A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).

Color transitions in coral's fluorescent proteins by site-directed mutagenesis. (1/1076)

BACKGROUND: Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) cloned from jellyfish Aequorea victoria and its homologs from corals Anthozoa have a great practical significance as in vivo markers of gene expression. Also, they are an interesting puzzle of protein science due to an unusual mechanism of chromophore formation and diversity of fluorescent colors. Fluorescent proteins can be subdivided into cyan (approximately 485 nm), green (approximately 505 nm), yellow (approximately 540 nm), and red (>580 nm) emitters. RESULTS: Here we applied site-directed mutagenesis in order to investigate the structural background of color variety and possibility of shifting between different types of fluorescence. First, a blue-shifted mutant of cyan amFP486 was generated. Second, it was established that cyan and green emitters can be modified so as to produce an intermediate spectrum of fluorescence. Third, the relationship between green and yellow fluorescence was inspected on closely homologous green zFP506 and yellow zFP538 proteins. The following transitions of colors were performed: yellow to green; yellow to dual color (green and yellow); and green to yellow. Fourth, we generated a mutant of cyan emitter dsFP483 that demonstrated dual color (cyan and red) fluorescence. CONCLUSIONS: Several amino acid substitutions were found to strongly affect fluorescence maxima. Some positions primarily found by sequence comparison were proved to be crucial for fluorescence of particular color. These results are the first step towards predicting the color of natural GFP-like proteins corresponding to newly identified cDNAs from corals.  (+info)

Interconversion of Anthozoa GFP-like fluorescent and non-fluorescent proteins by mutagenesis. (2/1076)

BACKGROUND: Within the family of green fluorescent protein (GFP) homologs, one can mark two main groups, specifically, fluorescent proteins (FPs) and non-fluorescent or chromoproteins (CPs). Structural background of differences between FPs and CPs are poorly understood to date. RESULTS: Here, we applied site-directed and random mutagenesis in order to to transform CP into FP and vice versa. A purple chromoprotein asCP (asFP595) from Anemonia sulcata and a red fluorescent protein DsRed from Discosoma sp. were selected as representatives of CPs and FPs, respectively. For asCP, some substitutions at positions 148 and 165 (numbering in accordance to GFP) were found to dramatically increase quantum yield of red fluorescence. For DsRed, substitutions at positions 148, 165, 167, and 203 significantly decreased fluorescence intensity, so that the spectral characteristics of these mutants became more close to those of CPs. Finally, a practically non-fluorescent mutant DsRed-NF was generated. This mutant carried four amino acid substitutions, specifically, S148C, I165N, K167M, and S203A. DsRed-NF possessed a high extinction coefficient and an extremely low quantum yield (< 0.001). These spectral characteristics allow one to regard DsRed-NF as a true chromoprotein. CONCLUSIONS: We located a novel point in asCP sequence (position 165) mutations at which can result in red fluorescence appearance. Probably, this finding could be applied onto other CPs to generate red and far-red fluorescent mutants. A possibility to transform an FP into CP was demonstrated. Key role of residues adjacent to chromophore's phenolic ring in fluorescent/non-fluorescent states determination was revealed.  (+info)

Additional cytotoxic diacetylenes from the stony coral Montipora sp. (3/1076)

Three new diacetylenes (1, 4, 6) have been isolated as cytotoxic constituents from the methanolic extract of the stony coral Montipora sp. The structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a small panel of human tumor cell lines and showed moderate to significant activity.  (+info)

Sympatric populations of the highly cross-fertile coral species Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora cytherea are genetically distinct. (4/1076)

High cross-fertilization rates in vitro and non-monophyletic patterns in molecular phylogenies challenge the taxonomic status of species in the coral genus Acropora. We present data from eight polymorphic allozyme loci that indicate small, but significant, differentiation between sympatric populations of Acropora cytherea and Acropora hyacinthus (F(ST) = 0.025-0.068, p < 0.05), a pair of acroporid corals with very high interspecific fertilization rates in vitro. Although no fixed allelic differences were found between these species, the absence of genetic differentiation between widely allopatric populations suggests that allele frequency differences between A. cytherea and A. hyacinthus in sympatry are biologically significant. By contrast, populations of Acropora tenuis, a species which spawns 2-3 hours earlier and shows low cross-fertilization rates with congeners in vitro, were clearly distinct from A. cytherea and A. hyacinthus (F(ST) = 0.427-0.465, p < 0.05). Moreover, allopatric populations of A. tenuis differed significantly, possibly as a consequence of its relatively short period of larval competency. Our results effectively rule out the possibility that A. hyacinthus and A. cytherea are morphotypes within a single species, and indicate that hybridization occurs relatively infrequently between these taxa in nature.  (+info)

Effect of increased calcium concentration in sea water on calcification and photosynthesis in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. (5/1076)

The relationship between calcification and photosynthesis in coral was investigated using standard sea water with enhanced calcium concentration. In standard sea water at 23 degrees C with the calcium concentration increased by 2.5 mmol l(-1), incorporation of calcium into the skeleton increased by 30-61 %, depending on the method of data normalisation, and photosynthesis, measured as (14)C incorporation into the tissues, also increased by 87 %. At 29 degrees C, calcium incorporation into the skeleton increased by 54-84 % and (14)C incorporation increased by 32 % when sea water calcium concentration was increased by 5 mmol l(-1). However, photosynthesis measured as net photosynthetic oxygen production did not increase. Similarly there was no change in respiration rate when coral polyps were incubated in high-calcium sea water. It is conjectured that an increase in photorespiration may be responsible for the latter observations. Bisphosphonate has been considered to inhibit calcification but not photosynthesis in corals. We show that bisphosphonate may not inhibit formation of amorphous calcium carbonate and that the inhibition of calcification is possibly illusory. The data are consistent with the trans-calcification model, which suggests that calcification is a source of CO(2) for photosynthesis in corals.  (+info)

Coral development: from classical embryology to molecular control. (6/1076)

The phylum Cnidaria is the closest outgroup to the triploblastic metazoans and as such offers unique insights into evolutionary questions at several levels. In the post-genomic era, a knowledge of the gene complement of representative cnidarians will be important for understanding the relationship between the expansion of gene families and the evolution of morphological complexity among more highly evolved metazoans. Studies of cnidarian development and its molecular control will provide information about the origins of the major bilaterian body axes, the origin of the third tissue layer, the mesoderm, and the evolution of nervous system patterning. We are studying the cnidarian Acropora millepora, a reef building scleractinian coral, and a member of the basal cnidarian class, the Anthozoa. We review ourwork on descriptive embryology and studies of selected transcription factor gene families, where our knowledge from Acropora is particularly advanced relative to other cnidarians. We also describe a recent preliminary whole genome initiative, a coral EST database.  (+info)

An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein. (7/1076)

We have cloned a gene encoding a fluorescent protein from a stony coral, Trachyphyllia geoffroyi, which emits green, yellow, and red light. The protein, named Kaede, includes a tripeptide, His-Tyr-Gly, that acts as a green chromophore that can be converted to red. The red fluorescence is comparable in intensity to the green and is stable under usual aerobic conditions. We found that the green-red conversion is highly sensitive to irradiation with UV or violet light (350-400 nm), which excites the protonated form of the chromophore. The excitation lights used to elicit red and green fluorescence do not induce photoconversion. Under a conventional epifluorescence microscope, Kaede protein expressed in HeLa cells turned red in a graded fashion in response to UV illumination; maximal illumination resulted in a 2,000-fold increase in the ratio of red-to-green signal. These color-changing properties provide a simple and powerful technique for regional optical marking. A focused UV pulse creates an instantaneous plane source of red Kaede within the cytosol. The red spot spreads rapidly throughout the cytosol, indicating its free diffusibility in the compartment. The extensive diffusion allows us to delineate a single neuron in a dense culture, where processes originating from many different somata are present. Illumination of a focused UV pulse onto the soma of a Kaede-expressing neuron resulted in filling of all processes with red fluorescence, allowing visualization of contact sites between the red and green neurons of interest.  (+info)

Low temperature X-ray microanalysis of calcium in a scleractinian coral: evidence of active transport mechanisms. (8/1076)

Element concentrations were measured by X-ray microanalysis in seawater (SW) compartments and mucocytes in bulk, frozen-hydrated preparations of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of polyps sampled in the daytime revealed that concentrations of the elements Na, S, K and Ca were all significantly higher in a thin (10-20 micro m) external SW layer adjacent to the oral ectoderm (P<0.05, <0.05, <0.0001 and <0.01, respectively) than in standard SW. In polyps sampled during night-time, concentrations of Ca and S in this external SW layer were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Ca concentration in the coelenteron and extrathecal coelenteron was significantly higher (P<0.001) than in the external SW layer, regardless of time of sampling, suggesting that Ca(2+) transport across the oral epithelium occurs via an active, transcellular route. X-ray microanalyses of mucocytes revealed that the concentration of S was high and did not vary between epithelial layers, while that of Ca increased in an inward gradient toward the skeleton. We suggest that throughout the day, secreted mucus behaves as a Donnan matrix at the oral ectoderm-SW interface, facilitating intracellular Ca(2+) uptake. The accumulation within internal SW compartments of high concentrations of Ca relative to standard SW levels, however, appears to be independent of mucus secretion and is likely to be a consequence of active transport processes.  (+info)

