Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
An anthracycline produced by Streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity.
A very toxic anthracycline-type antineoplastic related to DAUNORUBICIN, obtained from Actinomadura carminata.
An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against BREAST NEOPLASMS; LYMPHOMA; and LEUKEMIA.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties.
An anthrocycline from a Streptomyces nogalater variant. It is a cytolytic antineoplastic that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by binding to DNA.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Aconitic Acid is a weak organic acid, naturally found in some fruits and vegetables, that metabolizes to citric acid in the body and has been used in traditional medicine but can be toxic in high concentrations.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
The (+)-enantiomorph of razoxane.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Leukemia L1210 is a designation for a specific murine (mouse) leukemia cell line that was originally isolated from a female mouse with an induced acute myeloid leukemia, which is widely used as a model in cancer research, particularly for in vivo studies of drug efficacy and resistance.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Deoxycytidine is a nucleoside consisting of the pentose sugar deoxyribose linked to the nitrogenous base cytosine, which plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair processes within cells.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.

Novel selective inhibitors for human topoisomerase I, BM2419-1 and -2 derived from saintopin. (1/757)

Compounds BM2419-1 and -2 were isolated from a culture broth of a fungus Paecilomyces sp. BM2419. It was shown that these novel compounds were artifacts derived from saintopin, a dual inhibitor of topoisomerase I and II by independent processes. In the human topoisomerase I inhibition assay using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BM2419-1 and -2 inhibited selectively the yeast growth dependent on human topoisomerase I induction with IC50 values of 0.3 ng/ml and 6.0 ng/ml, respectively.  (+info)

Induction of MDR1 gene expression by anthracycline analogues in a human drug resistant leukaemia cell line. (2/757)

The effects of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (idarubicin, IDA) and MX2, a new morpholino-anthracycline, on up-regulation of the MDR1 gene in the low-level multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line CEM/A7R were compared at similar concentrations (IC10, IC50 and IC90) over a short time exposure (4 and 24 h). The chemosensitivity of each drug was determined by a 3-day cell growth inhibition assay. Compared with epirubicin (EPI), IDA and MX2 were 17- and eightfold more effective in the CEM/A7R line respectively. No cross-resistance to 5-FU was seen in the CEM/A7R line. Verapamil (5 microM) and PSC 833 (1 microM), which dramatically reversed resistance to EPI in the CEM/A7R line, had no sensitizing effect on the resistance of this line to MX2, but slightly decreased resistance to IDA. The sensitivity to 5-FU was unchanged by these modulators. The induction of MDR1 mRNA expression by IDA, MX2 and 5-FU was analysed by Northern blotting and semiquantitatively assessed by scanning Northern blots on a phosphorimager. The relative level of MDR1 expression was expressed as a ratio of MDR1 mRNA to the internal RNA control glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). IDA, MX2 and 5-FU differentially up-regulated MDR1 mRNA in the CEM/A7R line in a dose-dependent manner. Both IDA and MX2 induced MDR1 expression within 4 h. 5-FU up-regulated MDR1 expression only when drug exposure was prolonged to 24 h. Based on MRK 16 binding, flow cytometric analysis of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression paralleled the increase in MDR1 mRNA levels. For the three anthracyclines, the increase in MDR1 expression was stable in cells grown in the absence of drug for more than 3 weeks after drug treatment. The induction of MDR1 expression by 5-FU was transient, associated with a rapid decrease in the increased Pgp levels which returned to baseline 72 h after the removal of 5-FU. This study demonstrates that MDR1 expression can be induced by analogues of anthracyclines not pumped by Pgp, and that this induction appears to be stable despite a 3-week drug-free period.  (+info)

Characterization of aklavinone-11-hydroxylase from Streptomyces purpurascens. (3/757)

Aklavinone-11-hydroxylase (RdmE) is a FAD monooxygenase participating in the biosynthesis of daunorubicin, doxorubicin and rhodomycins. The rdmE gene encodes an enzyme of 535 amino acids. The sequence of the Streptomyces purpurascens enzyme is similar to other Streptomyces aromatic polyketide hydroxylases. We overexpressed the gene in Streptomyces lividans and purified aklavinone-11-hydroxylase to apparent homogeneity with four chromatographic steps utilizing a kinetic photometric enzyme assay. The enzyme is active as the monomer with a molecular mass of 60 kDa; it hydroxylates aklavinone and other anthracyclinones. Aklavinone-11-hydroxylase can use both NADH and NADPH as coenzyme but it is slowly inactivated in the presence of NADH. The apparent Km for NADPH is 2 mM and for aklavinone 10 microM. The enzyme is inactivated in the presence of phenylglyoxal and 2,3-butanedione. NADPH protects against inactivation of aklavinone-11-hydroxylase by phenylglyoxal.  (+info)

Barminomycin forms GC-specific adducts and virtual interstrand crosslinks with DNA. (4/757)

The sequence specificity of the binding of barminomycin (SN-07 chromophore) to DNA was investigated using an in vitro transcription assay. It was found that this compound formed blockages to transcription, and these blocks were highly selective for 5'-GC sequences. The half-lives of the first seven transcriptional blockages at 37 degrees C were 14-130 min, plus one site >>200 min, with widely varying levels of essentially permanent blockages at each site (0-100%; average of 40%), indicative of considerable dependence on flanking sequences of adducts stability at individual GC sites. Barminomycin was also shown to form DNA virtual (i.e. functional) interstrand crosslinks. Such crosslinks were also relatively heat stable, with 40% of the DNA remaining crosslinked after heating at 90 degrees C for 5 min. The barminomycin-DNA adducts and crosslinks appear to be essentially identical to those formed between adriamycin and DNA. Whereas adriamycin requires prior activation with formaldehyde in order to form adducts and crosslinks, barminomycin behaves in all respects as if it is a pre-activated form of adriamycin.  (+info)

Development of a self-cloning system for Actinomadura verrucosospora and identification of polyketide synthase genes essential for production of the angucyclic antibiotic pradimicin. (5/757)

A self-cloning system for Actinomadura verrucosospora, a producer of the angucyclic antibiotic pradimicin A (PRM A), has been developed. The system is based on reproducible and reliable protoplasting and regeneration conditions for A. verrucosospora and a novel plasmid vector that consists of a replicon from a newly found Actinomadura plasmid and a selectable marker cloned from the Actinomadura strain. The system has an efficiency of more than 10(5) CFU/microgram of DNA. Using this system, we have cloned and identified the polyketide synthase (PKS) genes essential for PRM A biosynthesis from A. verrucosospora. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 3.5-kb SalI-SphI fragment showed that ketosynthase subunits (open reading frame 1 [ORF1] and ORF2) of the essential PKS genes have strong similarities (59 to 89%) to those for angucyclic antibiotic biosynthesis.  (+info)

Altered multidrug resistance phenotype caused by anthracycline analogues and cytosine arabinoside in myeloid leukemia. (6/757)

The expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is often increased in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, little is known of the regulation of Pgp expression by cytotoxics in AML. We examined whether Pgp expression and function in leukemic blasts was altered after a short exposure to cytotoxics. Blasts were isolated from 19 patients with AML (15 patients) or chronic myeloid leukemia in blastic transformation (BT-CML, 4 patients). Pgp expression and function were analyzed by flow cytometric analysis of MRK 16 binding and Rhodamine 123 retention, respectively. At equitoxic concentrations, ex vivo exposure for 16 hours to the anthracyclines epirubicin (EPI), daunomycin (DAU), idarubicin (IDA), or MX2 or the nucleoside analogue cytosine arabinoside (AraC) differentially upregulated MDR1/Pgp expression in Pgp-negative and Pgp-positive blast cells. In Pgp-negative blasts, all four anthracyclines and AraC significantly increased Pgp expression (P =.01) and Pgp function (P =.03). In contrast, MX2, DAU, and AraC were the most potent in inducing Pgp expression and function in Pgp positive blasts (P <.05). A good correlation between increased Pgp expression and function was observed in Pgp-negative (r =.90, P =.0001) and Pgp-positive blasts (r =.77, P =.0002). This increase in Pgp expression and function was inhibited by the addition of 1 micromol/L PSC 833 to blast cells at the time of their exposure to these cytotoxics. In 1 patient with AML, an increase in Pgp levels was observed in vivo at 4 and 16 hours after the administration of standard chemotherapy with DAU/AraC. Upregulation of Pgp expression was also demonstrated ex vivo in blasts harvested from this patient before the commencement of treatment. In 3 other cases (1 patient with AML and 2 with BT-CML) in which blasts were Pgp negative at the time of initial clinical presentation, serial samples at 1 to 5 months after chemotherapy showed the presence of Pgp-positive blasts. All 3 patients had refractory disease. Interestingly, in all 3 cases, upregulation of Pgp by cytotoxics was demonstrated ex vivo in blasts harvested at the time of presentation. These data suggest that upregulation of the MDR1 gene may represent a normal response of leukemic cells to cytotoxic stress and may contribute to clinical drug resistance.  (+info)

Correlation between the kinetics of anthracycline uptake and the resistance factor in cancer cells expressing the multidrug resistance protein or the P-glycoprotein. (7/757)

