Color transitions in coral's fluorescent proteins by site-directed mutagenesis. (1/1076)

BACKGROUND: Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) cloned from jellyfish Aequorea victoria and its homologs from corals Anthozoa have a great practical significance as in vivo markers of gene expression. Also, they are an interesting puzzle of protein science due to an unusual mechanism of chromophore formation and diversity of fluorescent colors. Fluorescent proteins can be subdivided into cyan (approximately 485 nm), green (approximately 505 nm), yellow (approximately 540 nm), and red (>580 nm) emitters. RESULTS: Here we applied site-directed mutagenesis in order to investigate the structural background of color variety and possibility of shifting between different types of fluorescence. First, a blue-shifted mutant of cyan amFP486 was generated. Second, it was established that cyan and green emitters can be modified so as to produce an intermediate spectrum of fluorescence. Third, the relationship between green and yellow fluorescence was inspected on closely homologous green zFP506 and yellow zFP538 proteins. The following transitions of colors were performed: yellow to green; yellow to dual color (green and yellow); and green to yellow. Fourth, we generated a mutant of cyan emitter dsFP483 that demonstrated dual color (cyan and red) fluorescence. CONCLUSIONS: Several amino acid substitutions were found to strongly affect fluorescence maxima. Some positions primarily found by sequence comparison were proved to be crucial for fluorescence of particular color. These results are the first step towards predicting the color of natural GFP-like proteins corresponding to newly identified cDNAs from corals.  (+info)

Interconversion of Anthozoa GFP-like fluorescent and non-fluorescent proteins by mutagenesis. (2/1076)

BACKGROUND: Within the family of green fluorescent protein (GFP) homologs, one can mark two main groups, specifically, fluorescent proteins (FPs) and non-fluorescent or chromoproteins (CPs). Structural background of differences between FPs and CPs are poorly understood to date. RESULTS: Here, we applied site-directed and random mutagenesis in order to to transform CP into FP and vice versa. A purple chromoprotein asCP (asFP595) from Anemonia sulcata and a red fluorescent protein DsRed from Discosoma sp. were selected as representatives of CPs and FPs, respectively. For asCP, some substitutions at positions 148 and 165 (numbering in accordance to GFP) were found to dramatically increase quantum yield of red fluorescence. For DsRed, substitutions at positions 148, 165, 167, and 203 significantly decreased fluorescence intensity, so that the spectral characteristics of these mutants became more close to those of CPs. Finally, a practically non-fluorescent mutant DsRed-NF was generated. This mutant carried four amino acid substitutions, specifically, S148C, I165N, K167M, and S203A. DsRed-NF possessed a high extinction coefficient and an extremely low quantum yield (< 0.001). These spectral characteristics allow one to regard DsRed-NF as a true chromoprotein. CONCLUSIONS: We located a novel point in asCP sequence (position 165) mutations at which can result in red fluorescence appearance. Probably, this finding could be applied onto other CPs to generate red and far-red fluorescent mutants. A possibility to transform an FP into CP was demonstrated. Key role of residues adjacent to chromophore's phenolic ring in fluorescent/non-fluorescent states determination was revealed.  (+info)

Additional cytotoxic diacetylenes from the stony coral Montipora sp. (3/1076)

Three new diacetylenes (1, 4, 6) have been isolated as cytotoxic constituents from the methanolic extract of the stony coral Montipora sp. The structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a small panel of human tumor cell lines and showed moderate to significant activity.  (+info)

Sympatric populations of the highly cross-fertile coral species Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora cytherea are genetically distinct. (4/1076)

High cross-fertilization rates in vitro and non-monophyletic patterns in molecular phylogenies challenge the taxonomic status of species in the coral genus Acropora. We present data from eight polymorphic allozyme loci that indicate small, but significant, differentiation between sympatric populations of Acropora cytherea and Acropora hyacinthus (F(ST) = 0.025-0.068, p < 0.05), a pair of acroporid corals with very high interspecific fertilization rates in vitro. Although no fixed allelic differences were found between these species, the absence of genetic differentiation between widely allopatric populations suggests that allele frequency differences between A. cytherea and A. hyacinthus in sympatry are biologically significant. By contrast, populations of Acropora tenuis, a species which spawns 2-3 hours earlier and shows low cross-fertilization rates with congeners in vitro, were clearly distinct from A. cytherea and A. hyacinthus (F(ST) = 0.427-0.465, p < 0.05). Moreover, allopatric populations of A. tenuis differed significantly, possibly as a consequence of its relatively short period of larval competency. Our results effectively rule out the possibility that A. hyacinthus and A. cytherea are morphotypes within a single species, and indicate that hybridization occurs relatively infrequently between these taxa in nature.  (+info)

Effect of increased calcium concentration in sea water on calcification and photosynthesis in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. (5/1076)

The relationship between calcification and photosynthesis in coral was investigated using standard sea water with enhanced calcium concentration. In standard sea water at 23 degrees C with the calcium concentration increased by 2.5 mmol l(-1), incorporation of calcium into the skeleton increased by 30-61 %, depending on the method of data normalisation, and photosynthesis, measured as (14)C incorporation into the tissues, also increased by 87 %. At 29 degrees C, calcium incorporation into the skeleton increased by 54-84 % and (14)C incorporation increased by 32 % when sea water calcium concentration was increased by 5 mmol l(-1). However, photosynthesis measured as net photosynthetic oxygen production did not increase. Similarly there was no change in respiration rate when coral polyps were incubated in high-calcium sea water. It is conjectured that an increase in photorespiration may be responsible for the latter observations. Bisphosphonate has been considered to inhibit calcification but not photosynthesis in corals. We show that bisphosphonate may not inhibit formation of amorphous calcium carbonate and that the inhibition of calcification is possibly illusory. The data are consistent with the trans-calcification model, which suggests that calcification is a source of CO(2) for photosynthesis in corals.  (+info)

Coral development: from classical embryology to molecular control. (6/1076)

The phylum Cnidaria is the closest outgroup to the triploblastic metazoans and as such offers unique insights into evolutionary questions at several levels. In the post-genomic era, a knowledge of the gene complement of representative cnidarians will be important for understanding the relationship between the expansion of gene families and the evolution of morphological complexity among more highly evolved metazoans. Studies of cnidarian development and its molecular control will provide information about the origins of the major bilaterian body axes, the origin of the third tissue layer, the mesoderm, and the evolution of nervous system patterning. We are studying the cnidarian Acropora millepora, a reef building scleractinian coral, and a member of the basal cnidarian class, the Anthozoa. We review ourwork on descriptive embryology and studies of selected transcription factor gene families, where our knowledge from Acropora is particularly advanced relative to other cnidarians. We also describe a recent preliminary whole genome initiative, a coral EST database.  (+info)

An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein. (7/1076)

We have cloned a gene encoding a fluorescent protein from a stony coral, Trachyphyllia geoffroyi, which emits green, yellow, and red light. The protein, named Kaede, includes a tripeptide, His-Tyr-Gly, that acts as a green chromophore that can be converted to red. The red fluorescence is comparable in intensity to the green and is stable under usual aerobic conditions. We found that the green-red conversion is highly sensitive to irradiation with UV or violet light (350-400 nm), which excites the protonated form of the chromophore. The excitation lights used to elicit red and green fluorescence do not induce photoconversion. Under a conventional epifluorescence microscope, Kaede protein expressed in HeLa cells turned red in a graded fashion in response to UV illumination; maximal illumination resulted in a 2,000-fold increase in the ratio of red-to-green signal. These color-changing properties provide a simple and powerful technique for regional optical marking. A focused UV pulse creates an instantaneous plane source of red Kaede within the cytosol. The red spot spreads rapidly throughout the cytosol, indicating its free diffusibility in the compartment. The extensive diffusion allows us to delineate a single neuron in a dense culture, where processes originating from many different somata are present. Illumination of a focused UV pulse onto the soma of a Kaede-expressing neuron resulted in filling of all processes with red fluorescence, allowing visualization of contact sites between the red and green neurons of interest.  (+info)

Low temperature X-ray microanalysis of calcium in a scleractinian coral: evidence of active transport mechanisms. (8/1076)

Element concentrations were measured by X-ray microanalysis in seawater (SW) compartments and mucocytes in bulk, frozen-hydrated preparations of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of polyps sampled in the daytime revealed that concentrations of the elements Na, S, K and Ca were all significantly higher in a thin (10-20 micro m) external SW layer adjacent to the oral ectoderm (P<0.05, <0.05, <0.0001 and <0.01, respectively) than in standard SW. In polyps sampled during night-time, concentrations of Ca and S in this external SW layer were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Ca concentration in the coelenteron and extrathecal coelenteron was significantly higher (P<0.001) than in the external SW layer, regardless of time of sampling, suggesting that Ca(2+) transport across the oral epithelium occurs via an active, transcellular route. X-ray microanalyses of mucocytes revealed that the concentration of S was high and did not vary between epithelial layers, while that of Ca increased in an inward gradient toward the skeleton. We suggest that throughout the day, secreted mucus behaves as a Donnan matrix at the oral ectoderm-SW interface, facilitating intracellular Ca(2+) uptake. The accumulation within internal SW compartments of high concentrations of Ca relative to standard SW levels, however, appears to be independent of mucus secretion and is likely to be a consequence of active transport processes.  (+info)

*Brain coral

They are part of the phylum Cnidaria, in a class called Anthozoa or "flower animals". The lifespan of the largest brain corals ...

*Anthozoa

The name "Anthozoa" comes from the Greek words άνθος (ánthos; "flower") and ζώα (zóa; "animals"), hence ανθόζωα (anthozoa) = " ... "Anthozoa: Fossil Record". Anthozoa. UCMP. Retrieved 23 March 2009. Oliver, William A. Jr. (2003). "Corals: Table 1". Fossil ... ISBN 978-0-521-88485-3. Media related to Anthozoa at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Anthozoa at Wikispecies. ... "Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5'-end of the 28S rDNA" (PDF). Molecular ...

*Hydramacin-1

"Anthozoa". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 23 January 2009. "Cnidaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information ...

*Plexaurella nutans

Anthozoa)". Bulletin of Marine Science. 28 (2): 354-362. LaJeunesse, T. (2002). "Diversity and community structure of symbiotic ...

*Coral

"Anthozoa: Fossil Record". Anthozoa. UCMP. Retrieved 23 March 2009. Oliver, William A. Jr. (2003). "Corals: Table 1". Fossil ... "Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5'-end of the 28S rDNA" (PDF). Molecular ... Corals are sessile animals in the class Anthozoa and differ from most other cnidarians in not having a medusa stage in their ... Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria. They typically live in compact colonies of many ...

*Protanthea simplex

". "Marine Species Identification Portal". Manuel, R.L., (1988). British Anthozoa. London: Academic Press. Synopses of the ...

*Hexacorallia

The hexacorallia are distinguished from another subclass of Anthozoa, Octocorallia, in having six or fewer axes of symmetry in ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Ben Kotrc (2005). "Anthozoa: ... Hexacorallia is a subclass of Anthozoa comprising approximately 4,300 species of aquatic organisms formed of polyps, generally ...

*Floresta Formation

Anthozoa sp., Camarotoechia sp., Cryptonella sp., Cyphaspis sp., Cryphaeus sp., Dalmanites sp., Derbyina sp., Gastropoda sp., ...

*Zoanthus kuroshio

vietnamensis and Zoanthus kuroshio (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia)." Zoological Science 23.9 (2006): 755-761. Reimer, James Davis. " ... "Molecular evidence suggesting interspecific hybridization in Zoanthus spp.(Anthozoa: Hexacorallia)." Zoological Science24.4 ( ... Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) from Southwestern Japan, with Descriptions of Two New Species". Zoological Science. 23 (3): 261-275. ...

