Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.
Phenanthrenes are aromatic hydrocarbons consisting of three benzene rings fused together in a linear arrangement, commonly found in various plants and some animals, and can act as precursors for certain steroid hormones or exhibit pharmacological activities with potential therapeutic uses.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A plant species of the family Moringaceae, order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae. It is a source of niaziminin and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides.
Tracheal neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the trachea, which can be benign or malignant, and have the potential to obstruct the airway and impair respiratory function.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A genus of straight or slightly curved gram-negative rods occurring singly or in pairs and isolated from sludge, mud, and river and pond water. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms, forming the basis of classes such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, which play a vital role in energy production and chemical synthesis.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Vinyl compounds, in the context of medical materials, refer to synthetic polymers made from vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate monomers, which are used in the production of various medical devices and supplies such as blood bags, intravenous (IV) bags, tubing, and gloves due to their flexibility, transparency, and resistance to chemicals and heat.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).

Pathologic changes induced in respiratory tract mucosa by polycyclic hydrocarbons of differing carcinogenic activity. (1/915)

Seven aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons (PCHs) were investigated for their toxic effects on respiratory mucosa: benzo(e)pyrene (BeP), pyrene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene(BaA), dibenz(a,c)anthracene(DBacA), benzo (a)pyrene (BaP), and dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). The compounds were chosen because they comprise a spectrum of PCHs ranging from noncarcinogens, to initiators, to weak and strong carcinogens. All of them except DMBA are environmentally relevant chemicals. The chemicals were tested over an 8-week period. Heterotopic tracheal transplants were continously exposed and the histopathologic effects induced by the various PCHs were periodically assessed semiquantitatively. All PCHs exhibited varying degrees of toxicity for respiratory epithelium and submucosa. BeP clearly showed the least toxicity followed by pyrene and anthracene. BaA and DBacA caused marked epithelial and submucosal changes. In addition to epithelial hyperplasia, undifferentiated epithelium and squamous metaplasia developed. Marked mononuclear infiltration occurred in the subepithelial connective tissue. With BaP the epithelial and submucosal changes were similar but were much stronger. DMBA was the most toxic substance, causing epithelial necrosis followed by generalized keratinizing squamous metaplasia; the subepithelial changes consisted of an early acellular exudate and, later (at 8 weeks), marked condensation and hyalinization of the lamina propria. The toxic response pattern of the tracheal mucosa to carcinogenic agents was characterized by the chronicity of epithelial and connective tissue damage, as opposed to the short-lived hyperplastic and inflammatory response elicited by the noncarcinogens and weak initiators.  (+info)

Formation of bound residues during microbial degradation of [14C]anthracene in soil. (2/915)

Carbon partitioning and residue formation during microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil and soil-compost mixtures were examined by using [14C]anthracenes labeled at different positions. In native soil 43.8% of [9-14C]anthracene was mineralized by the autochthonous microflora and 45.4% was transformed into bound residues within 176 days. Addition of compost increased the metabolism (67.2% of the anthracene was mineralized) and decreased the residue formation (20. 7% of the anthracene was transformed). Thus, the higher organic carbon content after compost was added did not increase the level of residue formation. [14C]anthracene labeled at position 1,2,3,4,4a,5a was metabolized more rapidly and resulted in formation of higher levels of residues (28.5%) by the soil-compost mixture than [14C]anthracene radiolabeled at position C-9 (20.7%). Two phases of residue formation were observed in the experiments. In the first phase the original compound was sequestered in the soil, as indicated by its limited extractability. In the second phase metabolites were incorporated into humic substances after microbial degradation of the PAH (biogenic residue formation). PAH metabolites undergo oxidative coupling to phenolic compounds to form nonhydrolyzable humic substance-like macromolecules. We found indications that monomeric educts are coupled by C-C- or either bonds. Hydrolyzable ester bonds or sorption of the parent compounds plays a minor role in residue formation. Moreover, experiments performed with 14CO2 revealed that residues may arise from CO2 in the soil in amounts typical for anthracene biodegradation. The extent of residue formation depends on the metabolic capacity of the soil microflora and the characteristics of the soil. The position of the 14C label is another important factor which controls mineralization and residue formation from metabolized compounds.  (+info)

Diverse oxygenations catalyzed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain CA10. (3/915)

Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10 is a multicomponent enzyme that catalyzes the angular dioxygenation of carbazole, dibenzofuran, and dibenzo-p-dioxin. It was revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses that xanthene and phenoxathiin were converted to 2,2',3-trihydroxydiphenylmethane and 2,2',3-trihydroxydiphenyl sulfide, respectively. Thus, for xanthene and phenoxathiin, angular dioxygenation by CARDO occurred at the angular position adjacent to the oxygen atom to yield hetero ring-cleaved compounds. In addition to the angular dioxygenation, CARDO catalyzed the cis dihydroxylation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biphenyl. Naphthalene and biphenyl were converted by CARDO to cis-1, 2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene and cis-2,3-dihydroxy-2, 3-dihydrobiphenyl, respectively. On the other hand, CARDO also catalyzed the monooxygenation of sulfur heteroatoms in dibenzothiophene and of the benzylic methylenic group in fluorene to yield dibenzothiophene-5-oxide and 9-hydroxyfluorene, respectively. These results indicate that CARDO has a broad substrate range and can catalyze diverse oxygenation: angular dioxygenation, cis dihydroxylation, and monooxygenation. The diverse oxygenation catalyzed by CARDO for several aromatic compounds might reflect the differences in the binding of the substrates to the reaction center of CARDO.  (+info)

Comparative tumorigenicity of the cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons aceanthrylene, dihydroaceanthrylene and acephenanthrylene in preweanling CD-1 and BLU:Ha mouse bioassays. (4/915)

Cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and potential human health biohazards. In this study, the tumorigenicity of three single cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aceanthrylene, dihydroaceanthrylene and acephenanthrylene, was examined in preweanling CD-1 and BLU:Ha mouse bioassays at total doses of 175, 437.5 and 875 micrograms/mouse. No death or significant toxicity was observed with the treatment protocol in the tested animals. In CD-1 mice, a significant increase in lung tumor incidence (18-26%, P < 0. 025-0.01) for these three compounds was recorded in animals treated with 875 micrograms as compared with the control animals (3%). Significant numbers of liver tumors (25-41%, P < 0.01-0.001) were induced in all aceanthrylene treatment groups and in animals treated with 875 micrograms acephenanthrylene (35%) at the termination at 9 months. Most liver tumors were induced in male animals. The ED50 values were estimated as 8.5, 10.6 and 12.8 micromol and the TM1.0 were 15.1, 20.4 and 23.1 micromol for aceanthrylene, acephenanthrylene and dihydroaceanthrylene, respectively. In BLU:Ha mice, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in lung tumor incidence, from 4% for the control group to 33% (P < 0.001) for the animals treated with 875 micrograms aceanthrylene and to 24% (P < 0.02) for the animals treated with 437.5 micrograms acephenanthrylene. The ED50 values were 6.0 and 4.4 micromol and the TM1.0 were 9.8 and 6.8 micromol for aceanthrylene and acephenanthrylene, respectively. No significant difference in lung tumor incidence between male and female mice was found. Based on these data and comparisons of tumorigenic potency with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons previously tested in these newborn mouse bioassays, aceanthrylene and acephenanthrylene were classified as weak tumorigens.  (+info)

Myeloma cells selected for resistance to CD95-mediated apoptosis are not cross-resistant to cytotoxic drugs: evidence for independent mechanisms of caspase activation. (5/915)