Multidrug resistance (MDR) in model systems is known to be conferred by two different integral proteins, the 170-kDa P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and the 190-kDa multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1). One possible pharmacological approach to overcome drug resistance is the use of specific inhibitors, which enhance the cytotoxicity of known antineoplastic agents. However, while many compounds have been proven to be very efficient in inhibiting Pgp activity only some of them are able to inhibit MRP1. The other likely approach is based on the design and synthesis of new non-cross-resistant drugs with physicochemical properties favoring the uptake of the drug by the resistant cells. The intracellular drug retention influences its cytotoxic effect. The level of the intracellular drug content is a function of the amount of drug transported inside the cell (influx) and the amount of drug expelled from the cell (efflux). In this work, the kinetics of drug uptake and the kinetics of active efflux of several anthracycline derivatives in both Pgp expressing K562/Adr cells and MRP1 expressing GLC4/Adr cells was determined. Our data have shown that in both cell lines there is no correlation between the resistance factor and the kinetics of drug efflux by these pumping systems. However, a very good correlation between the resistance factor and the kinetics of drug uptake has been established in both cell lines: the resistance factor decreases when the kinetics of drug uptake increases. This work has clearly shown that when the rate of transmembrane transport of anthracycline is high enough, the efflux mediated by the protein transporter is not able to pace with it. The protein transporter essentially operates in a futile cycle and the resistance factor is tending to one. It does not mean, however, that when the resistance factor is close to one the anthracycline is not transported by the pump.  (+info)

Localization of a substrate specificity domain in the multidrug resistance protein. (8/757)

Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) confers resistance to a number of natural product chemotherapeutic agents. It is also a high affinity transporter of some physiological conjugated organic anions such as cysteinyl leukotriene C(4) and the cholestatic estrogen, 17beta-estradiol 17(beta-D-glucuronide) (E(2)17betaG). We have shown that the murine orthologue of MRP (mrp), unlike the human protein, does not confer resistance to common anthracyclines and is a relatively poor transporter of E(2)17betaG. We have taken advantage of these functional differences to identify region(s) of MRP involved in mediating anthracycline resistance and E(2)17betaG transport by generating mrp/MRP hybrid proteins. All hybrid proteins conferred resistance to the Vinca alkaloid, vincristine, when transfected into human embryonic kidney cells. However, only those in which the COOH-terminal third of mrp had been replaced with the corresponding region of MRP-conferred resistance to the anthracyclines, doxorubicin, and epirubicin. Exchange of smaller segments of the COOH-terminal third of the mouse protein by replacement of either amino acids 959-1187 or 1188-1531 with those of MRP produced proteins capable of conferring some level of resistance to the anthracyclines tested. All hybrid proteins transported cysteinyl leukotriene C(4) with similar efficiencies. In contrast, only those containing the COOH-terminal third of MRP transported E(2)17betaG with an efficiency comparable with that of the intact human protein. The results demonstrate that differences in primary structure of the highly conserved COOH-terminal third of mrp and MRP are important determinants of the inability of the murine protein to confer anthracycline resistance and its relatively poor ability to transport E(2)17betaG.  (+info)

Anthracyclines are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that are derived from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius. These drugs include daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and idarubicin. They work by intercalating into DNA and inhibiting the enzyme topoisomerase II, which leads to DNA damage and ultimately cell death. Anthracyclines are used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, including leukemias, lymphomas, breast cancer, and sarcomas. However, they can also cause cardiotoxicity, which limits their long-term use.

Naphthacenes are hydrocarbon compounds that consist of a naphthalene ring fused to two additional benzene rings. They belong to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and have been studied for their potential carcinogenic properties. Naphthacenes can be found in various environmental sources, including air pollution from vehicle emissions and cigarette smoke. However, it's important to note that specific medical definitions related to diseases or conditions are not typically associated with naphthacenes.

Antibiotics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth.

Antineoplastics, also known as chemotherapeutic agents, are a class of drugs used to treat cancer. These medications target and destroy rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, although they can also affect other quickly dividing cells in the body, such as those in the hair follicles or digestive tract, which can lead to side effects.

Antibiotics and antineoplastics are two different classes of drugs with distinct mechanisms of action and uses. It is important to use them appropriately and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Daunorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and breast cancer. It works by intercalating with DNA and inhibiting topoisomerase II, which results in DNA damage and ultimately cell death.

The drug is administered intravenously and may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and damage to the heart muscle (cardiotoxicity) with long-term use. Regular monitoring of cardiac function is recommended during treatment with daunorubicin.

It's important to note that this medication should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as it can have serious and potentially life-threatening consequences if not used correctly.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Aclarubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in cancer chemotherapy. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Aclarubicin is often used to treat acute leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors.

Like other anthracyclines, aclarubicin can cause significant side effects, including damage to the heart muscle, suppression of bone marrow function, and hair loss. It may also cause nausea, vomiting, and mouth sores. Aclarubicin is usually given by injection into a vein.

It's important to note that the use of aclarubicin should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its administration requires careful monitoring due to potential toxicities.

Carubicin is an antineoplastic antibiotic, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of drug called an anthracycline, which works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells and preventing them from dividing and growing. Carubicin is specifically used to treat soft tissue sarcomas, which are cancers that develop in the connective tissues such as muscles, tendons, and cartilage. It may be given by injection into a vein (intravenously) or muscle (intramuscularly).

It is important to note that Carubicin can have serious side effects, including damage to the heart and bone marrow. Therefore, it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional who has experience in administering cancer chemotherapy.

Idarubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemia and lymphoma. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Idarubicin is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection due to lowered white blood cell counts. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, so regular monitoring of cardiac function is necessary during treatment.

Epirubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in cancer chemotherapy. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells and preventing them from dividing and growing. Epirubicin is often used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and ovarian cancer.

Like other anthracyclines, epirubicin can cause side effects such as hair loss, nausea and vomiting, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection due to damage to the bone marrow. It can also cause heart problems, including congestive heart failure, especially when given in high doses or when combined with other chemotherapy drugs that can also harm the heart.

Epirubicin is usually given by injection into a vein (intravenously) and is typically administered in cycles, with breaks between treatment periods to allow the body to recover from any side effects. The dose and schedule of epirubicin may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health and any other medical conditions they may have.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Razoxane" is not a medical term that has a widely accepted or specific definition in the field of medicine. It is possible that you may be referring to "razoxane," which is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Razoxane is an antineoplastic agent, which means it is a drug that is used to treat cancer. It works by interfering with the formation of blood vessels that supply tumors, which can help to slow or stop the growth of the tumor.

It is important to note that the use of razoxane is not widely accepted and it is not a commonly used cancer treatment. It is typically used only in certain specific circumstances and when other treatments have not been effective. As with any medication, razoxane should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, and it is important to be aware of the potential risks and benefits.

Nogalamycin is not typically considered as a medical term, but it is a type of antibiotic that is used in research and microbiology. Here's the definition from a scientific perspective:

Nogalamycin is an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nogalater. It is a DNA-intercalating agent, which means it can insert itself between the base pairs of DNA and disrupt the structure and function of the genetic material in bacteria and cancer cells. Nogalamycin has been studied for its potential use as an anticancer drug, but its clinical use has been limited due to toxicity concerns.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Taxoids are a class of naturally occurring compounds that are derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) and other species of the genus Taxus. They are known for their antineoplastic (cancer-fighting) properties and have been used in chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, breast, and lung cancer.

The most well-known taxoid is paclitaxel (also known by the brand name Taxol), which was first discovered in the 1960s and has since become a widely used cancer drug. Paclitaxel works by stabilizing microtubules, which are important components of the cell's skeleton, and preventing them from disassembling. This disrupts the normal function of the cell's mitotic spindle, leading to cell cycle arrest and ultimately apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Other taxoids that have been developed for clinical use include docetaxel (Taxotere), which is a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel, and cabazitaxel (Jevtana), which is a second-generation taxoid. These drugs have similar mechanisms of action to paclitaxel but may have different pharmacokinetic properties or be effective against cancer cells that have developed resistance to other taxoids.

While taxoids have been successful in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including neutropenia (low white blood cell count), anemia (low red blood cell count), and peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage). As with all chemotherapy drugs, the use of taxoids must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Bridged compounds are a type of organic compound where two parts of the molecule are connected by a chain of atoms, known as a bridge. This bridge can consist of one or more atoms and can be made up of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, or other elements. The bridge can be located between two carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon, for example, creating a bridged bicyclic structure. These types of compounds are important in organic chemistry and can have unique chemical and physical properties compared to non-bridged compounds.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Leukemia P388" is not a widely recognized medical term or a specific type of leukemia. The term "P388" is often used to refer to a particular type of mouse leukemia that is commonly used in laboratory research for testing potential anti-cancer drugs.

Leukemia, in general, is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow and results in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells (leukocytes). These abnormal cells crowd out the healthy cells in the bone marrow, leading to a weakened immune system and various complications.

There are many different types of leukemia, classified based on the type of white blood cell affected (myeloid or lymphocytic) and the speed of progression (acute or chronic). If you're looking for information about a specific type of leukemia, I would be happy to help if you could provide more details.