*Cirrhipathes

anguina (Anthozoa, Antipatharia) from the Indonesian Marine Park of Bunaken." Invertebrate Reproduction & Development 51.3 ( ... "2 The Biology and Ecology of Black Corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia)."Advances in marine biology 63 (2012 ... "Sperm morphology in the black coral Cirrhipathes sp.(Anthozoa, Antipatharia)." Invertebrate Biology 127.3 (2008): 249-258. ... Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia)". 63: 67-132. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-394282-1.00002-8. ISSN 0065-2881. Wildscreen Arkive. ...

*Stomphia coccinea

Manual, R.L. (1988). British Anthozoa. London: Academic Press. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 18.]. ...

*Edwardsia claparedii

Manuel, R.L. (1981). British Anthozoa. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. D.M. Kermack & R.S.K. Barnes), The ...

*Zoanthus gigantus

"Molecular phylogenetic hypotheses of Zoanthus species (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) using RNA secondary structure of the internal ... "Molecular evidence suggesting interspecific hybridization in Zoanthus spp.(Anthozoa: Hexacorallia)." Zoological Science24.4 ( ... Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) from Southwestern Japan, with Descriptions of Two New Species". Zoological Science. 23 (3): 261-275. ...

*MCherry

"ZEISS Microscopy Online Campus , Anthozoa Fluorescent Proteins". zeiss-campus.magnet.fsu.edu. Retrieved 2017-11-15. Shaner, ...

*Dorothy Hill

Anthozoa - general features. In : Treatise on invertebrate palaeontology, Part F, Caelenterata, Moore, R.C. (ed.), Geological ...

*Zoantharia

Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in Japan. Coral Reefs 25 (4): 521-527. Light. Sol Felty (2007). The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal ... Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Sold in the Home Aquarium Trade. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18235. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018235 ... Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) from a northwest Pacific methane cold seep. Inv. Syst. 21: 255-262. Reimer JD, Nonaka M, ... Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) based on the mitochondrial ribosomal genes. Mar. Biol. 147 (5): 1121-1128. Reimer J.D., Takishita K., ...

*Mikhail Matz

"Fluorescent proteins from nonbioluminescent Anthozoa species". Nature Biotechnology. Nature. 17 (10): 969-973. 1999. doi: ...

*Calliactis parasitica

"Calliactis parasitica". Macrobenthos of the North Sea: Anthozoa. Universiteit van Amsterdam. Retrieved February 21, 2011. P. J ...

*Caryophyllia smithii

de Kluijver, M. J.; Ingalsuo, S. S. "Caryophyllia smithii". Macrobenthos of the North Sea: Anthozoa. Marine Species Information ...

*Sessility (motility)

Anthozoa Ediacara biota Pechenik, Jan (2016). Biology of the Invertebrates. ISBN 9781497006515. WP. Ecology. 1979. Disturbance ...

*Symbiodinium

Trench, R. K. (1974). "Nutritional potentials in Zoanthus sociathus (Coelenterata, Anthozoa)". Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche ...

*Discosoma

Harmin, Cha (2007). Systematics of the order Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). University of Kansas. pp. 83-85. ISBN 978-0 ...

*Discosomatidae

Anthozoa). University of Kansas. pp. 83-85. ISBN 978-0-549-13246-2. Fautin, D. (2010). "Discosomatidae". World Register of ...

*2014 in paleontology

Anthozoa, Rugosa) from the Upper Famennian of Thuringia (Germany)". Paläontologie, Stratigraphie, Fazies. (22), Freiberger ... Anthozoa) from Alaska". Geologica Acta. 12 (3): 239-267. doi:10.1344/GeologicaActa2014.12.3.6. Sergio Rodríguez; Ian D. ...

*List of marine animals of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay

