Anthranilate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Anthranilate Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of N-5'-phosphoribosylanthranilic acid from anthranilate and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate, the first step in tryptophan synthesis in E. coli. It exists in a complex with ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE in bacteria. EC 2.4.2.18.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Indole-3-Glycerol-Phosphate Synthase: An enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. EC 4.1.1.48.Chorismic Acid: A cyclohexadiene carboxylic acid derived from SHIKIMIC ACID and a precursor for the biosynthesis of UBIQUINONE and the AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsTransaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Tryptophan Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-serine and 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate to L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein that also catalyzes the conversion of serine and indole into tryptophan and water and of indoleglycerol phosphate into indole and glyceraldehyde phosphate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.1.20.Nitrogenous Group Transferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.QuinaldinesGenes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Diazonium CompoundsCitrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chorismate Mutase: An isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of chorismic acid to prephenic acid. EC 5.4.99.5.Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Serratia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Hammer Toe Syndrome: A condition characterized by a series of interrelated digital symptoms and joint changes of the lesser digits and METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINTS of the FOOT. The syndrome can include some or all of the following conditions: hammer toe, claw toe, mallet toe, overlapping fifth toe, curly toe, EXOSTOSIS; HYPEROSTOSIS; interdigital heloma, or contracted toe.Bacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, phylum Firmicutes.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Cuba: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Neutron Diffraction: The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.Taq Polymerase: A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.Scattering, Small Angle: Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Deletion plasmids from transformants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa trp cells with the RSF1010-trp hybrid plasmid and high levels of enzyme activity from the gene on the plasmid. (1/162)

A RSF1010-trp hybrid plasmid which contained the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli was introduced into Pseudomonas aeruginosa trp cells by transformation. From the Trp+ transformants several deletion plasmids were obtained, and their physical maps with restriction endonucleases were constructed. P. aeruginosa trp cells with these plasmids showed at first more than 100 times higher levels of tryptophan synthetase beta activity over that of the control P. aeruginosa wild-type cells, but these levels were drastically decreased by 1 week of successive transfers of cultures. This decrease in enzyme activity was found to be due to the change on the plasmids but not to the host cells. The production of E. coli tryptophan synthetase beta enzyme in P. aeruginosa cells was proved by immunological test.  (+info)

The crystal structure of anthranilate synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus: functional implications. (2/162)

Anthranilate synthase catalyzes the synthesis of anthranilate from chorismate and glutamine and is feedback-inhibited by tryptophan. The enzyme of the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus has been crystallized in the absence of physiological ligands, and its three-dimensional structure has been determined at 2.5-A resolution with x-ray crystallography. It is a heterotetramer of anthranilate synthase (TrpE) and glutamine amidotransferase (TrpG) subunits, in which two TrpG:TrpE protomers associate mainly via the TrpG subunits. The small TrpG subunit (195 residues) has the known "triad" glutamine amidotransferase fold. The large TrpE subunit (421 residues) has a novel fold. It displays a cleft between two domains, the tips of which contact the TrpG subunit across its active site. Clusters of catalytically essential residues are located inside the cleft, spatially separated from clustered residues involved in feedback inhibition. The structure suggests a model in which chorismate binding triggers a relative movement of the two domain tips of the TrpE subunit, activating the TrpG subunit and creating a channel for passage of ammonia toward the active site of the TrpE subunit. Tryptophan presumably blocks this rearrangement, thus stabilizing the inactive states of both subunits. The structure of the TrpE subunit is a likely prototype for the related enzymes 4-amino 4-deoxychorismate synthase and isochorismate synthase.  (+info)

Inhibition of TATA-binding protein function by SAGA subunits Spt3 and Spt8 at Gcn4-activated promoters. (3/162)

SAGA is a 1.8-MDa yeast protein complex that is composed of several distinct classes of transcription-related factors, including the adaptor/acetyltransferase Gcn5, Spt proteins, and a subset of TBP-associated factors. Our results indicate that mutations that completely disrupt SAGA (deletions of SPT7 or SPT20) strongly reduce transcriptional activation at the HIS3 and TRP3 genes and that Gcn5 is required for normal HIS3 transcriptional start site selection. Surprisingly, mutations in Spt proteins involved in the SAGA-TBP interaction (Spt3 and Spt8) cause derepression of HIS3 and TRP3 transcription in the uninduced state. Consistent with this finding, wild-type SAGA inhibits TBP binding to the HIS3 promoter in vitro, while SAGA lacking Spt3 or Spt8 is not inhibitory. We detected two distinct forms of SAGA in cell extracts and, strikingly, one lacks Spt8. Conditions that induce HIS3 and TRP3 transcription result in an altered balance between these complexes strongly in favor of the form without Spt8. These results suggest that the composition of SAGA may be dynamic in vivo and may be regulated through dissociable inhibitory subunits.  (+info)

A Bacillus subtilis operon containing genes of unknown function senses tRNATrp charging and regulates expression of the genes of tryptophan biosynthesis. (4/162)

Strains of Bacillus subtilis containing a temperature-sensitive tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase produce elevated levels of the tryptophan pathway enzymes, when grown at high temperatures in the presence of excess tryptophan. This increase is because of reduced availability of the tryptophan-activated trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP). To test the hypothesis that this elevated trp gene expression was caused by the overproduction of a transcript capable of binding and sequestering TRAP, a computer program was designed to search the B. subtilis genome sequence for additional potential TRAP binding sites. A region containing a stretch of (G/A)AG trinucleotide repeats, characteristic of a TRAP binding site, was identified in the yczA-ycbK operon. We show that transcriptional regulation of the yczA-ycbK operon is controlled by the T-box antitermination mechanism in response to the level of uncharged tRNA(Trp), and that the presence of a trpS1 mutant allele increases production of the yczA-ycbK transcript. Elevated yczA-ycbK expression was shown to activate transcription of the trp operon. Deletion of the yczA-ycbK operon abolishes the trpS1 effect on trp gene expression. The purpose of increasing expression of the genes of tryptophan biosynthesis in the trpS mutant would be to provide additional tryptophan to overcome the charged tRNA(Trp) deficiency. Therefore, in B. subtilis, as in Escherichia coli, transcription of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes is regulated in response to changes in the extent of charging of tRNA(Trp) as well as the availability of tryptophan.  (+info)

A Bacillus subtilis gene of previously unknown function, yhaG, is translationally regulated by tryptophan-activated TRAP and appears to be involved in tryptophan transport. (5/162)

Computer analysis of the Bacillus subtilis genome sequence revealed a gene with no previously attributed function, yhaG, specifying a transcript containing a presumptive binding site for the tryptophan-activated regulatory protein, TRAP. The presumptive TRAP binding site overlaps the yhaG Shine-Dalgarno sequence and translation initiation region. TRAP was shown to regulate expression of yhaG translationally. Production of the yhaG transcript in vivo was found to compete for the binding of TRAP to other known TRAP binding sites. YhaG is likely to be a transmembrane protein involved in tryptophan transport.  (+info)

