based on anthraquinone oxidation, although efficient, is not environmentally friendly, as it requires fossil fuels and significant energy input. Therefore, there are efforts underway to reduce the ecological impact of hydrogen peroxide production. Some of the most promising approaches involve catalytic reduction of O2 to H2O2 in an aqueous environment. This can be coupled with water oxidation. As the required energy could be delivered in different ways, hydrogen peroxide synthesis can be achieved by electrocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis, or photocatalysis.. This thesis explores the possibility of using organic electronic materials as catalysts for H2O2 evolution in oxygenated water ...
Electronically conductive enamel composition | Tattoo stencil composition and method for manufacturing | Structural coatings with dewetting and anti-icing properties, and coating precursors for fabricating same | Anthraquinone azo dyes | Porphyrin photosensitive dye and photoelectric conversion device utilizing the same |
oncocalyxone A: a 1,4-anthracenedione isolated from Auxemma oncocalyx (Boraginaceae) that has been shown to be cytotoxic to tumor cells in vitro
Teloxantrone is an anthrapyrazole antineoplastic antibiotic. Teloxantrone intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair, as well as RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus) (Last Updated: 6/22/2015)
Buy Diacerheine Cheap! No prescription needed, buy Diacerheine online. Discount Diacerheine (Diacerein) from our partner pharmacies.
Natural Extracts - Get best quality of Natural Herbal Extracts Like Nutraceutical, Herbal Formulations, Herbal Tea, Calcium Sennosides From Best Natural Herbal Extracts Manufacturer And Supplier, Bioprex Labs.
Now, Im not advocating thoughtless and cruel speech. Lets be kind and considerate towards each other. You know, "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you." ~ The Golden Rule. That comes from the Bible, did you know that? (The New Testament book of Luke chapter 6 verse 31.) I didnt know that for a very long time.
Abstract: Drechslera leaf spot in the common oat (Avena sativa L.) is caused by D. avenae (syn. Pyrenophora chaetomioides, Helminthosporium avenae). Susceptibility of various oat cultivars and breeding lines to leaf infection by this pathogen was investigated in the field in 2001-2002 and in a growth chamber. After natural infection in the field, brown or brown-red spots caused by D. avenae were found in all oat genotypes and both years, but were less common in the drier and colder growing season (2001). Mean values of leaf infection index in the studied oat genotypes for the 2 years varied from 5.65 (CHD 2100) to 10.33 (Akt). After artificial inoculation in the growth chamber, symptoms were similar but leaf infection index was much higher - from 15.0 (Bajka) to 41.3 (STH 4699). High-performance liquid chromatography showed that anthraquinone derivatives produced by strain 1 of D. avenae include anthraquinone compaunds - cynodontin and helminthosporin. These compounds are known to limit the ...
Senna Leaf Tea and Its Wonderful BenefitsThe question is, what are senna leaf tea health benefits? For centuries, senna leaf has been used in making herbal teas, for purging and in managing weight loss. The components that makes senna work for these things are anthraquinone derivatives along with their glucosides that functions as a local…
In A549, Bel-7402, MCF-7 and LLC cell lines, acetylshikonin inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 (means ± SD) were 5.6 ± 0.86 μg/ml, 6.82 ± 1.5 μg/ml, 3.04 ± 0.44 μg/ml and 2.72 ± 0.38 μg/ml respectively. Acetylshikonin suppressed tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice with LLC. The inhibition rate of acetylshikonin (2 mg/kg) was 42.85%. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that in the acetylshikonin groups the expression of bax and caspase-3 increased, whereas the expression of bcl-2 decreased, suggesting that acetylshikonin induced tumor cell apoptosis through activating the pro-apoptotic bcl-2 family and caspase-3 ...
Fed Noni atau juga dikenali sebagai Noni leaven atau enzim Noni adalah hasil ekstrak 100% MORINDA CITRIFOLIA NoniI -Ratu Buah Mengkudu . Ia terbukti mampu membantu proses penyembuhan pelbagai jenis penyakit kronik antaranya darah tinggi, kencing manis/diabetes, cancer, penyakit jantung, Stroke, Afrodiasiak, Obesiti, Eczema, sakit kulit, kayap, kurap, masalah tidur, stress, alergi, masalah penghadaman dan pernafasan, Asthma, Rheumatism, Resdung/Sinus, buah pinggang dan lain-lain penyakit yang memerlukan kos perubatan yang tinggi untuk proses penyembuhan. Pengambilan FED NONI akan membantu mempertingkatkan keupayaan semulajadi badan manusia untuk menghadapi serangan pelbagai virus dan memastikan tahap imunisasi badan manusia sentiasa berada pada tahap yang tinggi. Morinda Citrifolia juga dikenali sebagai buah mengkudu diketahui begitu kaya dengan pelbagai ramuan perubatan sehingga dikenali sebagai Ratu tumbuhan.Sebenarnya buah Noni telah tercatat dalam manuskrip purba sebagai salah satu bahan ...