ISBN 978-0-620-41639-9 England K.W. & Robson E.A. 1984 A new sea anemone from South Africa (Anthozoa, Ptychodactiaria) Ann. S. ... The pennatulacea of southern Africa (Coelenterata, Anthozoa) Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 100(3):249-358 http://www.marinespecies.org/ ...
Studies on high stress tolerance of larvae of the coral Pocillopora damicornisStudies on high stress tolerance of larvae of the coral Pocillopora damicornis ...
Three new cembranoids, culobophylins A-C (1-3), along with two known compounds (4 and 5) were isolated from the cultured soft coral Lobophytum crassum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those of known analogues. Among these metabolites, 2 is rarely found in cembranoids possessing an isopropyl moiety with an epoxide group. Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against HL60 and DLD-1 cancer cell lines.
Given the threats of greenhouse gas emissions and a changing climate to marine ecosystems, there is an urgent need to better understand the response of not only adult corals, which are particularly sensitive to environmental changes, but also their larvae, whose mechanisms of acclimation to both temperature increases and ocean acidification are not well understood. Brooded larvae from the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis collected from Nanwan Bay, Southern Taiwan, were exposed to ambient or elevated temperature (25 or 29 oC) and pCO2 (415 or 635 matm) in a factorial experiment for 9 days, and a variety of physiological and molecular parameters were measured. Respiration and rubisco protein expression decreased in larvae exposed to elevated temperature, while those incubated at high pCO2 were larger in size. Collectively, these findings highlight the complex metabolic and molecular responses of this life history stage and the need to integrate our understanding across multiple levels of ...
Maternal effects on offspring facilitated though environmental factors can provide insight to the response of organisms to global climate change. A maternal effect occurs when environmental factors affecting mothers influence offspring phenotype, independent of their genotype or the environment into which they are released. Such effects are referred to as transgenerational phenotypic plasticity. In this study we examined maternal effects induced by temperature on the larvae of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis in Nanwan Bay, Taiwan. Specifically we tested the hypothesis that colonies exposed to high temperature displayed different reproductive traits and released dissimilar larvae compared to colonies at a lower temperature. Eight colonies were incubated for 16 d at ambient (27.13°C) and elevated (29.65°C) temperature and the outcome assessed as colony−level fecundity, timing of larval release, and energy content of larvae. Colony−level fecundity was affected significantly by ...
Seven new polyoxygenated steroids (1-7) were isolated together with seven known analogues (8-14) from the South China Sea soft coral, Sarcophyton sp. The structures of the new compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. All the steroids are characterized with 3β,5α,6β-hydroxy moiety, displaying carbon skeletons of cholestane, ergostane, gorgostane and 23,24-dimethyl cholestane. In the in vitro bioassay, metabolites exhibited different levels of antimicrobial activity against bacterial species Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, and fungal species Microbotryum violaceum and Septoria tritici. No inhibition was detected towards microalga Chlorella fusca. Preliminary structure-activity analysis suggests that the 11α-acetoxy group may increase both antibacterial and antifungal activities. The terminal-double bond and the cyclopropane moiety at the side chain may also contribute to the bioactivity.
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A bacterial strain, designated KTW-16T, was isolated from the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata, collected from southern Taiwan. Strain KTW-16T was a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, pale-yellow, non-motile short rod. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KTW-16T belonged to the genus Paracoccus in the Alphaproteobacteria and exhibited 93.7-96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strains of species of the genus Paracoccus (96.9 % with Paracoccus alcaliphilus JCM 7364T). Strain KTW-16T grew at 15-40 °C (optimum 35 °C), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and with 0-9 % NaCl (optimum 5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C18 : 0. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the DNA G+C content was 69.1 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and several unknown polar lipids. The physiological and biochemical tests allowed clear
Corals form the framework of the worlds coral reefs and are under threat from increases in disease and bleaching (symbiotic dysfunction), yet the mechanisms of pathogen and symbiont recognition remain largely unknown. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of an ancient mannose-binding lectin in the coral Acropora millepora, which is likely to be involved in both processes. The lectin (Millectin) was isolated by affinity chromatography and was shown to bind to bacterial pathogens as well as coral symbionts, dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. cDNA analysis of Millectin indicate extensive sequence variation in the binding region, reflecting its ability to recognise various mannose-like carbohydrate structures on non-self cells, including symbionts and pathogens. This is the first mannose-binding lectin to show extensive sequence variability as observed for pattern recognition proteins in other invertebrate immune systems and, given that invertebrates rely on non-adaptive ...
In order to understand the effects of global climate change on reef-building corals, a thorough investigation of their physiological mechanisms of acclimatization is warranted. However, static temperature manipulations may underestimate the thermal complexity of the reefs in which many corals live. For instance, corals of Houbihu, Taiwan experience up to 10°C changes in temperature over the course of a day during spring tide upwelling events. To better understand the phenotypic plasticity of these corals, a laboratory-based experiment was conducted whereby specimens of Seriatopora hystrix (Dana, 1846) from the upwelling reef, Houbihu, and conspecifics from a non-upwelling reef (Houwan) were exposed to both a stable seawater temperature (26°C) and a regime characterized by a 6°C fluctuation (23-29°C) over a 12 hour period for seven days. A suite of physiological and molecular parameters was measured in samples of both treatments, as well as in experimental controls, in order to determine site ...
Coral tissue damage that normally heals on its own will not mend when ...UCF associate professor of biology John Fauth and scientists from the ...Scientists have long been concerned about declining coral reef health ...The loss of coral harms natural reef ecosystems and can hurt Floridas... Were losing places where animals can hide and fish can feed Fauth ...,Pollution,threatens,coral,health,by,preventing,lesions,from,healing,,UCF,study,shows,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Moonlight triggers the synchronized spawning of reef-building corals; however, the mechanism underlying detection of moonlight by these animals is largely unknown. Levy et al. now demonstrate the presence of ancient blue-light-sensing photoreceptors, cryptochromes, in the reef-building coral Acropora millepora (phylum Cnidaria). Cryptochromes regulate entrainment of the circadian clock of higher animals and plants. Expression of two coral cryptochrome genes, cry1 and cry2, was rhythmic under a light-dark cycle but not in constant darkness. Expression of cry2 varied with the full moon. This work suggests that cryptochromes not only function in the circadian clock of plants and higher animals but also may trigger the synchronized spawning of the Great Barrier Reef. O. Levy, L. Appelbaum, W. Leggat, Y. Gothlif, D. C. Hayward, D. J. Miller, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, Light-responsive cryptochromes from a simple multicellular animal, the coral Acropora millepora. Science 318, 467-470 (2007). [Abstract] [Full ...
Coral bleaching and other diseases of corals have increased dramatically during the last few decades. As outbreaks of these diseases are highly correlated with increased sea-water temperature, one of the consequences of global warming will probably be mass destruction of coral reefs. The causative agent(s) of a few of these diseases have been reported: bleaching of Oculina patagonica by Vibrio shiloi; black band disease by a microbial consortium; sea-fan disease (aspergillosis) by Aspergillus sydowii; and coral white plague possibly by Sphingomonas sp. In addition, we have recently discovered that Vibrio coralyticus is the aetiological agent for bleaching the coral Pocillopora damicornis in the Red Sea. In the case of coral bleaching by V. shiloi, the major effect of increasing temperature is the expression of virulence genes by the pathogen. At high summer sea-water temperatures, V. shiloi produces an adhesin that allows it to adhere to a b- galactoside-containing receptor in the coral mucus, ...
Experiments were completed in 2010 at the National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium (NMMBA), Taiwan, using corals from the shallow fringing reefs of Nanwan Bay. To obtain larvae, colonies (ca. 20 cm diameter) of the brooding corals Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus 1758), Seriatopora hystrix Dana 1846 and Stylophora pistillata Esper 1797 were collected from ∼6 m depth at Hobihu Reef (21°56.799′N, 120°44.968′E), 1 week before the new moon of 15 March, when the ambient seawater temperature was 25.3°C. Eight colonies of each species were placed into individual aquaria exposed to partially shaded natural sunlight (noon irradiances of ∼500 μmol photons m-2 s-1); aquaria received sand-filtered seawater (at the ambient temperature of 25.3°C) that spilled into a cup fitted with plankton mesh to retain larvae. The corals were checked daily for larval release (at ∼07:00 h), which occurs just before dawn in these species (Fan et al., 2006), and freshly released larvae were harvested and ...
We investigated variation in transcript abundance in the scleractinian coral, Acropora millepora, within and between populations characteristically exposed to different turbidity regimes and hence different levels of light and suspended particulate matter. We examined phenotypic plasticity by comparing levels of gene expression between source populations and following 10 days of acclimatization to a laboratory environment. Analyses of variance revealed that 0.05% of genes were differentially expressed between source populations, 1.32% following translocation into a common laboratory and 0.07% in the interaction (source population-dependent responses to translocation). Functional analyses identified an over-representation of differentially expressed genes associated with metabolism and fluorescence categories (primarily downregulated), and environmental information processing (primarily upregulated) following translocation to a lower light and turbidity environment. Such metabolic downregulation ...
Article Polymorphism in Nucleotide Sequence of Mitochondrial Intergenic Region in Scleractinian Coral (Galaxea fascicularis). A region of 826 bp that is unlikely to code for a protein, ribosomal RNA, or transfer RNA was identified between the cytochr...
Lethal white syndrome (LWS), also called overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS), lethal white overo (LWO), and overo lethal white foal syndrome (OLWFS), is an autosomal genetic disorder most prevalent in the American Paint Horse. Affected foals are born after the full 11-month gestation and externally appear normal, though they have all-white or nearly all-white coats and blue eyes. However, internally, these foals have a nonfunctioning colon. Within a few hours, signs of colic appear; affected foals die within a few days. Because the death is often painful, such foals often are humanely euthanized once identified. The disease is particularly devastating because foals are born seemingly healthy after being carried to full term. The disease has a similar cause to Hirschsprungs disease in humans. A mutation in the middle of the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene causes lethal white syndrome when homozygous. Carriers, which are heterozygous-that is, have one copy of the mutated allele, but ...
Anoxia and toxic sulfide are a menace to coral tissue. Researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology along with Australian colleagues, have examined corals from the Great Barrier Reef affected by the Black Band Disease and identified the critical parameters that allow this prevalent disease to cause wide mortality of corals around the world. Corals infected with Black Band show a characteristic appearance of healthy tissue displaced by a dark front, the so called Black Band, which leaves the white limestone skeleton of the coral animal exposed. The dark front is commonly one to two centimeters broad and consists of a complex microbial community among which there are phototrophic cyanobacteria, sulfur oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing microorganisms. The corals and their endosymbiotic algae are struck by three stress factors at once: toxic sulfide, anoxia, and a low pH at the boundary of the bacterial mat and the coral tissue.. The scientists investigated the tissue ...
Coral reefs are expected to be severely impacted by rising seawater temperatures associated with climate change. This study used cDNA microarrays to investigate transcriptional effects of thermal stress in embryos of the coral Montastraea faveolata. Embryos were exposed to 27.5°C, 29.0°C, and 31.5°C directly after fertilization. Differences in gene expression were measured after 12 and 48 hours.Results: Analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that increased temperatures may lead to oxidative stress, apoptosis, and a structural reconfiguration of the cytoskeletal network. Metabolic processes were downregulated, and the action of histones and zinc finger-containing proteins may have played a role in the long-term regulation upon heat stress.Conclusions: Embryos responded differently depending on exposure time and temperature level. Embryos showed expression of stress-related genes already at a temperature of 29.0°C, but seemed to be able to counteract the initial response over ...
Preparation of extracts: Coral samples of orange and red colonies of Montipora capitata were collected in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu. Frozen samples were extracted in Millipore® water, which was replaced daily for 3 d. Extracts were filtered, lyophilized, and weighed. We tested extracts at concentrations approximating those naturally found in the coral tissues (Gochfeld & Aeby 2008). To determine the volumetric concentrations of extracts, the surface area of each piece of coral was calculated using the wax technique (Gochfeld 1991). Tissue volume was determined by multiplying surface area by tissue depth measured from replicate decalcified pieces of M. capitata. Extract concentrations were determined as g dried extract ml-1 of coral tissue. Extracts were re-suspended to these concentrations in Millipore® water for use in bacterial growth assays.. Bacterial strains tested: The strains used for our antibacterial assays were selected as model systems to represent a range of potential bacterial pathogens ...
