Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
Purgative anthraquinone found in several plants, especially Rhamnus frangula. It was formerly used as a laxative, but is now used mainly as tool in toxicity studies.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE. Members contain chrysophanic acid, rhein, EMODIN, and other ANTHRAQUINONES. The roots were formerly used as PURGATIVES.
Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. SENNA EXTRACT is obtained from members of this genus. Members contain ANTHRAQUINONES and have been an ingredient in laxatives (CATHARTICS). Many species of the CASSIA genus have been reclassified into this genus. This bush should not be confused with the Cassia tree (CINNAMOMUM).
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. The root is a source of red dyes (madder color and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione) and ANTHRAQUINONES.
A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.
Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).
The buckthorn plant family, of the order Rhamnales, includes some species with edible fruits and some that are medicinal.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain anthraquinones and iridoids. H. diffusa is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.
The mangosteen plant family (sometimes classified as Guttiferae; also known as Hypericaceae) of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes trees and shrubs with resinous, sticky sap, usually with broad-ended, oblong, leathery leaves with a strong, central vein, flowers with many stamens.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. Health effects, allergenicity, and toxicity of Eurotium are closely related to its anamorph ASPERGILLUS.
A physiochemical process which occurs in a wide range of organisms which unlike BASAL METABOLISM is not required for or essential to short-term survivability but to long-term general well-being of the organism.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds with triple bonds to each side of a double bond. Many of these are CYTOTOXINS and are researched for use as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is an ingredient of Shou-Wu-Pian, a Chinese herbal preparation (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). The common name of black bindweed also refers to TAMUS or Fallopia (use POLYGONACEAE).
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order RHABDITIDA. Characteristics include an open tube stoma and an excretory system with lateral canals.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.

A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of losoxantrone and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. (1/925)

A Phase I and pharmacological study was performed to evaluate the feasibility, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics of the anthrapyrazole losoxantrone in combination with paclitaxel in adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. Losoxantrone was administered as a 10-min infusion in combination with paclitaxel on either a 24- or 3-h schedule. The starting dose level was 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel (as a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion) without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Administration of these agents at the starting dose level and dose escalation was feasible only with G-CSF support. The following dose levels (losoxantrone/paclitaxel, in mg/m2) of losoxantrone and paclitaxel as a 3-h infusion were also evaluated: 50/135, 50/175, 50/200, 50/225, and 60/225. The sequence-dependent toxicological and pharmacological effects of losoxantrone and paclitaxel on the 24- and 3-h schedules of paclitaxel were also assessed. The MTD was defined as the dose at which >50% of the patients experienced DLT during the first two courses of therapy. DLTs, mainly myelosuppression, occurring during the first course of therapy were noted in four of six and five of eight patients treated with 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel over 24 and 3 h, respectively, without G-CSF. DLTs during the first two courses of therapy were observed in one of six patients at the 50/175 (losoxantrone/paclitaxel) mg/m2 dose level, two of four patients at the 50/200 mg/m2 dose level, one of four patients at the 50/225 mg/m2 dose level, and two of five patients at the 60/225 mg/m2 dose level. The degree of thrombocytopenia was worse, albeit not statistically significant, when 24-h paclitaxel preceded losoxantrone, with a mean percentage decrement in platelet count during course 1 of 80.7%, compared to 43.8% with the reverse sequence (P = 0.19). Losoxantrone clearance was not significantly altered by the sequence or schedule of paclitaxel. Cardiac toxicity was observed; however, it was not related to total cumulative dose of losoxantrone. An unacceptably high rate of DLTs at the first dose level of 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel administered as either a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion precluded dose escalation without G-CSF support. The addition of G-CSF to the regimen permitted further dose escalation without reaching the MTD. Losoxantrone at 50 mg/m2 followed by paclitaxel (3-h i.v. infusion) at 175 mg/m2 with G-CSF support is recommended for further clinical trials.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a novel peroxidase from Geotrichum candidum dec 1 involved in decolorization of dyes. (2/925)

A peroxidase (DyP) involved in the decolorization of dyes and produced by the fungus strain Geotrichum candidum Dec 1 was purified. DyP, a glycoprotein, is glycosylated with N-acetylglucosamine and mannose (17%) and has a molecular mass of 60 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 3.8. The absorption spectrum of DyP exhibited a Soret band at 406 nm corresponding to a hemoprotein, and its Na2S2O4-reduced form revealed a peak at 556 nm that indicates the presence of a protoheme as its prosthetic group. Nine of the 21 types of dyes that were decolorized by Dec 1 cells were decolorized by DyP; in particular, anthraquinone dyes were highly decolorized. DyP also oxidized 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and guaiacol but not veratryl alcohol. The optimal temperature for DyP activity was 30 degrees C, and DyP activity was stable even after incubation at 50 degrees C for 11 h.  (+info)

Stimulation of ultraviolet-induced apoptosis of human fibroblast UVr-1 cells by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (3/925)

Damnacanthal is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the root of Morinda citrifolia and was reported to have a potent inhibitory activity towards tyrosine kinases such as Lck, Src, Lyn and EGF receptor. In the present study, we have examined the effects of damnacanthal on ultraviolet ray-induced apoptosis in ultraviolet-resistant human UVr-1 cells. When the cells were treated with damnacanthal prior to ultraviolet irradiation, DNA fragmentation was more pronounced as compared to the case of ultraviolet irradiation alone. The other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and genistein, also caused similar effects on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis but to a lesser extent. Serine/threonine kinase inhibitors, K252a, staurosporine and GF109203X, rather suppressed the ultraviolet-induced DNA cleavage. Immunoblot analysis showed that pretreatment with damnacanthal followed by ultraviolet irradiation increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and stress-activated protein kinases. However, the other tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not increase the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases but stimulated phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases. Consequently, the ultraviolet-induced concurrent increase in both phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and stress-activated protein kinases after pretreatment with damnacanthal might be characteristically related to the stimulatory effect of damnacanthal on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Diacerhein treatment reduces the severity of osteoarthritis in the canine cruciate-deficiency model of osteoarthritis. (4/925)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if diacerhein protects against the early stages of joint damage in a canine model of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: OA was induced in 20 adult mongrel dogs by transection of the anterior cruciate ligament of the left knee. Beginning the day after surgery, dogs in the active treatment group were dosed twice a day with capsules of diacerhein, providing a total daily dose of 40 mg/kg, for 32 weeks. Dogs in the control group received placebo capsules on the same schedule. Pathology in the unstable knee was assessed arthroscopically 16 weeks after surgery and by direct observation when the dogs were killed 32 weeks after surgery. The severity of gross joint pathology was recorded, and samples of the medial femoral condyle cartilage and the synovial tissue adjacent to the central portion of the medial meniscus were collected for histologic evaluation. Water content and uronic acid concentration of the articular cartilage from the femoral condyle were determined, and collagenolytic activity in extracts of cartilage pooled from the medial and lateral tibial plateaus was assayed against 14C-labeled collagen fibers. RESULTS: Diacerhein treatment slowed the progression of OA, as measured by grading of gross changes in the unstable knee at arthroscopy 16 weeks after cruciate ligament transection (P = 0.04) and at the time the animals were killed, 32 weeks after surgery (P = 0.05). However, 32 weeks after ACL transection, the mean proteoglycan concentration and water content of the OA cartilage and the level of collagenolytic activity in extracts of the cartilage were not significantly different in the diacerhein treatment group than in the placebo treatment group. CONCLUSION: Diacerhein treatment significantly reduced the severity of morphologic changes of OA compared with placebo. These findings support the view that diacerhein may be a disease-modifying drug for OA.  (+info)