DNA topoisomerases are enzymes that regulate the topological state of DNA during various cellular processes such as replication, transcription, and repair. They do this by introducing temporary breaks in the DNA strands and allowing the strands to rotate around each other, thereby relieving torsional stress and supercoiling. Topoisomerases are classified into two types: type I and type II.

Type II topoisomerases are further divided into two subtypes: type IIA and type IIB. These enzymes function by forming a covalent bond with the DNA strands, cleaving them, and then passing another segment of DNA through the break before resealing the original strands. This process allows for the removal of both positive and negative supercoils from DNA as well as the separation of interlinked circular DNA molecules (catenanes) or knotted DNA structures.

Type II topoisomerases are essential for cell viability, and their dysfunction has been linked to various human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. They have also emerged as important targets for the development of anticancer drugs that inhibit their activity and induce DNA damage leading to cell death. Examples of type II topoisomerase inhibitors include etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

Aconitic acid is a type of organic acid that is found naturally in some plants, including Aconitum napellus (monkshood or wolf's bane). It is a white crystalline powder with a sour taste and is soluble in water. In the human body, aconitic acid is produced as a byproduct of energy metabolism and can be found in small amounts in various tissues.

Aconitic acid has three carboxylic acid groups, making it a triprotic acid, which means that it can donate three protons (hydrogen ions) in solution. It is a strong acid and is often used as a laboratory reagent for various chemical reactions. In the food industry, aconitic acid may be used as a food additive or preservative.

It's important to note that some species of Aconitum plants contain highly toxic compounds called aconitines, which can cause serious harm or even death if ingested. Therefore, these plants should not be consumed or handled without proper knowledge and precautions.

Vinblastine is an alkaloid derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) and is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy. It is classified as a vinca alkaloid, along with vincristine, vinorelbine, and others.

Medically, vinblastine is an antimicrotubule agent that binds to tubulin, a protein involved in the formation of microtubules during cell division. By binding to tubulin, vinblastine prevents the assembly of microtubules, which are essential for mitosis (cell division). This leads to the inhibition of cell division and ultimately results in the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Vinblastine is used to treat various types of cancers, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, breast cancer, and others. It is often administered intravenously in a healthcare setting and may be given as part of a combination chemotherapy regimen with other anticancer drugs.

As with any medication, vinblastine can have side effects, including bone marrow suppression (leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding), neurotoxicity (resulting in peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and jaw pain), nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and mouth sores. Regular monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary during vinblastine treatment to manage side effects and ensure the safe and effective use of this medication.

"Multiple drug resistance" (MDR) is a term used in medicine to describe the condition where a patient's infection becomes resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. This means that the bacteria, virus, fungus or parasite that is causing the infection has developed the ability to survive and multiply despite being exposed to medications that were originally designed to kill or inhibit its growth.

In particular, MDR occurs when an organism becomes resistant to at least one drug in three or more antimicrobial categories. This can happen due to genetic changes in the microorganism that allow it to survive in the presence of these drugs. The development of MDR is a significant concern for public health because it limits treatment options and can make infections harder, if not impossible, to treat.

MDR can develop through several mechanisms, including mutations in the genes that encode drug targets or enzymes involved in drug metabolism, as well as the acquisition of genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons that carry resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial drugs are major drivers of MDR, as they create selective pressure for the emergence and spread of resistant strains.

MDR infections can occur in various settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and communities. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, although certain populations may be at higher risk, such as those with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. Preventing the spread of MDR requires a multifaceted approach that includes surveillance, infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, and research into new therapies and diagnostics.

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a type of membrane transport protein that plays a crucial role in the efflux (extrusion) of various substrates, including drugs and toxins, out of cells. It is also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1).

P-gp is encoded by the ABCB1 gene and is primarily located on the apical membrane of epithelial cells in several tissues, such as the intestine, liver, kidney, and blood-brain barrier. Its main function is to protect these organs from harmful substances by actively pumping them out of the cells and back into the lumen or bloodstream.

In the context of pharmacology, P-gp can contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. When overexpressed, P-gp can reduce the intracellular concentration of various anticancer drugs, making them less effective. This has led to extensive research on inhibitors of P-gp as potential adjuvants for cancer therapy.

In summary, P-glycoprotein is a vital efflux transporter that helps maintain homeostasis by removing potentially harmful substances from cells and can impact drug disposition and response in various tissues, including the intestine, liver, kidney, and blood-brain barrier.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

Anthraquinones are a type of organic compound that consists of an anthracene structure (a chemical compound made up of three benzene rings) with two carbonyl groups attached to the central ring. They are commonly found in various plants and have been used in medicine for their laxative properties. Some anthraquinones also exhibit antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, long-term use of anthraquinone-containing laxatives can lead to serious side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, muscle weakness, and liver damage.

Dexrazoxane is a chelating agent that is used in the treatment of cancer. It works by binding to metal ions, such as iron, which can damage DNA and contribute to the toxicity of certain chemotherapy drugs. By binding to these metal ions, dexrazoxane helps to protect the heart and other organs from damage caused by chemotherapy.

Dexrazoxane is often used in combination with chemotherapy drugs such as doxorubicin, which can cause cardiotoxicity (damage to the heart) with long-term use. By reducing the amount of iron available for doxorubicin to bind to, dexrazoxane helps to prevent this damage and reduce the risk of heart problems in cancer patients.

Dexrazoxane is typically given intravenously (through a vein) in a hospital setting, and its use is usually reserved for patients who are receiving high doses of doxorubicin or who have pre-existing heart conditions that may increase their risk of cardiotoxicity.

Adjuvant chemotherapy is a medical treatment that is given in addition to the primary therapy, such as surgery or radiation, to increase the chances of a cure or to reduce the risk of recurrence in patients with cancer. It involves the use of chemicals (chemotherapeutic agents) to destroy any remaining cancer cells that may not have been removed by the primary treatment. This type of chemotherapy is typically given after the main treatment has been completed, and its goal is to kill any residual cancer cells that may be present in the body and reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. The specific drugs used and the duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated.

Mitoxantrone is a synthetic antineoplastic anthracenedione drug, which means it is used to treat cancer. Its medical definition can be found in various authoritative sources such as the Merck Manual or Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Here's a brief version of the definition from MedlinePlus, a service of the US National Library of Medicine:

"Mitoxantrone is used to treat certain types of cancer (e.g., breast cancer, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. Mitoxantrone belongs to a class of drugs known as antitumor antibiotics."

Please note that this is a simplified definition meant for general information purposes and does not include all the details that might be present in a comprehensive medical definition. Always consult a healthcare professional or refer to authoritative resources for accurate, detailed, and up-to-date information.

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia). It is an antimicrotubule agent that promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules, thereby interfering with the normal dynamic reorganization of the microtubule network that is essential for cell division.

Paclitaxel is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including ovarian, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. It works by inhibiting the disassembly of microtubules, which prevents the separation of chromosomes during mitosis, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Common side effects of paclitaxel include neutropenia (low white blood cell count), anemia (low red blood cell count), alopecia (hair loss), peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage causing numbness or tingling in the hands and feet), myalgias (muscle pain), arthralgias (joint pain), and hypersensitivity reactions.

"ErbB-2" is also known as "HER2" or "human epidermal growth factor receptor 2." It is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) found on the surface of some cells. ErbB-2 does not bind to any known ligands, but it can form heterodimers with other ErbB family members, such as ErbB-3 and ErbB-4, which do have identified ligands. When a ligand binds to one of these receptors, it causes a conformational change that allows the ErbB-2 receptor to become activated through transphosphorylation. This activation triggers a signaling cascade that regulates cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Overexpression or amplification of the ERBB2 gene, which encodes the ErbB-2 protein, is observed in approximately 20-30% of breast cancers and is associated with a more aggressive disease phenotype and poorer prognosis. Therefore, ErbB-2 has become an important target for cancer therapy, and several drugs that target this receptor have been developed, including trastuzumab (Herceptin), lapatinib (Tykerb), and pertuzumab (Perjeta).

Cardiotoxins are substances or drugs that have a toxic effect on the heart muscle (myocardium), leading to impaired cardiac function and potentially causing serious complications such as arrhythmias, reduced contractility, and decreased cardiac output. Cardiotoxins can be found in certain animals, plants, and medications.

Animal-derived cardiotoxins include some venoms from snakes, spiders, and scorpions. For example, the venom of the Australian taipan snake contains a powerful cardiotoxin that can cause rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, and even cardiac arrest in severe cases.

Plant-derived cardiotoxins are found in some species of digitalis (foxglove), which have been used traditionally to treat heart conditions but can also be toxic if not administered correctly. The active compounds in digitalis, such as digoxin and digitoxin, affect the electrical activity of the heart by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump in cardiac muscle cells, leading to increased contractility and potentially causing arrhythmias.

Medications can also have cardiotoxic effects when used inappropriately or at high doses. Certain chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin and daunorubicin, are known to cause cardiac damage and dysfunction, particularly with long-term use or when administered in high cumulative doses. These drugs can lead to a condition called "chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy," which is characterized by reduced heart function and increased risk of congestive heart failure.