The nucleotide sequence of the first externally suppressible--1 frameshift mutant, and of some nearby leaky frameshift mutants. (6/162)

Nine mutants within a 23 nucleotide sequence of the trpE gene of Salmonella typhimurium have been characterized. trpE91, a mutant which is externally suppressible has a single base deletion. Eight (or nine) nucleotides upstream of this deletion, two independently isolated mutations have the same transversion. In combination with trpE91 these mutations lead to partial restoration of synthesis of anthranilate synthetase in the absence of external suppressors. In the transversion the sequence A CA is changed to A AA and this new sequence may be the site where frameshifting occurs to allow leakiness. Leakiness is displayed by two further mutants of the same sign as trpE91, and one of the opposite sign, in the absence of any base substitution or external suppressors. Specific sequences, e.g., UUUC, may be especially prone to frameshifting and this sequence is created at the site of the +1 frameshift mutant which displays leakiness. In the new reading frame generated by the two -1 frame leaky mutants, a tryptophan codon is encountered. Leakiness is necessarily detected in the absence of tryptophan and under these conditions there will be a shortage of charged tryptophan tRNA. The possibility of such functional imbalance leading to frameshifting in these mutants is discussed.  (+info)

Increasing tryptophan synthesis in a forage legume Astragalus sinicus by expressing the tobacco feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase (ASA2) gene. (7/162)

A cDNA clone that encodes a feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase (AS), ASA2, isolated from a 5-methyl-tryptophan (Trp) (5MT)-resistant tobacco cell line under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was introduced into the forage legume Astragalus sinicus by Agrobacterium rhizogenes with kanamycin selection. The 35S-ASA2 gene was expressed constitutively as demonstrated by northern-blot hybridization analyses and the presence of feedback-insensitive AS. Hairy root lines transformed with 35S-ASA2 grew in concentrations of up to 100 microM 5MT, whereas the controls were completely inhibited by 15 microM 5MT. Expression of the feedback-insensitive ASA2 resulted in a 1.3- to 5.5-fold increase in free Trp. Kinetic studies of the AS activity demonstrate the Trp feedback alterations and indicate that the ASA2 alpha-subunit can interact with the native A. sinicus beta-subunit to form an active enzyme. The ASA2 transcript and high free Trp were also detected in the leaves, stems, and roots of plants regenerated from the transformed hairy roots. Thus, we show for the first time that ASA2 can be used to transform plants of a different species to increase the levels of the essential amino acid Trp and impart 5MT resistance.  (+info)

Decay of mutualistic potential in aphid endosymbionts through silencing of biosynthetic loci: Buchnera of Diuraphis. (8/162)

Buchnera, the primary bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, is known to provision essential amino acids lacking in the hosts' diet of plant sap. The recent discovery of silenced copies of genes for tryptophan biosynthesis (trpEG) in certain Buchnera lineages suggests a decay in symbiotic functions in some aphid species. However, neither the distribution of pseudogenes among lineages nor the impact of this gene silencing on amino-acid availability in hosts has been assessed. In Buchnera of the aphid Diuraphis noxia, tandem repeats of these pseudogenes have persisted in diverse lineages, and thpEG pseudogenes have originated at least twice within this aphid genus. Measures of amino-acid concentrations in Diuraphis species have shown that the presence of the pseudogene is associated with a decreased availability of tryptophan, indicating that gene silencing decreases nutrient provisioning by symbionts. In Buchnera of Diuraphis, rates of nonsynonymous substitutions are elevated in functional trpE copies, supporting the hypothesis that pseudogene origin and persistence reflect a reduced selection for symbiont biosynthetic contributions. The parallel evolution of trpEG pseudogenes in Buchnera of Diuraphis and certain other aphid hosts suggests that either selection at the host level is not effective or that fitness in these aphids is not limited by tryptophan availability.  (+info)