We have previously shown that selection for resistance to the anthracenes, doxorubicin or mitoxantrone, results in coselection for resistance to CD95-mediated apoptosis (Landowski et al: Blood 89:1854, 1997). In the present study, we were interested in determining if the converse is also true; that is, does selection for CD95 resistance coselect for resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. To address this question, we used two isogenic models of CD95-resistant versus CD95-sensitive cell lines: 8226/S myeloma cells selected for resistance to CD95-mediated apoptosis; and K562 cells expressing ectopic CD95. Repeated exposure of the CD95-sensitive human myeloma cell line, 8226/S, to agonistic anti-CD95 antibody resulted in a cell line devoid of CD95 receptor surface expression and completely resistant to CD95-mediated apoptosis. Multiple clonal populations derived from the CD95-resistant cell line showed no difference in sensitivity to doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, Ara-C, or etoposide, demonstrating that cross-resistance between Fas-mediated apoptosis and drug-induced apoptosis occurs only when cytotoxic drugs are used as the selecting agent. Using the inverse approach, we transfected the CD95-negative cell line, K562, with a CD95 expression vector. Clones expressing variable levels of cell-surface CD95 were isolated by limiting dilution, and analyzed for sensitivity to CD95-mediated apoptosis and response to chemotherapeutic drugs. We show that CD95 surface expression confers sensitivity to CD95-mediated apoptosis; however, it does not alter response to chemotherapeutic drugs. Similarly, doxorubicin-induced activation of caspases 3 and 8 was identical in the CD95-sensitive and CD95-resistant cell lines in both isogenic cell systems. In addition, prior treatment with the CD95 receptor-blocking antibody, ZB4, inhibited CD95-activated apoptosis in 8226/S cells, but had no effect on doxorubicin cytotoxicity. These results show that CD95 and chemotherapeutic drugs use common apoptotic effectors, but the point of convergence in these two pathways is downstream of CD95 receptor/ligand interaction.  (+info)

Development of a new bioluminescent mutagenicity assay based on the Ames test. (6/915)

A newly developed rapid mutagenicity assay based on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-bioluminescence technique and the Ames test is described. Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were exposed in an appropriate liquid medium to the direct mutagens 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and methyl methanesulphonate, respectively, and to the indirect mutagen 2-aminoanthracene. Both auxotrophic and prototrophic growth were monitored throughout the incubation period as variations in the intracellular ATP levels by means of the luciferin-luciferase assay. After 9-12 h of incubation a dose-response increase in the levels of ATP was readily detected. In order to demonstrate that this increase was due to the growth of revertant bacteria, aliquots from each culture were plated on minimal agar plates. A very good correlation between the changes in ATP levels and the appearance of revertant colonies on the plates was found. Given the rapidity of this method as compared with conventional mutagenicity assays, it has potential for industrial and environmental applications. Other potential applications are also discussed.  (+info)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism by white rot fungi and oxidation by Coriolopsis gallica UAMH 8260 laccase. (7/915)

We studied the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using white rot fungi previously identified as organisms that metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls. Bran flakes medium, which has been shown to support production of high levels of laccase and manganese peroxidase, was used as the growth medium. Ten fungi grown for 5 days in this medium in the presence of anthracene, pyrene, or phenanthrene, each at a concentration of 5 microg/ml could metabolize these PAHs. We studied the oxidation of 10 PAHs by using laccase purified from Coriolopsis gallica. The reaction mixtures contained 20 microM PAH, 15% acetonitrile in 60 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6), 1 mM 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), and 5 U of laccase. Laccase exhibited 91% of its maximum activity in the absence of acetonitrile. The following seven PAHs were oxidized by laccase: benzo[a]pyrene, 9-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, anthracene, biphenylene, acenaphthene, and phenanthrene. There was no clear relationship between the ionization potential of the substrate and the first-order rate constant (k) for substrate loss in vitro in the presence of ABTS. The effects of mediating substrates were examined further by using anthracene as the substrate. Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) (1 mM) supported approximately one-half the anthracene oxidation rate (k = 2.4 h(-1)) that ABTS (1 mM) supported (k = 5.2 h(-1)), but 1 mM HBT plus 1 mM ABTS increased the oxidation rate ninefold compared with the oxidation rate in the presence of ABTS, to 45 h(-1). Laccase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus had an activity similar to that of C. gallica laccase with HBT alone, with ABTS alone, and with 1 mM HBT plus 1 mM ABTS. Mass spectra of products obtained from oxidation of anthracene and acenaphthene revealed that the dione derivatives of these compounds were present.  (+info)

Nepalolide A inhibits the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by modulating the degradation of IkappaB-alpha and IkappaB-beta in C6 glioma cells and rat primary astrocytes. (8/915)

1 The effects of nepalolide A on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) caused by incubation with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma (LPS/IFN-gamma) or tumour necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-1beta/IFN-gamma (TNF-alpha/IL-1beta/IFN-gamma, mixed cytokines) in C6 glioma cells and primary astrocytes of rat were investigated. The mechanisms by which nepalolide A confers its effect on iNOS expression were also elucidated. 2 Treatment with LPS/IFN-gamma and mixed cytokines for 24 h elicited the induction of iNOS activity as determined by nitrite accumulation in the culture medium and assay of enzyme activity. Nepalolide A at 10 microM abrogated the LPS/IFN-gamma- and mixed cytokines-mediated induction of iNOS by more than 90% in C6 glioma cells, and by 80% for mixed cytokines-induced induction of iNOS in primary astrocytes. The effect of nepalolide A (2-10 microM) was concentration-dependent. 3 The inhibition of iNOS induction by nepalolide A was attributed to decreases in the content of iNOS protein and the level of iNOS mRNA, as measured by immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. 4 Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to evaluate the effect of nepalolide A on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Results showed that nepalolide A diminished the LPS/IFN-gamma-mediated association of NF-kappaB with consensus oligonucleotide in a concentration-dependent manner. The activation of NF-kappaB by mixed cytokines was modulated both in the extent of activation and in its time-course by nepalolide A. 5 The ability of nepalolide A to inhibit NF-kappaB activation was further confirmed by studies on the degradation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB, IkappaB, as measured by immunoblotting. 6 The present study demonstrates that the attenuation of NF-kappaB activation by nepalolide A was mediated by blockade of the degradation of IkappaB, leading to suppression of the expression of iNOS.  (+info)

Anthracene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H6. It is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is composed of three benzene rings arranged in a linear fashion. Anthracene is used primarily for research purposes, including studying DNA damage and mutagenesis. It is not known to have any significant biological role or uses in medicine. Exposure to anthracene may occur through coal tar or coal tar pitch volatiles, but it does not have established medical definitions related to human health or disease.

9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) is a synthetic, aromatic hydrocarbon that is commonly used in research as a carcinogenic compound. It is a potent tumor initiator and has been widely used to study chemical carcinogenesis in laboratory animals.

DMBA is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with two benzene rings fused together, and two methyl groups attached at the 9 and 10 positions. This structure allows DMBA to intercalate into DNA, causing mutations that can lead to cancer.

Exposure to DMBA has been shown to cause a variety of tumors in different organs, depending on the route of administration and dose. In animal models, DMBA is often applied to the skin or administered orally to induce tumors in the mammary glands, lungs, or digestive tract.

It's important to note that DMBA is not a natural compound found in the environment and is used primarily for research purposes only. It should be handled with care and appropriate safety precautions due to its carcinogenic properties.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

A papilloma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that grows on a stalk, often appearing as a small cauliflower-like growth. It can develop in various parts of the body, but when it occurs in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary tracts, they are called squamous papillomas. The most common type is the skin papilloma, which includes warts. They are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be removed through various medical procedures if they become problematic or unsightly.

'Mammary neoplasms, experimental' is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide definitions for the individual terms:

1. Mammary: Pertaining to the breast or mammary glands in females, which are responsible for milk production.
2. Neoplasms: Abnormal growths of tissue, also known as tumors or masses, that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
3. Experimental: Relating to a scientific experiment or study, typically conducted in a controlled setting to test hypotheses and gather data.

In the context of medical research, 'experimental mammary neoplasms' may refer to artificially induced breast tumors in laboratory animals (such as rats or mice) for the purpose of studying the development, progression, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. These studies can help researchers better understand the biology of breast cancer and develop new therapies and strategies for its diagnosis and management.

Medical definitions typically focus on the relevance of a term to medicine or healthcare, so here's a medical perspective on polycyclic compounds:

Polycyclic compounds are organic substances that contain two or more chemical rings in their structure. While not all polycyclic compounds are relevant to medicine, some can have significant medical implications. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a type of polycyclic compound that can be found in tobacco smoke and certain types of air pollution. PAHs have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer, due to their ability to damage DNA.