Other medications that may have cardiotoxic effects include certain antibiotics (such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin), antifungal agents (such as amphotericin B), and illicit drugs (such as cocaine and methamphetamine).

It is essential to use cardiotoxic substances with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use or overexposure can lead to severe heart complications.

Fluorouracil is a antineoplastic medication, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug known as an antimetabolite. Fluorouracil works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells and ultimately killing them. It is often used to treat colon, esophageal, stomach, and breast cancers, as well as skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Fluorouracil may be given by injection or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream.

It is important to note that fluorouracil can have serious side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function, mouth sores, stomach and intestinal ulcers, and nerve damage. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Leukemia L1210 is not a medical definition itself, but it refers to a specific mouse leukemia cell line that was established in 1948. These cells are a type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and have been widely used in cancer research as a model for studying the disease, testing new therapies, and understanding the biology of leukemia. The L1210 cell line has contributed significantly to the development of various chemotherapeutic agents and treatment strategies for leukemia and other cancers.

Topoisomerase II inhibitors are a class of anticancer drugs that work by interfering with the enzyme topoisomerase II, which is essential for DNA replication and transcription. These inhibitors bind to the enzyme-DNA complex, preventing the relaxation of supercoiled DNA and causing DNA strand breaks. This results in the accumulation of double-stranded DNA breaks, which can lead to apoptosis (programmed cell death) in rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells. Examples of topoisomerase II inhibitors include etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone.

Antineoplastic agents, phytogenic, also known as plant-derived anticancer drugs, are medications that are derived from plants and used to treat cancer. These agents have natural origins and work by interfering with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells, helping to slow or stop the spread of the disease. Some examples of antineoplastic agents, phytogenic include paclitaxel (Taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and etoposide. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and other medications to provide a comprehensive approach to cancer care.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

Deoxycytidine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA, one of the nucleic acids in living organisms. It is a nucleoside, consisting of the sugar deoxyribose and the base cytosine. Deoxycytidine pairs with guanine via hydrogen bonds to form base pairs in the double helix structure of DNA.

In biochemistry, deoxycytidine can also exist as a free nucleoside, not bound to other molecules. It is involved in various cellular processes related to DNA metabolism and replication. Deoxycytidine can be phosphorylated to form deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP), which is an important intermediate in the synthesis of DNA.

It's worth noting that while deoxycytidine is a component of DNA, its counterpart in RNA is cytidine, which contains ribose instead of deoxyribose as the sugar component.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma (previously known as Precursor T-lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma) is a type of cancer that affects the early stages of T-cell development. It is a subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterized by the overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs.

In Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, these abnormal lymphoblasts accumulate primarily in the lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes, leading to the enlargement of these organs. This subtype is more aggressive than other forms of ALL and has a higher risk of spreading to the central nervous system (CNS).

The medical definition of Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma includes:

1. A malignant neoplasm of immature T-cell precursors, also known as lymphoblasts.
2. Characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of these abnormal cells in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes.
3. Often associated with chromosomal abnormalities, genetic mutations, or aberrant gene expression that contribute to its aggressive behavior and poor prognosis.
4. Typically presents with symptoms related to bone marrow failure (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and potential CNS involvement.
5. Diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, and molecular genetic testing.
6. Treated with intensive multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, often combined with radiation therapy and/or stem cell transplantation to achieve remission and improve survival outcomes.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain types of cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heart rhyats). It works by relaxing the smooth muscle cells in the walls of blood vessels, which causes them to dilate or widen, reducing the resistance to blood flow and thereby lowering blood pressure. Verapamil also slows down the conduction of electrical signals within the heart, which can help to regulate the heart rate and rhythm.

In addition to its cardiovascular effects, verapamil is sometimes used off-label for the treatment of other conditions such as migraine headaches, Raynaud's phenomenon, and certain types of tremors. It is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and intravenous (IV) injection.

It is important to note that verapamil can interact with other medications, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are taking before starting this medication. Additionally, verapamil should be used with caution in people with certain medical conditions, such as heart failure, liver disease, and low blood pressure.

Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic, saprophytic bacteria that are widely distributed in soil, water, and decaying organic matter. They are known for their complex morphology, forming branching filaments called hyphae that can differentiate into long chains of spores.

Streptomyces species are particularly notable for their ability to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, antifungals, and other therapeutic compounds. In fact, many important antibiotics such as streptomycin, neomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin are derived from Streptomyces species.

Because of their industrial importance in the production of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds, Streptomyces have been extensively studied and are considered model organisms for the study of bacterial genetics, biochemistry, and ecology.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Salvage therapy, in the context of medical oncology, refers to the use of treatments that are typically considered less desirable or more aggressive, often due to greater side effects or lower efficacy, when standard treatment options have failed. These therapies are used to attempt to salvage a response or delay disease progression in patients with refractory or relapsed cancers.

In other words, salvage therapy is a last-resort treatment approach for patients who have not responded to first-line or subsequent lines of therapy. It may involve the use of different drug combinations, higher doses of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. The goal of salvage therapy is to extend survival, improve quality of life, or achieve disease stabilization in patients with limited treatment options.

Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemias and lymphomas. Its chemical name is cytosine arabinoside, and it works by interfering with the DNA synthesis of cancer cells, which ultimately leads to their death.

Cytarabine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and may be administered through various routes, such as intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous injection, or orally. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health status.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, cytarabine can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It may also cause more serious side effects, such as damage to the liver, kidneys, or nervous system, and it is important for patients to be closely monitored during treatment to minimize these risks.

It's important to note that medical treatments should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, and this information should not be used as a substitute for medical advice.

Liposomes are artificially prepared, small, spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that enclose an aqueous compartment. They can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, making them useful for drug delivery applications in the medical field. The lipid bilayer structure of liposomes is similar to that of biological membranes, which allows them to merge with and deliver their contents into cells. This property makes liposomes a valuable tool in delivering drugs directly to targeted sites within the body, improving drug efficacy while minimizing side effects.

Intercalating agents are chemical substances that can be inserted between the stacked bases of DNA, creating a separation or "intercalation" of the base pairs. This property is often exploited in cancer chemotherapy, where intercalating agents like doxorubicin and daunorubicin are used to inhibit the replication and transcription of cancer cells by preventing the normal functioning of their DNA. However, these agents can also have toxic effects on normal cells, particularly those that divide rapidly, such as bone marrow and gut epithelial cells. Therefore, their use must be carefully monitored and balanced against their therapeutic benefits.

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

Alopecia is a medical term that refers to the loss of hair or baldness. It can occur in various parts of the body, but it's most commonly used to describe hair loss from the scalp. Alopecia can have several causes, including genetics, hormonal changes, medical conditions, and aging.

There are different types of alopecia, such as:

* Alopecia Areata: It is a condition that causes round patches of hair loss on the scalp or other parts of the body. The immune system attacks the hair follicles, causing the hair to fall out.
* Androgenetic Alopecia: Also known as male pattern baldness or female pattern baldness, it's a genetic condition that causes gradual hair thinning and eventual hair loss, typically following a specific pattern.
* Telogen Effluvium: It is a temporary hair loss condition caused by stress, medication, pregnancy, or other factors that can cause the hair follicles to enter a resting phase, leading to shedding and thinning of the hair.

The treatment for alopecia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as with telogen effluvium, hair growth may resume without any treatment. However, other forms of alopecia may require medical intervention, including topical treatments, oral medications, or even hair transplant surgery in severe cases.

Cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle, leading to mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction. The American Heart Association (AHA) defines cardiomyopathies as "a heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction that usually (but not always) exhibit inappropriate ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation and frequently lead to heart failure."

There are several types of cardiomyopathies, including:

1. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM): This is the most common type of cardiomyopathy, characterized by an enlarged left ventricle and impaired systolic function, leading to heart failure.
2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): In this type, there is abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, particularly in the septum between the two ventricles, which can obstruct blood flow and increase the risk of arrhythmias.
3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM): This is a rare form of cardiomyopathy characterized by stiffness of the heart muscle, impaired relaxation, and diastolic dysfunction, leading to reduced filling of the ventricles and heart failure.
4. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC): In this type, there is replacement of the normal heart muscle with fatty or fibrous tissue, primarily affecting the right ventricle, which can lead to arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.
5. Unclassified cardiomyopathies: These are conditions that do not fit into any of the above categories but still significantly affect the heart muscle and function.

Cardiomyopathies can be caused by genetic factors, acquired conditions (e.g., infections, toxins, or autoimmune disorders), or a combination of both. The diagnosis typically involves a comprehensive evaluation, including medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and sometimes genetic testing. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition but may include medications, lifestyle modifications, implantable devices, or even heart transplantation in severe cases.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) is a type of lipid mediator called a cysteinyl leukotriene, which is derived from arachidonic acid through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. It is primarily produced by activated mast cells and basophils, and to a lesser extent by eosinophils, during an allergic response or inflammation.