Anthranilate synthase component I; Part of a heterotetrameric complex that catalyzes the two-step biosynthesis of anthranilate, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan. In the first step, the glutamine- binding beta subunit (TrpG) of anthranilate synthase (AS) provides the glutamine amidotransferase activity which generates ammonia as a substrate that, along with chorismate, is used in the second step, catalyzed by the large alpha subunit of AS (TrpE) to produce anthranilate. In the absence of TrpG, TrpE can synthesize anthranilate directly from chorismate and high concentr [...] (508 aa ...
Anthranilate is an aromatic amine used industrially as an intermediate for the synthesis of dyes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and other classes of products. Chemical synthesis of anthranilate is an unsustainable process since it implies the use of nonrenewable benzene and the generation of toxic by-products. In Escherichia coli anthranilate is synthesized from chorismate by anthranilate synthase (TrpED) and then converted to phosphoribosyl anthranilate by anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase to continue the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. With the purpose of generating a microbial strain for anthranilate production from glucose, E. coli W3110 trpD9923, a mutant in the trpD gene that displays low anthranilate producing capacity, was characterized and modified using metabolic engineering strategies. Sequencing of the trpED genes from E. coli W3110 trpD9923 revealed a nonsense mutation in the trpD gene, causing the loss of anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase activity, but maintaining anthranilate
Anthranilate synthase beta subunit 1; Part of a heterotetrameric complex that catalyzes the two-step biosynthesis of anthranilate, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan. In the first step, the glutamine- binding beta subunit of anthranilate synthase (AS) provides the glutamine amidotransferase activity which generates ammonia as a substrate that, along with chorismate, is used in the second step, catalyzed by the large alpha subunit of AS to produce anthranilate. Plays an important regulatory role in auxin production via the tryptophan-dependent biosynthetic pathway (289 aa ...
Regulation and Cell signalingRegulation and Cell signaling - no subcategorySex pheromones in Enterococcus faecalis and other Firmicutes Heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase component I (EC 2.5.1.30) ...
1I7S: The structures of anthranilate synthase of Serratia marcescens crystallized in the presence of (i) its substrates, chorismate and glutamine, and a product, glutamate, and (ii) its end-product inhibitor, L-tryptophan.
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Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is responsible for more death in the world today than any other bacteria. As part of the Tuberculosis Structural Genomics Consortium (TBSGC), our research group previously determined the structure of anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase (AnPRT) from Mtb. AnPRT is the second enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and was identified as a potential drug target through gene knockout experiments, which resulted in a strain of Mtb that was essentially avirulent even in immunodeficient mice. AnPRT catalyses a reaction between anthranilate and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP), and the crystal structure of Mtb-AnPRT was originally determined with and without PRPP (PDB ID: 1ZVW and 2BPQ, respectively). In silico docking was used to predict the binding motif of anthranilate, the second substrate, surprisingly predicted two sites despite a 1:1 reaction ratio with PRPP. Previously, 165 compounds were screened for inhibitory ...
Anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferaseN-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-anthranilate + diphosphate = anthranilate + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate ...
CIS-3-HEXENYL ANTHRANILATE 65405-76-7 NMR spectrum, CIS-3-HEXENYL ANTHRANILATE H-NMR spectral analysis, CIS-3-HEXENYL ANTHRANILATE C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a serious insect pest of wheat and barley. It affects the quality and yield of grain by sucking plant sap from the newest growth whilst toxic substances are injected ...
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1GTF: The structure of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a 53-nucleotide RNA molecule containing GAGUU repeats
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ID D6XV62_BACIE Unreviewed; 473 AA. AC D6XV62; DT 10-AUG-2010, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 10-AUG-2010, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 51. DE SubName: Full=Anthranilate synthase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADH97620.1}; DE EC=4.1.3.27 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADH97620.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Bsel_0070 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADH97620.1}; OS Bacillus selenitireducens (strain ATCC 700615 / DSM 15326 / MLS10). OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Sporolactobacillaceae; OC unclassified Sporolactobacillaceae. OX NCBI_TaxID=439292 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADH97620.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000271}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADH97620.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000271} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 700615 / DSM 15326 / MLS10 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000271}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Copeland A., Lapidus A., Glavina del Rio T., Dalin E., RA Tice H., Bruce D., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., Sims D., Brettin T., RA Detter J.C., Han C., ...
When cursor points to a box further details will be displayed in a toltip window. If you click on the box you will change to appropriate reaction scheme or enzyme specification.. ...
Page contains details about trp-RNA binding attenuation protein K35C mutant nanocages . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
NAD+ synthase (EC 6.3.5.1) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and is induced by stress factors such as heat shock and glucose limitation. The three-dimensional structure of NH3-dependent NAD+ synthetase from Bacillus subtilis, in its free form and in complex with ATP shows that the enzyme consists of a tight homodimer with alpha/beta subunit topology [(PUBMED:8895556)]. This domain is also found in guanosine 5-monophosphate (GMP) synthetase. GMP synthase catalyses the synthesis of GMP from XMP. The protein is a homodimer, but in some archaea it is a heterodimer composed of a glutamine amidotransferase subunit and a ATP pyrophosphatase subunit. In eucaryotes, bacteria, and some archaea the two catalytic units are encoded by a single gene, producing a two-domain-type GMP, with a GATase domain in the N-terminal half and a ATP-PPase domain in the C-terminal half. This entry represents the ATP pyrophosphatase domain. ...
The infestation of the cultivated grain crops by phloem feeding aphids has generated a great deal of interest over the years, due to the serious damage they cause to the crops and yield losses that result. The mechanism of the interaction between aphids and host plants remains largely unknown in spite of efforts to understand the basis of aphid feeding on grain crops. Greater efforts are required to explain the mechanism(s) of this interaction in order to achieve sustainable agriculture. This thesis focused on an investigation of the mechanism of feeding by the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko (RWA) and the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. (BCA) on barley and wheat cultivars. These two aphids co-occur naturally, but they inflict very different feeding effects on host plants. Structural and functional approaches were employed to investigate their feeding habits and these were then related to the observed differences in their host plants. Transmission electron microscopy ...
anthranilate synthase / indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase / phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase [EC:4.1.3.27 4.1.1.48 5.3.1.24 ...