Coral reef degradation has been observed worldwide over the past few decades resulting in significant decreases in coral cover and abundance. However, there has not been a clear framework established to address the crucial need for more sophisticated understanding of the fundamental ecology of corals and their response to environmental stressors. Development of a quantitative approach to coral population ecology that utilizes formal, well established principles of fishery systems science offers a new framework to address these issues. The goal of this dissertation is to establish a quantitative foundation for assessment of coral reefs by developing some essential ecological and population-dynamic components of a size-structured demographic model for coral populations of the Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem. The objective provides the potential to build a quantitative systems science framework for coral populations. A two-stage stratified random sampling design was implemented during two separate
Background Studies directed at understanding the demography and population dynamics of corals are relatively scarce. This limits our understanding of both the dynamics of coral populations and our capacity to develop management and conservation initiatives directed at conserving such ecosystems. Methods From 2012 to 2014, we collected data on the growth, survival, and recruitment rates of two common Caribbean coral species, the stress-tolerant Orbicella annularis and the weedy Porites astreoides. A set of size-based population matrix model was developed for two localities in Northeastern Puerto Rico and used to estimate population growth rates (λ) and determine the life cycle transition(s) that contribute the most to spatiotemporal differences in λs. The model was parameterized by following the fate of 100 colonies of each species at the two sites for two years. Results Our data indicate that spatial variability in vital rates of both species was higher than temporal variability. During the first year
The Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab, or Acro Crab for short, is a small commensal crustacean which lives its whole life within the branches of Pocillopora corals and Acropora Corals if no Pocilloporid corals are available, aiding in the proper water flow between the branches to keep these areas clean. In a symbiotic relationship with its host coral, the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab is thought to feed on particulates trapped by the coral polyps, fallen detritus, and the corals secreted mucus. In turn, the crabs guard the coral from invaders and fend off predators. The importance of the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crabs role within a larger reef ecosystem is just now being recognized. Previously considered by hobbyists to be a coral "pest," the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab may actually improve your success with SPS husbandry. Since the crabs constantly clean and defend their hosts, corals hosting Trapezia sp. have higher survival rates and stronger growth. In the home aquarium, ...
What I have done is examine brown jelly from three affected corals: a Euphyllia ancora, a Pocillopora damicornis, and a Plerogyra sinuosa. The samples were all from different tanks, and collected many years apart. I have also sampled a brown jelly-like material from a reef coral in the Caribbean, and a sample of a brown slimy flocculent material that is relatively common on substrates in the Caribbean, usually from reefs that are not doing very well. I have not yet had a chance to examine the wild material. However, one sample of brown jelly now resides with the Registry of Coral Pathology, and the description by coral pathologist Esther Peters, confirms that there is coral tissue material, both algae and animal, within vacuoles of the protists. The necrotic condition of the coral tissue, and the fact that ciliates are not found digesting nearby corals or even healthy tissue of the affected specimen suggests they may just be opportunists of necrotic tissue rather than causative, or that they are ...
The Great Barrier Reef is home to about 360 species of hard corals including bottlebrush coral, bubble coral, brain coral, mushroom coral, staghorn coral, tabletop coral and needle coral. Hard corals, also known as stony corals, are a group of marine animals that live in shallow tropical waters and are responsible for building the structure of a coral reef. Colonies of hard corals grow in various shapes and sizes such as mounds, plates and branches. As previous coral colonies die, new ones grow on top of the limestone skeletons of their predecessors. Over time, this growth creates the three-dimensional architecture of a coral reef. Colonies of hard corals consist of thousands of small individal invertebrates referred to as coral polyps. Each polyp is radially symmetrical with a tube-like body that has a tentacle-rimmed mouth at the tip that it uses to feed ...
Scleractinian corals produce large amounts of calcium carbonate as they grow, sustaining the three-dimensional reef framework that supports the high productivity and biodiversity associated with tropical coral reefs. The rate of skeletal growth of corals is therefore not only essential for their fitness and ecological success, i.e. determining the ability of corals to compete for space and light, and repair structural damage caused by humans, storms, grazers and bioeroders, but can also have profound repercussions on the recovery and resilience of coral reef systems. This thesis investigates possible environmental controls of coral growth through the analyses of emergent patterns on larger spatio-temporal scales. Past growth rates and patterns in massive Porites corals sampled from around the Thai-Malay Peninsula at reef-island scales were reconstructed using sclerochronology, and examined in the context of varying climate/environment. Located within the political boundaries of Singapore, ...
Lipids are involved in a host of biochemical and physiological processes in corals. Therefore, changes in lipid composition reflect changes in the ecology, nutrition, and health of corals. As such, accurate lipid extraction, quantification, and identification is critical to obtain comprehensive insight into a corals condition. However, discrepancies exist in sample preparation methodology globally, and it is currently unknown whether these techniques generate analogous results. This study compared the two most common sample preparation techniques for lipid analysis in corals: (1) tissue isolation by air-spraying and (2) crushing the coral in toto. Samples derived from each preparation technique were subsequently analysed to quantify lipids and their constituent classes and fatty acids in four common, scleractinian coral species representing three distinct morphotypes (Acropora millepora, Montipora crassotuberculata, Porites cylindrica, and Pocillopora damicornis). Results revealed substantial amounts
The black band disease (BBD) microbial consortium often causes mortality of reef-building corals. Microbial chemical interactions (i.e., quorum sensing (QS) and antimicrobial production) may be involved in the BBD disease process. Culture filtrates (CFs) from over 150 bacterial isolates from BBD and the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML) of healthy and diseased corals were screened for acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) and Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) QS signals using bacterial reporter strains. AHLs were detected in all BBD mat samples and nine CFs. More than half of the CFs (~55%) tested positive for AI-2. Approximately 27% of growth challenges conducted among 19 isolates showed significant growth inhibition. These findings demonstrate that QS is actively occurring within the BBD microbial mat and that culturable bacteria from BBD and the coral SML are able to produce QS signals and antimicrobial compounds. This is the first study to identify AHL production in association with active coral disease.
Longevity and competence were studied in planulae of several species of Red Sea soft corals, including the zooxanthellate planulae of Litophyton arboreum, Nephthea sp. and Xenia umbellata, and the azooxanthellate planulae of Parerythropodium fulvum fulvum and Dendronephthya hemprichi. The relationship between presence of zooxanthellae in the planulae and their competence, longevity and caloric content was examined. Planulae of X. umbellata and D. hemprichi had the longest competency of 76 and 74 d, respectively, planulae of P. f. fulvum were competent for a maximal period of 64 d, and planulae of L. arboreum and Nephthea sp. showed a similar competency of 57 d. The highest longevity of 155 d was found in planulae of X. umbellata. Planulae of P. f. fulvum, D. hemprichi and L. arboreum had maximum longevities of 76, 81 and 92 d, respectively. No significant differences existed between the competence or longevity of the zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate planulae. The ratio of the maximum values of ...
The Branched Montipora Coral is a small polyp stony (SPS) coral often referred to as Velvet Branch, or Velvet Finger Coral. This branching coral comes in a variety of colors and is a fast growing species. The form that the coral takes in its growth will be highly variable depending on the lighting, water movement and placement within the aquarium. However, it will typically maintain its branched form in most aquariums. When the polyps are expanded, the coral has a very fuzzy appearance, with smooth growth tips adding to its overall appeal. The Branched Montipora Coral is peaceful and can be placed in close proximity to other similar peaceful corals in the reef aquarium. It is a relatively hardy coral and requires just a moderate amount of care when housed in a mature reef aquarium. It will require medium to high lighting combined with a medium water movement within the aquarium. For continued good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the ...
Based on Tsounis and Edmunds (In press), Ecosphere: Community structure was characterized for four assemblage constructs that employed annual means for dependent variables (cover or abundance). First, the scleractinian-focused assemblage was quantified using the percentage cover of scleractinians (pooled among taxa), macroalgae, and CTB. Second, the octocoral-focused assemblage was quantified using octocoral abundance (pooled among taxa) together with cover of macroalgae, and CTB. Third, the octocoral genus assemblage focused on octocoral abundance resolved to genus, or unknowns. Fourth, a complete assemblage was used, containing scleractinians (all taxa), octocorals (abundance by genus), macroalgae and CTB. Data for each benthic group were presented untransformed as means +/- SE by year on scatterplots.. All analyses of scleractinian-focused, octocoral-focused, octocoral genera, and complete assemblages were based on resemblance matrices using Bray-Curtis similarities. Data for the ...
White pox disease (also "acroporid serratiosis" and "patchy necrosis"), first noted in 1996 on coral reefs near the Florida keys, is a coral disease affecting Elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) throughout the Caribbean. It causes irregular white patches or blotches on the coral that result from the loss of coral tissue. These patches distinguish white pox disease from white band disease which produces a distinctive white band where the coral skeleton has been denuded. The blotches caused by this disease are also clearly differentiated from coral bleaching and scars caused by coral-eating snails. It is very contagious, spreading to nearby coral. At the locations where white pox disease has been observed, it is estimated to have reduced the living tissue in elkhorn corals by 50-80%. In the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), the losses of living coral are estimated to average around 88%. Elkhorn coral was formerly the dominant shallow water reef-building coral throughout the Caribbean ...
Several denialists have sort to deliberately confuse the readership over the important evidence gathered by Death et al. (2009) on slowing coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Given the recent resurgence in this misinformation, I thought it would be a good idea to post Dr Glenn Death, Dr Janice M. Lough and Dr Katharina E. Fabriciuss recent reply to Dr Peter Ridds confused and misleading claims. The maintenance of coral calcification rates is critical for the future of coral reefs and it is, therefore, important to identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in the rates of coral calcification. Our recent report showed that substantial declines in coral calcification have occurred on the Great Barrier Reef in the last 20 years (Death et al., 2009), and similar reports are now emerging from other parts of the world (Tanzil et al., 2009). Ridd et al. here suggest that (1) ontogenetic effects, and (2) the last data points at the end of the recent cores, largely explain the ~14% ...
Several denialists have sort to deliberately confuse the readership over the important evidence gathered by Death et al. (2009) on slowing coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Given the recent resurgence in this misinformation, I thought it would be a good idea to post Dr Glenn Death, Dr Janice M. Lough and Dr Katharina E. Fabriciuss recent reply to Dr Peter Ridds confused and misleading claims. The maintenance of coral calcification rates is critical for the future of coral reefs and it is, therefore, important to identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in the rates of coral calcification. Our recent report showed that substantial declines in coral calcification have occurred on the Great Barrier Reef in the last 20 years (Death et al., 2009), and similar reports are now emerging from other parts of the world (Tanzil et al., 2009). Ridd et al. here suggest that (1) ontogenetic effects, and (2) the last data points at the end of the recent cores, largely explain the ~14% ...
Cheng, Y-R., Mayfield, A.B., Meng, P-J., Dai, C-F. & Huys, R. 2016. Copepods associated with scleractinian corals: a worldwide checklist and a case study of their impact on the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pocilloporidae). In Huys (ed.), Recent Developments in Systematics and Biodiversity of Symbiotic Copepoda (Crustacea)-A Volume in Celebration of the Career of Prof. Il-Hoi Kim. Zootaxa 4174(1): 291-345. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4174.1.20. Reference page. ...
The deleterious impacts of marine pollutants on reef corals and their symbiotic algae are an important element of global coral reef decline. In the current study we examined the impacts of toxicants on the reef coral Montastraea franksi by analysing
Introgressive hybridization is described in several phylogenetic studies of mass-spawning corals. However, the prevalence of this process among brooding coral species is unclear. We used a mitochondrial (mtDNA: nad5) and two nuclear (nDNA: ATPSα and SRP54) intron markers to explore species barriers in the coral genus Madracis and address the role of hybridization in brooding systems. Specimens of six Caribbean Madracis morphospecies were collected from 5 to 60 m depth at Buoy One, Curaçao, supplemented by samples from Aruba, Trinidad & Tobago and Bermuda. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were coupled to detect distinct alleles within single colonies. The recurrent nDNA phylogenetic non-monophyly among taxa is only challenged by Madracis senaria, the single monophyletic species within the genus. nDNA AMOVAs indicated overall statistical divergence (0.1% significance level) among species but pairwise comparisons of genetic differentiation revealed some gene ...
Lophelia.org is a comprehensive cold-water coral resource, collating information on the deep-sea, cold-water coral ecosystems, biodiversity and key species. The site features a large kids zone and free cold-water coral and deep-sea screen savers.