The chemistry of mold products: synthetic analogs of antimycin; metal complexes of antimycin; cryosophanic acid and pachybasin from Aspergillus crystallinus. Farley, Thomas Michael. (1965), 107 pp. Decomposition in soil of emodin, chrysophanic acid, and a mixture of anthraquinones synthesized by an Aspergillus glaucus isolate. Linhares, L. F.; Martin, J. P. Soil Science Society of America Journal (1979), 43(5), 940-5. Studies on the metabolites of Aspergillus aculeatus YM 311498, an endophytic fungus from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Wu, Shaohua; Chen, Youwei; Shao, Shicheng; Li, Zhiying ...
The publication of the S. coelicolor genome sequence has stimulated interest in the possibility of rationally engineering strains by predicting the effect(s) of altering specific genes on secondary metabolite production. The work described here aims to design a general approach that could be applied to enhance the production of commercially important antibiotics that have similar biosynthetic routes as actinorhodin (ACT). It has been observed that a negative correlation between ACT production and the carbon flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) exists. As a result, strains with deletions for either one of the two zwf isogenes (encoding the enzyme that catalyses the initial PPP reaction) and for the devB gene (whose product catalyses the subsequent reaction in the pathway) were constructed and assessed. All strains, with the exception of the devB mutant, were found to generate increased levels of ACT compared to the parental strain. In addition to these strains, the above genotypes ...
Get information about the supplement for constipation, senna (sennosides; Senokot, Senokot EXTRA and others) side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the natural medicine senna (sennosides; Senokot, Senokot EXTRA and others).
Sennoside A is an anthraquinone glycoside, found in large quantities in leaves and pods of Senna (Cassia angustifolia). Sennoside A is a HIV-1 inhibitor effective on HIV-1 replication ...
The application of ultrasonic extraction,microwave extraction,supercritical CO2 extraction,macroporous adsorption resin and so on which researched in recent year in Rheum of purification were summarized.
The wood of the gender Eucalyptus occupies a prominence place among other cellulose sources due to its chemical composition, its low cost, abundance and availability. Among the chemical pulping processes, kraft process is the most extensively one used for the production of cellulosic pulps starting from eucalyptus wood. The anthraquinone (AQ) usage in the pulping has as main purposes to increase the delignification rate as well as to protect the pulp from the carbohydrate degradation. The present work has aimed to use the anthraquinone as an addictive in the cooking seeking to reduce the load of applied sulphidity without harming the quality of the pulp. The kraft and kraft/AQ cooking were accomplished in rotative laboratorial digester being varied the active alkali initially (10, 13, 16 and 19%) and, later, the sulphidity (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%), maintaining the other conditions constant aiming to obtain pulp with kappa number close to nine. Starting from the variation of the active alkali and ...
Aloe vera: Besides beneficial for the hair and treating wounds, aloe vera also acts as a laxative. Sap of the aloe vera leaf, is a strong intermediate cleaning. However, aloe vera quite strong laxative content that called anthraquinone, can sometimes cause diarrhea and intestinal cramps. That is why, should be used with caution. It is better to consult with a herbalist or naturopathic. In addition, aloe vera is rich with chemical constituents such as aloin, barbaloin, isobarbaloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin ...
Study extra concerning the new Healthy Ageing Strategy, a vision and action plan for maximising health and wellbeing as people age in New Zealand. However by depriving yourself of the things that you simply take pleasure in, you enhance the probability of finally cracking and bingeing on it. Incorporating a smart amount of treats comparable to chocolate into your food plan is a way more sustainable method to maintain a healthy weight-reduction plan where stability is vital.. The leafy greens on the end of them, nonetheless, are crammed with the compound oxalic acid and presumably Anthraquinone glycosides, in keeping with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Whereas they will not cause dying, theyre going to still do some injury - at the very least causing dizziness, a burning mouth, and stomach ache, and at the worst causing kidney stones, seizures, and coma.. Its the time whenever you understand that you justre in the midst of your life, you begin paying extra attention to your health ...
Bringmann, Gerhard and Lang, Gerhard and Maksimenka, Katja and Hamm, Andreas and Gulder, Tobias A. M. and Dieter, Anke and Bull, Alan T. and Stach, James E.M. and Kocher, Niko and Muller, Werner E. G. and Fiedler, Hans-Peter (2005) Gephyromycin, the first bridged angucyclinone, from Streptomyces griseus strain NTK 14. Phytochemistry, 66 (11). pp. 1366-1373. ISSN 0031-9422 . (doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.04.010 ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) ...
Low prices on Noni! Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) and juice is rich in enzymes, antioxidants, polyphenols, polysaccharides, phytonutrients and anthraquinones. Noni also contains trace amounts of vitamins and minerals. Noni juice is used to prevent premature aging, build bone strength, normalize hormones, balance mood swings and promote cardiovascular health.