PQS biosynthetic functions of several of the pqs products are suggested by their sequence homologies (Fig. 4). PhnA and PhnB presumably synthesize the anthranilate precursor of PQS from chorismate (4, 10). Gene pqsA encodes a product homologous to benzoate coenzyme A ligase, which may be involved in activating anthranilate for PQS synthesis. Genes pqsB, pqsC, and pqsD encode proteins homologous to β-keto-acyl-acyl carrier protein synthases and are presumably involved in the production of a long chain hydrocarbon which reacts with anthranilate in the PQS biosynthetic pathway (4). Gene pqsE is not homologous to any defined proteins and our results indicate that it is not required for PQS synthesis. Gene pqsH encodes a putative FAD-dependent monooxygenase that may be responsible for the addition of the hydroxyl group to PQS.. Although phnA and phnB were originally assumed to encode an anthranilate synthetase comprising part of the phenazine biosynthetic pathway (10), recent studies by Mavrodi et ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from PET112 glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit PET112 available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Short-term metabolic fate of 13N-labeled glutamate, alanine, and glutamine(amide) in rat liver. AU - Cooper, A. J.L.. AU - Nieves, E.. AU - Rosenspire, K. C.. AU - Filc-DeRicco, S.. AU - Gelbard, A. S.. AU - Brusilow, S. W.. PY - 1988/12/1. Y1 - 1988/12/1. N2 - Tracer quantities (in 0.2 ml) of 13N-labele glutamate, alanine, or glutamine(amide) were administered rapidly (≤ 2 s) via the portal vein of anesthetized adult male rats. Liver content of tracer at 5 s was 57 ± 6 (n = 6), 24 ± 1 (n = 3), and 69 ± 7 (n = 3) % of the injected dose, respectively. Portal-hepatic vein differences for the corresponding amino acids were 17 ± 6, 26 ± 8, and 19 ± 9% (n = 4), respectively, suggesting some export of glutamate and glutamine, but not of alanine, to the hepatic vein. Following L-[13N]glutamate administration, label rapidly appeared in liver alanine and aspartate (within seconds). The data emphasize the rapidity of nitrogen exchange via linked transaminases. By 30 s following ...
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Decreases in enzyme activity often have little effect on the flux carried by the pathway. Similarly, up-modulation of single genes, and hence of the dependent enzyme concentrations, is frequently found to be ineffective in increasing the flux in the pathway in which the enzyme occurs. This insensitivity to enzyme variation is demonstrated experimentally for five separate enzymes in the tryptophan synthesis system of yeast, first by down-modulation of the gene dose and secondly by increasing the dose using multi-copy vectors. Such a lack of response is discussed in terms of the concepts of metabolic control analysis. When these five enzymes, however, were simultaneously increased by a multi-copy vector carrying all five genes, a substantial elevation of the flux to tryptophan was observed. These findings revealed a new phenomenon, namely the more than additive effects on the flux of simultaneous elevations of several enzyme activities. ...
3-(2-Aminoethyl)indol-5-ol p-aminobenzoate dihydrochloride | C17H19Cl2N3O2 | CID 29683 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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The pab1 gene of the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus encodes PABA synthase, necessary for para-aminobenzoic acid production. The C. cinereus protein is bifunctional with an N-terminal glutamine amidotransferase domain and a C-terminal chorismate amination domain. In most bacteria, these two functions are encoded in separate genes (e.g., pabA and pabB of E. coli). Fused PABA synthases have so far been detected in actinomycetes, Plasmodium falciparum, fungi and Arabidopsis thaliana. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the fused PAB sequences form a tight group that also includes uncharacterized PabB homologues from several bacteria. Unfused bacterial PabA proteins group with the glutamine amidotransferase subunits of bacterial anthranilate synthases, independent of organismal systematics, indicating a complex and perhaps independent evolutionary origin. In contrast, unfused PabB group and fused PabA/B proteins form a monophyletic group on a branch separate from the chorismate amination subunits of
TY - JOUR. T1 - TrpM, a Small Protein Modulating Tryptophan Biosynthesis and Morpho-Physiological Differentiation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). AU - Puglia, Anna Maria. AU - Botta, Luigi. AU - Giardina, Anna. AU - Gallo, Giuseppe. AU - Sutera, Alberto. AU - Palazzotto, Emilia. AU - Scaloni, Andrea. AU - Renzone, Giovanni. AU - Palazzotto, Emilia. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - In the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), small open reading frames encoding proteins with unknown functions were identified in several amino acid biosynthetic gene operons, such as SCO2038 (trpX) in the tryptophan trpCXBA locus. In this study, the role of the corresponding protein in tryptophan biosynthesis was investigated by combining phenotypic and molecular analyses. The 2038KO mutant strain was characterized by delayed growth, smaller aerial hyphae and reduced production of spores and actinorhodin antibiotic, with respect to the WT strain. The capability of this mutant to grow on minimal medium was ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important pathogen of mammals that relies on 2-hydroxyphenyloxazoline-containing siderophore molecules called mycobactins for the acquisition of iron in the restrictive environment of the mammalian macrophage. These compounds have been proposed to be biosynthesized through the action of a cluster of genes that include both nonribosomal peptide synthase and polyketide synthase components. One of these genes encodes a protein, MbtB, that putatively couples activated salicylic acid with serine or threonine and then cyclizes this precursor to the phenyloxazoline ring system. We have used gene replacement through homologous recombination to delete the mbtB gene and replace this with a hygromycin-resistance cassette in the virulent strain of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The resulting mutant is restricted for growth in iron-limited media but grows normally in iron-replete media. Analysis of siderophore production by this organism revealed that the biosynthesis of all salicylate
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, or SDS, is an anionic detergent with widespread use in industrial and household cleaning products, scientific laboratories, and personal care products such as toothpaste and shampoo. The potential toxicity of SDS has been well-characterized in whole organism studies and its potential effects on the environment continue to be studied. Herein, we undertake a chemical-genetic screen to explore whether low concentrations of SDS have any discernible effects at the cellular level. Our screen of the homozygous diploid yeast deletion collection identified numerous gene deletions that confer sensitivity to SDS. Subsequent bioinformatic and biological analyses reveal that yeast unable to synthesize tryptophan are especially sensitive to the presence of SDS. Interestingly, even wild-type yeast with an intact tryptophan biosynthetic pathway exhibit growth defects in the presence of SDS on media lacking tryptophan. Altogether, we have shown that low levels of SDS, primarily through ...
The TriRNA Pure Kit is a spin column system for purification of high-quality total RNA from a variety of samples. Initially, samples are homogenized in TRIzol® Reagent, GENEzol™ Reagent or other phenol, guanidine isothiocyanate reagents. Chloroform phase separation or isopropanol RNA precipitation is not required.
