Characterization of a duocarmycin-DNA adduct-recognizing protein in cancer cells. (1/25)Duocarmycins have been reported to derive their potent antitumor activity through a sequence-selective minor groove alkylation of N3 adenine in double-stranded DNA. We have used gel mobility shift assays to detect proteins that bind to DNA treated in vitro with duocarmycin SA and identified a protein, named duocarmycin-DNA adduct recognizing protein (DARP), which binds with increased affinity to duocarmycin-damaged DNA. Examination with partially purified DARP revealed that the protein recognized not only the DNA adduct of structurally related drug, CC-1065, but unexpectedly, the protein also recognized the DNA adduct of another chemotype of minor groove binder, anthramycin. These results demonstrate that DARP recognizes the structural alteration of DNA induced by these potent DNA-alkylating drugs, suggesting the possibility that the protein might modulate the antitumor activity of these drugs. (+info)
A comparison of the rates of reaction and function of UVRB in UVRABC- and UVRAB-mediated anthramycin-N2-guanine-DNA repair. (2/25)The repair of anthramycin-DNA adducts by the UVR proteins in Escherichia coli follows two pathways: the adducts may be incised by the combined actions of UVRA, UVRB, and UVRC, or alternatively, the anthramycin may be removed by UVRA and UVRB in the absence of UVRC and with no DNA strand incision. To assess the competition between these two competing pathways, the rate of UVRABC-mediated excision repair of anthramycin-N2-guanine DNA adducts and the rate of UVRAB-mediated removal of the adduct were measured with single end-labeled DNAs under identical reaction conditions. UVR protein concentrations of 15 nM UVRA, 100 nM UVRB, and 10 nM UVRC protein were chosen to mimic in vivo concentrations. With these UVR protein concentrations and anthramycin-DNA concentrations of 1-2 nM the incision reaction and the release reactions are described by first-order kinetics. The rate of the UVRABC reaction, measured as the increase in incised fragments, was six to seven times faster than the rate of the UVRAB reaction, measured as the decrease in incised fragments. The UVRABC incision rate on anthramycin-modified linear DNA was four to five times the incision rate measured on the same DNA irradiated with ultraviolet light. We also investigated the role of the ATPase function of UVRB in UVRAB-mediated anthramycin removal. We found that a UVRB analogue with alanine at arginine 51, which retains near wild type ATPase activity, supported removal of anthramycin in the presence of UVRA, whereas a UVRB analogue with alanine at lysine 45, which abolishes the ATPase activity, did not. UVRB*, a specific proteolytic cleavage product of UVRB which retains the ATPase activity, did support removal of anthramycin in the presence of UVRA. (+info)
Lesion selectivity in blockage of lambda exonuclease by DNA damage. (3/25)Various kinds of DNA damage block the 3' to 5' exonuclease action of both E. coli exonuclease III and T4 DNA polymerase. This study shows that a variety of DNA damage likewise inhibits DNA digestion by lambda exonuclease, a 5' to 3' exonuclease. The processive degradation of DNA by the enzyme is blocked if the substrate DNA is treated with ultraviolet irradiation, anthramycin, distamycin, or benzo[a]-pyrene diol epoxide. Furthermore, as with the 3' to 5' exonucleases, the enzyme stops at discrete sites which are different for different DNA damaging agents. On the other hand, digestion of treated DNA by lambda exonuclease is only transiently inhibited at guanine residues alkylated with the acridine mustard ICR-170. The enzyme does not bypass benzo[a]-pyrene diol epoxide or anthramycin lesions even after extensive incubation. While both benzo[a]-pyrene diol epoxide and ICR-170 alkylate the guanine N-7 position, only benzo[a]-pyrene diol epoxide also reacts with the guanine N-2 position in the minor groove of DNA. Anthramycin and distamycin bind exclusively to sites in the minor groove of DNA. Thus lambda exonuclease may be particularly sensitive to obstructions in the minor groove of DNA; alternatively, the enzyme may be blocked by some local helix distortion caused by these adducts, but not by alkylation at guanine N-7 sites. (+info)
DNA binding properties of a new class of linked anthramycin analogs. (4/25)We have investigated the DNA binding properties of the anthramycin analogues 4, 5, and 6 using fluorescence spectroscopy. A considerable fluorescence enhancement occurs when pyrrolo [1,4] benzodiazepines (P[1,4]Bs) are covalently attached to duplex DNA, which was used to show that neither the presence of RNA, single-stranded DNA, or protein had any effect on the degree of fluorescence enhancement resulting from the incubation of 5 and 6 with DNA. The enhancement was found to be dependent on the presence of the imine functionality in each of the compounds. A wavelength of 320 nm was used to excite the chromophore and its emission wavelength maximum was 420 nm. Additionally, we have discovered that the P[1,4]B ring system exhibits exceptionally favorable fluorescence polarization anisotropy (FPA) decay characteristics. For these more detailed fluorescence measurements, we used the structurally simpler analogue 4,. The time resolved maximum FPA for 4 in glycerol at 25 degrees C is 0.28. This result indicates that the P[1,4]B family of antibiotics could serve as sensitive probes of DNA dynamics in the 0.1 to 35 ns time scale. (+info)
Benzodiazepine biosynthesis in Streptomyces refuineus. (5/25)Anthramycin is a benzodiazepine alkaloid with potent antitumor and antibiotic activity produced by the thermophilic actinomycete Streptomyces refuineus sbsp. thermotolerans. In this study, the complete 32.5 kb gene cluster for the biosynthesis of anthramycin was identified by using a genome-scanning approach, and cluster boundaries were estimated via comparative genomics. A lambda-RED-mediated gene-replacement system was developed to provide supporting evidence for critical biosynthetic genes and to validate the boundaries of the proposed anthramycin gene cluster. Sequence analysis reveals that the 25 open reading frame anthramycin cluster contains genes consistent with the biosynthesis of the two halves of anthramycin: 4 methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and a "dehydroproline acrylamide" moiety. These nonproteinogenic amino acid precursors are condensed by a two-module nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) terminated by a reductase domain, consistent with the final hemiaminal oxidation state of anthramycin. (+info)
Dissociation of minor groove binders from DNA: insights from metadynamics simulations. (6/25)(+info)
Adenylation enzyme characterization using gamma -(18)O(4)-ATP pyrophosphate exchange. (7/25)(+info)
Biosynthesis, synthesis, and biological activities of pyrrolobenzodiazepines. (8/25)(+info)
Anthramycin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia, and skin infections. It is a member of the macrolide antibiotic class, which works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to produce proteins. Anthramycin is typically administered orally or intravenously, and it is usually taken for several weeks or months, depending on the specific infection being treated. It is important to note that anthramycin can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and liver damage, and it may interact with other medications, so it should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Benzodiazepinones are a class of psychoactive drugs that are similar in structure to benzodiazepines, but with some key differences. Like benzodiazepines, benzodiazepinones are used to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms. However, benzodiazepinones are generally considered to be less potent and have a shorter duration of action than benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepinones are classified as Schedule IV controlled substances in the United States, meaning that they have a low potential for abuse and dependence. However, like all psychoactive drugs, benzodiazepinones can be habit-forming and should be used only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.