Find and save ideas about Rhubarb dump cakes on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Rhubarb desserts easy, Easy rhubarb recipes and Rhubarb recipes drink.
en] OBJECTIVE: To report a case of chronic ingestion of very large amounts of senna fruits as an herbal tea, possibly leading to severe hepatotoxicity. CASE SUMMARY: A 52-year-old woman who had ingested, for , 3 years, one liter of an herbal tea each day made from a bag containing 70 g of dry senna fruits, developed acute hepatic failure and renal impairment requiring intensive care therapy. The severity of the hepatic failure was reflected by the increase in prothrombin time (international normalized ratio , 7) and the development of encephalopathy. Liver transplantation was discussed, but the patient ultimately recovered with supportive therapy. Renal impairment was consistent with proximal tubular acidosis, also with marked polyuria refractory to vasopressin administration. Suprisingly, large amounts of cadmium were transiently recovered in the urine. DISCUSSION: Cassia acutifolia and angustifolia plants are widely used as laxatives. Their chronic abuse may be associated with serious ...
Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from the Rheum palmatum L. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of emodin on the apoptosis of the human cervical cancer line HeLa and to identify the mechanisms involved. Relative cell viability was assessed by MTT assay after treatment with emodin. Cell apoptosis was detected with TUNEL, Hoechst 33342 staining and quantified with flow cytometry using annexin FITC-PI staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 0.8, 8.2, 22.1, and 43.7%, respectively. The mRNA levels of Caspase-9, -8 and −3 detected by Real-time PCR after treatment with emodin were significantly increased. Emodin increased the protein levels of Cytochome c, Apaf-1, Fas, FasL, and FADD but decreased the protein levels of Pro-caspase-9, Pro-caspase-8 and Pro-caspase-3. We conclude that the emodin inhibited HeLa proliferation by inducing apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathways.
This research aims to test the effects of cassia leaf extract on the eating behavior of pigeons for application as a natural repellent. Senna siamea (Cassia) leaves were oven-dried and blended into fine pieces and processed by the simplest extraction method (maceration) with ethyl alcohol 70% solution and were then extracted with hot continuous extraction (Soxhlet extraction) with ethyl alcohol 70% solution. Cereal grain seeds were prepared and soaked in the extracts of the 2 methods in 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5% concentrations for 24 h. Twenty-four pigeons were prepared with one cage per pigeon. Cereal grains were weighed to 20 grams, which was fed to the pigeons for 24 h and the beginning weight of the cereal grains and the weight of the leftovers were recorded. The food consumption was analyzed to determine the differences among the averages of each method with one-way ANOVA. The findings showed that the averages of the bird food intake based on the maceration method were not different with a statistical
Apatot, Npni, Morinda citrifolia, indian mulberry: Philippine Herbal Medicine - An illustrated compilation of medicinal plants in the Philippines by Dr Godofredo Stuart
Proline biosynthesis in plants stimulates the pentose phosphate pathway which results in an increasing carbon flux through the shikimate pathway. Shikimate pathway supplies carbon structures for many secondary metabolic pathways in plants. Chorismate, which is the end product of the shikimate pathway, becomes the branch point for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid and anthraquinones (AQs) in Rubia tinctorum secondary metabolism. We tested the effect of proline addition in plant suspension cultures of R. tinctorum in order to study the competition between the two above mentioned secondary metabolic pathways. Suspension cultures were treated with proline at different concentrations 0.25, 5 and 25 mM. Low proline level (0.25mM) produced an increase on AQs (50%) while high levels of proline ( 5 and 25 mM) showed a significant decrease on AQs accumulation ( 35 % an 50 %) and an increase in phenolics concentration. The increase on phenolic acids content was preceded by an induction on PAL activity. ...
In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Eric J. Chow, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that daunorubicin was associated with decreased cardiomyopathy risk vs doxorubicin among pediatric cancer survivors, with epirubicin being approximately isoequivalent to doxorubicin. Risk associated with the anthraquinone mitoxantrone was found to be substantially higher than that with doxorubicin.. As stated by the investigators, "Many pediatric oncology treatment groups assume that the hematologic toxicity of anthracycline agents is equivalent to their cardiotoxicity; for example, Childrens Oncology Group substitution rules consider daunorubicin and epirubicin isoequivalent to doxorubicin, whereas mitoxantrone and idarubicin are considered 4 to 5 times as toxic as doxorubicin.". The objective of the multicenter cohort pooled data study was to determine optimal dose equivalence ratios for late-onset cardiomyopathy between doxorubicin and other anthracyclines and mitoxantrone. The population consisted of 20,367 ...