Isolation of ekatetrone, a new metabolite of producing variants of Streptomyces aureofaciens. (5/925)

From a mixture of substances formed by producing strains of Streptomyces aureofaciens under conditions of submerged fermentation a new metabolite, ekatetrone, was isolated. Its isolation and basic physical and chemical data are described. Ekatetrone is a quinone derivative with a carboxamide group. In tests in vitro with cells of Ehrlich's ascites tumour evidence was provided that ekatetrone inhibits proteo- and nucleosynthesis.  (+info)

The structure of ekatetrone, a metabolite of strains of Streptomyces aureofaciens. (6/925)

The structure of ekatetrone has been determined from physico-chemical data obtained using the natural compound, its derivatives and products of degradation reactions. Ekatetrone was found to be the lactone of 1,8-dihydroxy-2-(1'-hydroxy-2'-carbamoyl)ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone-3-acetic acid (I). It is proposed that ekatetrone is related, biogenetically, to protetrone.  (+info)

Review article: anthranoid laxatives and their potential carcinogenic effects. (7/925)

Anthranoid laxatives are widely used laxatives of natural origin. Because of their chemical structure they are carried unabsorbed to the large bowel, where metabolism to the active aglycones takes place. These aglycones exert their laxative effect by damaging epithelial cells, which leads directly and indirectly to changes in absorption, secretion and motility. Damaged epithelial cells can be found as apoptotic bodies in the pigmented colonic mucosa, characteristic for pseudomelanosis coli. Pseudomelanosis coli is a condition caused by chronic (ab)use of anthranoid laxatives and has recently been associated with an increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. In vitro and animal studies have shown a potential role of anthranoid laxatives in both the initiation and promotion of tumorigenesis. Studies in humans have also suggested tumour promoting activities for these laxatives. Although the short-term use of these substances is generally safe, long-term use cannot be recommended.  (+info)

Stimulating effect of diacerein on TGF-beta1 and beta2 expression in articular chondrocytes cultured with and without interleukin-1. (8/925)

OBJECTIVE: Diacetylrhein or diacerein has shown efficacy in the treatment of both major forms of osteoarthritis (OA), coxarthrosis as well as gonarthrosis, improving clinical symptoms of the disease (pain reduction and algo-functional index). Both in-vitro and animal models studies suggest that diacerein may have also disease-modifying effects. The drug exerts inhibitory effects on interleukin-1-induced expression of cartilage degrading enzymes. However, its mechanism of action is not completely understood. In view of the role that could play the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta system in the repair potentialities of OA cartilage, we studied the effect of diacerein on the expression of TGF-beta isoforms 1, 2 and 3 and that of their receptor types I and II in cultured bovine chondrocytes. METHODS: Cultured bovine articular chondrocytes were treated with 10(-5) m diacerein, 10 ng/ml IL-1beta or the combination diacerein+interleukin (IL)-1, and the expression of both TGF-beta isoforms 1, 2 and 3 and that of their receptors TbetaR-I and TbetaR-II was determined by Northern-blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell transfections of cDNA constructs containing sequences of the 5'-upstream region of TGF-beta1 promoter were also performed to determine their transcriptional activity in diacerein-treated cultures. RESULTS: The data indicated that diacerein enhances the expression of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2. This effect was also found in the presence of IL-1, albeit with smaller intensity. In contrast, the levels of TGF-beta3 and receptors I and II remained unaffected or slighty modified by the compound. Treatment of cells transiently transfected with TGF-beta1 promoter constructs suggested that the stimulating effect on TGF-beta1 expression is mediated by the region -1038 to -1132 base pars. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that diacerein effects on matrix synthesis and turn-over previously reported in cultured articular chondrocytes might be explained in part by the ability of the drug to enhance TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 expression in these cells. This mechanism of action may account for the potential disease-modifying properties of diacerein and might give clues as to how future anti-osteoarthritic drugs should be designed.  (+info)

Anthraquinones are a type of organic compound that consists of an anthracene structure (a chemical compound made up of three benzene rings) with two carbonyl groups attached to the central ring. They are commonly found in various plants and have been used in medicine for their laxative properties. Some anthraquinones also exhibit antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, long-term use of anthraquinone-containing laxatives can lead to serious side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, muscle weakness, and liver damage.

Rubiaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the family of flowering plants that includes more than 13,500 species, distributed across approximately 600 genera. Some well-known members of this family include coffee (Coffea arabica), gardenias (Gardenia jasminoides), and madder (Rubia tinctorum).

In a medical context, certain plants from the Rubiaceae family have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. For example:

* Coffee (Coffea arabica) beans are used to prepare caffeinated beverages that can help with alertness and concentration.
* Gardenia fruits and flowers have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat anxiety, insomnia, and inflammation.
* Madder root (Rubia tinctorum) has been used as a dye and in traditional medicine to treat skin conditions and digestive disorders.

However, it's important to note that the medicinal use of plants from this family should be based on scientific evidence and under the guidance of healthcare professionals, as some of these plants can have side effects or interact with medications.

Emodin is a natural anthraquinone compound that can be found in various plants such as rhubarb, knotweed, and Japanese knotweed. It has been reported to have various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential health benefits and to understand the mechanisms of action.

Emodin can also interact with certain drugs and may cause adverse effects, so it's important to consult a healthcare professional before taking any supplements containing emodin.

In medical terms, "Rheum" is not a specific disease or condition. Instead, it is a term that was historically used to refer to a variety of disorders characterized by inflammation and pain in the musculoskeletal system, particularly in the joints. These disorders were often associated with symptoms such as stiffness, swelling, and warmth in the affected areas.

Over time, the term "rheumatic diseases" has become more commonly used to describe this group of conditions. Rheumatic diseases now encompass a wide range of disorders that affect the joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, and other connective tissues. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lupus, gout, and many others.

It's important to note that while "rheum" is an outdated term in modern medical nomenclature, it still holds historical significance and is sometimes used in the names of certain medical conditions or concepts, such as "rheumatology," which is the medical specialty focused on the diagnosis and management of rheumatic diseases.

Senna extract is a herbal preparation made from the leaves and fruit of the senna plant (Cassia senna or Cassia angustifolia), which belongs to the Fabaceae family. The active components in senna extract are anthraquinone glycosides, primarily sennosides A and B, that have laxative properties.

The medical definition of Senna extract is:
A standardized herbal extract derived from the leaves or fruit of the senna plant, containing a specific amount of sennosides (usually expressed as a percentage). It is used medically as a stimulant laxative to treat constipation and prepare the bowel for diagnostic procedures like colonoscopies. The laxative effect of senna extract is due to increased peristalsis and inhibition of water and electrolyte absorption in the large intestine, which results in softer stools and easier evacuation.