The trp operon is an operon-a group of genes that is used, or transcribed, together-that codes for the components for production of tryptophan. The trp operon is present in many bacteria, but was first characterized in Escherichia coli. The operon is regulated so that when tryptophan is present in the environment, the genes for tryptophan synthesis are not expressed. It was an important experimental system for learning about gene regulation, and is commonly used to teach gene regulation. Discovered in 1953 by Jacques Monod and colleagues, the trp operon in E. coli was the first repressible operon to be discovered. While the lac operon can be activated by a chemical (allolactose), the tryptophan (Trp) operon is inhibited by a chemical (tryptophan). This operon contains five structural genes: trp E, trp D, trp C, trp B, and trp A, which encode tryptophan synthetase. It also contains a repressive regulator gene called trp R. trp R has a promoter where RNA polymerase binds and synthesizes mRNA for a ...
We,China Suppliers & China Manufacturers, provide our Products catalog2: China OXALYL CHLORIDE, China HEXACHLOROETHANE, China 5-CHLOROMETHYL ANTHRANILATE
ETHYL ANTHRANILATE 87-25-2 NMR spectrum, ETHYL ANTHRANILATE H-NMR spectral analysis, ETHYL ANTHRANILATE C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
富永真琴「温度感受性TRP チャネルの生理機能と創薬標的としての意義」,第38 回生体膜と薬物の相互作用 シンポジウム,名古屋,2016 年11 月. ...
Streptomyces lydicus partial gluS-alpha gene for NADPH glutamate synthase alpha subunit and partial gluS-beta gene for NADPH glutamate synthase beta subunit, strain NRRL 2433 Streptomyces lydicus partial gluS-alpha and partial gluS-beta genes, strain NRRL ...
A methanol reforming catalyst that generates a reformed gas containing hydrogen by reforming methanol under the presence of oxygen and steam, comprises a catalytic component I containing Cu oxide and Zn oxide, and a catalytic component II containing metal oxide and one of Pt and Pd Also, another methanol reforming catalyst comprises a catalytic component I containing Cu oxide and Zn oxide, a catalytic component IIA containing first metal oxide and a noble metal, and a catalytic component IIB containing second metal oxide and one of Pt and Pd. The second metal oxide forms an alloy more easily than the first metal oxide. The auto-thermal reforming process can be stably accelerated in the methanol reforming reaction using these catalysts. Also, there are provided a reformer, a reforming apparatus, and a tuel cell system employing these methanol catalysts Since a heater Or a reducing apparatus can be omitted in these apparatuses, etc., sizes of these apparatuses, etc. become small and thus these apparatuses
This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of gene regulation underlying the distinct categories of resistance afforded to wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) by different Dn genes. Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Mordv.) feeding on susceptible wheat cultivars causes leaf rolling, chlorosis and the eventual death of the plant. Plants expressing Dn genes are resistant to D. noxia infestation, but different Dn genes afford phenotypically distinct modes of resistance: the Dn1 gene confers an antibiotic effect to lower aphid fecundity; Dn2 confers tolerance to high aphid pressure; and Dn5 confers antixenosis, and aphids do not prefer such plants as hosts. Little is known about the components involved in establishing a successful defence response against D. noxia attack and how these differ between the distinct resistance categories. It is assumed that the Dn genes function as classic R genes in plant defence, being receptors for elicitors in aphid saliva. Upon recognition, defence ...
Sarsero JP, Merino E, Yanofsky C (2000) A Bacillus subtilis operon containing genes of unknown function senses tRNATrp charging and regulates expression of the genes of tryptophan biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:2656-61.[PMID:10706627 ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1U6H0 (TRPD_MARHV), Anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase. Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain ATCC 700491 / DSM 11845 / VT8)
In vitro reconstitution and crystal structure of p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) involved in aureothin biosynthesis.(Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.) [2008] ...
Burkholderia dolosa strain LMG18942 histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase (hisC) gene, partial cds; imidazole glycerol phosphate dehydratase (hisB), multiple antibiotic resistance-related protein (marC), imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase glutamine amidotransferase subunit (hisH), phosphoribosylformimino-5-aminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide isomerase (hisA), imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase subunit (hisF), phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase (hisI), and phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase (hisE) genes, complete cds; and membrane protein gene, partial ...
Economic losses caused by herbivores and other species that inflict damage by browsing or gnawing are substantial. Because lethal approaches to damage reduction are not always practical or desirable, there is an increase in interest in the development of alternative, non-lethal technologies. Repellents may provide a feasible alternative. Here, we present recent studies of three repellent types: 1) anthranilate derivatives (e.g., methyl anthranilate), 2) predator scents (e.g., coyote urine), and 3) bittering agents (e.g., denatonium saccharide). Anthranilate derivatives and predator odors both appear to be promising repellents. Avoidance of the former substances is based on irritant volatiles, and anthranilates may be especially beneficial when the aim is to prevent gnawing damage. Predator odors may be most applicable for protection of vegetation. The effectiveness of these substances appear to be based on the presence of highly volatile, light molecular weight sulfur compounds. Unlike anthranilates or
The present invention is directed to an aqueous polyisocyanate dispersion which has an isocyanate content of at least 0.5% by weight, based on the weight of the polyisocyanate, and is prepared by a) dispersing in water a polyisocyanate which has an isocyanate content of at least 12% by weight and b) reacting the dispersed polyisocyanate with i) a primary or secondary monoamine containing at least one hydroxyl group in an amount sufficient to provide an equivalent ratio of amino groups to isocyanate groups of 0.1:1.0 to 0.7:1.0 and ii) a polyamine having primary and/or secondary amino groups and a molecular weight of 400 or less in an amount sufficient to provide an equivalent ratio of amino groups to isocyanate groups of 0.1:1.0 to 0.4:1.0, wherein component i) is mixed with the dispersed polyisocyanate either before or during the mixing of component ii) and provided that the equivalent ratio of amino groups from both components i) and ii) does not exceed 0.95:1.0. The present invention is also directed
And another one - Is this a right way to think about Schiffs bases - if I like an aldehyde, and want something similar as a base (i.e - long lived), I should just add the same amount of methyl anthranilate (or indole..)?
Bacteria PabC protein: closely related to D-alanine aminotransferase; involved in p-aminobenzoate synthesis; amino acid sequence given in first source
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Brian Robertson wrote: , , The amount of bacterial genome data available as sequenced cosmids of , 30-40 kb is increasing rapidly. Our problem is that we need to keep track , of newly discovered genes as they appear, so they can be incorporated into , our research program as appropriate. For this we need to create lists of , probable genes identified in the annotations for each cosmid. This can , then be circulated to laboratory workers. , , An example of this kind of annotation is shown below. We would like to , extract the /note field, which contains the probable function of the , gene, and create a list of these for each cosmid. , , FT CDS_pept complement(3043..4155) , FT /note=MTCY190.03c, probable anthranilate , FT phosphoribosyltransferase, trpD, len: 370, similar to eg , FT SW:TRPD_LACCA P17170, (43.2% identity in 308 aa overlap), , FT initiation codon uncertain, gtg at 4086 favoured by , FT homology but this has no clear ribosome binding site , , Does anyone know of a way of ...