This experiment assessed the natural gene expression variation present between colonies of the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora, and additionally explored whether gene expression differed between two different intron haplotypes according to intron 4-500 in a carbonic anhydrase homolog. This study found no correspondence between host genotype and transcriptional state, but found significant intercolony variation, detecting 488 representing unique genes or 17% of the total genes analyzed. Such transcriptomic variation could be the basis upon which natural selection can act. Underlying variation could potentially allow reef corals to respond to different environments. Whether this source of variation and the genetic responses of corals and its symbionts will allow coral reefs to cope to the rapid pace of global change remains unknown. A. millepora colonies were brought to a common garden in the reef lagoon, i.e. under the same environmental conditions. This common garden combined with
Given the threats of greenhouse gas emissions and a changing climate to marine ecosystems, there is an urgent need to better understand the response of not only adult corals, which are particularly sensitive to environmental changes, but also their larvae, whose mechanisms of acclimation to both temperature increases and ocean acidification are not well understood. Brooded larvae from the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis collected from Nanwan Bay, Southern Taiwan, were exposed to ambient or elevated temperature (25 or 29 oC) and pCO2 (415 or 635 matm) in a factorial experiment for 9 days, and a variety of physiological and molecular parameters were measured. Respiration and rubisco protein expression decreased in larvae exposed to elevated temperature, while those incubated at high pCO2 were larger in size. Collectively, these findings highlight the complex metabolic and molecular responses of this life history stage and the need to integrate our understanding across multiple levels of ...
Maternal effects on offspring facilitated though environmental factors can provide insight to the response of organisms to global climate change. A maternal effect occurs when environmental factors affecting mothers influence offspring phenotype, independent of their genotype or the environment into which they are released. Such effects are referred to as transgenerational phenotypic plasticity. In this study we examined maternal effects induced by temperature on the larvae of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis in Nanwan Bay, Taiwan. Specifically we tested the hypothesis that colonies exposed to high temperature displayed different reproductive traits and released dissimilar larvae compared to colonies at a lower temperature. Eight colonies were incubated for 16 d at ambient (27.13°C) and elevated (29.65°C) temperature and the outcome assessed as colony−level fecundity, timing of larval release, and energy content of larvae. Colony−level fecundity was affected significantly by ...
Seven new polyoxygenated steroids (1-7) were isolated together with seven known analogues (8-14) from the South China Sea soft coral, Sarcophyton sp. The structures of the new compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. All the steroids are characterized with 3β,5α,6β-hydroxy moiety, displaying carbon skeletons of cholestane, ergostane, gorgostane and 23,24-dimethyl cholestane. In the in vitro bioassay, metabolites exhibited different levels of antimicrobial activity against bacterial species Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, and fungal species Microbotryum violaceum and Septoria tritici. No inhibition was detected towards microalga Chlorella fusca. Preliminary structure-activity analysis suggests that the 11α-acetoxy group may increase both antibacterial and antifungal activities. The terminal-double bond and the cyclopropane moiety at the side chain may also contribute to the bioactivity.
Seven new polyoxygenated steroids (1-7) were isolated together with seven known analogues (8-14) from the South China Sea soft coral, Sarcophyton sp. The structures of the new compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. All the steroids are characterized with 3β,5α,6β-hydroxy moiety, displaying carbon skeletons of cholestane, ergostane, gorgostane and 23,24-dimethyl cholestane. In the in vitro bioassay, metabolites exhibited different levels of antimicrobial activity against bacterial species Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, and fungal species Microbotryum violaceum and Septoria tritici. No inhibition was detected towards microalga Chlorella fusca. Preliminary structure-activity analysis suggests that the 11α-acetoxy group may increase both antibacterial and antifungal activities. The terminal-double bond and the cyclopropane moiety at the side chain may also contribute to the bioactivity.
© Copyright © 2018 Rivest, Kelly, DeBiasse and Hofmann. As global ocean change progresses, reef-building corals and their early life history stages will rely on physiological plasticity to tolerate new environmental conditions. Larvae from brooding coral species contain algal symbionts upon release, which assist with the energy requirements of dispersal and metamorphosis. Global ocean change threatens the success of larval dispersal and settlement by challenging the performance of the larvae and of the symbiosis. In this study, larvae of the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis were exposed to elevated pCO2 and temperature to examine the performance of the coral and its symbionts in situ and better understand the mechanisms of physiological plasticity and stress tolerance in response to multiple stressors. We generated a de novo holobiont transcriptome containing coral host and algal symbiont transcripts and bioinformatically filtered the assembly into host and symbiont components for downstream
TY - JOUR. T1 - A snapshot of a coral holobiont. T2 - A transcriptome assembly of the scleractinian coral, Porites, captures a wide variety of genes from both the host and symbiotic zooxanthellae. AU - Shinzato, Chuya. AU - Inoue, Mayuri. AU - Kusakabe, Makoto. PY - 2014/1/15. Y1 - 2014/1/15. N2 - Massive scleractinian corals of the genus Porites are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific, and they are more resistant to thermal stress than other stony corals, such as the genus Acropora. Because coral health and survival largely depend on the interaction between a coral host and its symbionts, it is important to understand the molecular interactions of an entire coral holobiont. We simultaneously sequenced transcriptomes of Porites australiensis and its symbionts using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. We obtained 14.3 Gbp of sequencing data and assembled it into 74,997 contigs (average: 1,263 bp, N50 size: 2,037 bp). We successfully distinguished contigs originating from the host ...
A Gram-negative, heterotrophic, marine bacterium, designated strain SW-11(T), was isolated from the reef-building coral Isopora palifera in Kenting, Taiwan. Cells were rods and were motile by a single polar flagellum. The strain grew at 10-45 degrees C (optimum, 30-35 degrees C), at pH 7.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and with 2.0-4.0% NaCl (optimum, 2.5-3.0%). The polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, diphosphatidylglycerol and four unknown phospholipids. Isoprenoid quinones consisted of ubiquinone 9 (78.8%) and ubiquinone 8(21.1%). Major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)omega 7c and/or C(16:1)omega 6c; 22.3%), C(17:1)omega 8c (13.4%), summed feature 8 (C(18:1)omega 6c and/or C(18:1)omega 7c; 13.1%), C(16:0) (10.3%) and anteiso-C(17:1)omega 9c (10.0%). The DNA G+C content was 51.6 mol%. 165 rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain SW-11(T) belongs to the class Gammaproteobacteria and is a member of the order ...
A bacterial strain, designated KTW-16T, was isolated from the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata, collected from southern Taiwan. Strain KTW-16T was a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, pale-yellow, non-motile short rod. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KTW-16T belonged to the genus Paracoccus in the Alphaproteobacteria and exhibited 93.7-96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strains of species of the genus Paracoccus (96.9 % with Paracoccus alcaliphilus JCM 7364T). Strain KTW-16T grew at 15-40 °C (optimum 35 °C), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and with 0-9 % NaCl (optimum 5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C18 : 0. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the DNA G+C content was 69.1 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and several unknown polar lipids. The physiological and biochemical tests allowed clear
The Assorted Aussie Acropora Coral offers coral collectors and Acropora aficionados a convenient way to create a beautiful reef aquarium landscape with diverse Acropora species. This thoughtful selection contains 3 different species of high quality Australian Acropora coral frags boasting varying color forms and growth habits for a truly noteworthy presentation. Our packaging crew will hand select these pieces, and we are confident you will be pleased.. The Assorted Aussie Acropora Coral may include the following Acropora corals: Acropora tenuis, Acropora aculeus, Acropora sarmentosa, Acropora cerealis, and Acropora microclados for one incredible price.. The ideal environment for the corals included in the Assorted Aussie Acropora Coral is an established reef aquarium with coral-friendly fish and invertebrates. Provide bright lighting conditions achieved with T-5s, powerful LEDs or the more intense metal halides. Under the right conditions, the growth rate of Acropora corals is much more rapid ...
Corals form the framework of the worlds coral reefs and are under threat from increases in disease and bleaching (symbiotic dysfunction), yet the mechanisms of pathogen and symbiont recognition remain largely unknown. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of an ancient mannose-binding lectin in the coral Acropora millepora, which is likely to be involved in both processes. The lectin (Millectin) was isolated by affinity chromatography and was shown to bind to bacterial pathogens as well as coral symbionts, dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. cDNA analysis of Millectin indicate extensive sequence variation in the binding region, reflecting its ability to recognise various mannose-like carbohydrate structures on non-self cells, including symbionts and pathogens. This is the first mannose-binding lectin to show extensive sequence variability as observed for pattern recognition proteins in other invertebrate immune systems and, given that invertebrates rely on non-adaptive ...
There should be little or no debate or rebuttle to your comments because it has all There are several sites in the Galapagos where black coral thrives; one of the best is Cousinâ s Rock, which features a wall covered in black coral at depths no greater than 90 feet. The black coral found around Roatan, Honduras washes onto the beaches regularly. Most reefs are located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, in the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf. Marine researchers determined that another deep-sea coral colony in Hawaii-this one a black coral … Among corals, Antipaharians are unique. A sharp eye can often spot the top two to three inches of a coral branch sticking out of the sand. or do a Google on Black Coral or my name, you would have found many articles that I have offered and published about black coral, its uses, how to work with it, and how to protect it! Black Coral Gemstones & Minerals. Despite the relatively small number of ...
In order to understand the effects of global climate change on reef-building corals, a thorough investigation of their physiological mechanisms of acclimatization is warranted. However, static temperature manipulations may underestimate the thermal complexity of the reefs in which many corals live. For instance, corals of Houbihu, Taiwan experience up to 10°C changes in temperature over the course of a day during spring tide upwelling events. To better understand the phenotypic plasticity of these corals, a laboratory-based experiment was conducted whereby specimens of Seriatopora hystrix (Dana, 1846) from the upwelling reef, Houbihu, and conspecifics from a non-upwelling reef (Houwan) were exposed to both a stable seawater temperature (26°C) and a regime characterized by a 6°C fluctuation (23-29°C) over a 12 hour period for seven days. A suite of physiological and molecular parameters was measured in samples of both treatments, as well as in experimental controls, in order to determine site ...
Dixon, G, Bay, LK and Matz, MV (2014). Bimodal signatures of germline methylation are linked with gene expression plasticity in the coral Acropora millepora. BMC Genomics 15: 1109 ...
Coral tissue damage that normally heals on its own will not mend when ...UCF associate professor of biology John Fauth and scientists from the ...Scientists have long been concerned about declining coral reef health ...The loss of coral harms natural reef ecosystems and can hurt Floridas... Were losing places where animals can hide and fish can feed Fauth ...,Pollution,threatens,coral,health,by,preventing,lesions,from,healing,,UCF,study,shows,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Unusual disease lesions were observed in Montipora corals on the fringing reef of Magnetic Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) following a period of high water temperature in early January 2002. Tissue death in Montipora spp. appeared as a black layer that spread rapidly across the colony surface, though this appeared as the final phase of disease progression (with three previous disease phases now identified, S. Anthony, unpublished). Culture and molecular-based microbial analysis of this layer did not identify a likely microbial pathogen. Despite this, DNA sequencing of microbial 16S rDNA indicated a shift in the bacterial population associated with affected coral tissue. A clone library of the healthy coral sample predominantly contained sequences within the gamma-Proteobacteria. A disease coral sample representing the margin of the black lesion and healthy coral tissue was dominated by sequences, which demonstrated low sequence identity to a range of alpha-Proteobacteria, ...