It is proposed that gut-liver-lung axis plays an important role in the pathophysiologic development of the critical illness, and it induces excessive inflammatory response in vivo and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The mechanisms of therapeutic effects of rhubarb on critical patients are studied based on the theory of Chinese traditional medicine. Researches demonstrate that rhubarb can be used to protect gut barrier, maintain intestinal micro-ecological environment and prevent bacterial translocation. It also can be used to inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators by liver inflammatory-effector cells, reduce inflammatory reaction in the liver and protect hepatic cell functions. Furthermore, rhubarb can be used to reduce pulmonary vascular permeability and extenuate pulmonary edema, inhibit the release of neutrophil myeloperoxidase, and lower the level of inflammatory response and decrease inflammatory mediators in circulation. The above results indicate that rhubarb may interrupt or partly
Anthraquinones. *Chalconoids (C6-C3-C6). *Kavalactones. *Naphthoquinones (C6-C4). *Phenylpropanoids (C6-C3) ...
Stilbenoids, Anthraquinones Resveratrol, Emodin 15 C6-C3-C6 2 Chalconoids, Flavonoids, Isoflavonoids, Neoflavonoids Quercetin, ...
"Anthraquinone glycosides". ScienceDirect. Elsevier. 2017. Retrieved 26 September 2017.. *^ a b Hietala, P.; Marvola, M.; ... Anthraquinone glycosides are found in medicinal plants such as rhubarb, cascara, and Alexandrian senna.[58][59] Plant-based ... Senna alexandrina, containing anthraquinone glycosides, has been used as a laxative for millennia.[60] ... Parviainen, T.; Lainonen, H. (August 1987). "Laxative potency and acute toxicity of some anthraquinone derivatives, senna ...
anthraquinone, anthracene Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F ... Its molecular structure can be viewed as being derived from anthraquinone by replacement of two neighboring hydrogen atoms (H) ... Bien, H.-S.; Stawitz, J.; Wunderlich, K., "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ... The principal synthesis entailed oxidation of anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid with sodium nitrate in concentrated sodium ...
Thompson, RH (1971). Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones. New York: Academic Press. [page needed] Nelson, Scot C. (2006) " ...
RH Thompson: Naturally occuring anthraquinones.. New York: Academic Press., 1971. *↑ Opinion of the Scientific Committee on ... Lignans and anthraquinones from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia. „Natural Product research". 21 (13), s. 1199-1204, 2007. PMID ... An anthraquinone with potent quinone reductase-inducing activity and other constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia ( ...
The genus is known to be a rich source of anthraquinones. Zhou, Zhu; Jiang, Shan-Hao; Zhu, Da-Yuan; Lin, Long-Ze; A Cordell, ... Geoffrey (1994). "Anthraquinones from Knoxia valerianoides". Phytochemistry. 36 (3): 765-768. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)89813-1 ...
The plant contains anthraquinones. The roots contain emodin and the seeds contain chrysarobin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9- ... Chukwujekwu, J.C.; Coombes, P.H.; Mulholland, D.A.; van Staden, J. (2006). "Emodin, an antibacterial anthraquinone from the ...
Secondary metabolites include anthraquinones. List of Caloplaca species Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol ...
These are generally substituted anthraquinones; many have medicinal applications, being used as purgatives, while one, ...
doi:10.1111/j.1440-1827.1964.tb00681.x. Bu'Lock, J. D.; Smith, J. R. (1968). "Modified anthraquinones from Penicillium ... "Transformations of Penicillium islandicum and Penicillium frequentans that produce anthraquinone-related compounds". Current ...
Hu, Youcai; Martinez, Elisabeth D.; MacMillan, John B. (26 October 2012). "Anthraquinones from a Marine-Derived". Journal of ... spithioneine B and anthraquinones. Fu, Peng; La, Scott; MacMillan, John B. (25 March 2016). "1,3-Oxazin-6-one Derivatives and ...
... is an organic compound with formula C 14H 8O 12, formally derived from anthraquinone by replacement of ... Winter, R (1995). "Hydroxy-anthraquinones as antimalarial agents". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 5: 1927. doi: ...
Anthraquinone is used as a digester additive. It works as a redox catalyst by oxidizing cellulose and reducing lignin. This ... Goyal, Gopal C. (1997). Anthraquinone Pulping. A TAPPI Press Anthology of Published Papers, 1977-1996. Atlanta: TAPPI Press. ...
Anthraquinones * کالکونویدها (C6-C3-C6) * Kavalactones * Naphthoquinones (C6-C4) * Phenylpropanoids (C6-C3) ...
Biosynthesis of anthraquinones in Rubia tinctorum". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121: 7469-7475. doi:10.1021/ja990622o. 1,4-dihydroxy-2- ...
It goes through a redox cycle similar to that of anthraquinone to give a catalytic effect. AMS was discovered as an efficient ... In the laboratory it could be prepared by sulfonation of anthraquinone. AMS is used as a catalyst in production of alkaline ... "Synthesis of sodium anthraquinone-2-sulfonate". PrepChem.com - Preparative chemistry procedures. Retrieved 2016-01-11. " ... "Anthraquinone/ alkali pulping. A literature review" (PDF). July 1978. ...