1. As per usual, the media got it all wrong. For example, Kenneth Chang in the New York Times began his discussion of the article with the headline: "Study Suggests Math Teachers Scrap Balls and Slices," followed by a non sequitor having to do with trains leaving stations 400 miles apart and the reader is asked to determine the time the trains pass each other. Why might Chang have introduced this irrelevancy? 2. The supporting online material for this study may be found here and is well worth reading. In it, you will find details about the generic and the three concrete examples for explaining the commutative mathematical group of order three. Which of the four do you find the easiest to understand? Take the learning phase of your choice and see how well you do. Then, take the "Test of Transfer Domain" on page 26 and see how well you do on this phase. 3. If you have looked at the supporting material you will note that the questions are multiple choice, some questions of which have only two ...
We previously reported that laboratory reference strains of Chlamydia trachomatis differing in infection organotropism correlated with inactivating mutations in the pathogens tryptophan synthase (trpBA) genes. Here, we have applied functional genomics to extend this work and find that the paradigm established for reference serovars also applies to clinical isolates - specifically, all ocular trachoma isolates tested have inactivating mutations in the synthase, whereas all genital isolates encode a functional enzyme. Moreover, functional enzyme activity was directly correlated to IFN-γ resistance through an indole rescue mechanism. Hence, a strong selective pressure exists for genital strains to maintain a functional synthase capable of using indole for tryptophan biosynthesis. The fact that ocular serovars (serovar B) isolated from the genital tract were found to possess a functional synthase provided further persuasive evidence of this association. These results argue that there is an ...
The Anix draws listeners into an immersive world of gritty electronics on his latest single, Parasite featuring GXG. Machine-like percussion strikes out through the atmospheric composition while understated vocals drift in and out for a haunting and deceptively aggressive piece. The song is out now from independent f
Protein expression was investigated in the rat cortex 24 h after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) via two-dimensional electrophoresis. At pH 4-7, 52 protein spots were changed with 2-3-fold between sham and MCAO samples, and 13 spots were changed over 3-fold; while at pH 6-11, only 4 spots showed more than 2-fold changes. The 13 spots with 3-fold changes at pH 4-7 and the 4 spots at pH 6-11 were chosen for spot identification, and 12 of them were identified as 9 different proteins: dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DRP-2, accounting for 3 spots), spectrin alpha II chain (accounting for 2 spots), tropomodulin 2, beta-actin, N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), heat hock protein cognate 70-pseudogene 1, and glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate dehydrogenase are increased after MCAO; mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase alpha subunit and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 are reduced. As DRP-2, spectrin alpha II chain, tropomodulin 2 and NSF are involved in axonal and neurite ...
News from German scientists in the research of evolution, behavior and physiology of singing Orthoptera and some other insects that can make sounds. 28.04.2006 K.T. Sulimov: Cynological conception of odorology. 13.04.2006 D.P. Nikolaev (IITP RAS), P.P. Nikolaev (IITP RAS), A.I. Chulichkov (MSU): Algorithmic basis of color-constant image analysis system: results and project of development. 07.04.2006 G.I. Rozhkova (IITP RAS), D.S. Lebedev (IITP RAS), S.-D. Lee (Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Korea), C.-Y. Kim (Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Korea), A.E. Tokarev, V.S. Tokareva (IITP RAS), V.A. Bastakov (IITP RAS): Contrast enhancement of images generated on the monitors under strong ambient light. 09.03.2006 O.Yu. Orlov (IITP RAS): What do I see when I see nothing: reception, perception, and channel noise. 02.02.2006 E.M. Maximova (IITP RAS): The evolution of primate color vision. A review.. 22.02.2006 A.V. Seliverstov (IITP RAS): Simulation of tryptophan biosynthesis ...
In the terminal-tryptophan synthesis pathway, the initial step converts chorismate to anthranilate using anthranilate synthase ... Anthranilate synthase is regulated by the gene products of trpE and trpG. trpE encodes the first subunit, which binds to ... Anthranilate synthase is also regulated by feedback inhibition. The finished product of tryptophan, once produced in great ... α-Isopropylmalate synthase reacts with this substrate and Acetyl CoA to produce α-isopropylmalate. An isomerase then isomerizes ...
Li, J; Last, R. L. (1996). "The Arabidopsis thaliana trp5 mutant has a feedback-resistant anthranilate synthase and elevated ... "Isolation of cDNAs encoding the tryptophan pathway enzyme indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana". ...
... made from shikimate and is then attacked by nascent ammonia to produce the ortho aminobenzoate isomer by anthranilate synthase ... Enaminomycin C is formed from anthranilate, which is made via the shikimate pathway as well. Subsequent oxidation is followed ... Farinamycin is made of three different components: 3-OH-anthranilate (3-HAA), 3,4-aminohydroxybenzamide (3,4-AHBAm) and the ... natural product Enaminomycin C. 3-OH anthranilate is derived from the central shikimate pathway metabolite chorismate. ...
... the second component of anthranilate synthase and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) synthase; CTP synthase; GMP synthase; ... This activity is found in a range of biosynthetic enzymes, including glutamine amidotransferase, anthranilate synthase ... glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthase; phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase II; and the histidine ... or as domains in a much larger multifunctional synthase protein, such as CPSase. On the basis of sequence similarities two ...
... a virtual library of potential herbicidal inhibitors of the enzyme anthranilate synthase was generated by keeping the core ...
... anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase, biphenyl synthase, glycine N-benzoyltransferase, ornithine N-benzoyltransferase and ... It is a substrate in the formation of xanthonoids in Hypericum androsaemum by benzophenone synthase, condensing a molecule of ...
The Structures of Anthranilate Synthase of Serratia Marcescens Crystallized in the Presence of (i) its substrates, Chorismate ...
... anthranilate synthase EC 4.1.3.28: now EC 2.3.3.3 EC 4.1.3.29: now EC 2.3.3.4 EC 4.1.3.30: methylisocitrate lyase EC 4.1.3.31: ... 11-diene synthase EC 4.2.3.25: S-linalool synthase EC 4.2.3.26: R-linalool synthase EC 4.2.3.27: isoprene synthase EC 4.2.3.28 ... d-cadinene synthase EC 4.2.3.14: pinene synthase EC 4.2.3.15: myrcene synthase EC 4.2.3.16: (4S)-limonene synthase EC 4.2.3.17 ... chorismate synthase EC 4.2.3.6: trichodiene synthase EC 4.2.3.7: pentalenene synthase EC 4.2.3.8: casbene synthase EC 4.2.3.9: ...
Enzymes with similar structures to aminodeoxychorismate synthase are: Anthranilate synthase (TrpE) Isochorismate synthase (MenF ... It is believed that aminodeoxychorismate synthase may have evolved from anthranilate synthase (TrpE) - an enzyme that catalyses ... Aminodeoxychorismate synthase ADC synthase 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase PabB In certain microbial species such as ... Formerly aminodeoxychorismate synthase was referred to as PABA synthase; however this name is no longer recommended as it is ...
... whereas its 3 products are anthranilate, pyruvate, and L-glutamate. In enzymology, an anthranilate synthase (EC 4.1.3.27) is an ... In enzymology, an anthranilate synthase (EC 4.1.3.27) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction chorismate + L- ... Poulsen, C; Bongaerts, RJ; Verpoorte, R (March 1993). "urification and characterization of anthranilate synthase from ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is chorismate pyruvate-lyase (amino-accepting; anthranilate-forming). Other names in ...
... anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase MeSH D08.811.600.085 --- anthranilate synthase MeSH D08.811.600.116 --- aspartate ... riboflavin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.825 --- spermidine synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.912 --- spermine synthase MeSH ... anthranilate synthase MeSH D08.811.520.224.600.700 --- isocitrate lyase MeSH D08.811.520.224.800 --- tryptophanase MeSH D08.811 ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 --- nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772. ...
Creighton TE; Yanofsky C (1970). "Chorismate to tryptophan (Escherichia coli) - Anthranilate synthetase, PR transferase, PRA ... indoleglycerol phosphate synthase, indole-3-glycerophosphate synthase, 1-(2-carboxyphenylamino)-1-deoxy-D-ribulose-5-phosphate ... In enzymology, an indole-3-glycerol-phosphate synthase (IGPS) (EC 4.1.1.48) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 1 ... anthranilate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.24) (PRAI) activity, the third step of tryptophan biosynthesis. In fungi, IGPS is the central ...
... pentalenolactone F synthase EC 1.14.12.1: anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase (deaminating, decarboxylating) EC 1.14.12.2: now EC 1.14 ... pyruvate synthase EC 1.2.7.2: 2-oxobutyrate synthase EC 1.2.7.3: 2-oxoglutarate synthase EC 1.2.7.4: carbon-monoxide ... clavaminate synthase EC 1.14.11.22: flavone synthase EC 1.14.11.23: flavonol synthase EC 1.14.11.24: 2'-deoxymugineic-acid 2'- ... berbamunine synthase EC 1.14.21.4: salutaridine synthase EC 1.14.21.5: (S)-canadine synthase EC 1.14.21.6: lathosterol oxidase ...
... mycocerosate synthase EC 2.3.1.112: D-tryptophan N-malonyltransferase EC 2.3.1.113: anthranilate N-malonyltransferase EC 2.3. ... 2-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.7: 3-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.8: ATP citrate synthase EC 2.3.3.9: malate synthase EC 2.3. ... synthase EC 2.3.3.2: decylcitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.3: citrate (Re)-synthase EC 2.3.3.4: decylhomocitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.5: ... synthase EC 2.4.1.12: cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) EC 2.4.1.13: sucrose synthase EC 2.4.1.14: sucrose-phosphate synthase EC ...
It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of Tryptophan, where it stays inside the tryptophan synthase molecule between the ... Indole is biosynthesized in the shikimate pathway via anthranilate. ...
... anthranilate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.33: 4-chlorobenzoate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.34: trans-feruloyl-CoA synthase EC 6.2.1.35: ACP-SH: ... arginine b-lactam-synthase EC 6.3.4.1: GMP synthase. Now included in EC 6.3.5.2, GMP synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing). EC 6.3. ... imidazole ribonucleotide synthase EC 6.3.4.19: tRNAIle-lysidine synthase EC 6.3.4.20: 7-cyano-7-deazaguanine synthase EC 6.3. ... glutathionylspermidine synthase EC 6.3.1.9: trypanothione synthase EC 6.3.1.10: adenosylcobinamide-phosphate synthase EC 6.3. ...
Plants and microorganisms commonly synthesize tryptophan from shikimic acid or anthranilate: anthranilate condenses with ... In the last step, tryptophan synthase catalyzes the formation of tryptophan from indole and the amino acid serine. The ... The conversion is catalyzed by the enzyme tryptophan synthase. Amino acids, including tryptophan, are used as building blocks ...
Antimycins are synthesised by a hybrid polyketide synthase (PKS)/non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS). Lethal Doses in Fish ... 2. N-formyl-L-kynurenine is converted to anthranilate by the pathway-specific kynureninase, AntP. 3. Anthranilate is activated ... The production of ATP is subsequently inhibited, as protons are unable to flow through the ATP synthase complex in the absence ... 4. Anthranilate is converted to 3-aminosalicylate by a multicomponent oxygenase, AntHIJKL. 5. 3-Aminosalicylate is presented to ...
EC 2.9.1.2: O-phospho-L-seryl-tRNA(Sec):L-selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase ... EC 6.2.1.32: Anthranilate--CoA ligase. *EC 6.2.1.33: 4-chlorobenzoate--CoA ligase ... 2-Succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid synthase EC 2.2.1.9 ... EC 6.2.1.38: (2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA synthase ...
anthranilate metabolic process. • NAD biosynthetic process. • 'de novo' NAD biosynthetic process from tryptophan. ... regeneration of methionine: Methionine synthase/Homocysteine methyltransferase. *Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. * ...
... whereas its 3 products are anthranilate, pyruvate, and L-glutamate. In enzymology, an anthranilate synthase (EC 4.1.3.27) is an ... In enzymology, an anthranilate synthase (EC 4.1.3.27) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction chorismate + L- ... Poulsen, C; Bongaerts, RJ; Verpoorte, R (March 1993). "urification and characterization of anthranilate synthase from ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is chorismate pyruvate-lyase (amino-accepting; anthranilate-forming). Other names in ...
Anthranilate synthase component I-like (IPR019999)*Anthranilate synthase component I, TrpE-like, bacterial (IPR005257) ...
In the first step, the glutamine-binding beta subunit (TrpG) of anthranilate synthase (AS) provides the glutamine ... to produce anthranilate. In the absence of TrpG, TrpE can synthesize anthranilate directly from chorismate and high ... Part of a heterotetrameric complex that catalyzes the two-step biosynthesis of anthranilate, an intermediate in the ... Anthranilate synthase component 1 (trpE), Anthranilate synthase component 1 (C7M65_09250), Anthranilate synthase component 1 ( ...
In the first step, the glutamine-binding beta subunit (TrpG) of anthranilate synthase (AS) provides the glutamine ... to produce anthranilate. In the absence of TrpG, TrpE can synthesize anthranilate directly from chorismate and high ... Part of a heterotetrameric complex that catalyzes the two-step biosynthesis of anthranilate, an intermediate in the ... Anthranilate synthase component 1 (trpE), Anthranilate synthase component 1 (trpE), Bifunctional protein TrpGD (trpGD) ...
Overexpresion of the feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase gene in tobacco causes tryptophan accumulation * * TSAI F-Y ...
Anthranilate synthase (AS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the TIA pathway. The transgenic C. roseus hairy root line ... Anthranilate synthase (AS) catalyzes chorismate to anthranilate, which is considered to be the rate-limiting step in indole ... Anthranilate synthase (AS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the TIA pathway. The transgenic C. roseus hairy root line ... 2 Anthranilate synthase genes in Arabidopsis - defense-related regulation of the tryptophan pathway. Plant Cell. 1992;4(6):721- ...
... Other foods you could consider avoiding are: sugar, dairy products, deep-fried ... Discover out what actual customers must say about acne free in 3 days anthranilate synthase feedback inhibition does it work ... Youll be able to nonetheless exfoliate the pores and skin, which is able to anthranilate synthase feedback inhibition take ... Luckily, there are prolific acne treatment for this condition that anthranilate synthase feedback inhibition diminish each the ...
Graf, R., Mehmann, B., Braus, G. H. (1993). "Analysis of feedback-resistant anthranilate synthases from Saccharomyces ... "Nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes TRP2 and TRP3 encoding bifunctional anthranilate synthase: indole-3- ...
The structures of anthranilate synthase of Serratia marcescens crystallized in the presence of (i) its substrates, chorismate ... ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE A, C 519 Serratia marcescens EC#: 4.1.3.27 IUBMB Mutation: P60R, V83L, L130I, V164L, H459V, H461N, R492P ... ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE FROM SERRATIA MARCESCENS IN COMPLEX WITH ITS END PRODUCT INHIBITOR L-TRYPTOPHAN. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1i7s/ ...
... and expression of ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE -alpha1 (ASA1), a gene involved in IAA-biosynthesis. ASA1 and ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE - ... Adventitious roots; Anthranilate synthase genes; In vitro culture; Indole-3-acetic acid; Indole-3-acetic acid efflux carriers; ... in Arabidopsis thaliana thin cell layers by conversion into indole-3-acetic acid and stimulation of anthranilate synthase ... in Arabidopsis thaliana thin cell layers by conversion into indole-3-acetic acid and stimulation of anthranilate synthase ...