Background: Ecosystems worldwide are suffering the consequences of anthropogenic impact. The diverse ecosystem of coral reefs, for example, are globally threatened by increases in sea surface temperatures due to global warming. Studies to date have focused on determining genetic diversity, the sequence variability of genes in a species, as a proxy to estimate and predict the potential adaptive response of coral populations to environmental changes linked to climate changes. However, the examination of natural gene expression variation has received less attention. This variation has been implicated as an important factor in evolutionary processes, upon which natural selection can act. Results: We acclimatized coral nubbins from six colonies of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora to a common garden in Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, GBR) for a period of four weeks to remove any site-specific environmental effects on the physiology of the coral nubbins. By using a cDNA microarray platform, we
Coral bleaching and other diseases of corals have increased dramatically during the last few decades. As outbreaks of these diseases are highly correlated with increased sea-water temperature, one of the consequences of global warming will probably be mass destruction of coral reefs. The causative agent(s) of a few of these diseases have been reported: bleaching of Oculina patagonica by Vibrio shiloi; black band disease by a microbial consortium; sea-fan disease (aspergillosis) by Aspergillus sydowii; and coral white plague possibly by Sphingomonas sp. In addition, we have recently discovered that Vibrio coralyticus is the aetiological agent for bleaching the coral Pocillopora damicornis in the Red Sea. In the case of coral bleaching by V. shiloi, the major effect of increasing temperature is the expression of virulence genes by the pathogen. At high summer sea-water temperatures, V. shiloi produces an adhesin that allows it to adhere to a b- galactoside-containing receptor in the coral mucus, ...
Experiments were completed in 2010 at the National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium (NMMBA), Taiwan, using corals from the shallow fringing reefs of Nanwan Bay. To obtain larvae, colonies (ca. 20 cm diameter) of the brooding corals Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus 1758), Seriatopora hystrix Dana 1846 and Stylophora pistillata Esper 1797 were collected from ∼6 m depth at Hobihu Reef (21°56.799′N, 120°44.968′E), 1 week before the new moon of 15 March, when the ambient seawater temperature was 25.3°C. Eight colonies of each species were placed into individual aquaria exposed to partially shaded natural sunlight (noon irradiances of ∼500 μmol photons m-2 s-1); aquaria received sand-filtered seawater (at the ambient temperature of 25.3°C) that spilled into a cup fitted with plankton mesh to retain larvae. The corals were checked daily for larval release (at ∼07:00 h), which occurs just before dawn in these species (Fan et al., 2006), and freshly released larvae were harvested and ...
Phenotypic acclimatization is an organismal response to environmental change that may be rooted in epigenetic mechanisms. In reef building corals, organisms that are severely threatened by environmental change, some evidence suggests that DNA methylation is an environmentally responsive mediator of acclimatization. We investigated changes in DNA methylation of the reef coral Porites astreoides in response to simulated environmental change. Coral colonies were sampled from a variety of habitats on the Belize Barrier Reef and transplanted to a common garden for one year. We used restriction site associated DNA sequencing, including a methylation-sensitive variant, to subsample the genome and assess changes in DNA methylation levels after a year in the common garden. Methylation changes among the 629 CpG loci we recovered were subtle, yet coral methylomes were more similar to each other after a year in the common garden together, indicating convergence of methylation profiles in the common environment.
Lethal white syndrome (LWS), also called overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS), lethal white overo (LWO), and overo lethal white foal syndrome (OLWFS), is an autosomal genetic disorder most prevalent in the American Paint Horse. Affected foals are born after the full 11-month gestation and externally appear normal, though they have all-white or nearly all-white coats and blue eyes. However, internally, these foals have a nonfunctioning colon. Within a few hours, signs of colic appear; affected foals die within a few days. Because the death is often painful, such foals often are humanely euthanized once identified. The disease is particularly devastating because foals are born seemingly healthy after being carried to full term. The disease has a similar cause to Hirschsprungs disease in humans. A mutation in the middle of the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene causes lethal white syndrome when homozygous. Carriers, which are heterozygous-that is, have one copy of the mutated allele, but ...
Anoxia and toxic sulfide are a menace to coral tissue. Researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology along with Australian colleagues, have examined corals from the Great Barrier Reef affected by the Black Band Disease and identified the critical parameters that allow this prevalent disease to cause wide mortality of corals around the world. Corals infected with Black Band show a characteristic appearance of healthy tissue displaced by a dark front, the so called Black Band, which leaves the white limestone skeleton of the coral animal exposed. The dark front is commonly one to two centimeters broad and consists of a complex microbial community among which there are phototrophic cyanobacteria, sulfur oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing microorganisms. The corals and their endosymbiotic algae are struck by three stress factors at once: toxic sulfide, anoxia, and a low pH at the boundary of the bacterial mat and the coral tissue.. The scientists investigated the tissue ...
LPS Corals - Large Polyp Stony Corals - In general, large polyp stony corals (LPS) are easier to keep than small polyp stony corals (SPS). Therefore, its a good idea to limit your search to LPS corals. While there are many hardy coral species out there, here are three of the best LPS corals for beginners.
Coral reefs are expected to be severely impacted by rising seawater temperatures associated with climate change. This study used cDNA microarrays to investigate transcriptional effects of thermal stress in embryos of the coral Montastraea faveolata. Embryos were exposed to 27.5°C, 29.0°C, and 31.5°C directly after fertilization. Differences in gene expression were measured after 12 and 48 hours.Results: Analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that increased temperatures may lead to oxidative stress, apoptosis, and a structural reconfiguration of the cytoskeletal network. Metabolic processes were downregulated, and the action of histones and zinc finger-containing proteins may have played a role in the long-term regulation upon heat stress.Conclusions: Embryos responded differently depending on exposure time and temperature level. Embryos showed expression of stress-related genes already at a temperature of 29.0°C, but seemed to be able to counteract the initial response over ...
Preparation of extracts: Coral samples of orange and red colonies of Montipora capitata were collected in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu. Frozen samples were extracted in Millipore® water, which was replaced daily for 3 d. Extracts were filtered, lyophilized, and weighed. We tested extracts at concentrations approximating those naturally found in the coral tissues (Gochfeld & Aeby 2008). To determine the volumetric concentrations of extracts, the surface area of each piece of coral was calculated using the wax technique (Gochfeld 1991). Tissue volume was determined by multiplying surface area by tissue depth measured from replicate decalcified pieces of M. capitata. Extract concentrations were determined as g dried extract ml-1 of coral tissue. Extracts were re-suspended to these concentrations in Millipore® water for use in bacterial growth assays.. Bacterial strains tested: The strains used for our antibacterial assays were selected as model systems to represent a range of potential bacterial pathogens ...
Coral reef degradation has been observed worldwide over the past few decades resulting in significant decreases in coral cover and abundance. However, there has not been a clear framework established to address the crucial need for more sophisticated understanding of the fundamental ecology of corals and their response to environmental stressors. Development of a quantitative approach to coral population ecology that utilizes formal, well established principles of fishery systems science offers a new framework to address these issues. The goal of this dissertation is to establish a quantitative foundation for assessment of coral reefs by developing some essential ecological and population-dynamic components of a size-structured demographic model for coral populations of the Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem. The objective provides the potential to build a quantitative systems science framework for coral populations. A two-stage stratified random sampling design was implemented during two separate
Siderastrea siderea is one of the most abundant corals at high latitude shallow sites along the Florida Reef Tract (25°-27°N). This species is able to tolerate wide seawater temperature fluctuations and sedimentation stress, but its reproductive status at high latitudes and under marginal environmental conditions is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproductive potential of S. siderea along a latitudinal gradient (25°-27°N) and to determine if sexual maturity occurs in small (|12.0 cm) S. siderea colonies. Samples of coral tissue were collected in 2007, 2008, and 2009 at three sites along the latitudinal gradient and were processed for histological analysis. Oocyte size, volume, and abundance were used to calculate fecundity. Results showed that fecundity decreased with increasing latitude and that oocyte volume was the major contributing factor to this variation. Mature oocytes were observed in S. siderea colonies at sizes as small as 1.1 cm in diameter. The
Background Studies directed at understanding the demography and population dynamics of corals are relatively scarce. This limits our understanding of both the dynamics of coral populations and our capacity to develop management and conservation initiatives directed at conserving such ecosystems. Methods From 2012 to 2014, we collected data on the growth, survival, and recruitment rates of two common Caribbean coral species, the stress-tolerant Orbicella annularis and the weedy Porites astreoides. A set of size-based population matrix model was developed for two localities in Northeastern Puerto Rico and used to estimate population growth rates (λ) and determine the life cycle transition(s) that contribute the most to spatiotemporal differences in λs. The model was parameterized by following the fate of 100 colonies of each species at the two sites for two years. Results Our data indicate that spatial variability in vital rates of both species was higher than temporal variability. During the first year
The Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab, or Acro Crab for short, is a small commensal crustacean which lives its whole life within the branches of Pocillopora corals and Acropora Corals if no Pocilloporid corals are available, aiding in the proper water flow between the branches to keep these areas clean. In a symbiotic relationship with its host coral, the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab is thought to feed on particulates trapped by the coral polyps, fallen detritus, and the corals secreted mucus. In turn, the crabs guard the coral from invaders and fend off predators. The importance of the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crabs role within a larger reef ecosystem is just now being recognized. Previously considered by hobbyists to be a coral pest, the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab may actually improve your success with SPS husbandry. Since the crabs constantly clean and defend their hosts, corals hosting Trapezia sp. have higher survival rates and stronger growth. In the home aquarium, ...
Comparison of sequence frequencies and bacterial in situ abundances.The CARD-FISH results are in marked contrast to the previously depicted high microbial diversity of 27 and 54 operational taxonomic units (based on the 97% similarity criterion) determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis in white and red corals, respectively (22). Irrespective of some sporadic Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, only Candidatus Mycoplasma corallicola and bona fide TM7 were abundant and in direct association with the coral tissue. Test hybridizations with aquarium-reared L. pertusa polyps (see Fig. S1 in the supplemental material) indicated that the mucus of this coral was densely populated by bacteria, which were apparently far more abundant than bacteria on coral tissue thin sections from the Trondheimsfjord. These findings reveal that the major bacterial diversity-and most likely the numerical majority of bacteria-is located in the mucus and probably also in the gastric fluid of L. pertusa.. The reason why bacteria ...
Coral reefs are declining dramatically and losing species richness, but the impact of declining biodiversity on coral well-being remains inadequately understood. Here, we demonstrate that lower coral species richness alone can suppress the growth and survivorship of multiple species of corals (Porites cylindrica, Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora millepora) under field conditions on a degraded, macroalgae-dominated reef. Our findings highlight the positive role of biodiversity in the function of coral reefs, and suggest that the loss of coral species richness may trigger negative feedback that causes further ecosystem decline.