Ibrahim, H., Mdau, B. B., Ahmed, A., & Ilyas, M. (2011). Anthraquinones of Cissus Populnea Guill & Perr (Amplidaceae). African ... Ibrahim, H., Mdau, B. B., Ahmed, A., & Ilyas, M. (2011). Anthraquinones of Cissus Populnea Guill & Perr (Amplidaceae). African ...
Timarcha species Chrysomelidae - their haemolymph contains anthraquinones. Coccinellidae (ladybird, ladybug or lady beetles) - ...
Bien, Hans-Samuel; Stawitz, Josef; Wunderlich, Klaus (2000). "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
... giving hydrogen peroxide and regenerating the anthraquinone. Hydrogen peroxide is then extracted, and the anthraquinone ... The anthraquinone process, which is still used, was developed during the 1930s by the German chemical manufacturer IG Farben in ... It begins with the reduction of an anthraquinone (such as 2-ethylanthraquinone or the 2-amyl derivative) to the corresponding ... Today, hydrogen peroxide is manufactured almost exclusively by the anthraquinone process, which was formalized in 1936 and ...
The presence of anthraquinones is one common character. The flowers (the inflorescence) are typically borne on a leafless stalk ...
The structure is an anthraquinone. Acid Blue 25 is powder-like and poorly soluble in water. The dye is soluble in solvents such ...
... is an anthraquinone derivative. It is an inhibitor of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Saquayamycins (saquayamycins ...
The anthraquinone must already have at least one hydroxy group. The reaction was first described in 1889 by René Bohn (1862- ... The reaction is ideally suited for the general production of multi-hydroxyated anthraquinones due to the good atom economy. ... The Bohn-Schmidt reaction, a named reaction in chemistry, introduces a hydroxy group at an anthraquinone system. ... Phillips: The Chemistry of Anthraquinone. In: Chemical Reviews. 6, 1929, S. 157-174, doi:10.1021/cr60021a007.. ...
... is an endophytic actinomycete notable for producing antitumour anthraquinones: lupinacidins A (1), B (2) ... "Antitumor anthraquinones from an endophytic actinomycete Micromonospora lupini sp. nov". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry ...
It is harsher on the system than other anthraquinone laxatives, such as cascara and senna. The anthraquinones in aloe latex ... Chemicals & Nutrients: Anthraquinones, aloins, anthranoids, aglycones, polysaccharides (including glycoproteins and ...
These three loci make a carbapenem antibiotic [51], an anthraquinone pigment [52] and the ST antibiotic [53]. Whilst Pa can ... Similarly, the cluster of genes encoding the anthraquinone [52] is also absent from the Pa genome. The absence of this pigment- ... However, knock-out of the anthraquinone encoding locus in Pl TT01 resulted in no observable differences in pathogenicity to ... the role of the anthraquinone, and therefore the potential reasons for its loss from Pa, are still unclear. Finally, we note ...
Anthraquinone glycosides, a component of aloe, have well established laxative effects. However, case reports have associated ...
This bitter sap contains anthraquinones which are a useful digestive stimulant and act as a strong laxative. Anthraquinones ...
Compound metil-anthraquinone in lidah ular can mediating apoptosis in human breast cancer cell namely MCF-7 through path Ca2+/ ... Two compound of anthraquinone that found in lidah ular there are 2-hidroksi-3-metilantrakuinon and 1-metoksi-2- ... Shi, Y., Wang, C.H., dan Gong, G.X., 2008, Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Two Anthraquinones from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD., Biol ...
Phytochemicals Octoanoic acid, Scopoletin, Damnacanthal, Terpenoids, Anthraquinones, Caproic acid, Ursolic acid, Rutin ...
Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Aloe Arborescens. List of various diseases cured by Aloe Arborescens. How Aloe Arborescens is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Names of Aloe Arborescens in various languages of the world are also given.
The anthraquinone is a redox catalyst. The reaction mechanism may involve single electron transfer (SET).[3] The anthraquinone ... The term anthraquinone, however, almost invariably refers to one specific isomer, 9,10-anthraquinone (IUPAC: 9,10- ... A large industrial application of anthraquinones is for the production of hydrogen peroxide. 2-Ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone or a ... Several other isomers of anthraquinone are possible, including the 1,2-, 1,4-, and 2,6-anthraquinones. They are of ...
Anthraquinone , Monograph containing literature references, physical and biological properties and relevant information ...
anthraquinone: The most important quinone derivative of anthracene and the parent substance of a large class of dyes and ... Anthraquinone, also called 9,10-anthraquinone, the most important quinone derivative of anthracene and the parent substance of ... coloration (biology): Anthraquinones. The anthraquinones occur widely in plants but in only a few animals. These brilliantly ... Alizarin and many other vegetable pigments have chemical structures similar to anthraquinone. Anthraquinone can be converted to ...