It's important to note that long-term use or misuse of senna extract can lead to dependence, electrolyte imbalances, and potential damage to the colon. Therefore, medical supervision is recommended when using senna extract as a laxative.

"Morinda" is a botanical term that refers to a genus of tropical shrubs and trees in the family Rubiaceae, which includes several species with medicinal properties. One of the most well-known species is Morinda citrifolia, also known as noni, which has been used in traditional medicine for various health purposes.

The fruit, leaves, bark, and roots of Morinda plants have been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as infections, inflammation, fever, skin disorders, and digestive problems. Some studies suggest that Morinda extracts may have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immune-boosting properties, but more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

It's important to note that while Morinda has a long history of use in traditional medicine, it should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment. Before taking any herbal supplements, including Morinda, it's always best to consult with a healthcare provider to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Senna plant, (Cassia senna or Senna Alexandrina), is a species of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It is native to China, Egypt, and some countries in Africa and the Middle East. The leaves and fruit of the senna plant have been used in traditional medicine as a laxative.

The active compounds in senna are anthraquinone glycosides, which include sennosides A and B. These compounds work by stimulating the colon's muscular activity, increasing intestinal peristalsis (the wave-like contractions that move food through the intestines), and inhibiting water and electrolyte absorption in the gut, leading to a bowel movement.

Senna is available in various forms such as dried leaves, powder, tablets, capsules, and liquid extracts. It is commonly used to treat constipation, cleanse the bowel before diagnostic procedures, and as a component of over-the-counter and prescription laxative products. However, long-term use or misuse of senna can lead to dependence on laxatives, electrolyte imbalances, and other health issues. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare professional before using senna as a laxative.

"Rubia" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It may refer to the genus name for the madder plant family (Rubiaceae), some species of which contain a compound called alizarin that has been used historically in medicine as a dye and a treatment for various skin conditions. However, it is not a term used in modern medical terminology.

"Sesamum" is the genus name for the plant species that includes sesame seeds. The most common species is Sesamum indicum, which is widely cultivated for its edible seeds. These seeds are rich in oil and protein and have been used in traditional medicine and food for centuries. They contain beneficial nutrients such as vitamin B1, dietary fiber, iron, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus. Sesame seeds have a variety of uses, including as a condiment, in cooking oil, and in various dishes around the world.

Carmine is a natural red pigment that is derived from the dried bodies of female cochineal insects (Dactylopius coccus). It has been used for centuries as a coloring agent in food, cosmetics, and textiles. In medical terms, carmine is sometimes used as a stain to provide contrast in microscopic examinations of biological tissues.

It's important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to carmine, and it has been associated with anaphylaxis in rare cases. Therefore, products containing carmine should be labeled appropriately to alert consumers to its presence.

"Rumex" is a genus of plants, and it does not have a specific medical definition. However, some species of Rumex are used in traditional medicine or as herbal remedies. For example:

* Rumex acetosa (common sorrel) has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties.
* Rumex crispus (yellow dock) has been used as a laxative and to treat skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis.
* Rumex hydrolapathum (water dock) has been used to treat urinary tract infections and kidney stones.

It is important to note that the use of these plants as medicine should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can also have side effects and interact with other medications. Additionally, the scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness as treatments for specific conditions is generally limited.

'Cassia' is a botanical term that refers to several species of plants in the family Fabaceae, which is also known as the legume family. The most well-known species is Cinnamomum cassia, which is commonly called Chinese cinnamon or cassia cinnamon. This tree is native to China and other parts of Asia, and its bark is used to make a type of cinnamon that is less expensive and has a stronger flavor than Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

Other species of Cassia include Senna obtusifolia, also known as coffee senna or sicklepod, which is a plant native to Africa that is used in traditional medicine, and Cassia fistula, also known as the golden shower tree, which is a tropical tree with large, yellow flowers.

It's worth noting that while some species of Cassia have medicinal uses, others can be toxic if ingested in large quantities. Therefore, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant or herbal remedy for medical purposes.

Iridoids are a type of naturally occurring compounds that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They are characterized by the presence of a cyclopentanoid structure fused to a monoterpene unit. Iridoids have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant effects. Some iridoids also have potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

In a medical context, iridoids may be mentioned in relation to their presence in certain medicinal plants or herbs used in traditional medicine, or in research investigating their potential pharmacological properties. However, it is important to note that the use of iridoid-containing plants or supplements should only be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as with any medical treatment.

Anthracene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H6. It is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is composed of three benzene rings arranged in a linear fashion. Anthracene is used primarily for research purposes, including studying DNA damage and mutagenesis. It is not known to have any significant biological role or uses in medicine. Exposure to anthracene may occur through coal tar or coal tar pitch volatiles, but it does not have established medical definitions related to human health or disease.

'Aloe' is the common name for a genus of succulent plants that belong to the family Asphodelaceae. The most widely recognized species is Aloe vera, which has been used for medicinal and therapeutic purposes for centuries.

Aloe vera, also known as "true aloe" or "medical aloe," contains a clear gel inside its leaves that is made up of 99% water and a complex mixture of glucomannans, acemannan, polymannose, anthraquinones, enzymes, sugars, sterols, vitamins, and minerals. This gel has been used topically to soothe skin irritations, burns, and other dermatological conditions due to its anti-inflammatory, moisturizing, and antimicrobial properties.

In addition to its topical uses, aloe vera extracts have also been studied for their potential internal health benefits, including improving digestion, boosting the immune system, and providing antioxidant effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

It's important to note that not all aloe products are created equal, and some may contain additives or contaminants that can cause adverse reactions. Always consult with a healthcare professional before using aloe vera or any other natural remedy for medicinal purposes.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Rhamnaceae" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to a family of flowering plants known as the Buckthorn family. This family includes around 50 genera and about 900 species of trees, shrubs, and lianas (woody vines) that are found throughout the world, particularly in temperate and subtropical regions.

Some members of this family have been used in traditional medicine, but it is important to note that the use of botanicals for medicinal purposes should always be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can interact with other medications or have potential side effects.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

"Hedyotis" is a term that refers to a genus of flowering plants in the coffee family, Rubiaceae. It includes around 300 species, many of which are found in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and America. Some of these plants have been used in traditional medicine, particularly in China and India.

However, it's important to note that "Hedyotis" is not a medical term or concept. It is a botanical name for a group of plants that may have various medicinal properties, but the specific uses and effects depend on the individual species and their active compounds. Therefore, any medical definition would need to be more specific and refer to a particular plant or compound within the genus.

Clusiaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes trees, shrubs, and herbs. It was previously known as Guttiferae. The family includes several economically important plants, such as those that produce edible fruits (such as mangosteen) and those that yield valuable resins and dyes (such as garcinia).

The plants in Clusiaceae are characterized by their production of a yellow or orange latex, which contains various chemical compounds with potential medicinal properties. Some species have been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including skin diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, and infections. However, more research is needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of these uses.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Arachnida is a class of joint-legged invertebrate animals that includes spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. They are characterized by having two main body segments (the cephalothorax and the abdomen), eight legs, and simple eyes. Most arachnids produce silk, which they use for various purposes such as capturing prey or building shelters.