What I have done is examine brown jelly from three affected corals: a Euphyllia ancora, a Pocillopora damicornis, and a Plerogyra sinuosa. The samples were all from different tanks, and collected many years apart. I have also sampled a brown jelly-like material from a reef coral in the Caribbean, and a sample of a brown slimy flocculent material that is relatively common on substrates in the Caribbean, usually from reefs that are not doing very well. I have not yet had a chance to examine the wild material. However, one sample of brown jelly now resides with the Registry of Coral Pathology, and the description by coral pathologist Esther Peters, confirms that there is coral tissue material, both algae and animal, within vacuoles of the protists. The necrotic condition of the coral tissue, and the fact that ciliates are not found digesting nearby corals or even healthy tissue of the affected specimen suggests they may just be opportunists of necrotic tissue rather than causative, or that they are ...
The Great Barrier Reef is home to about 360 species of hard corals including bottlebrush coral, bubble coral, brain coral, mushroom coral, staghorn coral, tabletop coral and needle coral. Hard corals, also known as stony corals, are a group of marine animals that live in shallow tropical waters and are responsible for building the structure of a coral reef. Colonies of hard corals grow in various shapes and sizes such as mounds, plates and branches. As previous coral colonies die, new ones grow on top of the limestone skeletons of their predecessors. Over time, this growth creates the three-dimensional architecture of a coral reef. Colonies of hard corals consist of thousands of small individal invertebrates referred to as coral polyps. Each polyp is radially symmetrical with a tube-like body that has a tentacle-rimmed mouth at the tip that it uses to feed ...
Trotter, J, Montagna, P, McCulloch, M, Silenzi, S, Reynaud, S, Mortimer, G, Martin, S, Ferrier-Pages, C, Gattuso, J-P and Rodolfo-Metalpa, R (2011). Quantifying the pH vital effect in the temperate zooxanthellate coral Cladocora caespitosa: validation of the boron seawater pH proxy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 303(3-4): 163-173 ...
Many cnidarians, including the reef-building corals, undergo symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae of the family Symbiodiniaceae. These partnerships are sensitive to temperature extremes, which cause symbiont loss and increased coral mortality. Previous studies have implicated host immunity and specifically immunity transcription factor NF-κB as having a role in the maintenance of the cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Here we have further investigated a possible role for NF-κB in establishment and loss of symbiosis in various strains of the anemone Exaiptasia (Aiptasia) and in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Our results show that NF-κB expression is reduced in Aiptasia larvae and adults that host certain algae strains. Treatment of Aiptasia larvae with a known symbiosis-promoting cytokine, transforming growth factor β, also led to decreased NF-κB expression. We also show that aposymbiotic Aiptasia (with high NF-κB expression) have increased survival following infection ...
ABSTRACT: The broken, dead stands of the Caribbean elkhorn coral Acropora palmata, which suffered massive mortalities from disease and bleaching during the early 1980s, are now widely covered by Cliona tenuis, an encrusting and excavating brown sponge (Hadromerida, Clionaidae). This sponge displaces live coral tissue by undermining the polypal skeletal support. On the windward fringing reef of Islas del Rosario (Colombian Caribbean), 26% of C. tenuis individuals currently dwelling on live corals had colonized their host from sponge-carrying branches of A. palmata thrown against the corals during storms. Times of initial colonization were traced back from sponge growth rates in a few marked massive coral colonies and found to coincide approximately with hurricanes that had affected the area. Transplantation experiments confirmed that C. tenuis is able to spread to new coral hosts from attached fragments. The extent of C. tenuis dispersion via branching coral fragments and further massive coral ...
Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoanthid that together jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, which are venomous and predatory, belongs to the Phyllum Cnidaria. The distinguished feature in these marine animals is the cnidocytes in the body tissues, responsible for toxin production and injection that are used majorly for prey capture and defense. With exception for other anthozoans, the toxin cocktails of zoanthids have been scarcely studied and are poorly known. Here, based on the analysis of P. caribaeorum transcriptome, numerous predicted venom-featured polypeptides were identified, including allergens, neurotoxins, membrane-active and Kunitz-like peptides (PcKuz). The three predicted PcKuz isotoxins (1 to 3) were selected for functional studies. Through computational processing comprising structural phylogenetic analysis, molecular docking, and dynamics simulation, PcKuz3 was shown to be a potential voltage gated potassium-channel inhibitor. PcKuz3 fitted well as new functional ...
Scleractinian corals produce large amounts of calcium carbonate as they grow, sustaining the three-dimensional reef framework that supports the high productivity and biodiversity associated with tropical coral reefs. The rate of skeletal growth of corals is therefore not only essential for their fitness and ecological success, i.e. determining the ability of corals to compete for space and light, and repair structural damage caused by humans, storms, grazers and bioeroders, but can also have profound repercussions on the recovery and resilience of coral reef systems. This thesis investigates possible environmental controls of coral growth through the analyses of emergent patterns on larger spatio-temporal scales. Past growth rates and patterns in massive Porites corals sampled from around the Thai-Malay Peninsula at reef-island scales were reconstructed using sclerochronology, and examined in the context of varying climate/environment. Located within the political boundaries of Singapore, ...
Lipids are involved in a host of biochemical and physiological processes in corals. Therefore, changes in lipid composition reflect changes in the ecology, nutrition, and health of corals. As such, accurate lipid extraction, quantification, and identification is critical to obtain comprehensive insight into a corals condition. However, discrepancies exist in sample preparation methodology globally, and it is currently unknown whether these techniques generate analogous results. This study compared the two most common sample preparation techniques for lipid analysis in corals: (1) tissue isolation by air-spraying and (2) crushing the coral in toto. Samples derived from each preparation technique were subsequently analysed to quantify lipids and their constituent classes and fatty acids in four common, scleractinian coral species representing three distinct morphotypes (Acropora millepora, Montipora crassotuberculata, Porites cylindrica, and Pocillopora damicornis). Results revealed substantial amounts
The bicarbonate ion (HCO3−) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3− transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4γ isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3− to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4γ appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral ...
For the last 7 years, Polyp Labs Reef-Roids has demonstrated its ability to improve coral growth and health in the aquarium. Independent research has shown that the regular use of Reef-Roids contributed to improved growth rates in such scleractinian corals as Montipora Capitata, Porites Compressa and Pocillopora Damicornis.. With the introduction of Polyp-Booster, we are proud to say that we have outdone ourselves. Based on Reef-Roids proven formula; containing 18 amino-acids and 12 fatty acids, Polyp-Booster delivers a broad spectrum of beneficial compounds that will make your corals thrive. Its concentrated formula will trigger the feeding response of your scleractinian corals in less than 30 seconds. This all-in-one nutritional solution has been researched and tested by hundreds of specialists and aquarists from around the world. Polyp Booster was not designed to target a specific coral or coral colour, it was designed simply to improve the health and vibrance of all scleractinian corals, ...
Increased terrestrial sediment and nutrient yields are regarded as significant threats to coral reef health. Within the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon, where water quality has reportedly declined since European settlement (since ca. A.D. 1850), inner-shelf reef conditions have purportedly deteriorated. However, the link between reef decline and water-quality change remains controversial, primarily because of a lack of pre-European period ecological baseline data against which to assess contemporary ecological states. Here we present a high-resolution record of reef accretion and coral community composition from a turbid-zone, nearshore reef on the inner shelf of the Great Barrier Reef; the record is based on six radiocarbon date-constrained cores, and extends back to ca. 1200 calibrated yr B.P. Results demonstrate not only the potential for coral communities to initiate and persist in settings dominated by fine-grained terrigenous sediment accumulation, but also that a temporally persistent ...
Unfortunately, coral reef ecosystems are severely threatened. Some threats are natural, such as diseases, predators, and storms. Other threats are caused by people, including pollution, sedimentation, unsustainable fishing practices, and climate change, which is raising ocean temperatures and causing ocean acidification. Many of these threats can stress corals, leading to coral bleaching and possible death, while others cause physical damage to these delicate ecosystems. During the 2014-2017 coral bleaching event, unusually warm waters (partially associated with a strong El Niño) affected 70% of coral reef ecosystems worldwide. Some areas were hit particularly hard, like the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, where hundreds of miles of coral were bleached. Corals are able to recover from bleaching events if conditions improve before they die, though it can take many years for the ecosystems to fully heal. Scientists are also testing new ways to help coral reef ecosystems, such as growing coral in ...
Dr Pim Bongaerts, a Research Fellow at The University of Queenslands Global Change Institute (GCI) and ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, and lead author of the study, said deep reefs share coral species with the shallow reef, which has led to the idea that deep reefs could be an important source of larvae and help to reseed shallow reefs. We argue that this concept of deep coral populations reseeding their shallow-water counterparts may be relevant to some species, but is ultimately unlikely to aid more broadly in the recovery of shallow reefs, he said. Given the impossibility of tracking the movements of individual coral larvae on the reef, understanding the connectivity between shallow and deep coral populations relies on methods that assess the genetic similarity between coral populations. The team focused on the relatively isolated reef system of Bermuda in the Western Atlantic where they screened the genomes of more than 200 individual coral colonies from shallow and ...
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Without drastic efforts to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate globalized stressors, tropical coral reefs are in jeopardy. Strategic conservation and management requires identification of the environmental and socioeconomic factors driving the persistence of scleractinian coral assemblages-the foundation species of coral reef ecosystems. Here, we compiled coral abundance data from 2,584 Indo-Pacific reefs to evaluate the influence of 21 climate, social and environmental drivers on the ecology of reef coral assemblages. Higher abundances of framework-building corals were typically associated with: weaker thermal disturbances and longer intervals for potential recovery; slower human population growth; reduced access by human settlements and markets; and less nearby agriculture. We therefore propose a framework of three management strategies (protect, recover or transform) by considering: (1) if reefs were above or below a proposed threshold of ,10% cover of the coral taxa important for structural ...
By further chemical investigation of South China Sea gorgonian Menella kanisa, five new highly oxygenated guaiane lactones, menverins H-L (1-5, resp.), were obtained. Their structures were established by employing spectroscopic methods, computer modeling, and comparison of their data with those of related metabolites ...
Unicellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium are the most common endosymbionts of reef-building scleractinian corals, living in a symbiotic partnership known to be highly susceptible to environmental changes such as hyperthermic stress. In this study, we identified members of two major heat shock proteins (HSPs) families, Hsp70 and Hsp90, in Symbiodinium sp. (clade C) with full-length sequences that showed the highest similarity and evolutionary relationship with other known HSPs from dinoflagellate protists. Regulation of HSPs gene expression was examined in samples of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora subjected to elevated temperatures progressively over 18 h (fast) and 120 h (gradual thermal stress). Moderate to severe heat stress at 26°C and 29°C (+3°C and +6°C above average sea temperature) resulted in an increase in algal Hsp70 gene expression from 39% to 57%, while extreme heat stress (+9°C) reduced Hsp70 transcript abundance by 60% (after 18 h) and 70%
Aeby, G.S., Work, T., Coles, S., and Lewis, T. 2006. Coral Disease Across the Hawaiian Archipelago. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87(36): suppl.. Aronson, R.B. and Precht, W.F. 2001b. White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia 460: 25-38.. Bruckner, A.W. and Bruckner, R.J. 1998. Destruction of coral by Sparisoma viride. Coral Reefs 17: 350.. Bruno, J.F., Selig, E.R., Casey, K.S., Page, C.A., Willis, B.L., Harvell, C.D., Sweatman, H., and Melendy, A.M. 2007. Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks. PLoS Biology 5(6): e124.. Colgan, M.W. 1987. Coral Reef Recovery on Guam (Micronesia) After Catastrophic Predation by Acanthaster Planci. Ecology 68(6): 1592-1605.. Echevarria, C.A., Pires, D.O., Medeiros, M.S. and Castro, C.B. 1997. Cnidarians of the Atol Das Rocas, Brazil. Eight International Coral Reef Symposium 1: 443-446.. Frydl, P. 1979. The effect of parrotfish (Scaridae) on coral in Barbados, W.I. Internationale ...