Another example is the class of drugs called steroids, which include hormones like cortisol and sex hormones like testosterone and estrogen. These compounds are polycyclic because they contain several interconnected rings in their structure. Steroid medications are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including inflammation, asthma, and Addison's disease.

In summary, while not all polycyclic compounds are relevant to medicine, some can have important medical implications, either as harmful environmental pollutants or as useful therapeutic agents.

Cocarcinogenesis is a term used in the field of oncology to describe a process where exposure to certain chemicals or physical agents enhances the tumor-forming ability of a cancer-causing agent (carcinogen). A cocarcinogen does not have the ability to initiate cancer on its own, but it can promote the development and progression of cancer when combined with a carcinogen.

In other words, a cocarcinogen is a substance or factor that acts synergistically with a known carcinogen to increase the likelihood or speed up the development of cancer. This process can occur through various mechanisms, such as suppressing the immune system, promoting inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, or inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of cocarcinogens include tobacco smoke, alcohol, certain viruses, and radiation. These agents can interact with carcinogens to increase the risk of cancer in individuals who are exposed to them. It is important to note that while cocarcinogens themselves may not directly cause cancer, they can significantly contribute to its development and progression when combined with other harmful substances or factors.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

SENCAR (skin tumor-prone, cancer-prone) mice are an inbred strain of laboratory mice that were developed through selective breeding for their high susceptibility to developing skin tumors when exposed to certain chemical carcinogens. They are particularly sensitive to two-stage chemical carcinogenesis, making them a valuable tool in cancer research.

The SENCAR mouse strain was developed at the Southern Research Institute (SRI) in Birmingham, Alabama, by crossing various strains of mice and then selectively breeding the offspring for high tumor susceptibility. The resulting SENCAR mice are highly sensitive to both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, displaying rapid tumor development when exposed to tumor-promoting agents.

These mice have been widely used in dermatology and oncology research to study the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, skin tumor development, and potential chemopreventive agents. They are also used to investigate the genetic factors contributing to cancer susceptibility and the role of the immune system in tumor development.

It is important to note that SENCAR mice are specifically bred for research purposes and should not be confused with wild mice or other strains of laboratory mice.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds characterized by the presence of two or more fused benzene rings. They are called "polycyclic" because they contain multiple cyclic structures, and "aromatic" because these structures contain alternating double bonds that give them distinctive chemical properties and a characteristic smell.

PAHs can be produced from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and the decomposition of organic matter. Anthropogenic sources include the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gasoline, as well as tobacco smoke, grilled foods, and certain industrial processes.

PAHs are known to be environmental pollutants and can have harmful effects on human health. They have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung, skin, and bladder cancers, as well as reproductive and developmental toxicity. PAHs can also cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and damage to the immune system.

PAHs are found in a variety of environmental media, including air, water, soil, and food. They can accumulate in the food chain, particularly in fatty tissues, and have been detected in a wide range of foods, including meat, fish, dairy products, and vegetables. Exposure to PAHs can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact.

It is important to limit exposure to PAHs by avoiding tobacco smoke, reducing consumption of grilled and smoked foods, using ventilation when cooking, and following safety guidelines when working with industrial processes that produce PAHs.

Benzopyrene is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It is formed from the incomplete combustion of organic materials, such as tobacco, coal, and gasoline. Benzopyrene is a potent carcinogen, meaning it has the ability to cause cancer in living tissue.

Benzopyrene is able to induce genetic mutations by interacting with DNA and forming bulky adducts that interfere with normal DNA replication. This can lead to the development of various types of cancer, including lung, skin, and bladder cancer. Benzopyrene has also been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

In the medical field, benzopyrene is often used as a model compound for studying the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis. It is also used in research to investigate the effects of PAHs on human health and to develop strategies for reducing exposure to these harmful substances.

Mucorales is a order of fungi that includes several genera of mold-like fungi, such as Mucor, Rhizopus, and Absidia. These fungi are commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and animal manure. Some species can cause mucormycosis, a serious and often life-threatening invasive fungal infection that primarily affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with uncontrolled diabetes, cancer, or organ transplants. The infection typically begins in the respiratory tract, but it can spread to other parts of the body, including the sinuses, brain, and lungs. Mucormycosis is difficult to diagnose and treat, and it has a high mortality rate.

Phenanthrenes are not typically defined in a medical context, but they are a class of organic compounds that have a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon structure consisting of three benzene rings fused together. They can be found in some natural products and have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties. Some phenanthrenes have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities, among others. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and safety profile.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

A "cheek" is the fleshy, muscular area of the face that forms the side of the face below the eye and above the jaw. It contains the buccinator muscle, which helps with chewing by moving food to the back teeth for grinding and also assists in speaking and forming facial expressions. The cheek also contains several sensory receptors that allow us to perceive touch, temperature, and pain in this area of the face. Additionally, there is a mucous membrane lining inside the mouth cavity called the buccal mucosa which covers the inner surface of the cheek.

Methylcholanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is used in research to induce skin tumors in mice. It is a potent carcinogen and mutagen, and exposure to it can increase the risk of cancer in humans. It is not typically found in medical treatments or therapies.

Chrysenes are a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are found in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human activities such as combustion of fossil fuels, waste incineration, and cigarette smoke. They consist of four fused benzene rings and are highly stable, making them persistent in the environment. Chrysenes have been shown to have potential toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects on living organisms, including humans. They can accumulate in the food chain and pose a risk to human health through exposure via contaminated air, water, and food.

Cyclic ethers are a type of organic compound that contain an ether functional group (-O-) within a cyclic (ring-shaped) structure. In a cyclic ether, one or more oxygen atoms are part of the ring, which can consist of various numbers of carbon atoms. The simplest example of a cyclic ether is oxirane, also known as ethylene oxide, which contains a three-membered ring with two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

Cyclic ethers have diverse applications in the chemical industry, including their use as building blocks for the synthesis of other chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and materials. Some cyclic ethers, like tetrahydrofuran (THF), are common solvents due to their ability to dissolve a wide range of organic compounds. However, some cyclic ethers can be hazardous or toxic, so they must be handled with care during laboratory work and industrial processes.

Anticarcinogenic agents are substances that prevent, inhibit or reduce the development of cancer. They can be natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the process of carcinogenesis at various stages, such as initiation, promotion, and progression. Anticarcinogenic agents may work by preventing DNA damage, promoting DNA repair, reducing inflammation, inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death), or modulating immune responses.

Examples of anticarcinogenic agents include chemopreventive agents, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and retinoids; phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods; and medications used to treat cancer, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies.

It is important to note that while some anticarcinogenic agents have been shown to be effective in preventing or reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, they may also have potential side effects and risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any anticarcinogenic agent for cancer prevention or treatment purposes.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

Mammary glands are specialized exocrine glands found in mammals, including humans and other animals. These glands are responsible for producing milk, which is used to nurse offspring after birth. The mammary glands are located in the breast region of female mammals and are usually rudimentary or absent in males.

In animals, mammary glands can vary in number and location depending on the species. For example, humans and other primates have two mammary glands, one in each breast. Cows, goats, and sheep, on the other hand, have multiple pairs of mammary glands located in their lower abdominal region.

Mammary glands are made up of several structures, including lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules contain clusters of milk-secreting cells called alveoli, which produce and store milk. The ducts transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple, where it is released during lactation.

Mammary glands are an essential feature of mammals, as they provide a source of nutrition for newborn offspring. They also play a role in the development and maintenance of the mother-infant bond, as nursing provides opportunities for physical contact and bonding between the mother and her young.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Methylnitrosourea (MNU) is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that has been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in cancer studies. Therefore, I will provide you with a scientific definition of this compound.

Methylnitrosourea (MNU) is an alkylating agent and a nitrosourea compound. It is known to be highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. MNU acts by transferring its methyl group (-CH3) to DNA, RNA, and proteins, causing damage to these macromolecules. This methylation can lead to point mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and DNA strand breaks, which contribute to genomic instability and cancer initiation and progression.