Arachnids are arthropods, a group that also includes insects, crustaceans, and other related animals. They are found worldwide in diverse habitats, ranging from forests and grasslands to deserts and caves. Many arachnids are predators, feeding on insects and other small animals. Some species are parasites, living on the blood or tissue of other organisms.

Arachnids have a hard exoskeleton made of chitin, which provides protection and support for their soft internal organs. They molt periodically to grow and replace damaged body parts. Arachnids also have a complex reproductive system that involves the transfer of sperm from the male to the female through specialized structures called pedipalps.

While some arachnids are harmless or even beneficial to humans, others can be dangerous or pests. For example, spider bites can cause painful reactions and in rare cases, death. Ticks and mites can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease and scrub typhus. Scorpions can deliver venomous stings that can be fatal to humans. Despite these risks, arachnids play important roles in ecosystems, controlling pests and contributing to nutrient cycling.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Bark" is not a term with a specific medical definition. In general, the bark refers to the outermost covering of a tree or other plant, which serves as protection and provides a barrier against external threats. It is composed of layers including the inner bark (phloem), which transports nutrients throughout the plant, and the outer bark (periderm), which is made up of dead cells that form a protective layer.

While some plants or plant parts do have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional or alternative medicine, "Plant Bark" by itself does not have any specific medical connotations. If you're referring to a specific type of plant bark with potential medicinal uses, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

'Eurotium' is a genus of filamentous fungi that are commonly found in various environments, such as soil, plant material, and food. These fungi are known for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, including pigments, toxins, and antibiotics.

Eurotium species are characterized by their production of brightly colored, dry, and leathery spores that are resistant to heat, desiccation, and other harsh environmental conditions. These spores can survive for long periods in the environment and can serve as a source of infection or contamination in various settings.

In medical contexts, Eurotium species have been implicated in a variety of opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. For example, these fungi have been known to cause respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and invasive systemic infections in immunocompromised patients.

However, it is worth noting that Eurotium infections are relatively rare, and the majority of encounters with these fungi do not result in illness or disease. Nonetheless, medical professionals should be aware of the potential for Eurotium to cause infection in susceptible individuals and take appropriate precautions when necessary.

Secondary metabolism in the context of microbiology and plant biology refers to the metabolic pathways that produce secondary metabolites. These are compounds that are not directly involved in the growth, development, or reproduction of an organism but have other functions, such as defense against predators or competitors, or in ecological interactions with other organisms.

Examples of secondary metabolites include antibiotics, toxins, pigments, and various signaling molecules. The production of these compounds is often induced under specific environmental conditions or developmental stages, and they can play important roles in the survival and fitness of the producing organism.

In contrast, primary metabolism refers to the metabolic pathways that produce compounds essential for growth, development, and reproduction, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and carbohydrates.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

Mitoxantrone is a synthetic antineoplastic anthracenedione drug, which means it is used to treat cancer. Its medical definition can be found in various authoritative sources such as the Merck Manual or Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Here's a brief version of the definition from MedlinePlus, a service of the US National Library of Medicine:

"Mitoxantrone is used to treat certain types of cancer (e.g., breast cancer, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. Mitoxantrone belongs to a class of drugs known as antitumor antibiotics."

Please note that this is a simplified definition meant for general information purposes and does not include all the details that might be present in a comprehensive medical definition. Always consult a healthcare professional or refer to authoritative resources for accurate, detailed, and up-to-date information.

Intercalating agents are chemical substances that can be inserted between the stacked bases of DNA, creating a separation or "intercalation" of the base pairs. This property is often exploited in cancer chemotherapy, where intercalating agents like doxorubicin and daunorubicin are used to inhibit the replication and transcription of cancer cells by preventing the normal functioning of their DNA. However, these agents can also have toxic effects on normal cells, particularly those that divide rapidly, such as bone marrow and gut epithelial cells. Therefore, their use must be carefully monitored and balanced against their therapeutic benefits.

Scent glands are specialized sebaceous (oil) or sudoriferous (sweat) glands in various animals that produce and release scents for different purposes, such as marking territory, attracting mates, or providing warning signals. These scents can be released through various methods, including rubbing, spraying, or secreting onto fur or skin. Examples of scent glands include the anal glands in dogs and cats, the musk glands in deer, and the civet gland in civets. In humans, scent glands are not as developed or specialized, but some sebaceous glands can produce scents associated with personal body odor.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Naphthoquinones are a type of organic compound that consists of a naphthalene ring (two benzene rings fused together) with two ketone functional groups (=O) at the 1 and 2 positions. They exist in several forms, including natural and synthetic compounds. Some well-known naphthoquinones include vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone), which are important for blood clotting and bone metabolism. Other naphthoquinones have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anticancer, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, some naphthoquinones can also be toxic or harmful to living organisms, so they must be used with caution.

Glycosides are organic compounds that consist of a glycone (a sugar component) linked to a non-sugar component, known as an aglycone, via a glycosidic bond. They can be found in various plants, microorganisms, and some animals. Depending on the nature of the aglycone, glycosides can be classified into different types, such as anthraquinone glycosides, cardiac glycosides, and saponin glycosides.

These compounds have diverse biological activities and pharmacological effects. For instance:

* Cardiac glycosides, like digoxin and digitoxin, are used in the treatment of heart failure and certain cardiac arrhythmias due to their positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and negative chronotropic (heart rate-slowing) effects on the heart.
* Saponin glycosides have potent detergent properties and can cause hemolysis (rupture of red blood cells). They are used in various industries, including cosmetics and food processing, and have potential applications in drug delivery systems.
* Some glycosides, like amygdalin found in apricot kernels and bitter almonds, can release cyanide upon hydrolysis, making them potentially toxic.

It is important to note that while some glycosides have therapeutic uses, others can be harmful or even lethal if ingested or otherwise introduced into the body in large quantities.

Cathartics are a type of medication that stimulates bowel movements and evacuates the intestinal tract. They are often used to treat constipation or to prepare the bowel for certain medical procedures, such as colonoscopies. Common cathartic medications include laxatives, enemas, and suppositories.

Cathartics work by increasing the muscle contractions of the intestines, which helps to move stool through the digestive tract more quickly. They may also increase the amount of water in the stool, making it softer and easier to pass. Some cathartics, such as bulk-forming laxatives, work by absorbing water and swelling in the intestines, which helps to bulk up the stool and stimulate a bowel movement.

While cathartics can be effective at relieving constipation, they should be used with caution. Overuse of cathartics can lead to dependence on them for bowel movements, as well as electrolyte imbalances and other complications. It is important to follow the instructions carefully when using cathartic medications and to speak with a healthcare provider if constipation persists or worsens.