Anthranilate synthase component II. CGGGCTGCAT[A/G]CCAGAGCTGC. 1. 724118. G. G. A. 2009V-1096. ...
DAHP synthase; tyrA, prephenate dehydrogenase; quiC, 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase; trpE, anthranilate synthase; hpd, 4- ... In P. putida S12 TPL3, genome analysis revealed a mutation in the gene encoding the anthranilate synthase (trpE), resulting in ... 2015). Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to produce anthranilate from glucose. Front. Microbiol. 6:1310. doi: ... Different Pseudomonas strains have been used for the production of a range of bio-based aromatics including anthranilate, ...
PEP, phosphoenolpyruvate; E4P, erythrose 4-phosphate; CM, chorismate mutase; AS, anthranilate synthase. ... Chorismate may be used by the enzyme anthranilate synthase in the synthesis of Trp or converted to prephenate, which is the ... 1996). Tissue localization of u.v.-B-screening pigments and of chalcone synthase mRNA in needles of Scots pine seedlings. New ... NADH-dependent glutamate synthase; L-Glu, L-glutamate; L-Gln, L-glutamine; 2-OG, 2-oxoglutarate. ...
DE SubName: Full=Anthranilate synthase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADH97620.1}; DE EC=4.1.3.27 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADH97620.1}; GN ... DR GO; GO:0004049; F:anthranilate synthase activity; IEA:UniProtKB-EC. DR GO; GO:0009058; P:biosynthetic process; IEA:InterPro ... DR Gene3D; 3.60.120.10; -; 1. DR InterPro; IPR005801; ADC_synthase. DR InterPro; IPR019999; Anth_synth_I-like. DR InterPro; ...
Interchangeability of the two anthranilate synthases and evolutionary implications. J Bacteriol 172:884-900. ... 1990) Identification and characterization of genes for a second anthranilate synthetase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ...
Thermodynamics of reactions catalyzed by anthranilate synthase. Biophysical Chememistry: 84 (2000): 45-64. Byrnes, W. M.,* ... Extrinsic factors potassium chloride and glycerol induce thermostability in recombinant anthranilate synthase from ... Extrinsic factors potassium chloride and glycerol induce thermostability in recombinant anthranilate synthase from ...
Tryptophan biosynthesis involves conversion of chorismate to anthranilate using anthranilate synthase. This enzyme requires ... Anthranilate synthase is regulated by the gene products of trpE and trpG. trpE encodes the first subunit, which binds to ... Anthranilate synthase is also regulated by feedback inhibition: tryptophan is a co-repressor to the TrpR repressor. ... Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include acetolactate synthase (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase), acetohydroxy ...
Two anthranilate synthase genes in Arabidopsis : defenserelated regulation of the tryptophan pathway NIYOGI K. K. ... Use of a feedback-insensitive α subunit of anthranilate synthase as a selectable marker for transformation of rice and potato ... Suppressors of trp1 fluorescence identify a new Arabidopsis gene, TRP4, encoding the anthranilate synthase β subunit NIYOGI KK ... Expression of a feedback insensitive anthranilate synthase gene from tobacco increases free tryptophan in soybean plants INABA ...
Anthranilate synthase (AhANS). 2. Production of tryptophan pathway metabolites as part of an Arabidopsis defense response (e.g ... The synthesis of saponins and expression of respective genes (squalene synthase, squalene epoxidase, and β-amyrin synthase) is ... chalcone synthase; 4CL, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase; DMID, 7,2′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-isoflavonol dehydratase; FSII, flavone synthase ... Squalene synthase (AhSqS). 1. The downregulation of SqS reduced stomatal conductance and conserved more moisture; it also led ...
anthranilate synthase / indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase / phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase [EC:4.1.3.27 4.1.1.48 5.3. ... 4.1.1.48 indole-3-glycerol-phosphate synthase. CNBH0530. 4.1.3 Oxo-acid-lyases. 4.1.3.27 anthranilate synthase. CNBH0530. 5. ...
Interchangeability of the two anthranilate synthases and evolutionary implications. J. Bacteriol. 1990, 172, 884-900. [Google ... Identification and characterization of genes for a second anthranilate synthase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ... C. violaceum CV026 lacks the autoinducer synthase CviI and thus requires exogenous C6-HSL for violacein formation, which is QS- ...
1981 Subunit structure of anthranilate synthase from Neurospora crassa: preparation and characterization of a protease-free ... Strains carrying the trp-2 mutation were supplemented with 10 μg/ml anthranilate. Anthranilate is a metabolic precursor of ... The trp-2 gene encodes anthranilate synthetase (Keeseyet al. 1981). The mtrSR33 trp-241 mat A strain was crossed to lab strain ... 10 μg/ml anthranilate, 2% agar). For RNA analyses, tissue was grown and synchronized by light-to-dark transfers following ...
Anthranilate Synthase* * Diabetic Nephropathies / etiology* * Fructosephosphates / metabolism * Hexosamines / biosynthesis* * ...
Anthranilate synthase gene and method of use thereof for conferring tryptophan overproduction. ... Anthranilate synthase gene and method of use thereof for conferring tryptophan overproduction. ... Marker: nopaline synthase as marker gene with additional border sequence between the Bt gene and the nos gene. ... 31, pHD1050 contains the chimeric Bt2 gene under the control of the Pnos promotor, as well as the nopaline synthase gene ...
Anthranilate synthase gene and method of use thereof for conferring tryptophan overproduction. ...
  • C. violaceum CV026 lacks the autoinducer synthase CviI and thus requires exogenous C6-HSL for violacein formation, which is QS-mediated [ 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast, transcription of the C4-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) autoinducer synthase gene rhlI was reduced by 50% in the nfxC type mutant relative to that in the wild type. (asm.org)
  • The production of many of these extracellular virulence factors is controlled by two cell-to-cell signaling systems, called las and rhl, which are both composed of a transcriptional regulator (LasR and RhlR, respectively) and an autoinducer synthase (LasI and RhlI, respectively). (asm.org)
  • Extrinsic factors potassium chloride and glycerol induce thermostability in recombinant anthranilate synthase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. (howard.edu)
  • Trp synthase performs two enzymatic functions and is composed of two subunits, α and β, which together catalyze the conversion of indole-3-glycerol phosphate to Trp. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In E. coli citrate synthase, the enzyme involved in the condensation reaction initiating the Citric Acid Cycle is strongly inhibited by α-ketoglutarate feedback inhibition and can be inhibited by DPNH as well high concentrations of ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indole-3-butyric acid promotes adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana thin cell layers by conversion into indole-3-acetic acid and stimulation of anthranilate synthase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Anthranilate synthase (AS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the TIA pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As their last contribution to this field, his group answered the final mechanistic question in the pathway with the determination of the stereochemical course of EPSP synthase by total synthesis of the unstable tetrahedral intermediate. (berkeley.edu)
  • Subsequent reactions convert putrescine into spermidine and spermine, and these are catalyzed by spermidine and spermine synthases, which add propylamino groups from decarboxylated S -adenosylmethionine, catalyzed by S -adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) ( Pegg, 1988 ). (biologists.org)
  • Novel expression vectors and constructs encoding a chloroplast transit peptide (CTP) operably linked to a monomeric anthranilate synthase are provided. (patents.com)