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Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and eleven other target zwitterions were quantified in the branch tips of six Acropora species and Stylophora pistillata hard coral growing on the reef flat surroundi
Executive Summary and full report, Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012: http://bit.ly/1puLHlp. High resolution photos: http://bit.ly/1qLdYmc. An 8-minute video, From Despair to Repair, about the reports implications: http://www.iucn.org/?16050. About GCRMN. The Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) was established in 1994 to support the global call for action of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) to commit to increasing research and monitoring of coral reefs in order to provide the data needed to inform policy makers to sustain coral reefs and to strengthen management. Today, the GCRMN works through a global network of stakeholders to support the management and conservation of coral reefs. The work of GCRMN focuses on increasing the scientific understanding of the status and trends of coral reef ecosystems worldwide by making reef monitoring data publicly available, linking people and existing organizations, improving the communication among GCRMN ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unexpected long-term population dynamics in a canopy-forming gorgonian coral following mass mortality. AU - Cupido, Roberta. AU - Cocito, Silvia. AU - Barsanti, Mattia. AU - Sgorbini, Sergio. AU - Peirano, Andrea. AU - Santangelo, Giovanni. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Gorgonian corals are long-lived, slow-growing species exhibiting slow population dynamics. Demographic data collected over a period of 11 yr on a small population of temperate, canopyforming gorgonians dwelling near the edge of the summer thermocline in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea enabled us to assess its responses to the large mortality events that occurred in 1999 and 2003. Changes in population density, size structure and recruitment were examined. Overall, 2101 adult colonies and recruits were observed in situ and 240 photographic plots analyzed. During the first 3 years (2004 to 2006) after the mass mortalities, our measurements revealed a dramatic reduction in the density of healthy colonies (90% ...
Single-celled dinoflagellate algae known as zooxanthellae live symbiotically within coral polyps. Chemical exchanges occur between the coral polyps and zooxanthellae, and both thrive in a mutually beneficial relationship (mutualism). The zooxanthellae, which are essentially tiny green plants that can produce food from sunlight, water, and dissolved minerals, supply some coral species with more than 90% of their nutrition on sunny days. In exchange for nutrients, the coral polyps supply a habitat and essential minerals to the algae. Another result of this relationship is more rapid development of coral reefs. During photosynthesis, the zooxanthellae remove carbon dioxide from the water, which promotes calcium carbonate production, in turn allowing the coral to more easily secrete its home.. In addition to the food provided by their zooxanthellae, corals prey on tiny planktonic organisms. Some corals paralyze their prey using stinging cells, or nematocysts, located on their tentacles. Other corals ...
Artificial reefs alone and in combination with coral transplants (branching Acropora and Pocillopora species) were deployed in 100 m2 plots at three locations (Gangga, Meras and Bunaken) in North Sulawesi/Indonesia in order to study the effects on the associated reef fish community and on coral recruitment dynamics. Control plots covered with coral rubble were monitored for comparison. The study was carried out between May 2005 and July 2007. Coral recruitment was studied using limestone settlement plates, which were exchanged every three months, and responses of the fish community were monitored with monthly underwater visual census. In order to assess the natural fish community in the ambient reef, an additional one-time visual census was conducted in two 100 m2 plots in the natural reef at each location, and the substrate composition in these plots was measured. Fish community data were compared to census data from the experimental plots taken at the same time. Correlation analysis of the ...
Insight into the response of reef corals and other major marine calcifiers to ocean acidification is limited by a lack of knowledge about how seawater pH and carbonate chemistry impact the physiological processes that drive biomineralization. Ocean acidification is proposed to reduce calcification rates in corals by causing declines in internal pH at the calcifying tissue-skeleton interface where biomineralization takes place. Here, we performed an in vivo study on how partial-pressure CO2-driven seawater acidification impacts intracellular pH in coral calcifying cells and extracellular pH in the fluid at the tissue-skeleton interface [subcalicoblastic medium (SCM)] in the coral Stylophora pistillata. We also measured calcification in corals grown under the same conditions of seawater acidification by measuring lateral growth of colonies and growth of aragonite crystals under the calcifying tissue. Our findings confirm that seawater acidification decreases pH of the SCM, but this decrease is ...
New research has provided insight into the basic immune response and repair mechanisms of corals to disease and changing environmental conditions.. The study, published in the latest issue of the journal Coral Reefs, found that increased growth is the underlying physiological process associated with disease, wounding and stress-related color changes in reef-building corals.. The study investigated distinct green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments responsible for the green, red and purple-blue colors of many reef-building corals.. By examining these GFP- pigments in four coral species from the Arabian/Persian Gulf, Red Sea and Fiji, researchers found that their presence shows growing tissue in growing branch tips and margins of healthy coral colonies; as well as in disrupted colony parts, in comparison to un-disrupted areas.. Dr Joerg Wiedenmann, Senior Lecturer of Biological Oceanography and Head of the Coral Reef Laboratory at the University of Southampton, who led the study, says: The ...
Coral reefs are facing unprecedented global, regional and local threats that continue to degrade near-shore habitats. Water quality degradation, due to unsustainable development practices at coastal watersheds, is one of the greatest stressors across multiple spatial scales. The goal of this study was to assess near-shore coral reef benthic community spatio-temporal response to sedimentation patterns, weather, and oceanographic dynamics at Bahía Tamarindo and Punta Soldado in Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Benthic data were collected across a distance gradient from the shore through high-resolution images at marked belt transects. Environmental data were assessed and contrasted with benthic assemblages using multivariate correlations and multiple linear regression. Coral colony abundance and coral recruit assemblages showed significant variation among seasons, sites and distance zones (PERMANOVA, p Porites astreoides, P. porites, and Siderastrea radians. Difference in coral abundance and coral recruits
Coral reefs are fundamental in providing ecological, social and economical benefits to local communities, governments and nations. In Australia, the Great Barrier Reef is an iconic symbol in our national psyche, representing approximately 17% of the global tropical coral reef area with an estimated economic value at greater than AUD$5 billion per year. Coral reefs are constructed through the close association between reef building corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellate microalgae (Symbiodinium). However just as in other animal systems, corals are now thought of as a holobiont, forming additional close and intricate associations with a range of other microbial organisms such as bacteria, archaeae, fungi and viruses. Over the last decade a greater understanding has been obtained in how corals shape and structure their microbial partners, providing important functional roles in maintaining overall coral fitness. The cycling of nitrogen and sulfur compounds within the holobiont are increasingly ...
Coral reef decline is a global phenomenon whose causes are being studied world wide. Especially in the Caribbean and tropical western Atlantic, this decline is being greatly structured by increasing frequencies and distribution of coral diseases (Richardson 1998). Disease impacts not only the coral species affected, but also the associated reef community. Human induced stressors, synergistic with disease-causing organisms, are thought to be the direct or indirect cause of much coral disease (Bruckner 2002). Environmental stresses, anthropogenic stresses, microbial pathogens, and other organisms have all been cited as contributing to or causing coral disease and mortality (Brown and Howard 1985), yet the etiology of most coral diseases remains elusive (Richardson 1998). Caribbean coral reefs have shown a continuing trend towards a phase shift from coral-dominated to algal-dominated ecosystems with diseases as one of the primary causes (Lessios et al. 1984, Aronson and Precht 2001), and such ...
Reef-building corals may live for several decades or centuries, so these immortal hybrid lines accumulate over time. They vary in appearance, depending on which species provided its egg and mitochondrion to the hybridization event. This is why corals seem to diversify without actually increasing the number of species on the reef.. Coral spawning a natural phenomenon when multiple coral species release their gametes at the same moment is triggered by specific environmental conditions including high water temperatures, the tidal and the lunar phase. Often, other critters join the action and spawn as well. Branching corals like elkhorn and staghorn tend to spawn for about one hour between the fourth and sixth night after the full moon.. Little pink colored balls consisting of both sperm and eggs held together by mucus detach from the corals and float towards the surface where they fall apart because of the water movement. When the sperm and eggs are released they meet with either sperm or eggs ...
In the last 20 years, there has been a severe decline in the overall cover and abundance of M. faveolata in several parts of the Caribbean. For example, 90% of the species was lost in the coastal waters off Jamaica from 1980 through 1994 (Hughes, 1994). Off the coast of eastern Puerto Rico, declines in cover were recorded at between 40 and 60% (Hernandez-Delgado 2005), at around 40% off south-eastern PR (E. Weil pers. comm.), 40-80% off Desecheo Island and Mona Island (Bruckner and Bruckner 2006, A. Bruckner pers. comm.), and 72% in St John, US Virgin Islands, between 1988 and 1999 (Edmunds and Elahi 2007). Dustan and Halas (1987) observed a 31% decline in cover of M. faveolata on Carysfort Reef (Key Largo) between 1975 and 1982, with a 21% decline in colony size ...
Studying coral reefs responses to environmental and anthropogenic stressors is crucial to ensure the development of appropriate conservation and restoration programs, especially in areas such as the Arabian Gulf where they are subjected to extreme seawater temperature stress and experiencing consistent losses in coverage and distribution. Coral bleaching events witnessed during the last decades in the Arabian Gulf are believed to be the result of the effect of heat events occurring more frequently in the region as a result of the global ocean warming. When corals are under thermal stress, their symbiotic zooxanthellae are affected, and their photosynthetic activity decreases until the stress disappears or until the zooxanthellae are expelled from the coral. To study the response of thermal stress on the zooxanthellae associated with the coral host, I exposed three ecologically important coral species from Qatar, Porites lutea, Dipsastraea pallida, and Acropora downingi, to three levels of ...
Playing underwater sounds of a healthy coral reef can attract fish back to degraded and damaged areas.. Thats according to a new study led by the University of Exeter, which saw researchers place 33 patches of dead coral rubble in Australias Great Barrier Reef - on 11 of these patches, they used speakers to play sounds of a healthy reef.. After 40 days, there were twice as many young fish living on the patches where the sounds were played than in patches without sounds - the diversity of species was also 50% greater in these areas.. ...
Welcome to the website for the Coral Reef Ecosystems (CRE) Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia. Under the guidance of Professor Ove Hoegh-Guldberg and Associate Professor Sophie Dove, the lab is conducting research into a variety of topics related to coral reef ecosystems. The lab is part of the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and receives considerable support from this important centre within Australian science. The lab currently hosts 25 people which includes 6 Post-Docs, 12 PhD students and 7 Professional staff which include a Lab Manager, 2 research assistants, project officer, a software engineer, a electronic and data management technician and casual research assistants. This website gives access to their personal profiles and peer-reviewed publications.. This 360 degree video shows the work our lab group does at Heron Island. It shows our staff working on the aquarium deck and the deployment of our ...
In our continuing study on the chemical constituents of Taiwanese soft corals, the EtOAc extracts of a gorgonian coral Isis hippuris and a alcyonarian coral Sinularia gibberosa were investigated, respectively. Seven compounds, including 3£\,11£]-dihydroxy-24-methyl-22,25epoxy-5£\- furostan-18,20£]-lactone (1), 3-acetyl-2-deacetyl-22R-hippurin-1 (2), hippuristerone F (3), hippurin-1 (4), 22-epi-hippurin-1 (5), 3-acetyl-2- desacetyl-22-epi-hippurin-1 (6) and 2-desacetyl-22-epi-hippurin-1 (7) were isolated from I. hippuris. Three metabolites, 3£],11-dihydroxy-24- methylene-9,11-secocholest-5-en-9-one (8), 3£],11-dihydroxy-24-methyl-9, 11-secocholest-5-en- 9-one (9) and 3£]-hydroxy-11-acetoxy-24-methylene-9, 11-secocholest-5-en-9-one (10) were isolated from S. gibberosa. Among them, compounds 1¡V3, are new products. All metabolites 1¡V10 are steroids. The structures of 1¡V10 were determined by physical and spectral analysis, including IR, MS, 1D NMR (1H, 13C) and 2D NMR ( 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, ...