Spectrophotometry, Infrared is a scientific analytical technique used to measure the absorption or transmission of infrared light by a sample. It involves the use of an infrared spectrophotometer, which directs infrared radiation through a sample and measures the intensity of the radiation that is transmitted or absorbed by the sample at different wavelengths within the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify and quantify functional groups and chemical bonds present in a sample, as well as to study the molecular structure and composition of materials. The resulting infrared spectrum provides a unique "fingerprint" of the sample, which can be compared with reference spectra to aid in identification and characterization.

Infrared spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, forensics, and materials science for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples.

Enediynes are a class of organic compounds that contain an unsaturated hydrocarbon structure consisting of two double bonds separated by a single bond, forming a core structural unit of R-C=C=C=C-R'. This unique arrangement gives enediynes significant chemical reactivity and has been the basis for their development as antitumor agents.

Enediynes can undergo a cyclization reaction known as the Bergman cyclization, which generates a highly reactive 1,4-diradical species capable of causing significant damage to DNA and other cellular components. This property has been exploited in the design of enediyne-based anticancer drugs, such as neocarzinostatin and calicheamicin, that can selectively target and destroy cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal tissues.

It is important to note that this definition is a general description of the chemical structure and properties of enediynes, and it does not provide specific medical advice or recommendations for treatment. If you have any questions about enediynes or their potential use in medicine, please consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

"Polygonum" is a genus of plants, also known as "knotweed," that belongs to the family Polygonaceae. It includes various species, some of which have been used in traditional medicine. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as it refers to a group of plants and not a particular medical condition or treatment. Some species of Polygonum have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects. But, it is essential to note that further research is required to establish their safety and efficacy in clinical settings.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Mutagenicity tests are a type of laboratory assays used to identify agents that can cause genetic mutations. These tests detect changes in the DNA of organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, after exposure to potential mutagens. The most commonly used mutagenicity test is the Ames test, which uses a strain of Salmonella bacteria that is sensitive to mutagens. If a chemical causes an increase in the number of revertants (reversion to the wild type) in the bacterial population, it is considered to be a mutagen. Other tests include the mouse lymphoma assay and the chromosomal aberration test. These tests are used to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of chemicals and are an important part of the safety evaluation process for new drugs, chemicals, and other substances.

Naphthacenes are hydrocarbon compounds that consist of a naphthalene ring fused to two additional benzene rings. They belong to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and have been studied for their potential carcinogenic properties. Naphthacenes can be found in various environmental sources, including air pollution from vehicle emissions and cigarette smoke. However, it's important to note that specific medical definitions related to diseases or conditions are not typically associated with naphthacenes.

"Cissus" is a genus of plants in the grape family, Vitaceae. It includes around 350 species of woody vines and shrubs that are found primarily in tropical regions around the world. Some species of Cissus have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including wound healing and treating bone fractures. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants as a medical treatment should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can also have side effects and interact with other medications.

Coloring agents, also known as food dyes or color additives, are substances that are added to foods, medications, and cosmetics to improve their appearance by giving them a specific color. These agents can be made from both synthetic and natural sources. They must be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be used in products intended for human consumption.

Coloring agents are used for various reasons, including:

* To replace color lost during food processing or preparation
* To make foods more visually appealing
* To help consumers easily identify certain types of food
* To indicate the flavor of a product (e.g., fruit-flavored candies)

It's important to note that while coloring agents can enhance the appearance of products, they do not affect their taste or nutritional value. Some people may have allergic reactions to certain coloring agents, so it's essential to check product labels if you have any known allergies. Additionally, excessive consumption of some synthetic coloring agents has been linked to health concerns, so moderation is key.

*Photorhabdus* is a genus of gram-negative, bioluminescent bacteria that are symbiotic with certain species of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematodes that infect and kill insects). These bacteria are found in the gut of the nematodes and are released into the insect host when the nematode infects it. The bacteria produce toxins and other virulence factors that help to kill the insect and provide a nutrient-rich environment for the nematodes to reproduce. After reproduction, the nematodes and *Photorhabdus* bacteria work together again to seek out a new insect host. Some species of *Photorhabdus* have also been shown to have potential as biological control agents for certain insect pests.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Rhabditoidea" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically a superfamily of nematodes (roundworms) that includes several medically important genera such as *Strongyloides* and *Enterobius*.

In a broader context:
Rhabditoidea is a group of nematode worms that are characterized by certain morphological features, including the structure of their reproductive system and the presence of specialized cells called bacillary bands. Some species in this superfamily can be parasitic in humans and other animals, causing various diseases.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are a type of large, multifunctional enzymes found in bacteria, fungi, and other organisms. They play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of polyketides, which are a diverse group of natural products with various biological activities, including antibiotic, antifungal, anticancer, and immunosuppressant properties.

PKSs are responsible for the assembly of polyketide chains by repetitively adding two-carbon units derived from acetyl-CoA or other extender units to a growing chain. The PKS enzymes can be classified into three types based on their domain organization and mechanism of action: type I, type II, and type III PKSs.

Type I PKSs are large, modular enzymes that contain multiple domains responsible for different steps in the polyketide biosynthesis process. These include acyltransferase (AT) domains that load extender units onto the PKS, acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) that tether the growing chain to the PKS, and ketosynthase (KS) domains that catalyze the condensation of the extender unit with the growing chain.

Type II PKSs are simpler enzymes that consist of several separate proteins that work together in a complex to synthesize polyketides. These include ketosynthase, acyltransferase, and acyl carrier protein domains, as well as other domains responsible for reducing or modifying the polyketide chain.

Type III PKSs are the simplest of the three types and consist of a single catalytic domain that is responsible for both loading extender units and catalyzing their condensation with the growing chain. These enzymes typically synthesize shorter polyketide chains, such as those found in certain plant hormones and pigments.

Overall, PKSs are important enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of a wide range of natural products with significant medical and industrial applications.