LTC4 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases by causing bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, mucus secretion, and recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation. It exerts its effects by binding to cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CysLT1 and CysLT2) found on various cell types, including airway smooth muscle cells, bronchial epithelial cells, and immune cells.

LTC4 is rapidly metabolized to Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and then to Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) by enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and dipeptidases, which are present in the extracellular space. These metabolites also have biological activity and contribute to the inflammatory response.

Inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase or leukotriene receptor antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of asthma, allergies, and other inflammatory conditions.

In a medical context, "survivors" typically refers to individuals who have lived through or recovered from a serious illness, injury, or life-threatening event. This may include people who have survived cancer, heart disease, trauma, or other conditions that posed a significant risk to their health and well-being. The term is often used to describe the resilience and strength of these individuals, as well as to highlight the importance of ongoing support and care for those who have faced serious medical challenges. It's important to note that the definition may vary depending on the context in which it's used.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Drug screening assays for antitumor agents are laboratory tests used to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of potential drugs or compounds that can inhibit the growth of tumor cells or induce their death. These assays are typically performed in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) using cell cultures of various types of cancer cells.

The assays measure different parameters such as cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and cytotoxicity to determine the ability of the drug to kill or inhibit the growth of tumor cells. The results of these assays can help researchers identify promising antitumor agents that can be further developed for clinical use in cancer treatment.

There are different types of drug screening assays for antitumor agents, including high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, which allow for the rapid and automated testing of a large number of compounds against various cancer cell lines. Other types of assays include phenotypic screening assays, target-based screening assays, and functional screening assays, each with its own advantages and limitations.

Overall, drug screening assays for antitumor agents play a critical role in the development of new cancer therapies by providing valuable information on the activity and safety of potential drugs, helping to identify effective treatments and reduce the time and cost associated with bringing new drugs to market.

Trifluoperazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs called phenothiazines. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, and helps to reduce symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and disordered thought. Trifluoperazine may also be used to manage anxiety or agitation in certain medical conditions. It is available in the form of tablets for oral administration. As with any medication, trifluoperazine should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks associated with its use.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Phthalic acids are organic compounds with the formula C6H4(COOH)2. They are white crystalline solids that are slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. Phthalic acids are carboxylic acids, meaning they contain a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

Phthalic acids are important intermediates in the chemical industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, and personal care products. They are also used as solvents and as starting materials for the synthesis of other chemicals.

Phthalic acids can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. They can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects. Some phthalates, which are compounds that contain phthalic acid, have been linked to reproductive and developmental problems in animals and are considered to be endocrine disruptors. As a result, the use of certain phthalates has been restricted in some countries.

Epothilones are a type of microtubule stabilizing agent, which are a group of drugs that inhibit the depolymerization of microtubules in cells. Microtubules are important components of the cell's cytoskeleton and play a crucial role in cell division. By stabilizing the microtubules, epothilones prevent the separation of chromosomes during mitosis, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Epothilones are naturally occurring compounds that were originally isolated from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. They have been found to have potent anticancer activity and have been developed as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, and lung cancer.

There are currently two epothilone drugs that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use: ixabepilone and patupilone. These drugs are administered intravenously and work by binding to tubulin, a protein that makes up microtubules, thereby preventing their disassembly and interfering with cell division.

Like other chemotherapeutic agents, epothilones can have significant side effects, including neutropenia (low white blood cell count), neuropathy (nerve damage), and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. However, they are often used in combination with other drugs to improve their efficacy and reduce toxicity.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Mitomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces caespitosus. It is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy, particularly in the treatment of various carcinomas including gastrointestinal tract malignancies and breast cancer. Mitomycin works by forming cross-links in DNA, thereby inhibiting its replication and transcription, which ultimately leads to cell death.

In addition to its systemic use, mitomycin is also used topically in ophthalmology for the treatment of certain eye conditions such as glaucoma and various ocular surface disorders. The topical application of mitomycin can help reduce scarring and fibrosis by inhibiting the proliferation of fibroblasts.

It's important to note that mitomycin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning there is only a small range between an effective dose and a toxic one. Therefore, its use should be closely monitored to minimize side effects, which can include myelosuppression, mucositis, alopecia, and potential secondary malignancies.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. In AML, the immature cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow fail to mature into normal blood cells. Instead, these blasts accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia).

AML is called "acute" because it can progress quickly and become severe within days or weeks without treatment. It is a type of myeloid leukemia, which means that it affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that includes monocytes and granulocytes, which help fight infection and defend the body against foreign invaders.

In AML, the blasts can build up in the bone marrow and spread to other parts of the body, including the blood, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and brain. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss.

AML is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the type and stage of the leukemia.

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens such as viruses and cancer cells. They are created by fusing a single B cell (the type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies) with a tumor cell, resulting in a hybrid cell called a hybridoma. This hybridoma can then be cloned to produce a large number of identical cells, all producing the same antibody, hence "monoclonal."

Humanized monoclonal antibodies are a type of monoclonal antibody that have been genetically engineered to include human components. This is done to reduce the risk of an adverse immune response in patients receiving the treatment. In this process, the variable region of the mouse monoclonal antibody, which contains the antigen-binding site, is grafted onto a human constant region. The resulting humanized monoclonal antibody retains the ability to bind to the target antigen while minimizing the immunogenicity associated with murine (mouse) antibodies.

In summary, "antibodies, monoclonal, humanized" refers to a type of laboratory-produced protein that mimics the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens, but with reduced immunogenicity due to the inclusion of human components in their structure.

Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins (MRPs) are a subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins that play a crucial role in the efflux of various substrates, including drugs and organic anions, out of cells. They are located in the plasma membrane of many cell types, including epithelial cells in the liver, intestine, kidney, and blood-brain barrier.

MRPs are known to transport a wide range of molecules, such as glutathione conjugates, bilirubin, bile acids, and various clinical drugs. One of the most well-known MRPs is MRP1 (ABCC1), which was initially identified in drug-resistant tumor cells. MRP1 can confer resistance to chemotherapeutic agents by actively pumping them out of cancer cells, thereby reducing their intracellular concentration and effectiveness.

The activity of MRPs can have significant implications for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, as they can affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Understanding the function and regulation of MRPs is essential for developing strategies to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer therapy and optimizing drug dosing regimens in various clinical settings.

Calreticulin is a multifunctional protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells. Its primary function is as a calcium-binding chaperone, helping to ensure proper folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins in the ER. Calreticulin also plays roles in ER-to-Golgi transport, regulation of ER calcium homeostasis, and acts as a sensor for ER stress. Additionally, it has been implicated in various cellular processes such as adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, and immune response. Defects in calreticulin have been linked to several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Methotrexate is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, essential components of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, methotrexate interferes with cell division and growth, making it effective in treating rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, methotrexate is also used to manage autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In these conditions, methotrexate modulates the immune system and reduces inflammation.

It's important to note that methotrexate can have significant side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function, and kidney function is necessary during treatment with methotrexate.

Glycosides are organic compounds that consist of a glycone (a sugar component) linked to a non-sugar component, known as an aglycone, via a glycosidic bond. They can be found in various plants, microorganisms, and some animals. Depending on the nature of the aglycone, glycosides can be classified into different types, such as anthraquinone glycosides, cardiac glycosides, and saponin glycosides.

These compounds have diverse biological activities and pharmacological effects. For instance:

* Cardiac glycosides, like digoxin and digitoxin, are used in the treatment of heart failure and certain cardiac arrhythmias due to their positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and negative chronotropic (heart rate-slowing) effects on the heart.
* Saponin glycosides have potent detergent properties and can cause hemolysis (rupture of red blood cells). They are used in various industries, including cosmetics and food processing, and have potential applications in drug delivery systems.
* Some glycosides, like amygdalin found in apricot kernels and bitter almonds, can release cyanide upon hydrolysis, making them potentially toxic.

It is important to note that while some glycosides have therapeutic uses, others can be harmful or even lethal if ingested or otherwise introduced into the body in large quantities.

Neoplastic pregnancy complications refer to the abnormal growth of cells (neoplasia) that can occur during pregnancy. These growths can be benign or malignant and can arise from any type of tissue in the body. However, when they occur in pregnant women, they can pose unique challenges due to the potential effects on the developing fetus and the changes in the mother's body.

Some common neoplastic pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD): This is a group of rare tumors that occur in the uterus during pregnancy. GTD can range from benign conditions like hydatidiform mole to malignant forms like choriocarcinoma.
2. Breast cancer: Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is a type of breast cancer that occurs during pregnancy or within one year after delivery. It can be aggressive and challenging to diagnose due to the changes in the breast tissue during pregnancy.
3. Cervical cancer: Cervical cancer can occur during pregnancy, and its management depends on the stage of the disease and the gestational age. In some cases, treatment may need to be delayed until after delivery.
4. Lung cancer: Pregnancy does not increase the risk of lung cancer, but it can make diagnosis and treatment more challenging.
5. Melanoma: Melanoma is the most common malignant skin cancer during pregnancy. It can spread quickly and requires prompt treatment.