This suppression involves anthraquinone-mediated inhibition of MAPKK/MAPK pathway. An antiosteoarthritic anthraquinone drug, ... 2. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones. 2.1. Chemical Structure and Biosynthesis of Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones. ... Figure 3: Schema outlining the biosynthesis of anthraquinones. Anthraquinones can be synthesized from acetyl CoA and malonyl ... and probably other anthraquinones, include potential carcinogenesis, nausea, diarrhea, and renal failure. Two anthraquinone- ...
For the parent molecule 9,10-antraquinone, see anthraquinone Anthraquinones (also known as anthraquinonoids) are a class of ... Anthraquinones are also used as laxatives such as in the drug senna glycoside. Brachmann, AO; Joyce, SA; Jenke-Kodama, H; ... The mixture is shaken and the presence of pink, red or violet colour indicates the presence of anthraquinones. Hypericin and ... Stalman, M; Koskamp, AM; Luderer, R; Vernooy, JH; Wind, JC; Wullems, GJ; Croes, AF (2003). "Regulation of anthraquinone ...
Anthraquinone is the class-defining compound for a number of naturally-occurring plant pigments. Anthraquinone itself has been ... TR-494 Anthraquinone, National Toxicology Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ... Anthraquinone derivatives called sennosides are used as cathartics; they are the active principle in senna extract. ... Lown JW (1993 Nov), "(Abstract) Anthracycline and anthraquinone anticancer agents: current status and recent developments.", ...
... having copolymerized therein one or more of the anthraquinone colorant compounds. ... anthraquinone colorant compounds (dyes) which contain one or more vinyl groups which render the compounds copolymerizable with ... The anthraquinone compound according to claim 3. wherein X3 is -CO2-, L is -CH2CH2-, and R is hydrogen or bromine. ... 6. The anthraquinone compound according to claim 2. wherein Q is organic radical Ia wherein R11 is hydrogen or methyl and R12 ...
NTP - Technical Report 494 (Anthraquinone): Request for Correction (RFC) 05/31/2006 ...
Total rhubarb extract (TR) were separated to the total anthraquinones (TA), the total tannins (TT) and remaining component ... This study thus provides observational evidences that rhubarb could ameliorate HgCl2-induced ARF and its anthraquinones in ... the major components in TA extract were further identified as anthraquinones by liquid chromatography coupled mass spectroscopy ... Rhubarb Anthraquinones Protect Rats against Mercuric Chloride (HgCl2)-Induced Acute Renal Failure. Dan Gao 1,2,†. ...
... Milena Becelic-Tomin,1 Bozo Dalmacija ... gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive ... heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone ...
2 ethyl anthraquinone manufacturers & 2 ethyl anthraquinone suppliers from China. ... Buy quality 2 ethyl anthraquinone products from 2 ethyl anthraquinone manufacturer, 97 ... Ethyl-anthraquinone 2-Ethyl-anthraquinone Chemical name: 2-Ethyl-anthraquinone Synonyms: 2-Ethyl-9,10-anthracenedione, 2-EAQ; 2 ... Ethyl-anthraquinone 2-Ethyl-anthraquinone Chemical name: 2-Ethyl-anthraquinone Synonyms: 2-Ethyl-9,10-anthracenedione, 2-EAQ; 2 ...
1,4-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)amino]anthraquinone. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] IUPAC names [4] ...
This is the first time these anthraquinones have been obtained from R. japonicus by HSCCC. ... and the chemical structures of the three anthraquinones were confirmed by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analysis. ... Three anthraquinones-emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion-were successfully purified from the dichloromethane extract of the ... Guo S, Feng B, Zhu R, Ma J, Wang W. Preparative Isolation of Three Anthraquinones from Rumex japonicus by High-Speed Counter- ...
... anthraquinone , C15H9ClO2 , CID 344311 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
2-Anthraquinone , C14H8O2 , CID 101219 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
The detection limits of five anthraquinones were ranged from 0.06 to 0.2 microg/mL and the recoveries of Rhubarb samples were ... In the 220 nm wavelengths, the five anthraquinones could be baseline-separated rapidly within 5 min with the separation voltage ... Rapid separation and determination of structurally related anthraquinones in Rhubarb by pressurized capillary ... monolithic column has been developed for the rapid separation and determination of five structurally related anthraquinones in ...
8-tetrasubstituted anthraquinones and anthraquinone dimers. The absorption maximum of the dye(s) is in the range from 710 nm to ... Preparation of 1, 4, 5, 8-tetraamino-anthraquinone compounds US3164449A (en) * 1961-03-01. 1965-01-05. Du Pont. Anthraquinone ... Pleochroic anthraquinone dyes US4585574A (en) 1980-12-12. 1986-04-29. Bayer Aktiengesellschaft. Anthraquinone dyestuffs, ... Preparation of 1, 4, 5, 8-tetraamino-anthraquinone compounds US3164449A (en) * 1961-03-01. 1965-01-05. Du Pont. Anthraquinone ...