For the parent molecule 9,10-anthraquinone, see anthraquinone Anthraquinones (also known as anthraquinonoids) are a class of ... The 9,10-anthraquinone skeleton occurs in many dyes, such as alizarin. Important derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone are 1- ... A large industrial application of anthraquinones is for the production of hydrogen peroxide. 2-Ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone or a ... Sodium 2-anthraquinonesulfonate (AMS) is a water-soluble anthraquinone derivative that was the first anthraquinone derivative ...
9,10-Anthraquinone is used as an electrolyte in flow battery which can provide long term electrical storage. 9,10-anthraquinone ... The term anthraquinone however refers to the isomer, 9,10-anthraquinone (IUPAC: 9,10-dioxoanthracene) wherein the keto groups ... The anthraquinone is a redox catalyst. The reaction mechanism may involve single electron transfer (SET). The anthraquinone ... Several other isomers of anthraquinone are possible, including the 1,2-, 1,4-, and 2,6-anthraquinones. They are of ...
The anthraquinone acts as a catalyst, the overall reaction equation is therefore: H 2 + O 2 → H 2O 2 If ozone is used instead ... The anthraquinone process is a process for the production of hydrogen peroxide, which was developed by BASF. The industrial ... Oxygen and the organic phase react under formation of the anthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide. Among other alkyl groups (R) ... which is generated before from the corresponding 2-alkyl-anthraquinone by catalytic hydrogenation with palladium is used. ...
... are an abundant group of dyes comprising a anthraquinone unit as the shared structural element. ... The synthesis of most anthraquinone dyes is based on anthraquinone sulfonic acid (2) or nitroanthraquinone (3), which is ... The first anthraquinone-based synthetic vat dye was indanthrone (C.I. Vat Blue 4) - the synthesis of which was developed by ... Anthraquinone itself is colourless, but red to blue dyes are obtained by introducing electron donor groups such as hydroxy or ...
Thompson, RH (1971). Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones. New York: Academic Press.[page needed] Nelson, Scot C. (2006). " ...
... a result of its frequent anthraquinone content. The presence of these anthraquinone pigments, which confer protection from ... The distribution of anthraquinones varies, from being dispersed across the organism's surface to localized regions. Analysis ... In a 1970 publication, Johan Santesson surveyed 230 Caloplaca species for anthraquinones as part of a phytochemical study of ... This diversification is believed to be connected to the spread of anthraquinone pigments in their thallus. Initially, these ...
The genus is known to be a rich source of anthraquinones. Zhou, Zhu; Jiang, Shan-Hao; Zhu, Da-Yuan; Lin, Long-Ze; A Cordell, ... Geoffrey (1994). "Anthraquinones from Knoxia valerianoides". Phytochemistry. 36 (3): 765-768. Bibcode:1994PChem..36..765Z. doi: ...
Secondary metabolites include anthraquinones. List of Caloplaca species Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol ...
These are generally substituted anthraquinones; many have medicinal applications, being used as purgatives, while one, ...
Bu'Lock, J. D.; Smith, J. R. (1968). "Modified anthraquinones from Penicillium islandicum". Journal of the Chemical Society C: ... "Transformations of Penicillium islandicum and Penicillium frequentans that produce anthraquinone-related compounds". Current ...
The lichen contains anthraquinones compounds. Xanthocarpia species often have apothecia, which are coloured yellow to orange. ...
Hu, Youcai; Martinez, Elisabeth D.; MacMillan, John B. (26 October 2012). "Anthraquinones from a Marine-Derived". Journal of ... spithioneine B and anthraquinones. List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of Streptomyces spinoverrucosus ...
... is an organic compound with formula C 14H 8O 12, formally derived from anthraquinone by replacement of ... Winter, R (1995). "Hydroxy-anthraquinones as antimalarial agents". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 5 (17): 1927-1932 ...
Anthraquinone is used as a digester additive. It works as a redox catalyst by oxidizing cellulose and reducing lignin. This ... Goyal, Gopal C. (1997). Anthraquinone Pulping. A TAPPI Press Anthology of Published Papers, 1977-1996. Atlanta: TAPPI Press. ...
The apothecia and pycnidia produce anthraquinones. Haematomma ochroleucum var. ochroleucum can look very similar to Lecanora ...
Biosynthesis of anthraquinones in Rubia tinctorum". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121 (33): 7469-7475. doi:10.1021/ja990622o. 1,4-dihydroxy ...
Species of Lacrima contain chlorinated anthraquinones. Fragilin is the primary chemical found especially in the apothecia and, ...
Timarcha species - their haemolymph contains anthraquinones. Coccinellidae (ladybird, ladybug or lady beetles) - An alkaloid ...
It goes through a redox cycle similar to that of anthraquinone to give a catalytic effect. AMS was discovered as an efficient ... In the laboratory it could be prepared by sulfonation of anthraquinone. AMS is used as a catalyst in production of alkaline ... "Anthraquinone/ alkali pulping. A literature review" (PDF). July 1978. (Articles without InChI source, Articles without EBI ... "Synthesis of sodium anthraquinone-2-sulfonate". PrepChem.com - Preparative chemistry procedures. Retrieved 2016-01-11. " ...
Some species have anthraquinones as secondary compounds. The apothecia (fruiting bodies) are zeorine (where the proper exciple ...
Ibrahim, H; Mdau, B B; Ahmed, A; Ilyas, M (December 30, 2010). "Anthraquinones of Cissus Populnea Guill & Perr (Amplidaceae)". ...
Its derivatives are used as a dyestuff intermediate for anthraquinone-based dyes. Dehydrogenative coupling gives violanthrone. ... Bien, H.-S.; Stawitz, J.; Wunderlich, K. (2005). "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
... is an octacyclic relative of anthraquinone that is used as a pigment. It is produced from anthrone by ... Bien, H.-S.; Stawitz, J.; Wunderlich, K. (2005). "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
... can be prepared from anthraquinone by reduction with tin or copper. An alternative synthesis involves cyclization of o ... Bien, H.-S.; Stawitz, J.; Wunderlich, K. (2005). "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
Many if not most of the anthraquinone dyes are produced or processed via sulfonation. Sulfonic acids tend to bind tightly to ... Bien, Hans-Samuel; Stawitz, Josef; Wunderlich, Klaus (2002). "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
Oxidation of the methyl group gives anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid. Kingsford-Adaboh, R.; Kashino, S. (1995). "Disordered ... Bien, Hans-Samuel; Stawitz, Josef; Wunderlich, Klaus (2000). "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... is an organic compound which is a methylated derivative of anthraquinone. An off-white solid, it is an important precursor to ...
Bien, Hans-Samuel; Stawitz, Josef; Wunderlich, Klaus (2000). "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
Bien, Hans-Samuel; Stawitz, Josef; Wunderlich, Klaus (2000). "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
Bien, Hans-Samuel; Stawitz, Josef; Wunderlich, Klaus (2000). "Anthraquinone Dyes and Intermediates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
Harrop, Dorothy; Norris, Roland Victor; Weizmann, Charles (1909). "CXLV.-Some derivatives of anthraquinone". J. Chem. Soc., ...
For the parent molecule 9,10-anthraquinone, see anthraquinone Anthraquinones (also known as anthraquinonoids) are a class of ... The 9,10-anthraquinone skeleton occurs in many dyes, such as alizarin. Important derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone are 1- ... A large industrial application of anthraquinones is for the production of hydrogen peroxide. 2-Ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone or a ... Sodium 2-anthraquinonesulfonate (AMS) is a water-soluble anthraquinone derivative that was the first anthraquinone derivative ...
... Molecular Formula: C26H18N2O3 ... 1-Hydroxy-2,4-bis(phenylamino)anthraquinone 2,4-dianilino-1-hydroxy-anthracene-9,10-dione 81-70-9 ...
... headed to the isolation of three anthraquinones: one monomeric anthraquinone (,b,1,/b,) and two dimeric anthraquinones (,b,2,/b ... one monomeric anthraquinone (1) and two dimeric anthraquinones (2 and 3). It was further purified by Sephadex LH-20 and ... Anthraquinones from the Roots of Kniphofia insignis and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activities. Asnakew Amare Tadesse. ,1 ... The family Asphodelaceae is a rich source of mainly anthraquinones, monomeric and dimeric anthraquinones, anthrones, dimeric ...