Corals are an invaluable part of the marine ecosystem, fostering biodiversity and protecting coastlines. But theyre also increasingly endangered. Pathogenic bacteria, along with pollution and harmful fishing practices, are one of the biggest threats to the worlds coral populations today.. One of the solutions to the crisis may lie in human medicine. Prof. Eugene Rosenberg of Tel Aviv Universitys Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, working in collaboration with Dr. Ilil Atad of his own laboratory and Prof. Yossi Loya of TAUs Department of Zoology, has developed a treatment for coral infected by Thalassomonas loyana, otherwise known as White Plague disease. This deadly bacterium infects 9 percent of Favia favus corals on the Eilat coral reef in the Red Sea and readily transmits the disease to nearby healthy corals.. Their treatment uses viruses that infect bacteria by injecting genetic material into the bacteria, a therapy originally developed to treat bacterial infections ...
Bacterial and ciliate assemblages associated with aquarium corals displaying white syndrome (WS) and brown jelly syndrome (BJS) were investigated. Healthy (n = 10) and diseased corals (WS n = 18; BJS n = 3) were analysed for 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity, total bacterial abundance and vibrio-specific 16S rRNA gene abundance. This was conducted alongside analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequencing targeting ciliates, a group of organisms largely overlooked for their potential as causal agents of coral disease. Despite significant differences between healthy and diseased corals in their 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity, total bacterial abundance and vibrio-specific rRNA gene abundance, no dominant bacterial ribotypes were found consistently within the diseased samples. In contrast, one ciliate morphotype, named Morph 3 in this study (GenBank Accession Numbers JF831358 for the ciliate isolated from WS and JF831359 for the ciliate isolated from BJS) was observed to burrow into and underneath the coral ...
Diversity, distribution and genetic comparison of Archaea associated with the surface mucus of corals from three genera, namely Acanthastrea sp., Favia sp. and Fungia sp., from the Gulf of Eilat, Israel and from Heron Island, Australia were studied. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of the coral-associated Archaea revealed dominance of Crenarchaeota (79%, on average). In this phylum, 87% of the sequences were similar (,or= 97%) to the Thermoprotei, with 76% of these being similar (,or= 97%) to the ammonium oxidizer, Nitrosopumilus maritimus. Most of the coral-associated euryarchaeotal sequences (69%) were related to marine group II, while other euryarchaeotal clades were found to be related to anaerobic methanotrophs (8%), anaerobic nitrate reducers (i.e. denitrification, 15%) and marine group III (8%). Most of the crenarchaeotal and euryarchaeotal coral-associated 16S rRNA gene sequences from Heron Island (61%) and from the Gulf of Eilat (71%) were closely related (,or= 97%) to sequences ...
Victoria University of Wellington Viruses are a ubiquitous component of coral reef ecosystems, with several viral types, from at least seven prokaryotic and 20 eukaryotic virus families currently characterised from the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML), coral tissue and the water column. However, little is known about the ecology and function of these viruses. For example, what are the environmental drivers of viral abundance and diversity on coral reefs? In this study, the abundance and distribution of virus-like particles (VLPs) associated with the SML and reef water of the coral Montipora capitata were determined using epifluorescence microscopy, while transmission electron microscopy was employed to determine the morphological diversity of VLPs. Sampling was conducted across the Coconut Island Marine Reserve (CIMR) reef system, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Viral abundance was correlated with select environmental drivers and prokaryote abundance, while non-metric multidimensional ...
Bayer, F. M. 1956. Octocorallia. Pp. F166-F230 in: R. C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part F: Coelenterata. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.. Bayer, F. M., M. Grasshoff, and J. Verseveldt. 1983. Illustrated trilingual glossary of morphological and anatomical terms applied to Octocorallia. E. J. Brill / Dr. W.Backhuys, Leiden. 75 pp.. Berntson, E. A., S. C. France, and L. S. Mullineaux. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships within the Class Anthozoa (Phylum Cnidaria) based on nuclear 18S rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13: 417-433.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. deSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12: 679-689.. Chen, C. A., D. M. Odorico, M. ten Lohuis, J. E. N. Veron, and D. J. Miller. 1995. Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5-end of the 28S rDNA. Molecular ...
Single colonies of the scleractinian corals Lobophyllia corymbosa, Favites abdita, Favia matthaii, Favia stelligera, Platygyra daedalea, Leptoria phrygia, Cyphastrea serailia, Hydnophora exesa and Astreopora myriophthalma were permanently marked with buoys on the reef flat at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef. Portions of colonies were removed up to seven times at intervals of two or three months. Aqueous extracts of the colony portions were assayed using six bioassay regimes namely, toxicity to mice, toxicity to a coral and a hydroid, cytolytic activity on sheep erythrocytes and sea urchin ova and for antimicrobial activity on eight bacterial species. The incidence of one type of bioactivity in an extract was not correlated with the incidence of any other type of activity in that extract. Although each coral colony provided extracts that affected at least two of the bioassay systems, different activity profiles were obtained from successive extracts of each colony. Thus there is a temporal ...
Lophelia.org is a comprehensive cold-water coral resource, collating information on the deep-sea, cold-water coral ecosystems, biodiversity and key species. The site features a large kids zone and free cold-water coral and deep-sea screen savers.
FOSTER, N. L., PARIS, C. B., KOOL, J. T., BAUMS, I. B., STEVENS, J. R., SANCHEZ, J. A., BASTIDAS, C., AGUDELO, C., BUSH, P., DAY, O., FERRARI, R., GONZALEZ, P., GORE, S., GUPPY, R., McCARTNEY, M. A., McCOY, C., MENDES, J., SRINIVASAN, A., STEINER, S., VERMEIJ, M. J. A., WEIL, E. and MUMBY, P. J. (2012), Connectivity of Caribbean coral populations: complementary insights from empirical and modelled gene flow. Molecular Ecology, 21: 1143-1157. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05455.x ...
The Red Sea was one of the first areas of the Indo-Pacific to be investigated by marine taxonomists, and the literature on suborder Brachycnemina (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) for this region dates from the early nineteenth century. However, in the last 100 years there has been only one focused study on this group in the Red Sea. In the present study, specimens collected from the Saudi Arabian coast of the northern half of the Red Sea were phylogenetically analyzed by sequencing nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA), mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and 16S ribosomal DNA (16S-rDNA). The new results were compared with historical data in the literature and recent results from the Persian Gulf and the southeastern coast of Africa. Results show the presence of six to seven potential Brachycnemina species in the Red Sea; five to six Palythoa species (Palythoa mutuki, P. tuberculosa, P. cf. heliodiscus, P. aff. heliodiscus, and one to two ...
Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns regarding its adverse effects on corals and calcifying communities. Here we demonstrate a net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) material as a result of decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (n=3) incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC=CaCO3 production - dissolution) was positive at 3.3 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at −0.04 mmol CaCO3 m−2h−1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Understanding how rising seawater pCO2 and temperatures impact coral aragonite accretion is essential for predicting the future of reef ecosystems. Here we report 2 long term (10-11 month) studies assessing the effects of temperature (25 and 28°C) and both high and low seawater pCO2 (180-750 μatm) on the calcification, photosynthesis and respiration of individual massive Porites spp. genotypes. Calcification rates were highly variable between genotypes but high seawater pCO2 reduced calcification significantly in 4 of 7 genotypes cultured at 25°C but in only 1 of 4 genotypes cultured at 28°C. Increasing seawater temperature enhanced calcification in almost all corals but the magnitude of this effect was seawater pCO2 dependent. The 3°C temperature increase enhanced calcification rate on average by 3% at 180 μatm, by 35% at 260 μatm and by ,300% at 750 μatm. The rate increase at high seawater pCO2 exceeds that observed in inorganic aragonites. Responses of gross/net photosynthesis and ...
Understanding patterns of connectivity among populations of marine organisms is essential for the development of realistic, spatially explicit models of population dynamics. Two approaches, empirical genetic patterns and oceanographic dispersal modelling, have been used to estimate levels of evolutionary connectivity among marine populations but rarely have their potentially complementary insights been combined. Here, a spatially realistic Lagrangian model of larval dispersal and a theoretical genetic model are integrated with the most extensive study of gene flow in a Caribbean marine organism. The 871 genets collected from 26 sites spread over the wider Caribbean subsampled 45.8% of the 1900 potential unique genets in the model. At a coarse scale, significant consensus between modelled estimates of genetic structure and empirical genetic data for populations of the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis is observed. However, modelled and empirical data differ in their estimates of ...
Aeby, G.S., Work, T., Coles, S., and Lewis, T. 2006. Coral Disease Across the Hawaiian Archipelago. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87(36): suppl.. Aronson, R.B. and Precht, W.F. 2001b. White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia 460: 25-38.. Bruno, J.F., Selig, E.R., Casey, K.S., Page, C.A., Willis, B.L., Harvell, C.D., Sweatman, H., and Melendy, A.M. 2007. Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks. PLoS Biology 5(6): e124.. Colgan, M.W. 1987. Coral Reef Recovery on Guam (Micronesia) After Catastrophic Predation by Acanthaster Planci. Ecology 68(6): 1592-1605.. Cortes, J. and Guzman, H. 1998. Organisms from coral reefs of Costa Rica: Description, geographical distribution and natural history of Pacific zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Revista de Biologia Tropical 46(1): 55-92.. Fenner, D. 2003. Corals of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. Conservation International, Washington, DC.. Glynn, P.W. 1994. ...
Description The skeleton of Galaxea is very distinctive. Corallites are extremely plocoid, 3-15 mm tall cylinders set into a flat and rather blistery coenosteum. Further enhancing this appearance of tall corallites are the extremely protuberant primary septa, projecting a further 3 - 5 mm above the corallite wall. Septa usually number over 24 in mature corallites. These are very attractive corals when living, due to the daytime extension of pale yellow, green or blue translucent tentacles. Colonies of this species are commonly less than 40 cm across, forming cushions, or are encrusting to sub-massive. Occasionally, such as in turbid waters, the species can provide over 50% cover over several hundred square metres, and these colonies may develop both foliaceous and sub-ramose parts, with smaller corallites on fast growing extensions. However, on the sub-ramose parts of giant colonies, calices are much smaller and have only 12 septa. (This is a character of Galaxea astreata. Where such fragments ...
In the Caribbean, a large number of coral colonies on which this alga was transplanted developed white plague whereas unexposed colonies did not. In addition, the plant was found to be a reservoir for the marine bacterium Aurantimonas coralicida, causative agent of the disease. The spread of macroalgae on coral reefs may account for the elevated incidence of coral diseases over past decades. Moreover, measures to reduce seaweed abundance may be essential if significant coral populations are to survive on coral reefs ...
Many studies of climate variability in the Tropical Ocean have used high-resolution chemical tracer records contained in coral skeletons. The complex architecture of coral skeletons may lead to the possibility of biases in coral records and it is therefore important to access the fidelity of coral geochemical records as environmental proxies. Coral skeletal records from the same coral colony, and even the same corallite, may show large variation due to differing extension rates, formational timing of the skeletal elements, colony topography, and sampling resolution. To assess the robustness of the skeletal record, we present d13C and d18O data based on different sampling resolutions, skeletal elements, and coral colonies of Montastraea faveolata species complex, the primary coral used for climate reconstruction in the Atlantic. We show that various skeletal elements produce different isotopic records. The best sampling rate to resolve the full annual range of sea surface temperature (SST) is 40 ...
Posted By Linda Salines on April 16, 1998 at 23:00:27: In Reply to: WOLFE PARKINSON WHITE SYNDROME posted by Brian kealy on April 09, 1998 at 08:49:32: I have recently been diagnosed as...
Vibrio coralliilyticus is a global marine pathogen that has been found to cause disease in several marine organisms, including corals. This study is the first report of the isolation of V. coralliilyticus from a diseased Caribbean octocoral, Pseudopterogorgia americana. Five sister phylotypes were positively identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, recA probes specific for V. coralliilyticus, and rep-PCR fingerprinting. The antimicrobial resistance was compared between pathogenic strains of V. coralliilyticus and the Caribbean strains. First, the antimicrobial resistance of V. coralliilyticus-type strain ATCC BAA-450 was determined using an agar-overlay antimicrobial bioassay at 24°C and 27°C, temperatures which are relevant to its known temperature-dependent virulence. From 108 distinct bacteria isolated from P. americana, 12 inhibited the V. coralliilyticus-type strain at 24°C and five at 27°C. Next, the phenotypic comparison of two Caribbean phylotypes and three V. coralliilyticus ...
The Scleractinia (scler = hard, actinia = ray), or stony star corals, are polyp animals that are found exclusively in marine habitats. They are very similar to sea anemones but they secrete a hard skeleton. Stony star corals are divided ecologically into two groups. One group, the reef-builders, are the best known scleractinian corals. They are found mostly in the clear, shallow waters of the tropics. The second group does not build reefs and is found in all regions of the oceans, including temperate and polar regions from relatively shallow waters down to 6000 m. An example of a non-reef-building-coral is Tubastraea coccinea.. The most recent taxonomic revision of the Scleractinia (Veron, 1995, 2000) divides the order into 13 suborders of which 7 have living representatives. Nine of these suborders were present in the Mid-Triassic (240 million years ago) when the Scleractinia first appear in the fossil record. Three more suborders originated in the Jurassic (200 million years ago) and one ...
The obligate symbiosis between reef-building corals and dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium has been fundamental to the evolution of reef corals. However, over the last few decades, this relationship has been disrupted on global scales by mass bleaching events, which render corals white through the loss of symbionts or pigments within them. The main triggers for these events are elevated sea surface temperatures acting synergistically with high irradiance levels (Brown 1997; Fitt et al. 2001; Lesser & Farrell 2004). Predicted increases in the frequency and severity of anomalously warm summers present a significant threat to coral reefs worldwide and to the goods and services they provide (Hoegh-Guldberg 1999; Hughes et al. 2003).. Recent studies demonstrating high genetic diversity within the genus Symbiodinium raise new possibilities regarding their potential role in the resilience of reef corals to climate stress. The genus consists of eight lineages or clades (A-H), each of which ...