  • Dai, Heshuang;Chen, Zhiqiong;Shang, Bing;Chen, Qinhua 2018-03-01 00:00:00 Abstract A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of four anthraquinones found in rhubarb. (deepdyve.com)
  • Total rhubarb extract (TR) were separated to the total anthraquinones (TA), the total tannins (TT) and remaining component extract (RC). (mdpi.com)
  • The content of both combined and free anthraquinones in decoction A was higher than that of decoction B. The content of total anthraquinones in residues of decoction A was lower than that of residue B. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. (hindawi.com)
  • It is likely that the potent cytotoxicity of anthraquinones is related to their slow rate of dissociation from DNA, the kinetics of which favors long-term trapping of the topo-DNA complexes ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tethering polyamides to AAQs was found to diminish the activity of the anthraquinones, while the platinum(II) conjugates exhibited moderate cytotoxicity in both carcinoma cell lines (IC50 16-30 µM). (edu.au)
  • The anthraquinones were subjected to a battery of bioactivity testings, which included antimicrobial, antiviral, cytotoxicity and antioxidant assays. (upm.edu.my)
  • Furthermore, the biosynthesis pathway of these xanthones and anthraquinones were deduced, and their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines (HTC-8, Bel-7420, BGC-823, A549, and A2780) were evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the 220 nm wavelengths, the five anthraquinones could be baseline-separated rapidly within 5 min with the separation voltage of -20 kV in 10 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.2) containing 65% acetonitrile. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Alchemix (ZP281M, 1-{2-[ N,N -bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]ethylamino}-4-{2-[ N,N -(dimethyl)amino]ethylamino}-5,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione), an alkylating anthraquinone, retains excellent antitumor activity in Adriamycin-resistant (2780AD) and cisplatin-resistant (2780/cp70) cell lines in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Meng, Fan‐Hao 2018-01-01 00:00:00 A series of N‐(9,10‐anthraquinone‐2‐carbonyl)amino acid derivatives (1a-j) was designed and synthesized as novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast, 1,5-bis((2-morpholinoethyl)amino) substituted anthraquinone 10 was not CYP-bioactivated but was shown to be fluorescent and subsequently photo-activated by a light pulse (at a bandwidth 532-587 nm), resulting in punctuated foci accumulation in the cytoplasm. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Four libraries, 2-(2- aryl/heteroarylbenzimidazol-1-sulfonyl)anthraquinones (38-69), N-(heteroaryl)-anthraquinon-2- sulfonamides (70-95), aryl anthraquinon-2-sulfonates (96-111) and N-(anthraquinon-2-sulfonyl)-amino acid methylesters (112-123) were designed and all the cmpounds were found as hit by pharamocophoric search. (gov.pk)
  • The structures of the anthraquinones were established based on spectral studies using ultravioletvisible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, one and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectrometry.The new anthraquinone, 2-formyl- -hydroxyanthraquinone, was synthesized through a four step synthesis from phthalide anhydride and 4-bromophenol. (upm.edu.my)
  • The present invention relates to a novel process for the preparation of substituted anthraquinones from 1,4-naphthoquinones and to the application of the products obtained as intermediates in the synthesis of products exhibiting therapeutically useful properties. (allindianpatents.com)
  • From our earlier studies we have isolated two anthraquinones, 9, 10- anthracenedione and 1hydroxy-4-methylanthaquinone from root extracts of Ceratotheca triloba (Figure 1 and 2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The production of anthraquinones from root extracts is however limited as it require harvesting of large quantities of field grown material. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Third-fourth instar larval mortality was observed after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure to varying doses of the extracts, and two anthraquinones isolates identified using liquid chromatography- quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QtoF-MS). The mosquito larval mortality was evaluated relative to the natural insecticide azadirachtin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 9,10-Anthraquinone is used as a digester additive in production of paper pulp by alkaline processes, like the Kraft , the alkaline sulfite or the Soda-AQ processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intercalation is a crucial part of topo II inhibition by cytotoxic anthraquinones with high affinity for DNA (4). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We rationalize that DNA affinic anthraquinones and alkylating moieties with the potential to form covalent topo II-drug-DNA ternary complexes will be essentially irreversible, evade conventional resistance mechanisms, and lead to a more persistent inhibition of this enzyme. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and the 9,10‐anthraquinone moiety was welcome for the inhibition. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although extremely stable toward oxidation, anthraquinone can be easily reduced to a variety of products. (britannica.com)
  • In addition, activated alumina adsorbent can remove the alkali, to promote the oxidation reduction reaction, reduction of anthraquinone quantity. (chalcochem.com)
  • Regarding nephrotoxicity, there are no available human data on sennosides, while experimental models suggest that anthraquinone derivatives may also accumulate in the kidneys. (ac.be)
  • The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the chemical structures of the three anthraquinones were confirmed by 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR analysis. (mdpi.com)
