Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Sea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.FloridaMarine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.AmidinesGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).Ciona intestinalis: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Palau: A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).JapanFossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thiotrichaceae: A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Cubozoa: The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.Scyphozoa: The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.Pedaliaceae: The sesame family of the order Lamiales that are mainly herbs and shrubs growing in warm regions.Hydrozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.Manubrium: The upper or most anterior segment of the STERNUM which articulates with the CLAVICLE and first two pairs of RIBS.Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

Color transitions in coral's fluorescent proteins by site-directed mutagenesis. (1/1076)

BACKGROUND: Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) cloned from jellyfish Aequorea victoria and its homologs from corals Anthozoa have a great practical significance as in vivo markers of gene expression. Also, they are an interesting puzzle of protein science due to an unusual mechanism of chromophore formation and diversity of fluorescent colors. Fluorescent proteins can be subdivided into cyan (approximately 485 nm), green (approximately 505 nm), yellow (approximately 540 nm), and red (>580 nm) emitters. RESULTS: Here we applied site-directed mutagenesis in order to investigate the structural background of color variety and possibility of shifting between different types of fluorescence. First, a blue-shifted mutant of cyan amFP486 was generated. Second, it was established that cyan and green emitters can be modified so as to produce an intermediate spectrum of fluorescence. Third, the relationship between green and yellow fluorescence was inspected on closely homologous green zFP506 and yellow zFP538 proteins. The following transitions of colors were performed: yellow to green; yellow to dual color (green and yellow); and green to yellow. Fourth, we generated a mutant of cyan emitter dsFP483 that demonstrated dual color (cyan and red) fluorescence. CONCLUSIONS: Several amino acid substitutions were found to strongly affect fluorescence maxima. Some positions primarily found by sequence comparison were proved to be crucial for fluorescence of particular color. These results are the first step towards predicting the color of natural GFP-like proteins corresponding to newly identified cDNAs from corals.  (+info)

Interconversion of Anthozoa GFP-like fluorescent and non-fluorescent proteins by mutagenesis. (2/1076)

BACKGROUND: Within the family of green fluorescent protein (GFP) homologs, one can mark two main groups, specifically, fluorescent proteins (FPs) and non-fluorescent or chromoproteins (CPs). Structural background of differences between FPs and CPs are poorly understood to date. RESULTS: Here, we applied site-directed and random mutagenesis in order to to transform CP into FP and vice versa. A purple chromoprotein asCP (asFP595) from Anemonia sulcata and a red fluorescent protein DsRed from Discosoma sp. were selected as representatives of CPs and FPs, respectively. For asCP, some substitutions at positions 148 and 165 (numbering in accordance to GFP) were found to dramatically increase quantum yield of red fluorescence. For DsRed, substitutions at positions 148, 165, 167, and 203 significantly decreased fluorescence intensity, so that the spectral characteristics of these mutants became more close to those of CPs. Finally, a practically non-fluorescent mutant DsRed-NF was generated. This mutant carried four amino acid substitutions, specifically, S148C, I165N, K167M, and S203A. DsRed-NF possessed a high extinction coefficient and an extremely low quantum yield (< 0.001). These spectral characteristics allow one to regard DsRed-NF as a true chromoprotein. CONCLUSIONS: We located a novel point in asCP sequence (position 165) mutations at which can result in red fluorescence appearance. Probably, this finding could be applied onto other CPs to generate red and far-red fluorescent mutants. A possibility to transform an FP into CP was demonstrated. Key role of residues adjacent to chromophore's phenolic ring in fluorescent/non-fluorescent states determination was revealed.  (+info)

Additional cytotoxic diacetylenes from the stony coral Montipora sp. (3/1076)

Three new diacetylenes (1, 4, 6) have been isolated as cytotoxic constituents from the methanolic extract of the stony coral Montipora sp. The structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a small panel of human tumor cell lines and showed moderate to significant activity.  (+info)

Sympatric populations of the highly cross-fertile coral species Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora cytherea are genetically distinct. (4/1076)