Symbiotic dinoflagellates are unicellular photosynthetic algae that live in mutualistic symbioses with many marine organisms. Within the transcriptome of coral endosymbionts Symbiodinium sp. (type C3), we discovered the sequences of two novel and highly polymorphic hemoglobin-like genes and proposed their 3D protein structures. At the protein level, four isoforms shared between 87 and 97% sequence identity for Hb-1 and 78-99% for Hb-2, whereas between Hb-1 and Hb-2 proteins, only 15-21% sequence homology has been preserved. Phylogenetic analyses of the dinoflagellate encoding Hb sequences have revealed a separate evolutionary origin of the discovered globin genes and indicated the possibility of horizontal gene transfer. Transcriptional regulation of the Hb-like genes was studied in the reef-building coral Acropora aspera exposed to elevated temperatures (6-7°C above average sea temperature) over a 24-h period and a 72-h period, as well as to nutrient stress. Exposure to elevated temperatures resulted
A model that resolves reef island formation in relation to both reef platform substrate development and mid-Holocene sea-level change is presented for Bewick Island, northern Great Barrier Reef, based on morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometrically dated island sediments and reef corals. On Bewick Island, microatolls record reef-flat development at higher sea level (+1.5 m) by 6500 yr B.P. Island building began on a partially emergent reef flat 5000-4000 yr B.P., when sea level was 0.5 m above present. As sea level fell to its present level, the reef platform process window closed and the island core stabilized. Results present the first unequivocal evidence of island building directly over a reef flat comprising microatolls, and the first detailed model of island formation from the Great Barrier Reef. The model demonstrates that the interplay of sea level and reef surface elevation can vary between sites but their convergence is critical for island initiation. Future trajectories of island ...
Coral collection: Coral plugs were collected in December 2012 from massive Porites colonies at a naturally low-Ωar reef site (7.324 N, 134.493 E; mean Ωar = 2.3; n = 78) and a naturally high-Ωar reef site (7.268 N, 134.522 E; mean Ωar = 3.7; n = 75). At each reef site, small skeletal cores (diameter = 3.5 cm) were removed from massive colonies (one core per colony) at 2-3m depth using underwater pneumatic drills, and cores were cut with a lapidary table saw to approximately 1 cm below the tissue layer. The plugs were affixed to nylon square base screws with marine epoxy, secured to egg crate racks, and returned to their original reefs to allow the corals to recover from the coring procedure. All corals survived two months of recovery on the reef and on all corals living tissue had fully overgrown the sides of the plugs so that no underlying skeleton was exposed. Corals were recovered in February 2013.. CO2 manipulation experiment: Corals from two reefs were cultured at three CO2 levels for ...
The acidification of the ocean due to the industrial emission of carbon dioxide is destroying the worlds coral reefs, a coalition of marine experts has warned in the recently released Honolulu Declaration. Coral reefs are at the heart of our tropics, and millions of people around the world depend on these systems for their livelihoods, said Lynne Hale, director of The Nature Conservancys Marine Initiative. Without urgent action to limit carbon dioxide emissions and improve management of marine protected areas, even vast treasured reefs like the Great Barrier Reef and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands will become wastelands of dead coral. Coral reefs have long been known to be threatened by effects of global warming, including coral bleaching, higher ocean temperatures and rising sea levels. But these threats are surpassed by the dangers of ocean acidification, which was named the number one threat to ocean life by scientists from the International Coral Reef Symposium in July. For many years, ...
A popular herbicide used widely in coastal regions of Australia has been found at dangerous levels in the Great Barrier Reef, posing a toxic threat to the worlds largest coral reef system. The chemical Diuron, which is used largely by sugar cane farmers along the Queensland coast, was found at levels 55 times higher than safety standards in creeks that drain into the reef, and at levels 100 times the safe standards in the reef itself, according to a new report by the World Wildlife Fund. After a decade-long review, the Australian government on Tuesday announced it would continue a suspension of the chemical except in the countrys tropical regions. A decision on a permanent ban will be made by November, the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority said. In a recent report, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority called a decline in the quality of water in catchment areas one of the greatest threats facing the reef. Nick Heath, the WWF freshwater and reef coordinator, said ...
Elkhorn coral was once one of the most abundant species of coral in the Caribbean and the Florida Keys. Since 1980, an estimated 90-95% of elkhorn coral has been lost. Threats include disease, coral bleaching, predation, climate change, storm damage, and human activity. All of these factors have created a synergistic effect that greatly diminishes the survival and reproductive success of elkhorn coral. Natural recovery of coral is a slow process, and may never occur with this species because so many factors inhibit its survival. Diseases that affect elkhorn coral include white pox disease, white band disease, and black band disease. White pox disease, which only affects elkhorn coral, is caused by a fecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens. The disease is very contagious and commonly moves from one colony to its nearest neighbor. White pox creates white lesions on the coral skeleton and results in an average tissue loss of 2.5 cm2 (0.39 in2) per day, but can cause as much tissue loss as 10.5 ...
ABSTRACT: There is now widespread consensus that climate change-related increases in seawater temperature have become a leading cause of coral mortality by bleaching. However, despite widely reported and geographically extensive coral-bleaching episodes, little is known about the less conspicuous demographic consequences of elevated temperature for coral populations. Here, I use 12 yr of daily temperature records and 8 yr of annual surveys of juvenile corals (≤40 mm diameter, a size range that includes recruits) from the US Virgin Islands to demonstrate the subtle effects of an unusually rapid increase in seawater temperature (0.06°C per year since 1989) on coral community structure in shallow water (5 to 9 m depth). The analysis reveals that the density of juvenile corals is correlated positively with mean seawater temperature, but concurrently, in warm years, juvenile corals tend to grow slowly and appear to die faster, in a pattern leading to changes in relative generic abundance. Although ...
University of Miamis Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science The persistence of coral reef ecosystems may largely depend on the exchange of offspring between populations that exist on the edge of species ranges. While reef-building corals expand to the subtropics, their range is not only bounded by latitude, but also by water depth. This is mostly because sunlight attenuates very quickly through the water column and corals harbor microscopic photosynthetic symbiotic algae, which need to uptake light to help nourish the coral. Light-dependent coral reefs and associated benthic communities found between 30 and 100 meters (100-330 feet) in the Gulf of Mexico are called mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) and are central to our study. The MCEs of Pulley Ridge, located 66 kilometers west of the Dry Tortugas, inhabit a relatively stable environment, decoupled from stresses related to the proximity of coastal pollution or from water temperature fluctuations and mass bleaching affecting ...
1 The Coral Reefs of Eilat Past, Present and Future: Three Decades of Coral Community Structure Studies Yossi Loya 1.1 Introduction Here, I shall present a brief review of ca. 35 years of our studies on
Fables and myths from radical green extremists? Really? Consider this: levels of herbicides on the Great Barrier Reef are toxic enough to induce bleaching in corals, alter seagrass function by inhibiting photosynthesis (with knock-on effect to dugong feeding areas), impact on the early life stages of corals (along with reducing their reproductive output), and cause severe dieback in mangroves (which act as nursery areas for juvenile reef fish). Oh, and levels of herbicides are now commonplace in sediments and seagrasses, across river mouths and inshore reefs on the GBR.. So what evidence of the scientists proves that its just a fable, just a myth? Certainly not a paper written earlier this year (Agricultural lands are hot-spots for annual runoff polluting the southern Great Barrier Reef lagoon) concluded that …grazing lands contribute the majority of the long-term average annual load of most common pollutants, and suggested that improved land management targets, rather than water ...
In this study, investigators develop and present a framework for responding to coral disease outbreaks with implications for reef ecosystem health. The framework contains four components, including an early warning system, a tiered impact assessment program, scaled management actions, and a communication plan.. A combination of predictive tools with in situ observations of areas at risk for disease outbreak constitute the early warning system, while reports of increasing disease prevalence triggers a tiered response of assessment, research, or management actions. Response to the disease outbreak risk is scaled based on the severity and spatial extent of impacts incurred by a disease outbreak to coral species.. Additionally, the study reviews potential management actions to mitigate coral disease impacts and facilitate recovery of the reef ecosystem, and considers coral disease-specific strategies as well as strategies already used in reef resilience.. Author: Beeden R., J.A. Maynard, P.A. ...
Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges areamong the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in theirtissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for therelationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus lowmicrobial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location andwater depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that asmany as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were sharedbetween sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes inbacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge ...
Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) (reefs at 30-150 m depth) have been poorly explored due to inaccessibility, but are likely to be buffered from shallow reef impacts because of the depth at which they are found.. This project aims to explore and document biodiversity on previously un-surveyed mesophotic reefs and make the first characterisation of reefs down to 60 m on two sites in a crucial area in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (Cozumel Island reefs) as well as investigate their roles as coral and fish refuges. We also aim to identify the extent, overlap and connectivity in coral and fish species between shallow reefs and MCEs and ascertain the role played by MCEs as a refuge for invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans). We will conduct stereo-video fish surveys and benthic video surveys on MCEs at two sites and their associated shallow reefs.. The project will support the local institution (CONANP) in incorporating MCEs into existing shallow reef focused marine conservation efforts and follow up ...
15 credits, Level 7 (Masters). Autumn teaching. Coral reefs are one of the most ecologically and economically important habitats on the planet. They have exceptional levels of biodiversity, are critical to the life-history and development of many pelagic as well as reef-associated marine species, and provide critical ecosystem services upon which many human communities rely.. However, coral reefs are also globally threatened from direct human activities and the indirect impact of climate change. Coral reefs therefore provide both an exceptional setting to learn about marine ecology, and also one for which there is a real and urgent need for an improved understanding to inform policy and conservation management strategies.. This field course will be involve scuba and snorkel-based data collection at coral reefs, giving you the opportunity to learn and apply techniques from marine biology, develop and test scientific hypotheses, and gain an in-depth understanding of the unique ecosystem of coral ...
With the Coral Reefs Palette, Chantecaille has continued its tradition of offering must-have makeup with an environmental benefit. Chantecaille has proudly joined the Marine Conservation Institute in their efforts to protect 10% of the worlds oceans by 2020. The oceans cover 71% of the earth, providing 80% of our oxygen and food for 3.5 billion people; yet less than one half of one percent of our oceans are protected. The health of the ocean is vital, and coral reefs are the alert system. Today three quarters of the worlds coral reefs are at risk due to over-fishing, pollution, and global warming. Maintaining 10% of the oceans ecosystems as no-take marine protected areas is the best chance for corals survival. Five percent of the proceeds from the Coral Reefs Palette will be donated to the Marine Conservation Institute to help meet our goals (not their goals, our goals ...
"Anthozoa". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 23 January 2009. "Cnidaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information ...
Anthozoa)". Bulletin of Marine Science. 28 (2): 354-362. LaJeunesse, T. (2002). "Diversity and community structure of symbiotic ...