In research settings, MNU has been used as a model carcinogen to induce tumors in various animal models, primarily rodents, to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and evaluate potential chemopreventive or therapeutic agents. However, due to its high toxicity and mutagenicity, handling and use of MNU require strict safety measures and precautions.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is defined as a pharmacological agent that is a derivative of the phorbol ester family. It is a potent tumor promoter and activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation. TPA has been widely used in research to study PKC-mediated signaling pathways and its role in cancer development and progression. It is also used in topical treatments for skin conditions such as psoriasis.

Epoxy compounds, also known as epoxy resins, are a type of thermosetting polymer characterized by the presence of epoxide groups in their molecular structure. An epoxide group is a chemical functional group consisting of an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom, which is itself bonded to another carbon atom.

Epoxy compounds are typically produced by reacting a mixture of epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A or other similar chemicals under specific conditions. The resulting product is a two-part system consisting of a resin and a hardener, which must be mixed together before use.

Once the two parts are combined, a chemical reaction takes place that causes the mixture to cure or harden into a solid material. This curing process can be accelerated by heat, and once fully cured, epoxy compounds form a strong, durable, and chemically resistant material that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications.

In the medical field, epoxy compounds are sometimes used as dental restorative materials or as adhesives for bonding medical devices or prosthetics. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to certain components of epoxy compounds, so their use must be carefully evaluated and monitored in a medical context.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

"Mesocricetus" is a genus of rodents, more commonly known as hamsters. It includes several species of hamsters that are native to various parts of Europe and Asia. The best-known member of this genus is the Syrian hamster, also known as the golden hamster or Mesocricetus auratus, which is a popular pet due to its small size and relatively easy care. These hamsters are burrowing animals and are typically solitary in the wild.

Epoxide hydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides, which are molecules containing a three-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. This reaction results in the formation of diols, which are molecules containing two hydroxyl groups (-OH).

Epoxide hydrolases play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) and the metabolism of endogenous compounds. They help to convert toxic epoxides into less harmful products, which can then be excreted from the body.

There are two main types of epoxide hydrolases: microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). mEH is primarily responsible for metabolizing xenobiotics, while sEH plays a role in the metabolism of endogenous compounds such as arachidonic acid.

Impaired function or inhibition of epoxide hydrolases has been linked to various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, these enzymes are considered important targets for the development of drugs and therapies aimed at treating these conditions.

Cyclohexenes are organic compounds that consist of a six-carbon ring (cyclohexane) with one double bond. The general chemical formula for cyclohexene is C6H10. The double bond can introduce various chemical properties and reactions to the compound, such as electrophilic addition reactions.

Cyclohexenes are used in the synthesis of other organic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials. Some cyclohexene derivatives also occur naturally, for example, in essential oils and certain plant extracts. However, it is important to note that pure cyclohexene has a mild odor and is considered a hazardous substance, with potential health effects such as skin and eye irritation, respiratory issues, and potential long-term effects upon repeated exposure.

DNA adducts are chemical modifications or alterations that occur when DNA molecules become attached to or bound with certain harmful substances, such as toxic chemicals or carcinogens. These attachments can disrupt the normal structure and function of the DNA, potentially leading to mutations, genetic damage, and an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

DNA adducts are formed when a reactive molecule from a chemical agent binds covalently to a base in the DNA molecule. This process can occur either spontaneously or as a result of exposure to environmental toxins, such as those found in tobacco smoke, certain industrial chemicals, and some medications.

The formation of DNA adducts is often used as a biomarker for exposure to harmful substances, as well as an indicator of potential health risks associated with that exposure. Researchers can measure the levels of specific DNA adducts in biological samples, such as blood or urine, to assess the extent and duration of exposure to certain chemicals or toxins.

It's important to note that not all DNA adducts are necessarily harmful, and some may even play a role in normal cellular processes. However, high levels of certain DNA adducts have been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases, making them a focus of ongoing research and investigation.

Mutagenicity tests are a type of laboratory assays used to identify agents that can cause genetic mutations. These tests detect changes in the DNA of organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, after exposure to potential mutagens. The most commonly used mutagenicity test is the Ames test, which uses a strain of Salmonella bacteria that is sensitive to mutagens. If a chemical causes an increase in the number of revertants (reversion to the wild type) in the bacterial population, it is considered to be a mutagen. Other tests include the mouse lymphoma assay and the chromosomal aberration test. These tests are used to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of chemicals and are an important part of the safety evaluation process for new drugs, chemicals, and other substances.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Croton oil is a highly toxic, irritant, and vesicant liquid that is derived from the seeds of the croton tiglium plant. It is a type of unsaturated fatty acid known as an octadecatrienoic acid, and it contains a mixture of various chemical compounds including crotonic acid, diglycerides, and phorbol esters.

Croton oil is commonly used in laboratory research as a pharmacological tool to study the mechanisms of inflammation, pain, and skin irritation. It can also be used as a veterinary medicine to treat certain types of intestinal parasites in animals. However, due to its high toxicity and potential for causing severe burns and blisters on the skin, it is not used in human medicine.

It's important to note that croton oil should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting, as improper use or exposure can result in serious injury or death.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

Microsomes, liver refers to a subcellular fraction of liver cells (hepatocytes) that are obtained during tissue homogenization and subsequent centrifugation. These microsomal fractions are rich in membranous structures known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), particularly the rough ER. They are involved in various important cellular processes, most notably the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens.

The liver microsomes contain a variety of enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are crucial for phase I drug metabolism. These enzymes help in the oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of xenobiotics, making them more water-soluble and facilitating their excretion from the body. Additionally, liver microsomes also host other enzymes involved in phase II conjugation reactions, where the metabolites from phase I are further modified by adding polar molecules like glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetyl groups.

In summary, liver microsomes are a subcellular fraction of liver cells that play a significant role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics, contributing to the overall protection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis within the body.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

"Moringa oleifera" is not a medical term or condition, but rather the botanical name of a plant species commonly known as the "moringa tree" or "drumstick tree." It is native to India and widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas. Various parts of this plant, including its leaves, seeds, and bark, have been used in traditional medicine systems for centuries due to their rich nutritional profile and potential health benefits. However, it's important to note that while some preliminary research suggests possible therapeutic uses for Moringa oleifera, more rigorous scientific studies are needed to confirm its safety and efficacy as a medical treatment.

Tracheal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the trachea, which is the windpipe that carries air from the nose and throat to the lungs. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tracheal neoplasms are relatively rare and can be primary (originating in the trachea) or secondary (spreading from another part of the body, such as lung cancer). Primary tracheal cancers can be squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, or sarcomas. Symptoms may include cough, difficulty breathing, wheezing, or chest pain. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm and can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) is a type of spectrophotometry that measures how much ultraviolet (UV) and visible light is absorbed or transmitted by a sample. It uses a device called a spectrophotometer to measure the intensity of light at different wavelengths as it passes through a sample. The resulting data can be used to determine the concentration of specific components within the sample, identify unknown substances, or evaluate the physical and chemical properties of materials.

UV-Vis spectroscopy is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, and environmental science. It can detect a wide range of substances including organic compounds, metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and dyes. The technique is non-destructive, meaning that the sample remains unchanged after the measurement.

In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the sample is placed in a cuvette or other container, and light from a source is directed through it. The light then passes through a monochromator, which separates it into its component wavelengths. The monochromatic light is then directed through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted or absorbed light is measured by a detector.

The resulting absorption spectrum can provide information about the concentration and identity of the components in the sample. For example, if a compound has a known absorption maximum at a specific wavelength, its concentration can be determined by measuring the absorbance at that wavelength and comparing it to a standard curve.

Overall, UV-Vis spectrophotometry is a versatile and powerful analytical technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of various samples in different fields.

Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases (AHH) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of various aromatic and heterocyclic compounds, including potentially harmful substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. These enzymes are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells, particularly in the liver, but can also be found in other tissues.

The AHH enzymes catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the aromatic ring structure of these compounds, which is the first step in their biotransformation and eventual elimination from the body. This process can sometimes lead to the formation of metabolites that are more reactive and potentially toxic than the original compound. Therefore, the overall impact of AHH enzymes on human health is complex and depends on various factors, including the specific compounds being metabolized and individual genetic differences in enzyme activity.