The management of neoplastic pregnancy complications depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, gestational age, and the patient's wishes. In some cases, surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy may be necessary. However, these treatments can have potential risks to the developing fetus, so a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers is often involved in the care of pregnant women with neoplastic complications.

Lactoperoxidase is a type of peroxidase enzyme that is present in various secretory fluids, including milk, saliva, and tears. In milk, lactoperoxidase plays an important role in the natural defense system by helping to protect against microbial growth. It does this by catalyzing the oxidation of thiocyanate ions (SCN-) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce hypothiocyanite (OSCN-), which is a potent antimicrobial agent.

Lactoperoxidase is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 78 kDa, and it is composed of four identical subunits, each containing a heme group that binds to the hydrogen peroxide molecule during the enzymatic reaction. Lactoperoxidase has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various fields, including oral health, food preservation, and wound healing.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Cardiotonic agents are a type of medication that have a positive inotropic effect on the heart, meaning they help to improve the contractility and strength of heart muscle contractions. These medications are often used to treat heart failure, as they can help to improve the efficiency of the heart's pumping ability and increase cardiac output.

Cardiotonic agents work by increasing the levels of calcium ions inside heart muscle cells during each heartbeat, which in turn enhances the force of contraction. Some common examples of cardiotonic agents include digitalis glycosides (such as digoxin), which are derived from the foxglove plant, and synthetic medications such as dobutamine and milrinone.

While cardiotonic agents can be effective in improving heart function, they can also have potentially serious side effects, including arrhythmias, electrolyte imbalances, and digestive symptoms. As a result, they are typically used under close medical supervision and their dosages may need to be carefully monitored to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) is a specific subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. It is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal promyelocytes, which are immature white blood cells, in the bone marrow and blood. These abnormal cells are produced due to a genetic mutation that involves the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) gene on chromosome 17, often as a result of a translocation with the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene on chromosome 15 [t(15;17)]. This genetic alteration disrupts the normal differentiation and maturation process of the promyelocytes, leading to their uncontrolled proliferation and impaired function.

APL typically presents with symptoms related to decreased blood cell production, such as anemia (fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath), thrombocytopenia (easy bruising, bleeding, or petechiae), and neutropenia (increased susceptibility to infections). Additionally, APL is often associated with a high risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a serious complication characterized by abnormal blood clotting and bleeding.

The treatment for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia typically involves a combination of chemotherapy and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide (ATO) therapy, which target the specific genetic alteration in APL cells. This approach has significantly improved the prognosis for patients with this disease, with many achieving long-term remission and even cures.