Simultaneous determination of anthraquinones in Liuweianxiao capsules by HPLC]. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or ... AnthraquinonesCapsulesChromatography, High Pressure LiquidDrug CombinationsDrugs, Chinese HerbalEmodinPlants, MedicinalQuality ... Simultaneous determination of anthraquinones in Liuweianxiao capsules by HPLC].. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009 Jun; 32(6):975-7.ZY ... Simultaneous Determination of Anthraquinones in Liuweianxiao Capsules By HPLC]." Zhong Yao Cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of ...
... is an Anthraquinone-based pigment suitable for many applications including industrial coatings, spin dyeing, security printing ... Anthraquinone Red (PR177). Pigment Red 177 (C.I. 65300) is an Anthraquinone-based pigment suitable for many applications ... ANTHRAQUINONE RED (PR177) PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS HEAT FASTNESS LIGHT FASTNESS. WEATHER FASTNESS ACID FASTNESS ALKALI FASTNESS ... Ferro > Products & Services > Product Category > Pigments and Dispersions > Organic Color Pigments > Anthraquinone Red PR177 ...
EP-0423068-B1 chemical patent summary.
Anthraquinone has been linked to potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. The most commonly employed ... Presence of anthraquinone in coffee and tea samples. An improved methodology based on mass spectrometry and a pilot monitoring ... Presence of anthraquinone in coffee and tea samples. An improved methodology based on mass spectrometry and a pilot monitoring ... Anthraquinone has been linked to potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. The most commonly employed ...
DE1210504B - Process for the preparation of anthraquinone dyes - Google Patents. Process for the preparation of anthraquinone ... Anthraquinone reactive dyes, their production and their use CN115044224B (en) * 2022-07-04. 2023-07-18. 南通大学. High-alkali- ... Anthraquinone dyes, their manufacture and use DE632083C (en) 1936-07-02. Process for the production of acidic dyes of the ... Acid anthraquinone dye mixtures, their preparation and use DE931845C (en) 1955-08-18. Process for the production of Kuepen dyes ...
1,5-DIAMINO ANTHRAQUINONE Inquire. CAS NO:129-44-2; MF:C14H10N2O2. 1,5-DICHLORO ANTHRAQUINONE Inquire. CAS NO:82-46-2; MF:C14H6 ... 1,5-DIHYDROXY ANTHRAQUINONE Inquire. CAS NO:117-12-4; MF:C14H8O4. 1,5-DINITRO ANTHRAQUINONE Inquire. CAS NO:82-35-9; MF:C14H6N2 ... 1,8-DIAMINO ANTHRAQUINONE Inquire. CAS NO:129-42-0; MF:C14H10N2O2. 1,8-DINITRO ANTHRAQUINONE Inquire. CAS NO:129-39-5; MF:C14H6 ... 1,8- DICHLORO ANTHRAQUINONE Inquire. CAS NO:82-43-9; MF:C14H6Cl2O2. 1,8- DIHYDROXY ANTHRAQUINONE Inquire. CAS NO:117-10-2; MF:C ...
Preparation of hybrid soft materials combining supramolecular anthraquinone-based gel systems and gold nanoparticles ( ... by an anthraquinone based oxalamide gelator. The fibers are used as chiral template for 3D arrangement of GNRs and for ... a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of the twist formation and control the chiral twists in anthraquinone based ...
Mechanisms of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Inhibition by Lysyl-Peptidyl-Anthraquinone Conjugates. ... Inspired by these observations, we have recently demonstrated that 2,6-disubstituted peptidyl-anthraquinone-conjugates inhibit ...
... (including emodin). These are phenolic compounds. Plants containing anthraquinones include senna, cascara, alder ... Links to Plants Containing Anthraquinones RESEARCH The listings of research below represents […] ...
Wildgoose, GG, Pandurangappa, M, Lawrence, NS, Jiang, L, Jones, TGJ and Compton, RG (2003) Anthraquinone-derivatised carbon ... anthraquinone derivatized carbon powder reagentless voltammetric ph electrode. Faculty \ School:. Faculty of Science , School ... derivatization of carbon particles with anthraquinone. The amperometric response of electrodes constructed from this material ...
... , from the Compendium of Pesticide Common Names, including IUPAC and CAS systematic names, molecular ...
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Polarographic chemical analysis, although invented only twenty-five years ago, has already become a standard method for the research worker and industrial analyst alike. The variety of topics in pure, bio- and commercial chemistry which may be investigated easily with the polarograph, as well as its application to microchemistry, has found it a place in laboratories throughout the world. The invention of the method, and much of the pioneer development are due to Jaroslav Heyrovsky and his colleagues at Charles University, Prague, (Phill. Mag., 1923, 45, 303; Trans. Faraday Soc., 1923, 19, 692 et seq ...
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What unit operations are involved in an anthraquinone manufacturing plant?. *How much land is required for an anthraquinone ... What machinery is required for an anthraquinone manufacturing plant?. *What are the raw materials needed for an anthraquinone ... What is the infrastructure cost for an anthraquinone manufacturing plant?. *What are the capital costs for an anthraquinone ... What is the pricing mechanism for anthraquinone?. *What are the income and expenditure for an anthraquinone manufacturing plant ...
... with CAS 853-67-8,We have stable sourcing system and can keep stable ... ANTHRAQUINONE-2,7-DISULFONICACIDDISODIUMSALT with CAS 853-67-8. what is of ANTHRAQUINONE-2,7-DISULFONICACIDDISODIUMSALT with ... 1.Quick details of ANTHRAQUINONE-2,7-DISULFONICACIDDISODIUMSALT with CAS 853-67-8 ...
Anthraquinone-1-Diazonium Chloride 1994 © Damien Hirst and Science Ltd. All rights reserved, DACS 2023. Photo: Prudence Cuming ...
10-anthraquinone. Vi fremmer videnskab ved at tilbyde produktudvalg, serviceydelser, proces ekspertise og personale til at ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 1,3-dimethoxy-8-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (C16H12O5) from the PQR.
Anthraquinone is used industrially as a bird-repel ... Anthraquinone in Organic Tea Production. *Posted by David ... Anthraquinone is used industrially as a bird-repellant on some crops, and also in the production of cardboard. Since it has no ... http://www.pica-berlin.de/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Anthraquinone_tea_ENV_CRF2017_Romanotto.pdf ...
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title = "Anthraquinone derivatives affording n-type organic thin film transistors",. abstract = "New anthraquinone derivatives ... Anthraquinone derivatives affording n-type organic thin film transistors. In: Chemical Communications. 2009 ; No. 16. pp. 2177- ... Anthraquinone derivatives affording n-type organic thin film transistors. Masashi Mamada, Jun Ichi Nishida, Shizuo Tokito, ... Anthraquinone derivatives affording n-type organic thin film transistors. / Mamada, Masashi; Nishida, Jun Ichi; Tokito, Shizuo ...
Anthraquinones: Senna and other stimulant laxatives activate the digestive system and can usually promote a bowel movement ... Diphenylmethane derivatives: These are similar to anthraquinones and can help people experiencing temporary constipation. Types ...
  • Hypericin and fagopyrin are naphthodianthrones, anthraquinone-derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Important derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone are 1-nitroanthraquinone, anthraquinone-1-sulfonic acid, and the dinitroanthraquinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone include many important drugs including the anthracenediones and the anthracycline family of chemotherapy drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthraquinone derivatives: rhein, emodin, aloe emodin, parietin (physcion), and chrysophanol extracted from Cassia occidentalis are toxic and known to cause hepatomyoencephalopathy in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthraquinone, a crystalline solid organic compound, is distinguished by its two aromatic rings and is considered one of the most important derivatives of quinone. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • In the pharmaceutical industry, anthraquinone derivatives exhibit a range of biological activities. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • Some derivatives have been found to possess antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties, while others serve as the backbone for laxatives, making anthraquinone indispensable in medicinal chemistry. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • Furthermore, in the pharmaceutical industry, the growing investment in research and development activities for novel drug discovery, along with the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, fuels the demand for anthraquinone and its derivatives. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • It has been determined that 1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone and its derivatives in the presence of the two-fold excess of ammonium thiocyanate can be acetylated only by formic and trifluoroacetic acids. (edu.ua)