The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, composed mainly of stratified squamous epithelium. It forms a protective barrier that prevents water loss and inhibits the entry of microorganisms. The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and its cells are nourished by diffusion from the underlying dermis. The bottom-most layer of the epidermis, called the stratum basale, is responsible for generating new skin cells that eventually move up to replace dead cells on the surface. This process of cell turnover takes about 28 days in adults.

The most superficial part of the epidermis consists of dead cells called squames, which are constantly shed and replaced. The exact rate at which this happens varies depending on location; for example, it's faster on the palms and soles than elsewhere. Melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells, are also located in the epidermis, specifically within the stratum basale layer.

In summary, the epidermis is a vital part of our integumentary system, providing not only physical protection but also playing a crucial role in immunity and sensory perception through touch receptors called Pacinian corpuscles.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Methylophilus" is not a medical term. It is a genus name in the family Methylocorpaceae, which consists of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria that are capable of oxidizing methane using methanol as an intermediate. These types of bacteria are often found in environments such as soil, freshwater, and wastewater treatment systems. If you have any questions about biology or microbiology, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Bromine is a chemical element with the symbol "Br" and atomic number 35. It belongs to the halogen group in the periodic table and is a volatile, reddish-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates easily into a red-brown gas with a strong, chlorine-like odor.

Bromine is not found free in nature, but it is present in many minerals, such as bromite and halite. It is produced industrially through the treatment of brine with chlorine gas. Bromine has a wide range of uses, including as a disinfectant, fumigant, flame retardant, and intermediate in the production of various chemicals.

In medicine, bromine compounds have been used historically as sedatives and anticonvulsants, although their use has declined due to the availability of safer and more effective drugs. Bromine itself is not used medically, but some of its compounds may have therapeutic applications in certain contexts. For example, bromide salts have been used as a mild sedative and anticonvulsant in veterinary medicine. However, their use in humans is limited due to the risk of toxicity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyrenes" is not a medical term. It is a term used in chemistry and materials science, referring to a type of aromatic hydrocarbon molecule that consists of two benzene rings fused together. If you have a different term or concept in mind, please provide it so I can give you an accurate definition or information.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrocarbons" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. They are primarily used in industry as fuel, lubricants, and as raw materials for the production of plastics, fibers, and other chemicals.

However, in a broader scientific context, hydrocarbons can be relevant to medical discussions. For instance, in toxicology, exposure to certain types of hydrocarbons (like those found in gasoline or solvents) can lead to poisoning and related health issues. In environmental medicine, the pollution of air, water, and soil with hydrocarbons is a concern due to potential health effects.

But in general clinical medicine, 'hydrocarbons' wouldn't have a specific definition.

Anthraquinones are a type of organic compound that consists of an anthracene structure (a chemical compound made up of three benzene rings) with two carbonyl groups attached to the central ring. They are commonly found in various plants and have been used in medicine for their laxative properties. Some anthraquinones also exhibit antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, long-term use of anthraquinone-containing laxatives can lead to serious side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, muscle weakness, and liver damage.

Creosote is a thick, dark brown or black liquid that has a strong, tarry odor and is produced when wood, coal, or other organic materials are burned or distilled. It is a complex mixture of chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which have been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

In the medical context, creosote is not typically used as a treatment for any condition. However, it has been used historically as a topical antiseptic and wound dressing, due to its antibacterial properties. However, its use in this way has largely been replaced by more modern and effective treatments.

It's important to note that creosote is considered a hazardous substance and can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin. It can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it should be handled with care and used only under the supervision of a medical professional.

A mouth neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth or tumor in the oral cavity, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant mouth neoplasms are also known as oral cancer. They can develop on the lips, gums, tongue, roof and floor of the mouth, inside the cheeks, and in the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat at the back of the mouth).

Mouth neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, white or red patches, persistent mouth sores, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness in the mouth. Early detection and treatment of mouth neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Adenofibroma is a rare, benign tumor that occurs most commonly in the salivary glands. It is composed of both glandular tissue (adeno-) and fibrous tissue (-fibroma). These tumors are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body.

Adenofibromas can also occur in other areas of the body, such as the skin, where they may be referred to as "fibroepithelial polyps" or "skin tags." In general, adenofibromas are not cancerous and can often be removed surgically. However, it is important to have any new growths or lumps evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the appropriate course of treatment.

Enzyme induction is a process by which the activity or expression of an enzyme is increased in response to some stimulus, such as a drug, hormone, or other environmental factor. This can occur through several mechanisms, including increasing the transcription of the enzyme's gene, stabilizing the mRNA that encodes the enzyme, or increasing the translation of the mRNA into protein.

In some cases, enzyme induction can be a beneficial process, such as when it helps the body to metabolize and clear drugs more quickly. However, in other cases, enzyme induction can have negative consequences, such as when it leads to the increased metabolism of important endogenous compounds or the activation of harmful procarcinogens.

Enzyme induction is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology, as it can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs and other xenobiotics. It is also relevant to the study of drug interactions, as the induction of one enzyme by a drug can lead to altered metabolism and effects of another drug that is metabolized by the same enzyme.

Aroclors are a series of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures that were manufactured by the Monsanto Company. They were widely used as cooling and insulating fluids in electrical equipment, such as transformers and capacitors, due to their non-flammability, chemical stability, and electrical insulating properties.

The term "Aroclor" is followed by a four-digit number that indicates the specific mixture and its average degree of chlorination. For example, Aroclor 1242 contains approximately 42% chlorine by weight, while Aroclor 1260 contains approximately 60% chlorine by weight.

Because of their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans and wildlife, the production and use of PCBs, including Aroclors, were banned in the United States in 1979 under the Toxic Substances Control Act. However, due to their widespread historical use, PCBs continue to be a significant environmental pollutant and can still be found in many older electrical equipment, building materials, and soil and water samples.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

"Vinyl compounds" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a term used in chemistry and materials science to refer to a group of chemicals that contain carbon-based molecules with a vinyl group, which is a functional group consisting of a double bond between two carbon atoms, with one of the carbons also being bonded to a hydrogen atom (-CH2=CH-).

Vinyl compounds are used in various industrial and consumer products, including plastics, resins, adhesives, and coatings. Some vinyl compounds, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), have been used in medical devices and supplies, such as intravenous (IV) bags, tubing, and blood vessel catheters. However, the use of PVC and other vinyl compounds in medical applications has raised concerns about potential health risks due to the release of toxic chemicals, such as phthalates and dioxins, during manufacturing, use, and disposal. Therefore, alternative materials are being developed and used in medical devices and supplies.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