Cnidaria; Anthozoa; Actiniaria; Edwardsiidae) from Japan". Zootaxa. 4661 (3): 533-544. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4661.3.7. v t e. ... Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa". Marine Biology Research. 8 (3): 233-245. doi:10.1080/ ...
Waggoner, Ben M. (2000). Smith, David; Collins, Allen (eds.). "Anthozoa: Fossil Record". Anthozoa. UCMP. Retrieved 9 March 2020 ... Hoeksema, Bert (2015). "Anthozoa". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2015-04-24. Ruppert, Edward E.; Fox, ... Corals are marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. They typically live in compact colonies of ... Anthozoa)". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 150 (1): 10-22. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Anthozoa sp., Camarotoechia sp., Cryptonella sp., Cyphaspis sp., Cryphaeus sp., Dalmanites sp., Derbyina sp., Gastropoda sp., ...
vietnamensis and Zoanthus kuroshio (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia)." Zoological Science 23.9 (2006): 755-761. Reimer, James Davis. " ... "Molecular evidence suggesting interspecific hybridization in Zoanthus spp.(Anthozoa: Hexacorallia)." Zoological Science24.4 ( ... Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) from Southwestern Japan, with Descriptions of Two New Species". Zoological Science. 23 (3): 261-275. ...
Manuel, R.L. (1981). British Anthozoa. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. D.M. Kermack & R.S.K. Barnes), The ... Considering the fact that most temperate anthozoa are found at depths of greater than 9 meters, it is suggested that ... Picton, B. E. (1985). "Anthozoans (Coelenterata: Anthozoa) New to Ireland and New Records of Some Rarely Recorded Species". The ...
anguina (Anthozoa, Antipatharia) from the Indonesian Marine Park of Bunaken." Invertebrate Reproduction & Development 51.3 ( ... "2 The Biology and Ecology of Black Corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia)."Advances in marine biology 63 (2012 ... "Sperm morphology in the black coral Cirrhipathes sp.(Anthozoa, Antipatharia)." Invertebrate Biology 127.3 (2008): 249-258. ... Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia)". 63: 67-132. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-394282-1.00002-8. ISSN 0065-2881. Cite journal ...
Manual, R.L. (1988). British Anthozoa. London: Academic Press. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 18.]. ...
". "Marine Species Identification Portal". Manuel, R.L., (1988). British Anthozoa. London: Academic Press. Synopses of the ...
"Molecular phylogenetic hypotheses of Zoanthus species (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) using RNA secondary structure of the internal ... "Molecular evidence suggesting interspecific hybridization in Zoanthus spp.(Anthozoa: Hexacorallia)." Zoological Science24.4 ( ... Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) from Southwestern Japan, with Descriptions of Two New Species". Zoological Science. 23 (3): 261-275. ...
"ZEISS Microscopy Online Campus , Anthozoa Fluorescent Proteins". zeiss-campus.magnet.fsu.edu. Retrieved 2018-11-15. Subach, ...
Anthozoa - general features. In : Treatise on invertebrate palaeontology, Part F, Caelenterata, Moore, R.C. (ed.), Geological ...
... was once one of the most abundant species of coral in the Caribbean and the Florida Keys. Since 1980, an estimated 90-95% of elkhorn coral has been lost. Threats include disease, coral bleaching, predation, climate change, storm damage, and human activity. All of these factors have created a synergistic effect that greatly diminishes the survival and reproductive success of elkhorn coral. Natural recovery of coral is a slow process, and may never occur with this species because so many factors inhibit its survival. Diseases that affect elkhorn coral include white pox disease, white band disease, and black band disease. White pox disease, which only affects elkhorn coral, is caused by a fecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens. The disease is very contagious and commonly moves from one colony to its nearest neighbor. White pox creates white lesions on the coral skeleton and results in an average tissue loss of 2.5 cm2 (0.39 in2) per day, but can cause as much tissue loss as 10.5 ...
... and excludes Anthozoa (corals and sea anemones).[22] This suggests that the medusa form evolved after the polyps.[23] ...
And Mich.) (Coelenterata, Anthozoa)". The Biological Bulletin. 149 (3): 590-600. doi:10.2307/1540389. JSTOR 1540389. PMID ...
Stromatoporoidea, Anthozoa, and Gastropoda. Journal of Paleontology 9(3):341-355. ...
Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in Japan. Coral Reefs 25 (4): 521-527. Light. Sol Felty (2007). The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal ... Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Sold in the Home Aquarium Trade. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18235. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018235 ... Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) from a northwest Pacific methane cold seep. Inv. Syst. 21: 255-262. Reimer JD, Nonaka M, ... Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) based on the mitochondrial ribosomal genes. Mar. Biol. 147 (5): 1121-1128. Reimer J.D., Takishita K., ...
This anthozoa-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. ... Cnidarian-stub}} (strongly consider using {{Anthozoa-stub}} or {{Medusozoa-stub}} instead). This cnidarian-related article is a ...
Neogene paleontology in the northern Dominican Republic, 3. The family Poritidae (Anthozoa, Scleractinia). Bulletins of ... Neogene paleontology in the northern Dominican Republic, 5. The suborders Caryophylliina and Dendrophylliina (Anthozoa, ...
3. Las anémonas Acontiaria (Coelenterata, Anthozoa). Neotrópica, 25(74): 145-154. Daly, M.; Fautin, D. (2021). World List of ...
de Kluijver, N.J.; Ingalsuo, S.S. "Jewel anemone (Corynactis viridis)". Macrobenthos of the North Sea: Anthozoa. Marine Species ...
"Calliactis parasitica". Macrobenthos of the North Sea: Anthozoa. Universiteit van Amsterdam. Archived from the original on July ...
Anthozoa. Marine Species Information Portal. Retrieved 2014-12-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) D. J. Crisp (1971). ...
de Kluijver, N.J.; Ingalsuo, S.S. "Diadumene cincta". Macrobenthos of the North Sea: Anthozoa. Marine Species Identification ...
See: peduncle (anatomy), peduncle (botany) and sessility (botany). Anthozoa Ediacara biota Pechenik, Jan (2016). Biology of the ...
Opresko, D.M. (2001). "Revision of the Antipatharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Part I. Establishment of a new family, Myriopathidae ...
The position of Anthozoa nearest the beginning of the cnidarian family tree also implies that Anthozoa are the cnidarians most ... In Anthozoa (anemones, corals, etc.) and Scyphozoa (jellyfish), the mesoglea also contains some muscle cells.[10] ... Some Anthozoa have ciliated grooves on their tentacles, allowing them to pump water out of and into the digestive cavity ... class Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1834 *subclass Ceriantharia Perrier, 1893 - Tube-dwelling anemones. *subclass Hexacorallia Haeckel, ...
Neogene paleontology in the northern Dominican Republic, 5. The suborders Caryophylliina and Dendrophylliina (Anthozoa, ...
Trench, R. K. (1974). "Nutritional potentials in Zoanthus sociathus (Coelenterata, Anthozoa)". Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche ...
Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5-end of the 28S rDNA. Molecular Phylogeny and ... Anthozoa Sea Anemones, Corals, Sea Pens. Daphne G. Fautin and Sandra L. Romano Click on an image to view larger version & data ... Class Anthozoa is traditionally considered to have two or three subclasses. Hyman (1940) divided the class into Alcyonaria and ... Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.), Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: ...
Vernacular names [edit wikidata Category:Anthozoa linked to current category] [edit wikidata Anthozoa main topic of ... Fossilworks PaleoDB link: Anthozoa Ehrenberg 1834 †. *World Register of Marine Species link: Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1834 (+ list ... Orders of Anthozoa. *Note: *Zoantharia is sometimes a subclassis syn of Hexacorallia and sometimes an order in subclassis ... Media in category "Anthozoa". The following 46 files are in this category, out of 46 total. ...
The name "Anthozoa" comes from the Greek words άνθος (ánthos; "flower") and ζώα (zóa; "animals"), hence ανθόζωα (anthozoa) = " ... ISBN 978-0-521-88485-3. Media related to Anthozoa at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Anthozoa at Wikispecies. ... Waggoner, Ben M. (2000). Smith, David; Collins, Allen (eds.). "Anthozoa: Fossil Record". Anthozoa. UCMP. Retrieved 9 March 2020 ... "Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5-end of the 28S rDNA". Molecular Phylogenetics ...
Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5-end of the 28S rDNA Molecular Phylogeny and ... members of Anthozoa live only as polyps. The anthozoa larva, once fusing with the substratum and developing into the polyp ... Anthozoa is a class of marine invertebrates within the phylum Cnidaria that are unique among cnidarians in that they do not do ... Anthozoa: Subgroups Fossil Groups. University of Bristol. Retrieved August 2, 2008.. *Madl, P., and M. Yip. 2000. Part III: ...
Cracks in the β-can: Fluorescent proteins from Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, Actinaria). Jörg Wiedenmann, Carsten Elke, Klaus- ... A far-red fluorescent protein with fast maturation and reduced oligomerization tendency from Entacmaea quadricolor (Anthozoa, ... Cracks in the β-can: Fluorescent proteins from Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, Actinaria) ... Cracks in the β-can: Fluorescent proteins from Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, Actinaria) ...
A. E. Verrill, "Additions to the Anthozoa and Hydrozoa of the Bermudas. Anthozoa," in Zoology of Bermuda, A. E. Verrill, Ed., ... Anthozoa: Hexacorallia)," Zoological Science, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 346-359, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · ... A. E. Verrill, "Additions to the Anthozoa and Hydrozoa of the Bermudas," Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and ... S. Cairns, C. den Hertog, and C. Arneson, "Class Anthozoa (Corals, anemones)," in Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda. A ...
ARMS (2019). Anthozoa. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/arms/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1292 on 2019-08-24 ... Anthozoa. Accessed at: http://marinespecies.org/arms/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1292 on 2019-08-24 ...
Phylogenetic relationships within the Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) based on nuclear 18S rRNA sequences. ...
Porro, B., Mallien, C., Hume, B.C.C. et al. The many faced symbiotic snakelocks anemone (Anemonia viridis, Anthozoa): host and ... Wiedenmann J, Elke C, Spindler KD, Funke W (2000) Cracks in the β-can: fluorescent proteins from Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, ... sulcata (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) in particular consideration of the ectodermal pigments. In: Pfadenhauer J (ed.) Verhandlungen der ... Horizontal acquisition of Symbiodiniaceae in the Anemonia viridis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) species complex *Barbara Porro ...
AfReMaS (2021). Anthozoa. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/afremas/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1292 on 2021-06-17 ... Anthozoa. Accessed at: https://marinespecies.org/afremas/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1292 on 2021-06-17 ...
Deep-Sea (2019). Anthozoa. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/deepsea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1292 on 2019-04-21 ... Glover, A.G.; Higgs, N.; Horton, T. (2019). World Register of Deep-Sea species (WoRDSS). Anthozoa. Accessed at: http://www. ...
Background Classical morphological taxonomy places the approximately 1400 recognized species of Scleractinia (hard corals) into 27 families, but many aspects of coral evolution remain unclear despite the application of molecular phylogenetic methods. In part, this may be a consequence of such studies focusing on the reef-building (shallow water and zooxanthellate) Scleractinia, and largely ignoring the large number of deep-sea species. To better understand broad patterns of coral evolution, we generated molecular data for a broad and representative range of deep sea scleractinians collected off New Caledonia and Australia during the last decade, and conducted the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis to date of the order Scleractinia. Methodology Partial (595 bp) sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were determined for 65 deep-sea (azooxanthellate) scleractinians and 11 shallow-water species. These new data were aligned with 158 published sequences,
Water mass characteristics and associated fauna of a recently discovered Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia: Anthozoa) reef in ... Tendal OS (1992) The North Atlantic distribution of the octocoral Paragorgia arborea (L., 1758) (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Sarsia 77 ...
Variação intracolonial em Siderastrea de Blainville (Anthozoa, Scleractinia): taxonomia sob limites morfológicos desafiadores ... Complexo Siderastrea: espécies distintas? Significado da variabilidade do gênero Siderastrea de Blainville, 1830 (Anthozoa: ... Siderastrea glynni, a new species of scleractinian coral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) from the Eastern Pacific. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. ... Intracolonial variation in Siderastrea de Blainville, 1830 (Anthozoa, Scleractinia): taxonomy under challenging morphological ...
An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced?. Image. ... An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced?. 2005. Retrieved from the ... An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced?. Retrieved from the Digital ... An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced?. Coral Reefs, 24(2): 343- ...