  • In the present study, we synthesized and investigated a series of 55 anthraquinone derivatives as potential inhibitors of eN, 11 of which are novel compounds and another 11 of which had previously been described but have now been synthesized by an improved method. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The 9,10-anthraquinone skeleton occurs in many dyes, such as alizarin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Process for the preparation of anthraquinone dyes The invention relates to the production of anthraquinone dyes, in particular the Production of such anthraquinone dyes which have very good solubility and are valuable for producing true colorations on cellulosic fabrics. (google.com)
  • In the Belgian patent 543 216 anthraquinone dyes are described which, in the form of their free acids, have the following formula in which X is a group containing at least one anionic solubilizing group. (google.com)
  • Additionally, the rise in demand for vibrant, durable dyes and pigments in the textile industry also drives the anthraquinone market, especially with the booming fashion industry in both developed and developing countries. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • Nonpolymer applications include the manufacture of agricultural fungicides (Captan and Captofol), sulfolane (an industrial solvent), and anthraquinone dyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Ferro offers high performance Anthraquinone pigments that provide yellow to red hues with good overall fastness and resistance properties. (ferro.com)
  • Our Anthraquinone pigments are ideal for many colorant applications, including industrial coatings, different plastic applications and security inks. (ferro.com)
  • For the parent molecule 9,10-anthraquinone, see anthraquinone Anthraquinones (also known as anthraquinonoids) are a class of naturally occurring phenolic compounds based on the 9,10-anthraquinone skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective: Cryptotanshinone (CPT) and dihydrotanshinone (DHT) are diterpenoid anthraquinone compounds extracted from traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM). (tmu.edu.tw)
  • The most potent compounds were l-amino-4-[4-fluoro-2-carboxyphenylamino]-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2- sulfonate (45, PSB-0952, K 1 = 260 nM) and 1-amino-4-[2- anthracenylamino]-9,10-dioxo-9,10dihydroanthracene-2-sulfonate (52, PSB-0963, 150 nM), with 52 being the most potent eN inhibitor described to date. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Pigment Red 177 (C.I. 65300) is an Anthraquinone-based pigment suitable for many applications including industrial coatings, spin dyeing, security printing inks and LCD screen filters. (ferro.com)
  • Anthraquinone is used industrially as a bird-repellant on some crops, and also in the production of cardboard. (essenceoftea.com)
  • 5 anthraquinones have been shown to inhibit the formation of Tau aggregates and dissolve paired helical filaments thought to be critical to Alzheimer's disease progression in both mouse models and in vitro testing but have not been investigated as a therapeutic agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inspired by these observations, we have recently demonstrated that 2,6-disubstituted peptidyl-anthraquinone-conjugates inhibit the chaperone activities of recombinant NC in vitro, and that inhibition correlates with the stabilization of TAR and cTAR stem-loop structures. (pasteur.fr)
  • abstract = "ecto-5′-Nucleotidase (eN, CD73) plays a major role in controlling extracellular adenosine levels. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 2-Ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone or a related alkyl derivative is used, rather than anthraquinone itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium 2-anthraquinonesulfonate (AMS) is a water-soluble anthraquinone derivative that was the first anthraquinone derivative discovered to have a catalytic effect in the alkaline pulping processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Amino-9,10-anthraquinone additionally can be acetylated by mercaptoacetic and acetic acids. (edu.ua)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - [Simultaneous determination of anthraquinones in Liuwei'anxiao capsules by HPLC]. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Anthraquinone has been linked to potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. (rsc.org)
  • The authors have developed an approach to the synthesis of a number of N-acylated amino-9,10-anthraquinones, which is based on the use of a new acylation system consisting of a strong organic acid and ammonium thiocyanate. (edu.ua)
  • The rapid growth of the global pulp and paper industry, driven by the increasing demand for packaging materials, is a primary factor for the escalated demand for anthraquinone. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • With the expanding e-commerce market and the growing need for sustainable packaging solutions, the role of anthraquinone as a catalyst in pulp production is gaining prominence. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • Presence of anthraquinone in coffee and tea samples. (rsc.org)
  • A large industrial application of anthraquinones is for the production of hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The market drivers for anthraquinone largely revolve around its significant industrial applications. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • Syndicated Analytics report, titled "Anthraquinone Manufacturing Plant Project Report: Industry Trends, Manufacturing Process, Plant Setup, Machinery, Raw Materials, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue (2023 Edition)," provides a complete roadmap for setting up an anthraquinone manufacturing plant. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • Millions of tons of hydrogen peroxide are manufactured by the anthraquinone process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report provides an analysis of the global anthraquinone market performance, market breakup by segment and region, price trends, key market players and impact of COVID-19 on the market. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • The most commonly employed methods for the analysis of coffee and tea cause the extraction of matrix interferents such as the methylxanthines caffeine and theobromine, which hinder the analysis of anthraquinone. (rsc.org)
  • The project report provides a comprehensive analysis of the anthraquinone market, covering various critical aspects. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • eN inhibitors have potential as novel drugs, for example, for the treatment of cancer. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The family Asphodelaceae is a rich source of mainly anthraquinones, monomeric and dimeric anthraquinones, anthrones, dimeric phenylanthraquinones, [ 5 ] and naphthoquinone [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The report is an indispensable resource that offers a detailed examination of the anthraquinone industry. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • This report is a must-read for entrepreneurs, investors, researchers, consultants, and business strategists with a stake in the anthraquinone industry. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • Our growth depends around the superior machines, exceptional talents and consistently strengthened technology forces for 1 amino anthraquinon amino anthraquinone 1aaq business associations and buddies from all over the earth to call us and seek cooperation for mutual rewards. (ajinanforever.com)
  • The benefits of anthraquinone are derived from its unique properties and its versatile applications across a myriad of industries. (syndicatedanalytics.com)
  • A type II polyketide synthase is responsible for anthraquinone biosynthesis in the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of the twist formation and control the chiral twists in anthraquinone based oxalamide gelator assemblies will be sought. (irb.hr)
  • Given these market drivers and the varied benefits of anthraquinone, its relevance in the global market is expected to persist, underpinned by its wide-ranging applications in several key industries. (syndicatedanalytics.com)