... is used in the production of the red dye alizarin and other dyes. Anthracene is colorless but exhibits a blue (400- ... Reduction of anthracene with alkali metals yields the deeply colored radical anion salts M+[anthracene]− (M = Li, Na, K). ... The anthracene tracer allows the conformal coating to be inspected under UV light. A variety of anthracene derivatives find ... Anthracene is converted mainly to anthraquinone, a precursor to dyes. Anthracene, a wide band-gap organic semiconductor is used ...
Hydrogen induces release of anthracene, yielding magnesium hydride (MgH2). Borislav Bogdanovic (1988). "Magnesium Anthracene ... Magnesium anthracene is an organomagnesium compound that is almost invariably isolated as its adduct with three tetrahydrofuran ... anthracene)(THF)3] and [Mg(triphenylmethyl)Br(OEt2)2]". Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 341 (1-3): 39. doi:10.1016/0022- ... and water-sensitive orange solid is obtained by heating a suspension of magnesium in a thf solution of anthracene. According to ...
Benz[a]anthracene or benzo[a]anthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C18H12. It is produced ... Benz[a]anthracene is one of carcinogenic constituents of tobacco smoke. Tetracene, also known as benz[b]anthracene "Front ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. "Benzo[a]anthracene [MAK Value Documentation, 2012]". The MAK-Collection for Occupational Health and ...
... is the most common monoaldehyde derivative of anthracene. It is a yellow solid that is soluble in ... It is prepared by Vilsmeier formylation of anthracene. The compound is also used as a building block for supramolecular ...
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C22H14. It is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ...
Dibenz[a,j]anthracene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C22H14. In February 2014, NASA announced a greatly ... upgraded database for tracking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including dibenz[a,j]anthracene, in the universe. ...
The emission wavelength can be lowered by substituting the anthracene core by halogens or alkyls. 2-ethyl and 1,2-dimethyl ... 1-chloro-9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene emits yellow-green light, used in 30-minute high-intensity Cyalume sticks 2-chloro-9 ... 9,10-Bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) is an aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula is C30H18. It displays strong ... 10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene emits green light, used in 12-hour low-intensity Cyalume sticks Lightstick Organic light- ...
... at Sigma-Aldrich Miyata M; Furukawa M; Takahashi K; Gonzalez FJ; Yamazoe Y (2001). "Mechanism of ... 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is an immunosuppressor and a powerful organ-specific laboratory carcinogen. DMBA is ... 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Immunotoxicity: Role of Metabolic Activation at the Target Organ". Jpn J Pharmacol. 86 ...
9,10-Bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene 1-Chloro-9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene v t e (Chemical articles with multiple compound ... 2-Chloro-9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene is a fluorescent dye used in lightsticks. It emits green light, used in 12-hour low- ... Anthracenes, Alkyne derivatives, Chloroarenes, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
9,10-Bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene 2-Chloro-9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene Bamfield, Peter (2010-02-12). Chromic Phenomena: ... 1-Chloro-9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene is a fluorescent dye used in lightsticks. It emits yellow-green light, used in 30- ... Anthracenes, Alkyne derivatives, Chloroarenes, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
Part 1.-Anthracene". Trans. Faraday Soc. 63: 1720-1729. doi:10.1039/TF9676301720. ISSN 0014-7672. Gupta, K. M. (2015). Advanced ...
I. Via anthracene adducts". Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed. 16 (10): 2475-2507. Bibcode:1978JPoSA..16.2475B. doi:10.1002/pol. ... anthracene > butadiene Dienophile: N2 > CO2 > naphthalene > benzene, nitriles > methacrylate > maleimides > cyclopentadiene, ...
While the anthracene and naphthacene analogues are weakly fluorescent, the pentacene analogue is not. The HOMO-LUMO gaps are ... A similar reaction occurs in anthracene; however, the oxygen has to be excited with a photosensitizer from its triplet state to ... This essentially qualitatively characterizes the kinetics of the redox reaction, so the boron containing anthracene and ... Bender, Paul; Farber, Joseph (March 1952). "The Heats of Combustion of Anthracene Transannular Peroxide and Dianthracene". ...
Because the aromaticity is not compromised for the flanking rings, anthracene is susceptible to hydrogenation at the 9- and 10 ... 9,10-Dihydroanthracene is an organic compound that is derived from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene. Several ... Collin, Gerd; Höke, Hartmut; Talbiersky, Jörg (2006). "Anthracene". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: ...
Similarly, anthracene is formylated at the 9-position. The reaction of anthracene with N-methylformanilide, also using ... Fieser, F. L.; Hartwell, J. L.; Jones, J. E.; Wood, J. H.; Bost, R. W. (1940). "Formylation of anthracene". Organic Syntheses. ...
Other PAH compounds appearing as minerals include fluorene as kratochvilite; and anthracene as ravatite. Others are mixtures: ...
"Anthracene, 1,9-dibromo-". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. "1,10-Dibromoanthracene". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. "2,3-Dibromoanthracene ... A dibromoanthracene is a derivative of anthracene with two bromine atoms. All compounds have the formula C14H8Br2. They are all ...
2+2] Photocycloaddition Fieser, Louis F.; Lothrop, Warren C. (1936). "The Structure of Anthracene". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58 (5): ... The earliest example of a [4+4] photocycloaddition was the photodimerization of anthracene, discovered in 1936. This reaction ... Other polycyclic aromatics undergo anthracene-like photocycloaddition, such as acridizinium salts. Biologically active natural ...
Parker, C. A.; Joyce, Thelma A. (1967). "Delayed fluorescence of anthracene and some substituted anthracenes". Chemical ... Triplet-triplet annihilation was first discovered in the 1960s to explain the observation of delayed fluorescence in anthracene ... Parker, C. A.; Hatchard, C. G. (1962). "Delayed fluorescence from solutions of anthracene and phenanthrene". Proceedings of the ...
They found that a hole current can flow through an anthracene crystal contacted with a positively biased electrolyte containing ... Work on conductivity of anthracene crystals contacted with an electrolyte showed that optically excited dye molecules adsorbed ... Sano; Pope; Kallmann (1965). "Electroluminescence and Band Gap in Anthracene". J. Chem. Phys. 43 (8): 2920. Bibcode:1965JChPh.. ... Sano; Pope; Kallmann (1965). "Recombination Radiation in Anthracene Crystals". Physical Review Letters. 14 (7): 229-231. ...
... electroluminescence under vacuum on a single pure crystal of anthracene and on anthracene crystals doped with tetracene in 1963 ... Pope's group reported in 1965 that in the absence of an external electric field, the electroluminescence in anthracene crystals ... Their proposed mechanism involved electronic excitation at the contacts between the graphite particles and the anthracene ... Sano, Mizuka; Pope, Martin; Kallmann, Hartmut (1965). "Electroluminescence and Band Gap in Anthracene". The Journal of Chemical ...
Examples are naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene. In fused aromatics, not all carbon-carbon bonds are necessarily ...
9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene PubChem. "5,12-Bis(phenylethynyl)naphthacene". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2022-11-19 ...
Begley, M. J.; Puntambekar, S. G.; A. H., Wright (1987). "A di-iron-anthracene complex via ultrasonics". Chemical ...
Anthracene, Phenanthrene or Biphenyl)". Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry. 39 (1/2): 175-180. doi: ...
Anthracene was heavily studied due to its known crystal structure and its commercial availability in high-purity single ... A. M. Mathieson; J.M. Robertson; V.C. Sinclair (1950). "The crystal and molecular structure of anthracene. I. X-ray ... In the early 20th century, Pochettino and Volmer studied the first organic compound, anthracene, in which photoconductivity was ... G.J. Sloan (1966). "Studies on the Purification of Anthracene; Determination and Use of Segregation Coefficients". Mol. Cryst. ...
"A holistic approach for anthracene photochemistry kinetics". Chemical Engineering Journal. 402: 126259. doi:10.1016/j.cej. ...
Michl, Joseph; Thulstrup, E. W. (1976). "Why is azulene blue and anthracene white? A simple mo picture". Tetrahedron. 32 (2): ...
R.G. Kepler (1960). "Charge Carrier Production and Mobility in Anthracene Crystals". Phys. Rev. 119 (4): 1226. Bibcode:1960PhRv ...
This enzyme participates in naphthalene and anthracene degradation. He Z, Nadeau LJ, Spain JC (2000). "Characterization of ...
Anthracene is used in the production of the red dye alizarin and other dyes. Anthracene is colorless but exhibits a blue (400- ... Reduction of anthracene with alkali metals yields the deeply colored radical anion salts M+[anthracene]− (M = Li, Na, K). ... The anthracene tracer allows the conformal coating to be inspected under UV light. A variety of anthracene derivatives find ... Anthracene is converted mainly to anthraquinone, a precursor to dyes. Anthracene, a wide band-gap organic semiconductor is used ...