Photosynthetic production is a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reefs, but knowledge about the contribution of corals and other reef-associated organisms and the controlling environmental factors is scarce. Locations with occurrence of upwelling events can serve as in-situ laboratories to investigate the impact of environmental variability on production rates of reef-associated organisms. This study investigated individual and reef-wide net (Pn) and gross primary production (Pg) for the dominant autotrophic benthic organisms (hard corals Pocillopora spp., crustose coralline algae (CCA), turf algae, and the macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides) associated with a coral reef along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Oxygen fluxes by these organisms were measured at a weekly to monthly resolution over one year (May 2013 - April 2014) via in-situ chamber incubations. The influence of simultaneously measured environmental parameters (temperature, light, inorganic nutrient concentrations, dissolved
The Phoenix Islands Protected Area, in the central Pacific waters of the Republic of Kiribati, is a model for large marine protected area (MPA) development and maintenance, but baseline records of the protected biodiversity in its largest environment, the deep sea (>200 m), have not yet been determined. In general, the equatorial central Pacific lacks biogeographic perspective on deep-sea benthic communities compared to more well-studied regions of the North and South Pacific Ocean. In 2017, explorations by the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer and R/V Falkor were among the first to document the diversity and distribution of deep-water benthic megafauna on numerous seamounts, islands, shallow coral reef banks, and atolls in the region. Here, we present baseline deep-sea coral species distribution and community assembly patterns within the Scleractinia, Octocorallia, Antipatharia, and Zoantharia with respect to different seafloor features and abiotic environmental variables across bathyal depths (200-2500 m).
ABSTRACT: Recent investigations of coral-associated microbial communities have revealed that coral surfaces are replete with microorganisms that may play important roles in colony wellbeing. In this study we show that the surfaces of a number of large polyped coral species are covered by a layer of aggregate-like microorganisms. These microorganisms are embedded in the mucus and in the tissue of solitary coral Fungia granulosa and in a number of faviid species. They are found on the coral surface and in the coral tissue. They are dispersed in a patchy distribution, with the highest density occurring in the area of the polyp mouth. Microscopic investigation revealed that the microorganisms found on and in tissues of F. granulosa are approximately 5 to 30 µm in diameter and are made up of unique coccoid bodies of approximately 1 µm in diameter. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that they contain a nucleus, mitochondria and golgi, indicating they are eukaryotic in nature. The ...
LPS Frag - Large Polyp Stony Coral Frags shipped from our fish room to your reef tank under marine biologist supervision. Stock updated frequently.
Coral skeletal Sr/Ca is a palaeothermometer commonly used to produce high resolution seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) records and to investigate the amplitude and frequency of ENSO and interdecadal climate events. The proxy relationship is typically calibrated by matching seasonal SST and skeletal Sr/Ca maxima and minima in modern corals. Applying these calibrations to fossil corals assumes that the temperature sensitivity of skeletal Sr/Ca is conserved, despite substantial changes in seawater carbonate chemistry between the modern and glacial ocean. We present Sr/Ca analyses of 3 genotypes of massive Porites spp. corals (the genus most commonly used for palaeoclimate reconstruction), cultured under seawater pCO2 reflecting modern, future (year 2100) and last glacial maximum (LGM) conditions. Skeletal Sr/Ca is indistinguishable between duplicate colonies of the same genotype cultured under the same conditions, but varies significantly in response to seawater pCO2 in two genotypes of ...
Image: University of Southampton). Thats not a tasteful colour scheme for a knit - its a healthy colour for a coral. Reef-building corals produce vivid colours as they grow, offering a new tool for monitoring these fragile environments. This photograph, taken in daylight, shows a Montipora foliosa coral with purple in its growing fringes. The colour comes from chromoproteins similar to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) found in bioluminescent jellyfish. Researchers from the University of Southampton, UK,and the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, found that the GFP-like proteins were produced by corals in the growing extremities of healthy colonies. They also found that, in comparison with undisturbed areas, disturbed colonies also produce chromoproteins: the disturbed corals accelerate growth as part of their immune response to foreign biological material, perhaps in an effort to outgrow competitors or disease. For example, Red Sea Acropora coral produces a blue protein as it grows ...
Coral reefs face intensifying struggles as greenhouse gases warm and acidify the ocean, but new research suggests a potential silver lining: Some coral diseases might also dwindle amid environmental change.. A controlled lab study led by Mote Marine Laboratory and published June 1 in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS ONE revealed that black band disease was less deadly to mountainous star coral (Orbicella faveolata) as water acidified, or decreased in pH. Scientists from Mote and the University of South Carolina, and students from the University of Rhode Island, University of New Hampshire, University of Hawaii and Unity College in Maine conducted the study.. The oceans pH is decreasing through the process of ocean acidification (OA) driven by excess carbon dioxide, the same greenhouse gas driving temperature increases worldwide. OA may weaken or dissolve corals hard skeletons and cause other changes in multiple marine species. Warming water stresses corals, causing them to lose the vital algae ...
Corals are marine animals in class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria typically living in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. The group includes the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton. Scientists have discovered two viruses that appear to infect the single-celled microalgae that reside in corals and are important for coral growth and health, and they say the viruses could play a role in the serious decline of coral ecosystems around the world. These viruses, including an RNA virus never before isolated from a coral, have been shown for the first time to clearly be associated with these microalgae called Symbiodinium. If its proven that they are infecting those algae and causing disease, it will be another step toward understanding the multiple threats that coral reefs are facing. The research was published today in the ISME Journal, in work supported by the National Science Foundation.
Invertebrates / Devils Hand Colored Polyp / Lobophytum sp. on Scleractinia / Wild Corals Soft . Quality Marine offers a great variety of corals and invertebrates, and is very supportive of numerous aquaculture efforts around the globe from which we offer the retailer and the hobbyist an environmentally sensitive alternative to wild harvest.
Effects of Lobophytum crassum extract(MC-1) on Various Immunological Factors Related to Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis in Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus Treated NC/Nga mice ;kpubs;kpubs.org
Studies on western Atlantic Octocorallia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). Part 1: The genus Chrysogorgia Duchassaing & Michelotti, ...
Porites species are more prone to disease than many other corals. Coral disease has emerged as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide and is a major cause of reef deterioration (Weil et al. 2006). The numbers of diseases and coral species affected, as well as the distribution of diseases have all increased dramatically within the last decade (Porter et al. 2001, Green and Bruckner 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004, Weil 2004). Coral disease epizootics have resulted in significant losses of coral cover and were implicated in the dramatic decline of acroporids in the Florida Keys (Aronson and Precht 2001, Porter et al. 2001, Patterson et al. 2002). In the Indo-Pacific, disease is also on the rise with disease outbreaks recently reported from the Great Barrier Reef (Willis et al. 2004), Marshall Islands (Jacobson 2006) and the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Aeby 2006). Increased coral disease levels on the Great Barrier Reef were correlated with increased ocean temperatures (Willis et al. 2007) ...
Complex of free-form amino acids in the same ratios found within tissues of stony corals. Beneficial to all corals (stony and soft), as well as solitary and colonial polyps. Free-form amino acids: 1. Provide the building blocks of coral tissue in ideal ra
Mandarin Zoanthids Polyps Coral are easy to keep and are a great choice for the beginner. Zoanthids and Palythoa will grow and reproduce by budding.
TDF Vampire Zoanthids Polyps Coral are easy to keep and are a great choice for the beginner. Zoanthids and Palythoa will grow and reproduce by budding.
Coral disease outbreaks have increased over the last three decades, but their causal agents remain mostly unclear (e.g., bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists). This study details a 14-month-long survey of coral colonies in which observations of the development of disease was observed in nearly half of the sampled colonies. A bimonthly qPCR method was used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate Symbiodinium assemblages of tagged colonies, and to detect the presence of Vibrio spp. Firstly, our data showed that predisposition to disease development in general, and, more specifically, infection by Vibrio spp. in Acropora cytherea depended on which clades of Symbiodinium were harbored. In both cases, harboring clade D rather than A was beneficial to the coral host. Secondly, the detection of Vibrio spp. in only colonies that developed disease strongly suggests opportunistic traits of the bacteria. Finally, even if sporadic cases of switching and probably shuffling were observed, this long-term survey
The answer to whats killing the worlds coral reefs may be found in a tiny chip that fits in the palm of your hand.. Scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Merced are using an innovative DNA array developed at Berkeley Lab to catalog the microbes that live among coral in the tropical waters off the coast of Puerto Rico. They found that as coral becomes diseased, the microbial population it supports grows much more diverse.. Its unclear whether this surge in microbial diversity causes the disease, or is a result of it. What is clear is that coral disease is accompanied by a microbial bloom, and the DNA array, called the PhyloChip, offers a powerful way to both track this change and shed light on the pathogens that plague one of the oceans most important denizens.. "The PhyloChip can help us distinguish different coral diseases based on the microbial community present," says Shinichi Sunagawa, a graduate student in UC Merceds School of Natural ...
Journal of Marine Biology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of marine biology.
The response of corals to environmental stress in which they eject the single-cell algae that live within the transparent coral tissue, making the white coral skeleton visible. Corals (Fig. 1) are animals that live in a partnership (symbiosis) with ...
Corals are host to a wide diversity of organisms, including endosymbiotic algae, protists, fungi, Bacteria, Archaea, and viruses. Together, these organisms make up the coral holobiont. In our lab, we are interested in understanding the physiological roles of these players in their interaction with the coral animal, and how this relates to coral reef health. Incidences of coral death and disease are highly correlated with human impact, and we propose that anthropogenic stresses induce microbes normally associated with the coral to become opportunistic pathogens. Alternatively, opportunistic or specific pathogens from the water column might attack the weakened coral. To differentiate between these possibilities, my lab has had to determine if healthy corals have characteristic microbiotas. To do this, we have employed a variety of techniques ranging from electron microscopy (e.g., Johnston and Rohwer 2007) to metagenomics (e.g., Wegley et al. 2007).. In order to look at the diversity and ...
We wish to say how particularly impressed we were with the performance of the side cutting bit. It was quite a bit more maneuverable than the more standard disk cutters used with these rotary tools. These have a limited cutting range because the depth of the cut is limited to the diameter of the cutting disk. And even then, many times the base of the rotary tool gets in the way, running into the coral and further limiting the cutting range. But, this is not the case with these side cutting bits. They are quite nimble, actually, and one could see them being used quite a bit in coral propagation efforts. One instance that comes to mind where they would be particularly adept is navigating your way in the valleys between the shared walls of the so-called closed brain corals.. In our case, we decided to attach the fragments to aragocrete (sand and concrete) plugs with super glue rather than leaving them loose. Within a relatively short period of time, the little squares should begin to round off and ...
Algae live inside marine animals. Coral tissues host several million algae per square inch, and these marine plants provide 90 percent of nutrients needed by the coral. The symbiotic relationship is based on a cycle of coral enzymes which cause algae to release carbohydrates and algae to receive nitrogen from coral waste. Algae are shaded from intense sunlight by coral pigments ...
Stony corals are living animals that are only two cell layers thick, but over time, their calcium carbonate skeletons can form massive limestone islands. Some contain fluorescent molecules, proteins in their tissue that absorb light from an external source and emit light back at different wavelengths. Marine biologist David Gruber uses a painstaking method of underwater photography to get striking images of fluorescent  corals, including images of moon coral and staghorn coral currently on display in the exhibition Picturing Science: Museum Scientists and Imaging Technologies.
What if women were an endangered species?. It begins in Ireland, but soon spreads throughout the entire world: a virulent new disease expressly designed to target only women. As fully half of the human race dies off at a frightening pace and life on Earth faces extinction, panicked people and governments struggle to cope with the global crisis. Infected areas are quarantined or burned to the ground. The few surviving women are locked away in hidden reserves, while frantic doctors and scientists race to find a cure. Anarchy and violence consume the planet.. The plague is the work of a solitary individual who calls himself the Madman. As government security forces feverishly hunt for the renegade scientist, he wanders incognito through a world that will never be the same. Society, religion, and morality are all irrevocably transformed by the White Plague.. ...