  • View largeDownload slide Chemical structures of four anthraquinones and osthole (IS). (deepdyve.com)
  • This valuable radical cyclization reaction gave over 20 coumarin derivatives in moderate to good yields with inexpensive 2-tBu-anthraquinone as a catalyst. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • If you are willing to wholesale quality, advanced and durable the regenerated catalyst of hydrogen peroxide by anthraquinone from one of the famous China the regenerated catalyst of hydrogen peroxide by anthraquinone manufacturers, CHALCO is always at your service. (chalcochem.com)
  • The application of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst has been well documented in scientific studies and mill applications. (usda.gov)
  • At last, the major components in TA extract were further identified as anthraquinones by liquid chromatography coupled mass spectroscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • Two new xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers, acremoxanthone C (5) and acremoxanthone D (2), have been isolated from an extract of an unidentified fungus of the Order Hypocreales (MSX 17022) by bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. (uncg.edu)
  • We investigated the mosquito larvicidal activity of the seed extract and its major anthraquinones against larvae of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae ( s.s . (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the two anthraquinones were four- and ~ six-fold less potent than that of the crude seed extract and azadirachtin, which had comparable LD 50 values of 2.5 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of the crude extract, its solvent fractions and two major anthraquinones against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae ( s.s . (biomedcentral.com)
  • These anthraquinone-lectin hybrids effectively and selectively degraded oligosaccharides containing a mannose residue as a non-reducing terminal sugar, which has affinity for ConA and HRL, under photo-irradiation with long-wavelength UV light without additives and under neutral conditions. (wiley.com)
  • These results suggest efficacy of anthraquinone-based products as red-wing blackbird repellents for ripening corn. (unl.edu)
  • Moreover, exposure to anthraquinone-based repellents may reduce consumption of a food matrix that receives little to no direct anthraquinone exposure. (unl.edu)
  • Supplemental research is recommended to evaluate anthraquinone-based repellents under field conditions, including the establishment of a chemical tolerance for food and feed use. (unl.edu)
  • Anthraquinones, as exemplified by mitoxantrone, are topo II inhibitors with proven success for the treatment of advanced breast cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and acute leukemia ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A study of urothelial cancer in Germany found elevated relative risks in relation to several types of laxative, including those containing anthraquinones. (inchem.org)
  • Anthraquinones are natural laxative components in plants that relieve constipation, soften stool and cause peristaltic action. (pfaf.org)
  • 1,4-disubstituted anthraquinone 8 was shown to be 5-fold more potent in EJ138 bladder cancer cells after CYP1A2 bioactivation. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Formula Removed) in which R, R1 and R5 have the definitions indicated hereinabove, and then an oxidizing deprotection reaction is carried out, by means of the Jones reagent, on the tetrahydroanthraquinone of general formula (IV), in order to obtain the desired anthraquinone, represented by the general formula (I) shown hereinabove. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Anthraquinone, 1,4-diamino, was purchased from Sigma Aldrich and was used without further purification. (scirp.org)
  • The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay indicated most of the xanthones and anthraquinones possessing moderate antioxidant activities. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anthraquinone Red has good lightfastness and permanence in its masstone, while its tint lightfastness is moderate. (dickblick.com)
  • The Friedel-Crafts reaction of benzene and phthalic anhydride in presence of AlCl 3 producing o-benzoylbenzoic acid which then undergoes cyclization, forming anthraquinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of aminoalkylamine substituted anthraquinones (AAQs) was successfully synthesised by aminating 1- or 1,5-chloroanthraquinones in a single reaction step. (edu.au)
  • Using a two-choice experimental design we tested the efficacy of Avipel repellent (a.i. 50% 9,10-anthraquinone) on ripening sweet corn. (unl.edu)
  • We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies on the biological activity of the anthraquinones were conducted using some selected bioassay procedures. (upm.edu.my)
  • Provided is a formulation comprising (a) a preparation comprising one or more anthraquinone derivatives having activity against plant pests and (b) a lignin. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 14. A method of producing the formulation of claim 1 comprising mixing (a) a preparation comprising one or more anthraquinone derivatives having activity against plant pests with (b) a lignin and optionally (c) water. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 16. A method for producing an aqueous formulation comprising (a) a preparation comprising one or more anthraquinone derivatives having activity against plant pests and (b) a lignin comprising mixing about 1 part of a dry formulation obtained according to the method of claim 9 with about 100 to about 2500 parts of water. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The report includes 1-(phenylamino)anthraquinone description, covers its application areas, manufacturing methods, patents. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The content of anthraquinones of both methods was determined with HPLC. (bvsalud.org)