Hydrogen induces release of anthracene, yielding magnesium hydride (MgH2). Borislav Bogdanovic (1988). "Magnesium Anthracene ... Magnesium anthracene is an organomagnesium compound that is almost invariably isolated as its adduct with three tetrahydrofuran ... anthracene)(THF)3] and [Mg(triphenylmethyl)Br(OEt2)2]". Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 341 (1-3): 39. doi:10.1016/0022- ... and water-sensitive orange solid is obtained by heating a suspension of magnesium in a thf solution of anthracene. According to ...
The meaning of ANTHRACENE BLUE is any of various blue mordant or acid anthraquinone dyes. ... "Anthracene blue." Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anthracene%20blue ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
However, we show that by converting a chemical linker that covalently binds anthracene molecules to silicon quantum dots from a ... we access a strong coupling regime where excited carriers spatially delocalize across both anthracene and silicon. By pushing ... Efficient photon upconversion enabled by strong coupling between silicon quantum dots and anthracene. *Kefu Wang ORCID: orcid. ... On the efficacy of anthracene isomers for triplet transmission from CdSe nanocrystals. Chem. Commun. 53, 1241-1244 (2017). ...
Shop Anthracene, 99%, Thermo Scientific Chemicals at Fishersci.ca ...
PM7 Anthracene H=55.2 HR=C&P1970 I=8.16 IR=LLNBS82 C 0.00000000 +0 0.00000000 +0 0.00000000 +0 C 1.42382747 +1 0.00000000 +0 ...
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We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 474688-76-1 2-Bromo-9,10-bis(2-naphthalenyl)anthracene. ... anthracene;2-BroMo-9,10-bis(2-napthalenyl)anthracene;BDNA;2-Bromo-9,10-bis(2-naphthyl)anthracene;2-Bromo-9,10-di-2- ... Product Name: 2-Bromo-9,10-bis(2-naphthalenyl)anthracene. *Synonyms: 2-broMo-9,10-di(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracene (BDNA);2-broMo- ... 2-bromo-9,10-di(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracene. Cas No: 474688-76-1. No Data. No Data. No Data. Xiamen Hisunny Chemical Co.,Ltd. ...
3-Fluoro-4-(morpholin-4-yl)-9,10-dioxa-1,2-diaza-anthracene (9a). A mixture of 3,4-difluoro-9,10-dioxa-1,2-diaza-anthracene (5 ... Scheme 2: Synthetic route to dioxa-diaza-anthracene derivatives. Scheme 2: Synthetic route to dioxa-diaza-anthracene ... 2-diaza-anthracene (9a), 4-allylamino-3-fluoro-9,10-dioxa-1,2-diaza-anthracene (9b), 4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-9,10-dioxa-1,2-diaza- ... Synthesis of 3,4-difluoro-9,10-dioxa-1,2-diaza-anthracene (5). Catechol (0.80 g, 7.2 mmol) was dissolved in THF (20 mL) at 0 °C ...
... anthracene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene by indigenous strains of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria isolated from ... anthracene. The present study aimed at monitoring biodegradation of anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene ... Aerobic Degradation of Anthracene, Benzo(a)Anthracene and Dibenzo(a,h) Anthracene by Indigenous Strains of Aerobic ... Biodegradation of anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene by indigenous strains of aerobic heterotrophic ...
Thousand-Fold Enhancement of Charge-Separated State Lifetimes Caused by an Adamantane Bridge in Dimethylaniline-Anthracene and ...
Anthracene Market size is forecast to reach US$375 million by 2026, after growing at a CAGR of 4.1% during 2021-2026. ... Anthracene Market Challenges. Various Hazards Associated with Anthracene. If inhaled through contaminated air, anthracene has ... Anthracene Market Overview. Anthracene Market size is forecast to reach US$375 million by 2026, after growing at a CAGR of 4.1% ... Anthracene Market - Key Company List by Country Premium Premium. 14. Anthracene Market Company Analysis - Business Overview, ...
The anthracene headgroups were then used as anchor ... Anthracene monolayers covalently bound to hydrogen-terminated n ... Si(100) surfaces have been prepared from the attachment of an amine-substituted anthracene derivative to a preassembled acid- ... Anthracene and anthracene:C60 adduct-terminated monolayers covalently bound to hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces. B. Fabre, ... The SECM approach curves suggest that both the anthracene and anthracene:C60 layers displayed good conductivity, presumably by ...
Learn about anthracene topic of Chemistry in details explained by subject experts on vedantu.com. Register free for online ... Anthracene is also referred to as "Green Oil." Anthracene is soluble in many solvents. Studies show that Anthracene is absorbed ... FAQs on Anthracene: Meaning, Reactions and Uses. 1. Where do you find Anthracene? ... How to Identify Anthracene?. Anthracene is between colourless to pale yellow, which feels like sand when touched with a bluish ...
Polymers with Alternating Anthracene and Phenylene Building Blocks Linked by Ethynylene and/or Vinylene Units: Studying ... "Polymers with Alternating Anthracene and Phenylene Building Blocks Linked by Ethynylene and/or Vinylene Units: Studying ...
We also provide custom synthesis and GMP manufacturing services.where to buy Anthracenes ... where to buy Anthracenes, Chemenu is research-based manufacturer of pharmaceutical intermediates and fine chemicals offering ... Anthracenes. Anthracene is a condensed aromatic hydrocarbon containing three rings. The center of the three rings of anthracene ... Acridines Anthracenes Azaspirocyclic Compounds Aziridines(Polycyclic) Carbazoles Dibenzofurans Fluorenes Imidazothiazoles ...
ANTHRACENE (scintillation grade). Catalogue No: ASIC 045400025. Item Type: Consumables. Item Unit: 25 gm ... ANTHRACENE (scintillation grade). Catalogue No: ASIC 045400025. Item Type: Consumables. Item Unit: 25 gm ... Be the first to review "ANTHRACENE (scintillation grade)" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required ...
ANTHRACENE-7,12-DIONE AldrichCPR; CAS Number: 145958-83-4; Linear Formula: C19H12O2; find -S935840 MSDS, related peer-reviewed ...
G.D. Sun, Y. Xu, J.H. Jin, Z.P. Zhong, Y. Liu, M. Luo, Z.P. Liu, Pilotscale ex-situ bioremediation of heavily PAHs-contaminated soil by indigenous microorganisms and bioaugmentation by a PAHs-degrading and bioemulsifier-producing strain, J. Hazard. Mater., 233 (2012) 72-78 ...
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Click here to place an order for determining Dibenz[a,h]anthracene.. Request a QuoteDibenz[a,h]anthracene Content ... Acenaphthene, Acenaphthylene, Anthracene, Benz[a]anthracene, Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, Benzo[ghi]perylene, ... Acenaphthene, Acenaphthylene, Anthracene, Benz[a]anthracene, Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, Benzo[ghi]perylene, ... anthracene, Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, Benzo[ghi]perylene, Benzo[a]pyrene, Chrysene, Dibenz[a,h]anthracene, ...
Karadakov PB, Al-Yassiri M. Excited State Aromaticity Reversals in Naphthalene and Anthracene. Journal of Physical Chemistry A ... Karadakov, P. B., & Al-Yassiri, M. (2023). Excited State Aromaticity Reversals in Naphthalene and Anthracene. Journal of ... Karadakov, PB & Al-Yassiri, M 2023, Excited State Aromaticity Reversals in Naphthalene and Anthracene, Journal of Physical ... Excited State Aromaticity Reversals in Naphthalene and Anthracene. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 2023 ; Vol. 127, No. 14 ...
  • The center of the three rings of anthracene is in a straight line, which is the isomer of phenanthrene. (chemenu.com)
  • Time-Related Alteration of Aqueous-Phase Anthracene and Phenanthrene Photoproducts in the Presence of TiO Nanoparticles. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Our objective was to investigate anthracene (ANT) and phenanthrene (PHE) photoproduct formation and transformation following ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation in the presence and absence of TiO-NPs. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has identified 16 substances as priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are harmful to humans, including anthracene and phenanthrene. (abmj.ro)
  • The isolate could grow up to 600 mgL-1 and 400 mgL-1 of anthracene and phenanthrene as the sole carbon source at an optimum pH of 7.0 and 7.5 respectively, inoculum concentration of 4% (v/v), and temperature of 35°C during 72 hours of incubation. (abmj.ro)
  • The strain could degrade phenanthrene and anthracene to a maximum of 99 and 72 percent, respectively, under ideal conditions. (abmj.ro)
  • Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations showed only detectable levels of acenaphthylene (208968), acenaphthene (83329), fluorene (86737), phenanthrene (85018), anthracene (120127), and naphthalene (91203). (cdc.gov)
  • Biodegradation of anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene by indigenous strains of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria isolated from Bodo creek - a moderate salt aquatic environment polluted with crude oil was monitored for 56 days using GC-MS. Anthracene was mineralized to 0.1, 0.001 and 0.08 mg/l by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria cyanobacteria and consortium of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria respectively. (omicsonline.org)
  • Benzo(a)anthracene was reduced to 0.03, 0.01 and 0.02 mg/l in the treatments of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria cyanobacteria and consortium of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria respectively where as dibenzo(a,h)anthracene was reduced to 0 mg/l in all the treatment options on the 56th day monitored. (omicsonline.org)
  • Concentrations of lead (7439921), cadmium (7440439), beryllium (7440417), benzo(a)pyrene (50328), chrysene (218019), pyrene (129000) and benz(a)anthracene (56553) were below detectable limits. (cdc.gov)