Læs om White Plague, Black Labor (COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF HEALTH SYSTEMS AND MEDICAL CARE) - Tuberculosis and the Political Economy of Health and Disease in South Africa. Udgivet af University of California Press. E-bogens ISBN er 9780520909120, køb den her
glaucasterol: from soft coral Sarcophyton glaucum; natural C27 sterol with cyclopropane ring in side chain; structure given in first source
Background Bacterial communities that are associated with tropical reef-forming corals are being increasingly recognized for their role in host physiology and health. terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the construction of clone libraries of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA. Three study sites were monitored for 4 years to assess the variability of communities associated with healthful colonies. Bacterial assemblages were dominated by 1 was noticed highly. Conclusion/Significance This is actually the first spatiotemporal research to research the bacterial variety connected with a temperate shallow gorgonian. Our data uncovered an established romantic relationship between and a particular bacterial group inside the in the host-microbe association, simply because suggested for tropical corals lately. Nevertheless, a transient imbalance in bacterial organizations could be tolerated with the holobiont without symptoms of disease. The next restoration from the (Risso, 1826), a ...
Corals living on deeper reefs inhabit an environment characterized by low light intensities and limited spectral composition of the incident irradiance [6,21]. While responses of zooxanthellate corals to low irradiances are relatively well studied [12,36], the effects of the spectral composition of light on their photobiology are far from being understood. In corals, the typical acclimatory response to low light is an increase in symbiont pigmentation and/or numbers [12,27,36], causing a higher optical thickness of the tissue. Our data suggest the maximized absorption of the blue-green light prevalent at greater depths could come at the cost of poor tissue penetration of these wavelengths. This results in a paradox, where corals acclimation strategies to maximize absorption decrease the tissue penetration of the blue-dominated irradiance at depth and may consequently limit their capacity to sustain symbiont photosynthesis in deeper tissue areas. The chlorophyll emission cross sections reveal ...
The phenomenon of GFP Infection in stony corals is documented well enough that reefers are actively looking for it, sometimes induce it, and we even gro
Started working on a new collaborative comic project, working title Anthozoa Noxia. Some sketches of the cast: left, pilot (unnamed); top right, Dr. Samantha Oh, sciencey wiencey type person; bottom right, Captain Ann. ...
Kor li (lat. Anthozoa) jsou mo t , koloni ln , nebo solit rn l kovci nevytv ej c med zov st dia, s bilater ln , druhotn i radi ln soum rnost . T ln l ka polypa je roz len na etn mi m kk mi, zd nliv radi ln mi mezenterii, kter zv t uj tr vic plochu. Potrava je opat ov na syst mem chapadel se ahav mi bu kami. P ij mac otvor je z rove otvorem vyvrhovac m. Rozmno ov n je pohlavn i nepohlavn . Kor lnatci jsou v hradn mo t l kovci. Mohou t koloni ln , v m lk ch, ist ch, kysl kem bohat ch vod ch (koloni ln formy jsou stenohalinn i stenotermn ); solit rn kor lnatci v ak mohou t i ve velk ch hloubk ch (pod 5000 m). Skelet je v pnit , rohovit , p padn m e b t tvorba pevn schr nky i druhotn potla ena. Morfologicky jde o velmi prom nliv ivo ichy - tvar schr nek je i u stejn ho druhu siln z visl na substr tu, dynamice vody apod. Jsou zn mi od kambria do recentu, v r zn ch obdob ch zemsk historie tato skupina za vala obdob bou liv radiace, kdy jej z stupci vytv eli hojn tesy, i obdob evolu n ch kriz a rozs hl ...
View Notes - Practice Test from BG 111 at Erskine. a. Round worms b. Echinoderms c. Anthozoa d. Chordates 3. Which characteristics are found in Eukaryotes and not Prokaryotes? a. Presence of a
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a rare congenital heart disorder involving irregularities in the electrical system of the heart. In individuals with WPW syndrome, an abnormal alternate electrical pathway (accessory pathway), exists between the atrium and the ventricle, resulting in abnormal heartbeat rhythms...
You, likely, can do brisk walking, easy pedalling of your bike on a trainer or non-strenous swimming. The key is not getting your heart rate up. Ask your cardiologist what maximum heart rate would be safe for you until you have your problem corrected. Do get a heart rate monitor so you can keep tabs on your heart rate while exercising. There are several models that are waterproof, some that will let you set a high and low limit alarms that will beep if you exceed the limits ...
Corals play a key role in ocean ecosystems and carbonate balance, but their molecular response to ocean acidification remains unclear. The only previous whole-transcriptome study (Moya et al. Molecular Ecology, 2012; 21, 2440) documented extensive disruption of gene expression, particularly of genes encoding skeletal organic matrix proteins, in juvenile corals (Acropora millepora) after short-term (3 d) exposure to elevated pCO2 . In this study, whole-transcriptome analysis was used to compare the effects of such acute (3 d) exposure to elevated pCO2 with a longer (prolonged; 9 d) period of exposure beginning immediately post-fertilization. Far fewer genes were differentially expressed under the 9-d treatment, and although the transcriptome data implied wholesale disruption of metabolism and calcification genes in the acute treatment experiment, expression of most genes was at control levels after prolonged treatment. There was little overlap between the genes responding to the acute and prolonged
Forest Rohwers research interests include the genomic analysis of phage, the viruses that infect bacteria. Phage are the most abundant biological entities on the planet; by killing bacteria, they have an enormous influence on global biogeochemical cycles and help maintain microbial diversity. Rohwer is also interested in the diversity of coral-associated bacteria. To determine which bacteria are normally associated with reef-building corals, his team has been analyzing bacterial diversity in coral samples by high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNAs.. ...
Scleractinian corals with growth anomalies, often referred to as tumors, have been reported globally. A recent survey of Hong Kong waters showed that | 60% of Platygyra carnosus colonies developed tumors. Here we report for the first time, the bacterial community associated with tumors in P. carnosus over different seasons and locations in Hoi Ha Wan Marine Park and Port Shelter. Culture-based methods for strain isolation and molecular techniques of 16S rRNA analysis for strain identification were used, as well as the culture-independent technique terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We tested the hypothesis that the community composition would be considerably different between healthy and tumor corals and aimed to investigate whether potential differences because of tumors would override the seasonal and spatial influences. Our analysis detected only minor differences between the communities associated with the healthy and tumor corals, indicating that tumors are not associated with
Hoeksema, B. W.; Cairns, S. (2019). World List of Scleractinia. Acropora rudis (Rehberg, 1892). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=288241 on 2019-01-24 ...
A bacterium previously isolated from a diseased colony of the scleractinian coral Dichocoenia stokesi (common name elliptical star coral) was subjected to a detailed polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The isolate, designated WP1T, was halophilic and strictly aerobic and formed golden-orange-pigmented colonies after prolonged incubation. Cells of WP1T were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and showed a characteristic branching rod morphology. Chemotaxonomically, WP1T was characterized by having Q-10 as the major respiratory lipoquinone and sym-homospermidine as the main component of the cellular polyamine content. The predominant constituent in the cellular fatty acid profile was C18 : 1 ω7c, along with C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C16 : 0. Other fatty acids present in smaller amounts were C17 : 0, C18 : 0, C16 : 1 ω7c, C20 : 1 ω7c and C18 : 1 2-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. Minor amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol,
Our continuous search for marine bioactive secondary metabolites led to the screening of crude extracts from a variety of aquaculture soft corals. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Lobophytum crassum showed a distinctive chemical profile that was different from the wild type. It demonstrated significant anti-proliferative activity against Molt 4 leukemia cell with an IC50 value of 1 μg/mL after 24 h. Chemical investigation focusing on the unique peaks in L. crassum profile led to the discovery of a new α-tocopherol crassumtocopherol C (1), and two new cembrane-based diterpenoids culobophylins D (2) and E (3), along with ten known cembranoids (4-13 ...
Increased terrestrial sediment and nutrient yields are regarded as significant threats to coral reef health. Within the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon, where water quality has reportedly declined since European settlement (since ca. A.D. 1850), inner-shelf reef conditions have purportedly deteriorated. However, the link between reef decline and water-quality change remains controversial, primarily because of a lack of pre-European period ecological baseline data against which to assess contemporary ecological states. Here we present a high-resolution record of reef accretion and coral community composition from a turbid-zone, nearshore reef on the inner shelf of the Great Barrier Reef; the record is based on six radiocarbon date-constrained cores, and extends back to ca. 1200 calibrated yr B.P. Results demonstrate not only the potential for coral communities to initiate and persist in settings dominated by fine-grained terrigenous sediment accumulation, but also that a temporally persistent ...
This summer, eight students from the US, Cuba, and Scotland traveled to Bermuda to participate in the Coral Reef Ecology (CRE) course at BIOS. This intensive summer course-geared toward upper level undergraduate and graduate students-exposes participants to the coral reef ecosystem at all organizational levels, from physiological ecology through population biology, community structure to ecosystem dynamics, and including human impacts.. Dr. Eric Hochberg, one of the CRE course instructors, said, "I have two goals with CRE. The first is to teach the students our most current understanding about how coral reef ecosystems work, from the biology to the chemistry to the physics. The second goal is to give the students practical experience studying real coral reef systems. This means strapping on a SCUBA tank, getting in the water, and making scientifically rigorous observations. This is training that cannot be taught in a classroom.". Over the course of three weeks, students attend lectures on a ...
The crustose coralline alga Lithothamnium pseudosorum induces high rates of settlement and metamorphosis of larvae of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci). In cases where crustose coralline algae (CCA) induce metamorphosis of marine invertebrate larvae it is normally assumed that the inductive molecules are produced by the alga, but an alternative is that they originate from bacteria on the plant surface. Bioassays using shards of L. pseudosorum treated with several antibiotics, whereby some shards were reinfected with bacteria from the alga, showed that if bacteria populations are depleted then settlement and metamorphosis of larvae of A. planci are inhibited. This demonstrates that bacteria are necessary for induction and suggests that morphogenic substances are produced by bacteria on the surface of the alga and not directly by the alga itself. However, surface bacteria are not inductive if they are isolated from soluble algal compounds, suggesting either that they ...
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Ocean acidification is a global problem and an immediate threat to marine organisms and ecosystems. Regardless of the magnitude of the warming that results from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, a topic of uncertainty and ongoing debate, the oceans will absorb a significant fraction of the anthropogenic CO2 that is released to the atmosphere. Over time, this will cause the oceans water to become increasingly acidic ("ocean acidification"). Corals and coral reefs may be especially vulnerable to ocean acidification because their success is dependant upon their ability to build calcium carbonate (CaCO3) skeletons in a process called "calcification.". Scientists dont fully understand the mechanisms of calcification or how they might be impacted by ocean acidification, but one way of addressing this knowledge gap is by studying coral genetics. Scientists can use a "gene-targeting" approach that investigates only the expression of genes known to be involved in calcification; however, this ...
Despite many Chinese diplomatic assurances to the contrary, Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea is an attempt to re-establish traditional Chinese hegemony in the region. Chinas strategy is taking concrete actions to solidify its claims in the South China Sea, and Chinese officials have underscored such perception.. China has asserted its claims for the South China Seas rich mineral, oil and fishing grounds by increasing patrols and escorts for its fishing fleets. The ships excursions regularly raise regional tensions. ASEAN foreign ministers meeting in Brunei in April 2013 agreed to pursue dialogue with China on a Code of Conduct in the South China Sea. ASEAN wants a legally binding agreement to discourage such aggressive moves. It would replace a ten-year pledge by the claimants not to cause conflict, known as the Declaration of Conduct.. In February 2014 the United States for the first time explicitly rejected the U-shaped, nine-dash line that China uses to assert sovereignty over ...
Define Asian coral snake. Asian coral snake synonyms, Asian coral snake pronunciation, Asian coral snake translation, English dictionary definition of Asian coral snake. Noun 1. Asian coral snake - of India coral snake, Old World coral snake - any of various venomous elapid snakes of Asia and Africa and Australia Calliophis,...
Define Common coral snake. Common coral snake synonyms, Common coral snake pronunciation, Common coral snake translation, English dictionary definition of Common coral snake. Noun 1. Micrurus fulvius - ranges from Central America to southeastern United States eastern coral snake harlequin-snake, New World coral snake, coral snake...
In Loch Creran, the patchy Serpula vermicularis reefs were recorded to have a maximum height often exceeding 50 cm and a width of 60 cm (Moore et al., 2003; Chapman et al., 2012). Minchin (1987) reported that the Serpula vermicularis reefs in Northern Ireland reached a maximum height of 1 m. Both the Serpula vermicularis reefs in Scotland and the west coast of Ireland are reported to be growing on successive serpulid settlements and tube debris can be found around the base of the reefs. These reefs are thought to be younger as no tube debris is present, although cores have not been taken so it is possible that any evidence has been covered by sediment deposition. Measurements of growth rates have shown that Serpula vermicularis can grow at up to 8 cm per year in Loch Creran (Hughes et al., 2008). The mean height of Serpula vermicularis reefs in Loch Teacuis is 26 ± 9 cm (Dodd et al., 2009). If the growth rates of Serpula vermicularis in Loch Creran were applied to the mean height of Serpula ...