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Anthracyclines Rohr, J.; Thiericke, R. (1992). "Angucycline group antibiotics". Natural Product Reports. 9 (2): 103-37. doi: ...
Suarato, A; Angelucci, F; Geroni, C (Mar 1999). "Ring-B modified anthracyclines". Curr Pharm Des. 5 (3): 217-27. doi:10.2174/ ... "The anthracyclines: will we ever find a better doxorubicin?". Seminars in Oncology. 19 (6): 670-86. PMID 1462166. Bilotto, ...
Anti-cancer anthracyclines isolated from the Streptomyces peucetius bacteria. Anthracycline-based derivatives include: ... Fujiwara, A.; Hoshino, T.; Westley, J. W. (1985). "Anthracycline Antibiotics". Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 3 (2): 133- ...
2008). Anthracycline chemistry and biology. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-75814-3. Buckingham, J., ed. (1994). Dictionary of ...
Anthracycline chemistry and biology. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-75814-3. {{cite book}}: ,first1= has generic name (help) ... CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Johdo, O; Ishikura, T; Yoshimoto, A; Takeuchi, T (October 1991). "Anthracycline ...
ISBN 978-0-387-68233-4. {{cite book}}: ,last1= has generic name (help) Krohn, volume editor, Karsten (2008). Anthracycline ...
Anthracycline chemistry and biology. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-75815-0. {{cite book}}: ,first1= has generic name (help) ... Anthracycline chemistry and biology. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-75815-0. {{cite book}}: ,first1= has generic name (help) ...
The first anthracycline (doxorubicin) was isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces peucetius in the 1960s. Anthracyclines are ... The anthracycline family, one of the most medically prevalent types of intercalating poisons, are able to treat a variety of ... The harmful oxygen free radical generation associated with the use of doxorubicin and other anthracyclines stems, in part, from ... Currently, there are four main anthracyclines in medical use: Doxorubicin Daunorubicin (doxorubicin precursor) Epirubicin (a ...
The mechanisms of anthracyclines include DNA intercalation (molecules insert between the two strands of DNA), generation of ... Among the anthracyclines, doxorubicin and daunorubicin were the first, and were obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces ... The most important subgroup is the anthracyclines and the bleomycins; other prominent examples include mitomycin C and ... Minotti G, Menna P, Salvatorelli E, Cairo G, Gianni L (June 2004). "Anthracyclines: molecular advances and pharmacologic ...
Two commonly used chemotherapeutic regimens are CVP (see Localized FL section) and CHOP (i.e. CVP plus the anthracycline ...
Weiss RB (December 1992). "The anthracyclines: will we ever find a better doxorubicin?". Seminars in Oncology. 19 (6): 670-86. ... Other effective molecules also came from industry during the period of 1970 to 1990, including anthracyclines and ...
Subsequent research has led to many other anthracycline antibiotics, or analogs, and there are now over 2,000 known analogs of ... Doxorubicin is in the anthracycline and antitumor antibiotic family of medications. It works in part by interfering with the ... Weiss RB (December 1992). "The anthracyclines: will we ever find a better doxorubicin?". Seminars in Oncology. 19 (6): 670-686 ... Doxorubicin and daunorubicin together can be thought of as prototype compounds for the anthracyclines. ...
Weiss RB (December 1992). "The anthracyclines: will we ever find a better doxorubicin?". Seminars in Oncology. 19 (6): 670-86. ...
Other cytotoxic antibiotics are anthracyclines, mitomycin C, bleomycin, mithramycin. Antibodies are sometimes used as a quick ...
These include adriamycin and other anthracyclines, bleomycin, and cisplatin. These agents may show specific toxicity towards ...
The same study also suggested that the PSMB7 protein is involved in anthracycline resistance, which is an antibiotic derived ... Weiss RB (December 1992). "The anthracyclines: will we ever find a better doxorubicin?". Seminars in Oncology. 19 (6): 670-86. ... "PSMB7 is associated with anthracycline resistance and is a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer". British Journal of Cancer. ...
... is in the anthracycline family of medication. It works in part by blocking the function of topoisomerase II. ... Weiss RB (December 1992). "The anthracyclines: will we ever find a better doxorubicin?". Seminars in Oncology. 19 (6): 670-686 ... Anthracyclines, Anthraquinone glycosides, Topoisomerase inhibitors, IARC Group 2B carcinogens, World Health Organization ...
... may be caused by chemotherapy (a usual example is the class of anthracyclines) treatment and/or radiotherapy; ... Volkova M, Russell R (2011). "Anthracycline Cardiotoxicity: Prevalence, Pathogenesis and Treatment". Curr Cardiol Rev. 7 (4): ... "Juvenile Exposure to Anthracyclines Impairs Cardiac Progenitor Cell Function and Vascularization Resulting in Greater ...
... is an anthracycline antibiotic. Hirayama, Kazuo; Akashi, Satoko; Ando, Toshihiko; Horino, Issei; Etoh, Yuzuru; ... Morioka, Hajumu; Shibai, Hiroshiro; Murai, Asao (1987). "Field desorption tandem mass spectrometry of anthracycline antibiotics ...
Caesius ATCC27952 (producers of anthracycline antibiotics)". Cytology and Genetics. 47 (4): 197-201. doi:10.3103/ ... sequence analysis and complementation of early-block mutations in the anthracycline pathway". Molecular & General Genetics. 251 ...
The drug binds to DNA topoisomerase II at a different step in the catalytic cycle than anthracyclines, which locks the enzyme ... Anthracycline extravasation is defined as the unintentional installation or leakage into the perivascular or subcutaneous ... Savene, developed by TopoTarget is used for the treatment of anthracycline extravasation, a rare complication to chemotherapy. ... Savene works by inhibiting DNA topoisomerase II, which is the target of anthracycline chemotherapy. ...
... (INN) is an anthracycline drug. An analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Pirarubicin ... Anthracyclines, Topoisomerase inhibitors, Tetrahydropyrans, Phenols, Phenol ethers, DNA intercalaters, All stub articles, ...
Wulff, William D.; Tang, Peng Cho (January 1984). "Anthracycline synthesis with Fischer carbene complexes". Journal of the ...
Anthracyclines (Aclarubicin · Daunorubicin · Doxorubicin · Epirubicin · Idarubicin · Amrubicin · Pirarubicin · Valrubicin · ...
... is an anthracycline drug used for chemotherapy. It can be used in combination with other medications to treat breast ... Similarly to other anthracyclines, epirubicin acts by intercalating DNA strands. Intercalation results in complex formation ... The mechanism of action of epirubicin is similar to that of doxorubicin and other anthracycline drugs. The observed clinical ... Epirubicin is favoured over doxorubicin, the most popular anthracycline, in some chemotherapy regimens as it appears to cause ...
Similar to other anthracyclines, it also induces histone eviction from chromatin. It belongs to the family of drugs called ... Idarubicin /ˌaɪdəˈruːbɪsɪn/ or 4-demethoxydaunorubicin is an anthracycline antileukemic drug. It inserts itself into DNA and ... Anthracyclines, Pfizer brands, Topoisomerase inhibitors, All stub articles, Antineoplastic and immunomodulating drug stubs). ...
Patients who have progressed after receiving anthracyclines and taxanes are eligible. Development of the ADC was discontinued ...
A medication used during chemotherapy (example: anthracycline antibiotics). This disambiguation page lists articles associated ...
Anthracyclines are readily taken up by cells and localised to the nucleus. The chromophore moiety of anthracyclines has ... Anthracycline administration is often accompanied by adverse drug reactions that limit the use of anthracyclines in the clinics ... Anthracyclines intercalated into DNA, form a stable anthracycline-DNA-topoisomerase II ternary complex thus "poisoning" the ... It is the standard by which novel anthracyclines are judged. The first anthracyclines were so successful that thousands of ...
Previously4a, a synthesis directed at the ring-A anthracycline (4) had commenced; it had culminated in the predominant ... 6. M. M. L. Crilley and R. J. Stoodley, Synthesis of Anticancer Anthracyclines, Report No. 1, 1984. ... Unfortunately compound (6) failed to undergo effective oxidation to the anthracycline (7) using lead(IV) acetate. ... 1 ratio of mainly anthracycline (7) and urea in ethanol or just using n-butanol13 as a solvent. The solvent diffusion technique ...
anthracyclines Clinical Research Trial Listings on CenterWatch ...
Background Anthracyclines and taxanes are chemotherapeutic agents widely used in a sequential regimen in the adjuvant and ... Standard practice is to administer anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by a taxane. Anthracyclines tend to be ... Sequencing of anthracyclines and taxanes in neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. *Zaheed M ... Background Anthracyclines and taxanes are chemotherapeutic agents widely used in a sequential regimen in the adjuvant and ...
Child health , Cancer , Supportive care: anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Complementary & alternative medicine , Cancer , General ... Anthracyclines are effective chemotherapy treatments available for various types of cancer. However, there is a risk of damage ... Can the medicine dexrazoxane prevent or reduce heart damage in adults and children with cancer receiving anthracyclines?. ... We conclude that if the risk of heart damage from anthracyclines is expected to be high, it might be justified to use ...
Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic that inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis. It acts throughout the entire cell cycle and by ...
Epirubicin technology , doxorubicin technology, Epirubicin licensing, doxorubicin licensing, Anthracyclines technology, ...
Serial Monitoring of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Patients with Haematological Malignancies Receiving Anthracycline- ... Serial Monitoring of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Patients with Haematological Malignancies Receiving Anthracycline- ...
Sequencing of anthracyclines and taxanes in neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. Overview of attention for ... Sequencing of anthracyclines and taxanes in neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer ...
Inhibition of Anthracycline Alcohol Metabolite Formation in Human Heart Cytosol: A Potential Role for Several Promising Drugs ... Correction to: Inhibition of Anthracycline Alcohol Metabolite Formation in Human Heart Cytosol: A Potential Role for Several ... Correction to: Inhibition of Anthracycline Alcohol Metabolite Formation in Human Heart Cytosol: A Potential Role for Several ... Correction to: Inhibition of Anthracycline Alcohol Metabolite Formation in Human Heart Cytosol: A Potential Role for Several ...
New anthracycline antitumor antibiotics. / Muggia, Franco M.; Green, Michael D. In: Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, ... Orally active anthracyclines such as idarubicin and compounds which lack cross-resistance with the parent drugs or have other ... Orally active anthracyclines such as idarubicin and compounds which lack cross-resistance with the parent drugs or have other ... Orally active anthracyclines such as idarubicin and compounds which lack cross-resistance with the parent drugs or have other ...
Anthracyclines. Anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy regimens have been used in the treatment of early-stage breast ... who received pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in combination with standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline- ... Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in combination with standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline-free ... Evaluating pertuzumab and trastuzumab plus standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline-free chemotherapy ...
We feature articles about leading professionals in the medical and healthcare industry in the South Texas area. We are your connection to the medical community! ...
Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - Anthracyclines PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * A redox pathway leading to the ... DNA repair in response to anthracycline-DNA adducts: A role for both homologous recombination and nucleotide excision repair ... alkylation of nucleic acids by doxorubicin and related anthracyclines: Application to the design of antitumor drugs for ...
Access this presentation on ESC 365 from Heart Failure 2018 on Cardiac Biology and Physiology by Associate Professor M. Sterba (Czechia,CZ) on ESC 365.
Copy For Citation TURAN O. E. 15th International Congress of Update in Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, 27 - 30 March 2019 ...
in Marcellomycin: A new class II Anthracycline, pp. 231-235, in Walter Davis, Stephan Tanneberger "The Control of tumour growth ... Most of those components are antitumor agents and anthracycline antibiotics active against Gram-positive bacteria. Bohemic acid ... Nearly all components of bohemic acid are anthracycline antibiotic agents active against Gram-positive bacteria, but not ... "Comparative Ultrastructural Studies of Nucleoli of Tumor Cells Treated with Adriamycin and the Newer Anthracyclines, ...
6.3 Anthracycline uptake (Daunorubicin): Functional assay *Adjust cells concentration to 1 x 106 cells/mL in RPMI + 10% FCS at ...
Anthracycline dose intensification in acute myeloid leukemia.. Hugo F Fernandez, Zhuoxin Sun, Xiaopan Yao, Mark R Litzow, ... BACKGROUND: In young adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), intensification of the anthracycline dose during induction ...
Subsequent female breast cancer risk associated with anthracycline chemotherapy for childhood cancer In a pooled analysis of ...
... Feb 3, 2021. Targeted Oncology Staff ... What we showed was that the pCR was the same with either arm-anthracycline versus nonanthracycline. Now we have follow-up to ... I fully admit that were seeing more toxicity with anthracycline-based therapy. I think we all are seeing that HER2- directed ... Three-year follow-up of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without anthracyclines in the presence of dual HER2-blockade for HER2- ...
P38δ genetic ablation protects female mice from anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Sharon A. George, Alexi Kiss, Sofian N. Obaid, ... P38δ genetic ablation protects female mice from anthracycline cardiotoxicity. / George, Sharon A.; Kiss, Alexi; Obaid, Sofian N ... P38δ genetic ablation protects female mice from anthracycline cardiotoxicity. In: American Journal of Physiology - Heart and ... N2 - The efficacy of an anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOX) as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by dose-dependent ...