  • Roberto A, Larsson BS, Tjälve H. Uptake of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene in melanin-containing tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Substituted anthracene derivatives behave similarly. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of anthracene derivatives find specialized uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction of tetrafluoropyridazine with catechol gives a tricyclic 9,10-dioxa-1,2-diaza-anthracene system by a sequential nucleophilic aromatic substitution ring annelation process, further extending the use of perfluoroheteroaromatic derivatives for the synthesis of unusual polyfunctional heterocyclic architectures. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • The behaviour of substituted anthracene derivatives is similar. (vedantu.com)
  • Anthracene derivatives are used in a number of applications. (vedantu.com)
  • We developed a solution-based sky-blue electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) cell using two kinds of anthracene derivatives. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The anthracene tracer permits UV inspection of the conformal coating. (industryarc.com)
  • The anthracene tracer allows for UV inspection of the conformal coating. (vedantu.com)
  • It reverts to anthracene thermally or with UV irradiation below 300 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene is used in the production of the red dye alizarin and other dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene is converted mainly to anthraquinone, a precursor to dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dyes & coatings segment held the largest share in the anthracene market in 2020 and is forecasted to grow at a CAGR of 3.8% during 2021-2026, owing to the increasing demand for anthracene to manufacture conformal coating, and red dye alizarin. (industryarc.com)
  • Anthracene is used to make the red dye alizarin as well as other dyes. (vedantu.com)
  • Click here to place an order for determining Dibenz[a,h]anthracene. (celignis.com)
  • Increased expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors in rats. (meharryresearch.org)
  • Mammary tumours were induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding orally with dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA) (60 mg/kg). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Karadakov, PB & Al-Yassiri, M 2023, ' Excited State Aromaticity Reversals in Naphthalene and Anthracene ', Journal of Physical Chemistry A , vol. 127, no. 14, pp. 3148-3162. (york.ac.uk)
  • Anthracene also reacts with dienophile singlet oxygen in a [4+2]-cycloaddition (Diels-Alder reaction): Chemical oxidation occurs readily, giving anthraquinone, C14H8O2 (below), for example using hydrogen peroxide and vanadyl acetylacetonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene is converted to anthraquinone when it is reacted with an oxidising agent like hydrogen peroxide. (vedantu.com)
  • Anthracene with two carbon-oxygen double bonds at the two middle carbons of the molecule is easily recognised as anthraquinone. (vedantu.com)
  • Anthracene is also used in anthraquinone use. (vedantu.com)
  • Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of formula C14H10, consisting of three fused benzene rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene, as many other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is generated during combustion processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene is a three-fused benzene ring solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the formula C14H10 and is often found in coal tar. (industryarc.com)
  • Three benzene rings are fused together to form anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. (vedantu.com)
  • Learned uses of Anthracene, includes in the synthesis of Bisantrene, Trazitiline, Benzoctamine & BRN 2382808 (antidepressant with CNS stimulant properties). (wikipedia.org)
  • The anthracene tracer allows the conformal coating to be inspected under UV light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene may also be found with multiple hydroxyl groups, as in 9,10-dihydroxyanthracene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9,10-dihydroxy anthracene is an example of anthracene with several hydroxyl groups. (vedantu.com)
  • Herein, we report a new donor-acceptor system for photo-induced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) that leverages an azo linkage as the proton-sensitive component and anthracene as a photo-trigger. (rsc.org)
  • citation needed] Anthracene is commonly used as a UV tracer in conformal coatings applied to printed wiring boards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene is widely used as a UV tracer in printed wiring board conformal coatings. (vedantu.com)
  • Anthracene is a tricyclic poly aromatic hydrocarbon which is characterized by a three fused benzene ring. (omicsonline.org)
  • Anthracene is a colourless crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon utilised in the chemical industry that is created by distilling natural crude oils. (vedantu.com)
  • Anthracene is a condensed aromatic hydrocarbon containing three rings. (chemenu.com)
  • However, we show that by converting a chemical linker that covalently binds anthracene molecules to silicon quantum dots from a carbon-carbon single bond to a double bond, we access a strong coupling regime where excited carriers spatially delocalize across both anthracene and silicon. (nature.com)
  • The most preferable state of the two neutral anthracene molecules in a cylindrical molecule ofγ-cyclodextrin is assigned as a face-to-face (coplanar, S-shape) configuration that is distinguished from the gas phase, where anthracenes form a face-to-edge (T-shape) configuration. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Anthracene is colorless but exhibits a blue (400-500 nm peak) fluorescence under ultraviolet radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene is colorless in nature but exhibits a blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light. (industryarc.com)
  • Plastics, such as polyvinyltoluene, can be doped with anthracene to produce a plastic scintillator that is approximately water-equivalent for use in radiation therapy dosimetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene photodimerizes by the action of UV light: The dimer, called dianthracene (or sometimes paranthracene), is connected by a pair of new carbon-carbon bonds, the result of the [4+4] cycloaddition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The action of UV light causes anthracene to photo dimerize. (vedantu.com)
  • Anthracene, a wide band-gap organic semiconductor is used as a scintillator for detectors of high energy photons, electrons and alpha particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene, an organic semiconductor with a large bandgap, is used as a scintillator for high-energy photon, electron, and alpha particle detectors. (vedantu.com)
  • The interaction of bacteria, mycorrhiza and jute (Corchotus capsulari, a higher plant) to reduce anthracene in different concentrations of spiked soils was investigated. (edu.hk)
  • The growth of anthracene degraders in the spiked soil was improved by gene transfer from indigenous bacteria. (edu.hk)
  • Anthracene is extensively utilized in the manufacture of red dye alizarin, insecticides, anti-cancer agents, wood preservatives, organic light-emitting diodes, and more. (industryarc.com)
  • In addition, P. Rajagopalan reported a cycloaddition antidepressant made from anthracene with a potency that easily surpasses amitriptyline or imipramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduction of anthracene with alkali metals yields the deeply colored radical anion salts M+[anthracene]− (M = Li, Na, K). Hydrogenation gives 9,10-dihydroanthracene, preserving the aromaticity of the two flanking rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction of jute and electrofused S. paucimobilis enabled the greatest reduction of soil anthracene with or without the addition of P. aeruginosa. (edu.hk)
  • With the formula Mg(C14H10)(thf)3, this air- and water-sensitive orange solid is obtained by heating a suspension of magnesium in a thf solution of anthracene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal tar, which contains around 1.5% anthracene, remains a major source of this material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another factor assisting the growth of the global anthracene market is the increasing production of coal tar. (industryarc.com)
  • Due to this the demand for anthracene significantly reduced, which affected the overall market growth in 2020. (industryarc.com)
  • Mycorrhizal colonization was not significantly inhibited by anthracene in soils up to 150 mg/kg. (edu.hk)
  • 9,9′-10,10′-Tetraphenyl-2-2′-bianthracene (TPBA) was used as a guest molecule, while 2-Tert-butyl-9,10-di(naphth-2-yl)anthracene (TBADN), which emits deep-blue fluorescence, was used as a host molecule. (elsevierpure.com)
  • A classic laboratory method for the preparation of anthracene is by cyclodehydration of o-methyl- or o-methylene-substituted diarylketones in the so-called Elbs reaction, for example from o-tolyl phenyl ketone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracene can also act as a conjugated diene in a Diels-Alder reaction with maleic anhydride. (chemenu.com)
  • The oil remaining after the removal, by a crystallization process, of an anthracene-rich solid (anthracene paste) from anthracene oil. (europa.eu)
  • Inoculation of jute with Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices improved plant growth and enhanced anthracene removal in the presence of electrofused S. paucimobilis. (edu.hk)
  • The mineral form of anthracene is called freitalite and is related to a coal deposit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anthracene%20blue. (merriam-webster.com)