Marine Drugs  | Free Full-Text | Briarane Diterpenes from the South China Sea Gorgonian Coral, Junceella gemmacea | HTMLMarine Drugs | Free Full-Text | Briarane Diterpenes from the South China Sea Gorgonian Coral, Junceella gemmacea | HTML

Gorgonian corals of the genus Junceella (phylum, Cnidaria; class, Anthozoa; order, Gorgonacea; family, Ellisellidae) are widely ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/12/2/589/htm

UniProt/TrEMBL: A7S545 NEMVEUniProt/TrEMBL: A7S545 NEMVE

Anthozoa; Hexacorallia; Actiniaria; OC Edwardsiidae; Nematostella. OX NCBI_TaxID=45351 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001593}; RN ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?tr:A7S545_NEMVE

Adaptive signatures in thermal performance of the temperate coral Astrangia poculata | Journal of Experimental BiologyAdaptive signatures in thermal performance of the temperate coral Astrangia poculata | Journal of Experimental Biology

1988). Nomenclature and biology of Astrangia poculata (=A. danae, =A. astreiformis) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash ...
more infohttps://jeb.biologists.org/content/222/5/jeb189225

AnthozoaAnthozoa

Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5-end of the 28S rDNA. Molecular Phylogeny and ... Anthozoa Sea Anemones, Corals, Sea Pens. Daphne G. Fautin and Sandra L. Romano Click on an image to view larger version & data ... Class Anthozoa is traditionally considered to have two or three subclasses. Hyman (1940) divided the class into Alcyonaria and ... Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.), Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Anthozoa

Category:Anthozoa - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Anthozoa - Wikimedia Commons

Vernacular names [edit wikidata Category:Anthozoa linked to current category] [edit wikidata Anthozoa main topic of ... Fossilworks PaleoDB link: Anthozoa Ehrenberg 1834 †. *World Register of Marine Species link: Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1834 (+ list ... Orders of Anthozoa. *Note: *Zoantharia is sometimes a subclassis syn of Hexacorallia and sometimes an order in subclassis ... Media in category "Anthozoa". The following 46 files are in this category, out of 46 total. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Anthozoa

Anthozoa - New World EncyclopediaAnthozoa - New World Encyclopedia

Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5-end of the 28S rDNA Molecular Phylogeny and ... members of Anthozoa live only as polyps. The anthozoa larva, once fusing with the substratum and developing into the polyp ... Anthozoa is a class of marine invertebrates within the phylum Cnidaria that are unique among cnidarians in that they do not do ... Anthozoa: Subgroups Fossil Groups. University of Bristol. Retrieved August 2, 2008.. *Madl, P., and M. Yip. 2000. Part III: ...
more infohttps://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Anthozoa

Anthozoa - WikipediaAnthozoa - Wikipedia

The name "Anthozoa" comes from the Greek words άνθος (ánthos; "flower") and ζώα (zóa; "animals"), hence ανθόζωα (anthozoa) = " ... "Anthozoa: Fossil Record". Anthozoa. UCMP. Retrieved 23 March 2009. Oliver, William A. Jr. (2003). "Corals: Table 1". Fossil ... ISBN 978-0-521-88485-3. Media related to Anthozoa at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Anthozoa at Wikispecies. ... "Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5-end of the 28S rDNA" (PDF). Molecular ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthozoa

Arctic Register of Marine Species - AnthozoaArctic Register of Marine Species - Anthozoa

ARMS (2019). Anthozoa. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/arms/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1292 on 2019-08-24 ... Anthozoa. Accessed at: http://marinespecies.org/arms/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1292 on 2019-08-24 ...
more infohttp://marinespecies.org/arms/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1292

World Register of Deep-Sea species - AnthozoaWorld Register of Deep-Sea species - Anthozoa

Deep-Sea (2019). Anthozoa. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/deepsea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1292 on 2019-04-21 ... Glover, A.G.; Higgs, N.; Horton, T. (2019). World Register of Deep-Sea species (WoRDSS). Anthozoa. Accessed at: http://www. ...
more infohttp://www.marinespecies.org/deepsea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1292

Species Diversity of Shallow Water Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in FloridaSpecies Diversity of Shallow Water Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in Florida

A. E. Verrill, "Additions to the Anthozoa and Hydrozoa of the Bermudas. Anthozoa," in Zoology of Bermuda, A. E. Verrill, Ed., ... Anthozoa: Hexacorallia)," Zoological Science, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 346-359, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · ... A. E. Verrill, "Additions to the Anthozoa and Hydrozoa of the Bermudas," Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and ... S. Cairns, C. den Hertog, and C. Arneson, "Class Anthozoa (Corals, anemones)," in Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda. A ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmb/2012/856079/

Cracks in the β-can: Fluorescent proteins from Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, Actinaria) | PNASCracks in the β-can: Fluorescent proteins from Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, Actinaria) | PNAS

Cracks in the β-can: Fluorescent proteins from Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, Actinaria). Jörg Wiedenmann, Carsten Elke, Klaus- ... A far-red fluorescent protein with fast maturation and reduced oligomerization tendency from Entacmaea quadricolor (Anthozoa, ... Cracks in the β-can: Fluorescent proteins from Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, Actinaria) ... Cracks in the β-can: Fluorescent proteins from Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, Actinaria) ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/97/26/14091

A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Based on Mitochondrial CO1 Sequence DataA Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Based on Mitochondrial CO1 Sequence Data

Background Classical morphological taxonomy places the approximately 1400 recognized species of Scleractinia (hard corals) into 27 families, but many aspects of coral evolution remain unclear despite the application of molecular phylogenetic methods. In part, this may be a consequence of such studies focusing on the reef-building (shallow water and zooxanthellate) Scleractinia, and largely ignoring the large number of deep-sea species. To better understand broad patterns of coral evolution, we generated molecular data for a broad and representative range of deep sea scleractinians collected off New Caledonia and Australia during the last decade, and conducted the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis to date of the order Scleractinia. Methodology Partial (595 bp) sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were determined for 65 deep-sea (azooxanthellate) scleractinians and 11 shallow-water species. These new data were aligned with 158 published sequences,
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0011490

Water mass characteristics and associated fauna of a recently discovered Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia: Anthozoa) reef in...Water mass characteristics and associated fauna of a recently discovered Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia: Anthozoa) reef in...

Water mass characteristics and associated fauna of a recently discovered Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia: Anthozoa) reef in ... Tendal OS (1992) The North Atlantic distribution of the octocoral Paragorgia arborea (L., 1758) (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Sarsia 77 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00300-016-1957-3

An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced? | DPLAAn ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced? | DPLA

An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced?. Image. ... An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced?. 2005. Retrieved from the ... An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced?. Retrieved from the Digital ... An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced?. Coral Reefs, 24(2): 343- ...
more infohttps://dp.la/item/fa84b01fef8e9d3d8bf9d34ed4993c3d

CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Latitudinal and intracolony ITS-rDNA sequence variation in the symbiotic...CiNii 論文 - Latitudinal and intracolony ITS-rDNA sequence variation in the symbiotic...

vietnamensis and Zoanthus kuroshio : Anthozoa: Hexacorallia(Animal Diversity and Evolution) : Reimer James Davis , Ono Shunsuke ... Morphological and Molecular Revision of Zoanthus (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) from Southwestern Japan, with Descriptions of Two New ... Anthozoa : Hexacorallia) * * Reimer James D. REIMER James D. ... Anthozoa), and a free-living strain CARLOS A. A. ... Anthozoa : Hexacorallia) at Kagoshima Bay, Japan Reimer James D. , Ono Shusuke , Tsukahara Junzo , TAKISHITA Kiyotaka , ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10018211451

Temporal and spatial variation in protein, carbohydrate, and lipid levels in Corallium rubrum (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) |...Temporal and spatial variation in protein, carbohydrate, and lipid levels in Corallium rubrum (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) |...

Garrabou J (1999) Life-history traits of Alcyonium acaule and Parazoanthus axinellae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), with emphasis on ... Temporal and spatial variation in protein, carbohydrate, and lipid levels in Corallium rubrum (Anthozoa, Octocorallia). ... anthozoa, octocorallia): evidences for summer-autumn feeding constraints. Mar Biol 149:643-651CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00227-007-0702-4

Taxonomic classification of the reef coral families Merulinidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa:...Taxonomic classification of the reef coral families Merulinidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa:...

Taxonomic classification of the reef coral families Merulinidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: ... Taxonomic classification of the reef coral families Merulinidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: ... Taxonomic classification of the reef coral families Merulinidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: ...
more infohttps://scripps.ucsd.edu/biblio/taxonomic-classification-reef-coral-families-merulinidae-montastraeidae-and-diploastraeidae

AnthozoaAnthozoa

Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5-end of the 28S rDNA. Molecular Phylogeny and ... Anthozoa Sea Anemones, Corals, Sea Pens. Daphne G. Fautin and Sandra L. Romano Click on an image to view larger version & data ... Class Anthozoa is traditionally considered to have two or three subclasses. Hyman (1940) divided the class into Alcyonaria and ... Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.), Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: ...
more infohttp://tol.tolweb.org/Anthozoa/17634

Unexpected diversity and a new species of Epizoanthus (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) attached to eunicid worm tubes from the Pacific...Unexpected diversity and a new species of Epizoanthus (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) attached to eunicid worm tubes from the Pacific...

Unexpected diversity and a new species of Epizoanthus (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) attached to eunicid worm tubes from the Pacific ... Fujii T, Reimer JD (2011) Phylogeny of the highly divergent zoanthid family Microzoanthidae (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) from the ... Sinniger F, Montoya-Burgos JI, Chevaldonne P, Pawlowski J (2005) Phylogeny of the order Zoantharia (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) ... Burnett WJ, Benzie JAH, Beardmore JA, Ryland JS (1997) Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) from the Great Barrier Reef and ...
more infohttps://zookeys.pensoft.net/article_preview.php?id=6181

Practice Test - a Round worms b Echinoderms c Anthozoa d Chordates 3 Which characteristics are found in Eukaryotes and not...Practice Test - a Round worms b Echinoderms c Anthozoa d Chordates 3 Which characteristics are found in Eukaryotes and not...

a. Round worms b. Echinoderms c. Anthozoa d. Chordates 3. Which characteristics are found in Eukaryotes and not Prokaryotes? a ... Unformatted text preview: a. Round worms b. Echinoderms c. Anthozoa d. Chordates 3. Which characteristics are found in ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/87121/Practice-Test/

Clone wars: asexual reproduction dominates in the invasive range of Tubastraea spp. (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the South...Clone wars: asexual reproduction dominates in the invasive range of Tubastraea spp. (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the South...

Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the South-Atlantic Ocean. Katia Cristina Cruz Capel​1,2,3, Robert J. Toonen2, Caio T.C.C. Rachid4, ... Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) da Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (SC), com ênfase na estrutura espaço-temporal da ... A new coral species introduced into the Atlantic Ocean-Tubastraea micranthus (Ehrenberg 1834) (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia ... Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the South-Atlantic Ocean. PeerJ 5:e3873 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3873 The authors have chosen ...
more infohttps://peerj.com/articles/3873/

Soft Coral Sarcophyton Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia Species Diversity and Chemotypes - pdf descargarSoft Coral Sarcophyton Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia Species Diversity and Chemotypes - pdf descargar

Anthozoa: Octocorallia Species Diversity and Chemotypes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, ... Soft Coral Sarcophyton Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia Species Diversity and Chemotypes - Descarga este documento en PDF. ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun7/149811033718-Soft-Coral-Sarcophyton-Cnidaria-Anthozoa-Octocorallia-Species-Diversity-and-Chemotypes.php

Sox genes in the coral Acropora millepora : divergent expression patterns reflect differences in developmental mechanisms...Sox genes in the coral Acropora millepora : divergent expression patterns reflect differences in developmental mechanisms...

Class Anthozoa). Based on overall domain structures and HMG box sequences, the Acropora Sox genes considered here clearly fall ... Heterogeneity in early Soxexpression patterns within the Anthozoa. Although Acropora and Nematostella are both members of the ... Fritzenwanker JH, Technau U: Induction of gametogenesis in the basal cnidarian Nematostella vectensis(Anthozoa). Dev Genes Evol ... divergent expression patterns reflect differences in developmental mechanisms within the Anthozoa. *Chuya Shinzato1. ,4. , ...
more infohttps://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-8-311?optIn=false
  • The anthozoa larva, once fusing with the substratum and developing into the polyp stage, grows benthic or sessile, meaning it no longer metamorphoses into the medusal stage. (newworldencyclopedia.org)