vietnamensis and Zoanthus kuroshio : Anthozoa: Hexacorallia(Animal Diversity and Evolution) : Reimer James Davis , Ono Shunsuke ... Morphological and Molecular Revision of Zoanthus (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) from Southwestern Japan, with Descriptions of Two New ... Anthozoa : Hexacorallia) * * Reimer James D. REIMER James D. ... Anthozoa), and a free-living strain CARLOS A. A. ... Anthozoa : Hexacorallia) at Kagoshima Bay, Japan Reimer James D. , Ono Shusuke , Tsukahara Junzo , TAKISHITA Kiyotaka , ...
Deltocyathiidae, an early-diverging family of Robust corals (Anthozoa, Scleractinia).. 19. Apr 2013. ... Anthozoa, Scleractinia). Zoologica Scripta. 42(2): 201-212.. Link to full text or pdf ...
Taxonomic classification of the reef coral families Merulinidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: ... Taxonomic classification of the reef coral families Merulinidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: ... Taxonomic classification of the reef coral families Merulinidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: ...
Unexpected diversity and a new species of Epizoanthus (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) attached to eunicid worm tubes from the Pacific ... Fujii T, Reimer JD (2011) Phylogeny of the highly divergent zoanthid family Microzoanthidae (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) from the ... Sinniger F, Montoya-Burgos JI, Chevaldonne P, Pawlowski J (2005) Phylogeny of the order Zoantharia (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) ... Burnett WJ, Benzie JAH, Beardmore JA, Ryland JS (1997) Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) from the Great Barrier Reef and ...
a. Round worms b. Echinoderms c. Anthozoa d. Chordates 3. Which characteristics are found in Eukaryotes and not Prokaryotes? a ... Unformatted text preview: a. Round worms b. Echinoderms c. Anthozoa d. Chordates 3. Which characteristics are found in ...
Class Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1831. Subclass Hexacorallia Haeckel, 1896. Order Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815. Suborder Macrocnemina ... Montenegro J, Low ME, Reimer JD (2016) The resurrection of the genus Bergia (Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Parazoanthidae). Systematics ... Three new species and the molecular phylogeny of Antipathozoanthus from the Indo-Pacific Ocean (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, ... Reimer J D, Fujii T (2017) Zoantharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) Diversity Research in Japan: Current State and Future ...
Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the South-Atlantic Ocean. Katia Cristina Cruz Capel​1,2,3, Robert J. Toonen2, Caio T.C.C. Rachid4, ... Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) da Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (SC), com ênfase na estrutura espaço-temporal da ... A new coral species introduced into the Atlantic Ocean-Tubastraea micranthus (Ehrenberg 1834) (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia ... Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the South-Atlantic Ocean. PeerJ 5:e3873 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3873 The authors have chosen ...
Anthozoa explanation free. What is Anthozoa? Meaning of Anthozoa medical term. What does Anthozoa mean? ... Looking for online definition of Anthozoa in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to Anthozoa: Ctenophora, Cubozoa. anthozoan. or actinozoan. any of the sessile COELENTERATES of the class Anthozoa, ... Anthozoa , definition of Anthozoa by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Anthozoa ...
Anthozoa.. The Anthozoa includes the sea anemones and the corals. These species lack the medusa stage altogether, and exist ... Class Anthozoa. Class Anthozoa includes Cnidaria that have no jellyfish stage. This is the largest class of cnidarians, ... Anthozoa are flower animals, including a great many beautiful and colorful organisms, e.g., the sea anemone, sea pansy, sea fan ... These are the Hydrozoa (hydras and other colony-forming species), the Scyphozoa (jellyfish), and the Anthozoa (sea anemones and ...
The Class Anthozoa includes a variety of animals that have polyps with a flower-like appearance. In these forms, the ... The Class Anthozoa also includes many kinds of corals, including many reef-building species. Reefs are formed by the calcareous ... "Anthozoa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed September 24, 2020 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Anthozoa/ ...
Our mission here is to investigate a mass mortality event that occurred in Canal Copihue. An expedition to this area in 2006 (A) revealed a canal that was filled with live cold water calcifying hydrocorals called Errina antarctica. In 2013 (C) a similar expedition revealed that most of the hydrocorals in this canal had died and the bottom was littered with dead remnants of the beautiful bright corals. Now, on this current expedition, we will be installing monitoring equipment and making fixed photoquadrat sites at three points along the channel where we can monitor how the benthic community changes over time. We will also be installing recruitment plates to see what species colonize the plates (composed of ceramic tiles) and in what order. We are super excited to begin our work in Canal Copihue, which is about a 20 minute boat ride from the mine Guarello.. ...
Anthozoa subphylum. The Anthozoa subphylum consists of sea anemones and corals. Most Anthozoa organisms are sessile creatures, ...
... Login ... A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) based on mitochondrial CO1 sequence data. ... "A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) based on mitochondrial CO1 sequence data." PLOS ...
The most abundant and highest diversity taxa across the dataset were from one class and two phyla (Anthozoa, Porifera and ... Bottom panel: Anthozoa annotations representing at the genus-level demarcated by (C) geographic region and (D) geologic feature ... Rarefaction curves (B) are shown for all of Anthozoa (122 genera), color coded by depth 0-1,000 m (blue) 1,000-2,000 m (gray), ... Figure 4. Top panel: (A) Anthozoa annotations at the genus-level demarcated by depth (m). A total of 221,264 anthozoan ...
  • Anthozoa is included within the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes the jellyfish, box jellies and parasitic Myxozoa and Polypodiozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthozoa is a class of marine invertebrates within the phylum Cnidaria that are unique among cnidarians in that they do not do not have a medusa stage in their development. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Anthozoa is the largest of the four classes of Cnidaria with over 6,000 species (France 2004). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced? (dp.la)
  • Associated community with the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860) (Cnidaria, Anthozoa ) from littoral of Pernambuco, Brazil. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We compared this genome, based on protein-coding gene orthology, with other publicly available coral genomes (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), as well as genomes from other anthozoan groups (Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia), and two basal metazoan outgroup phlya (Porifera, Ctenophora). (nature.com)
  • Soft Coral Sarcophyton Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia Species Diversity and Chemotypes - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • Hidden among sea anemones: The first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia ) reveals a novel group of hexacorals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • X Native Hincks, 1880 Bryozoa Stenolaemata Cyclostomata Crisiidae Crisia X X X Native Johnston, pseudosolena 1838 (Marcus, 1937) Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Actiniaria Actiniidae Bunodosoma X X Native Gosse 1858 caissarum Correa in Belem, 1987 Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Scleractinia Rhizangiidae Astrangia sp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Corals are those marine invertebrates of the phylum Cnidaria and the class Anthozoa that have external or internal calcareous skeletons. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Corals and sea anemones are part of the Anthozoa , which is a class within the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Williams, G.C. 2013: New taxa and revisionary systematics of alcyonacean octocorals from the Pacific coast of North America (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). (wikimedia.org)
  • Anthozoa is a class of marine invertebrates which includes the sea anemones, stony corals and soft corals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deltocyathiidae, an early-diverging family of Robust corals (Anthozoa, Scleractinia). (coralcoe.org.au)
  • any of the sessile COELENTERATES of the class Anthozoa, including sea anemones, sea pens and corals, that have no medusoid stage (see MEDUSA and possess a body cavity that is more complex than in other coelenterates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In fact, a more detailed classification includes corals in the Anthozoa class, together with sea anemones, sea pens, or sea pansies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These are the Hydrozoa (hydras and other colony-forming species), the Scyphozoa (jellyfish), and the Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Class Anthozoa also includes many kinds of corals, including many reef-building species. (animaldiversity.org)
  • The approximately 9000 extant representatives of this phylum are divided into 2 sub-phyla, of which the Anthozoa embraces nearly 7000 species including approximately 1400 extant scleractinians, also commonly known as corals. (edu.au)
  • RIUdeG: CO2 enrichment and reduced seawater pH had no effect on the embryonic development of Acropora palmata (Anthozoa, Scleractinia). (udg.mx)
  • Reef-building coral (Scleractinia), the subgroup of the Class Anthozoa, has green fluorescent proteins and it is localized in unique anatomical patterns. (news-medical.net)
  • Anthozoa is subdivided into three subclasses: Octocorallia, Hexacorallia and Ceriantharia, which form monophyletic groups and generally show differentiating reflections on symmetry of polyp structure for each subclass. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, some zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) are so common that a portion of the shallow intertidal zone has been called the " Zoanthus zone" [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Kise H, Fujii T, Masucci GD, Biondi P, Reimer JD (2017) Three new species and the molecular phylogeny of Antipathozoanthus from the Indo-Pacific Ocean (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Zoantharia). (pensoft.net)
  • Zoanthids (Class Anthozoa , Subclass Hexacorallia, Order Zoanthidia [colonial anemones]) are common in home aquariums. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anthozoa is one of four classes of the invertebrate phylum, the others being Hydrozoa (Portuguese Man o' War, Obelia, etc. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • They are closely related to the sea anemones , which are also classified in the Anthozoa class, but which belong to the Actiniaria order. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • To better understand both the evolution of the Sox family and the roles of these genes in cnidarians, we are studying the Sox gene complement of the coral, Acropora millepora (Class Anthozoa). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The subphyla Anthozoa and Myxozoa have also been implicated in envenomation. (medscape.com)
  • Anthozoa means "flower animals," which is descriptive of this class of invertebrates. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The Class Anthozoa includes a variety of animals that have polyps with a flower-like appearance. (animaldiversity.org)
  • In fact, an attribute of the entire class Anthozoa is the absence of a medusa. (tolweb.org)
  • Class Anthozoa possesses most of the species expresses fluorescent proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Class Anthozoa - Sea anemones (e.g. (uwlax.edu)
  • The anthozoa larva, once fusing with the substratum and developing into the polyp stage, grows benthic or sessile, meaning it no longer metamorphoses into the medusal stage. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hadfield, "Larvae of Pocillopora damicornis ( Anthozoa ) settle and metamorphose in response to surface-biofilm bacteria," Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Los especímenes de Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 fueron expuestos a radiación activa fotosintéticamente (PAR) y radiación ultravioleta (RUV) por 32h en condiciones de laboratorio . (bvsalud.org)
  • Most recently, this view was confirmed by the cloning of six fluorescent proteins from nonbioluminescent Anthozoa homologous to the GFP from A. victoria ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Three Species of Intertidal Sea Anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniidae) from the Tropical Pacific: Description of Anthopleura buddemeieri, n. sp. (jhu.edu)
  • Members of most species of Anthozoa are suspension feeders, capturing small planktonic invertebrates , phytoplankton , bacteria, and other suspended organic matter (France 2004). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • I graduated in Joint Honours Botany and Zoology at the University of Bristol in 1981, and then progressed to doctorate research at the University of Oxford (St John's College), investigating the 'Ecology of Temperate Symbiotic Anthozoa' . (bangor.ac.uk)
  • animals"), hence ανθόζωα (anthozoa) = "flower animals", a reference to the floral appearance of their perennial polyp stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthozoa ) can generally be categorized into hard, soft, or gorgonian-type organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dividocorallia, a new subclass of Palaeozoic Anthozoa. (naturalsciences.be)
  • Bulletin of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences - Earth Sciences / Dividocorallia, a new subclass of Palaeozoic Anthozoa. (naturalsciences.be)
  • The recorded data of the anthozoa between the supralitoral and the sublittoral have shown that Actinia equina is predominant in the upper eulitoral. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In 2013, her 3D printed dress Anthozoa was shown at the Paris Fashion Week - a collaboration with fashion designer Iris van Herpen. (drupa.com)