Dexrazoxane for preventing or reducing cardiotoxicity in adults and children with cancer receiving anthracyclines answers are ... Dexrazoxane for preventing or reducing cardiotoxicity in adults and children with cancer receiving anthracyclines. In Cochrane ... "Dexrazoxane for Preventing or Reducing Cardiotoxicity in Adults and Children With Cancer Receiving Anthracyclines." Cochrane ... Dexrazoxane for preventing or reducing cardiotoxicity in adults and children with cancer receiving anthracyclines. Cochrane ...
Anthracyclines (eg, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone): These drugs inhibit DNA synthesis. * Vinca alkaloids (eg, vincristine): These ...
There are a range of cancer treatments available, and they differ depending on what type of cancer a person has. Learn about common chemotherapy drugs here.
Antineoplastics, Anthracycline. Class Summary. Anthracycline antineoplastics inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis by steric ... anthracycline, and antimicrotubular agents, have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Following are ...
Additional adjustment for anthracycline use and pelvic RT resulted in a 14% decline in relative risk for each 5-year era of ... Improvement credited to changes in chest RT, attenuated by use of pelvic RT, anthracyclines. by Charles Bankhead, Senior Editor ... The impact of trends in RT were tempered to some extent by increased use of anthracycline chemotherapy, reported Tara Henderson ... Use of anthracycline-containing chemotherapy increased from 30% of cases in the 1970s to 64% in the 1990s. ...
Anthracyclines. Anthracyclines are capable of inducing immunogenic cell death (ICD), a form of apoptosis which can induce an ... including anthracyclines, platinum salts, and other taxanes [44]. Chemotherapy can induce multiple immunomodulatory changes in ... anthracyclines can also increase proliferation of CD8+ T cells. ...
By K A. Kennedy, J M. Siegfried, A C. Sartorelli, et al., Published on 01/01/83
Aortic Remodeling after Anthracycline Therapy - by Thiago Ferreira de Souza - NASCI 2019 ...
  • Anthracyclines are a class of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy that are extracted from Streptomyces bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standard practice is to administer anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by a taxane. (mendeley.com)
  • Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing administering a taxane prior to an anthracycline with taxane following anthracycline to people with early breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. (mendeley.com)
  • We reviewed the evidence regarding the effectiveness of the medicine dexrazoxane to prevent or reduce heart damage in children and adults with cancer treated with anthracycline chemotherapy. (cochrane.org)
  • Anthracyclines are effective chemotherapy treatments available for various types of cancer. (cochrane.org)
  • Therefore, p38δ targeting could be a potential cardioprotective strategy in anthracycline chemotherapy. (northwestern.edu)
  • Most of the chemotherapy regimens currently used for the treatment of esophageal cancer, including alkylating, antimetabolite, anthracycline, and antimicrotubular agents, have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (medscape.com)
  • The impact of trends in RT were tempered to some extent by increased use of anthracycline chemotherapy, reported Tara Henderson, MD, MPH, of the University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, and co-authors in JAMA Oncology . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Treatment of "Acute Myeloid Leukemia" (AML) includes chemotherapy with anthracyclines, whose cardiotoxicity is well documented in cancer literature [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • She received the AML-BFM 2004 chemotherapy protocol with liposomal Daunorubicin, Mitoxantron and Idarubicin as cardiotoxic anthracyclines and further allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in January 2012. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 001). Anthracycline-containing chemotherapy increased HF rate by a factor of 2.83 (95% CI: 1.43-5.59), and there was no significant interaction with MLVD (Pinteraction = .09). (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have derived quantitative estimates of HF risk in patients treated for HL following radiotherapy with or without anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thirty-one patients with Stage I or II uterine sarcomas, referred to our center for adjuvant chemotherapy, received anthracycline-based regimens. (imrpress.com)
  • Our data suggest a potential role for anthracycline- and ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting for early-stage uterine sarcomas. (imrpress.com)
  • Background: Clinical trials have demonstrated that anthracycline chemotherapy for the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer (EBC) reduces breast cancer mortality but increases cardiac risk. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to implement a deep learning framework to quantify excess cardiac risk from anthracycline chemotherapy in real-world care. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Results: 4080 EBC patients were identified, 1658 received an anthracycline-based chemotherapy, 297 received non-anthracycline chemotherapy & 2125 received no chemotherapy. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: Taking into account competing risks, there was no statistically increased rate of cardiac events in women treated with anthracycline compared with non-anthracycline chemotherapy or no chemotherapy. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Using mouse models and human biospecimens, the investigators found that activation of cytosolic cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)- and stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-dependent type 1 interferon signaling (cGAS-STING pathway) induced delayed cardiac inflammation after radiation and anthracycline chemotherapy. (mskcc.org)
  • Prior chemotherapy must have included at least an anthracycline and a taxane unless patients are unsuitable for these treatments. (who.int)
  • Clinically the most important anthracyclines are doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin and idarubicin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic that inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • The efficacy of an anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOX) as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. (northwestern.edu)
  • Seventeen (54.8%) patients received ifosfamide, etoposide and epirubicin, six (19.4%) were treated with doxorubicin and carboplatin, three (9.6%) were administered doxorubicin and ifosfamide, while five (16.1 %) patients received various anthracycline-based regimens. (imrpress.com)
  • Our meta-analyses showed the efficacy of dexrazoxane in preventing or reducing cardiotoxicity in adults treated with anthracyclines. (cochrane.org)
  • Cochrane Abstracts , Evidence Central , evidence.unboundmedicine.com/evidence/view/Cochrane/433878/all/Dexrazoxane_for_preventing_or_reducing_cardiotoxicity_in_adults_and_children_with_cancer_receiving_anthracyclines. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are highly susceptible to anthracycline- related cardiotoxicity. (includedcc.org)
  • This project will delineate the contribution of specific molecular factors to anthracycline- cardiotoxicity in the DS setting. (includedcc.org)
  • Some cancers benefit from neoadjuvant anthracycline-based regimes, and these include triple negative breast cancers that do not respond well to targeted therapies due to the lack of available receptors that can be targeted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background Anthracyclines and taxanes are chemotherapeutic agents widely used in a sequential regimen in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment of early breast cancer to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. (mendeley.com)
  • Objectives To assess whether the sequence in which anthracyclines and taxanes are administered affects outcomes for people with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy. (mendeley.com)
  • Orally active anthracyclines such as idarubicin and compounds which lack cross-resistance with the parent drugs or have other mechanisms for cytotoxicity are being developed. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Nearly all components of bohemic acid are anthracycline antibiotic agents active against Gram-positive bacteria, but not against Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts or fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green, Michael D. / New anthracycline antitumor antibiotics . (bgu.ac.il)
  • Most of those components are antitumor agents and anthracycline antibiotics active against Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • New areas of research in relation to anthracycline antibiotics include introduction of new the analogs, insight into mechanisms of resistance, the reversal of multidrug resistance in vitro, the protection of cardiac toxicity, and the study of other important biochemical reactions relevant to cytotoxicity. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Risk of heart failure in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: effects of cardiac exposure to radiation and anthracyclines. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This MAGIC post hoc analysis evaluated CINV prevention efficacy and safety of APF530 versus ondansetron, each with fosaprepitant and dexamethasone, in patient subgroup receiving an anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide (AC) regimen. (nih.gov)
  • A pooled analysis of adding olanzapine to guideline-recommended antiemetic therapy for breast cancer patients treated with an anthracycline and cyclophosphamide in prospective and retrospective studies. (bvsalud.org)
  • For better understanding the application of olanzapine in antiemetic strategies for breast cancer patients who suffered anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide -induced nausea and vomiting , we comprehensively reviewed the antiemetic researches related to olanzapine and pooled-analyzed the results to confirm the efficacy and safety of olanzapine in breast cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • Adjuvant polychemotherapy (e.g. with 58% to 68%) for patients under the age of 50.1 Besides an cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF)) or improvement in clinical outcome, these figures indicate that anthracycline-containing regimes, produce substantial reduc- a large proportion of the patients will never recur after the tion in recurrence and mortality. (lu.se)
  • The anthracyclines are among the most effective anticancer treatments ever developed and are effective against more types of cancer than any other class of chemotherapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it has been 50 years from the discovery of anthracyclines, and despite recent advances in the development of targeted therapies for cancers, around 32% of breast cancer patients, 57%-70% of elderly lymphoma patients and 50-60% of childhood cancer patients are treated with anthracyclines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to non-triple negative breast cancer patients, triple negative breast cancer patients have shown better response rate and higher pathological response rate with anthracycline use, an indicator used for predicting improved long-term outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracyclines tend to be administered first as they were established before taxanes for treatment of early breast cancer. (mendeley.com)
  • Can the medicine dexrazoxane prevent or reduce heart damage in adults and children with cancer receiving anthracyclines? (cochrane.org)
  • We conclude that if the risk of heart damage from anthracyclines is expected to be high, it might be justified to use dexrazoxane in children and adults with cancer who are treated with anthracyclines. (cochrane.org)
  • The study corroborated previous research showing decreased incidence of secondary breast cancer (SBC) over time and an increased risk associated with prior chest RT and anthracycline exposure, noted the authors of an accompanying editorial . (medpagetoday.com)
  • In liposomal anthracyclines, the drugs are enclosed in tiny fat globules. (cancer.org)
  • Anthracyclines remain some of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents but their potential is limited by its dose-limiting toxicities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracycline dose intensification in acute myeloid leukemia. (qxmd.com)
  • In young adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), intensification of the anthracycline dose during induction therapy has improved the rate of complete remission but not of overall survival. (qxmd.com)
  • Her therapeutic regime contains a dose about 750 mg per square meter body surface anthracyclines, summarized to her bodily parameters at that time multiplied with 1,43 m 2 (cumulative dose of all given protocols: 1.072,5 mg). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several groups of researchers focused on designing compounds that retained the polycyclic aromatic chromophore of the anthracyclines (favouring intercalation into DNA) and substituting the sugar residue with simple side chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracyclines are drugs that treat many different cancers. (cancer.org)
  • The basic structure of anthracyclines is that of a tetracyclic molecule with an anthraquinone backbone connected to a sugar moiety by a glycosidic linkage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both cases the anthracycline molecule is bound to non-preferred d(YGG) base-pair triplet sites. (ox.ac.uk)
  • So, the question [is:] do you want to give anthracycline-based therapy versus nonanthracycline-based treatment? (targetedonc.com)
  • Currently, there are many studies being conducted in the search for anthracyclines with better anti-tumour efficacy or with reduced side effects using different nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the additional 'bulk' at C-8 could hinder the approach of the enzyme responsible for metabolising the anthracyclines via a reductive deglycosidation pathway 3 , so changing it's pharmacological properties. (google.com)
  • The first anthracyclines were so successful that thousands of analogues have been produced in attempts to find compounds with improved therapeutic applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anthracyclines have been widely studied for their interactions with cellular components and impact on cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracycline-DNA interactions at unfavourable base-pair triplet-binding sites: structures of d(CGGCCG)/daunomycin and d(TGGCCA)/adriamycin complexes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Effects of anthracyclines on oxygenated and hypoxic tumor cells. (jax.org)
  • With the right training and under medical surveillance competitive exercise with an anthracycline-damaged heart is still achievable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unfortunately compound ( 6 ) failed to undergo effective oxidation to the anthracycline ( 7 ) using lead(IV) acetate. (google.com)
  • Anthracyclines inhibit cell growth and proliferation. (medscape.com)