High cross-fertilization rates in vitro and non-monophyletic patterns in molecular phylogenies challenge the taxonomic status of species in the coral genus Acropora. We present data from eight polymorphic allozyme loci that indicate small, but significant, differentiation between sympatric populations of Acropora cytherea and Acropora hyacinthus (F(ST) = 0.025-0.068, p < 0.05), a pair of acroporid corals with very high interspecific fertilization rates in vitro. Although no fixed allelic differences were found between these species, the absence of genetic differentiation between widely allopatric populations suggests that allele frequency differences between A. cytherea and A. hyacinthus in sympatry are biologically significant. By contrast, populations of Acropora tenuis, a species which spawns 2-3 hours earlier and shows low cross-fertilization rates with congeners in vitro, were clearly distinct from A. cytherea and A. hyacinthus (F(ST) = 0.427-0.465, p < 0.05). Moreover, allopatric populations of A. tenuis differed significantly, possibly as a consequence of its relatively short period of larval competency. Our results effectively rule out the possibility that A. hyacinthus and A. cytherea are morphotypes within a single species, and indicate that hybridization occurs relatively infrequently between these taxa in nature.  (+info)

Effect of increased calcium concentration in sea water on calcification and photosynthesis in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. (5/1076)

The relationship between calcification and photosynthesis in coral was investigated using standard sea water with enhanced calcium concentration. In standard sea water at 23 degrees C with the calcium concentration increased by 2.5 mmol l(-1), incorporation of calcium into the skeleton increased by 30-61 %, depending on the method of data normalisation, and photosynthesis, measured as (14)C incorporation into the tissues, also increased by 87 %. At 29 degrees C, calcium incorporation into the skeleton increased by 54-84 % and (14)C incorporation increased by 32 % when sea water calcium concentration was increased by 5 mmol l(-1). However, photosynthesis measured as net photosynthetic oxygen production did not increase. Similarly there was no change in respiration rate when coral polyps were incubated in high-calcium sea water. It is conjectured that an increase in photorespiration may be responsible for the latter observations. Bisphosphonate has been considered to inhibit calcification but not photosynthesis in corals. We show that bisphosphonate may not inhibit formation of amorphous calcium carbonate and that the inhibition of calcification is possibly illusory. The data are consistent with the trans-calcification model, which suggests that calcification is a source of CO(2) for photosynthesis in corals.  (+info)

Coral development: from classical embryology to molecular control. (6/1076)

The phylum Cnidaria is the closest outgroup to the triploblastic metazoans and as such offers unique insights into evolutionary questions at several levels. In the post-genomic era, a knowledge of the gene complement of representative cnidarians will be important for understanding the relationship between the expansion of gene families and the evolution of morphological complexity among more highly evolved metazoans. Studies of cnidarian development and its molecular control will provide information about the origins of the major bilaterian body axes, the origin of the third tissue layer, the mesoderm, and the evolution of nervous system patterning. We are studying the cnidarian Acropora millepora, a reef building scleractinian coral, and a member of the basal cnidarian class, the Anthozoa. We review ourwork on descriptive embryology and studies of selected transcription factor gene families, where our knowledge from Acropora is particularly advanced relative to other cnidarians. We also describe a recent preliminary whole genome initiative, a coral EST database.  (+info)

An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein. (7/1076)

We have cloned a gene encoding a fluorescent protein from a stony coral, Trachyphyllia geoffroyi, which emits green, yellow, and red light. The protein, named Kaede, includes a tripeptide, His-Tyr-Gly, that acts as a green chromophore that can be converted to red. The red fluorescence is comparable in intensity to the green and is stable under usual aerobic conditions. We found that the green-red conversion is highly sensitive to irradiation with UV or violet light (350-400 nm), which excites the protonated form of the chromophore. The excitation lights used to elicit red and green fluorescence do not induce photoconversion. Under a conventional epifluorescence microscope, Kaede protein expressed in HeLa cells turned red in a graded fashion in response to UV illumination; maximal illumination resulted in a 2,000-fold increase in the ratio of red-to-green signal. These color-changing properties provide a simple and powerful technique for regional optical marking. A focused UV pulse creates an instantaneous plane source of red Kaede within the cytosol. The red spot spreads rapidly throughout the cytosol, indicating its free diffusibility in the compartment. The extensive diffusion allows us to delineate a single neuron in a dense culture, where processes originating from many different somata are present. Illumination of a focused UV pulse onto the soma of a Kaede-expressing neuron resulted in filling of all processes with red fluorescence, allowing visualization of contact sites between the red and green neurons of interest.  (+info)

Low temperature X-ray microanalysis of calcium in a scleractinian coral: evidence of active transport mechanisms. (8/1076)

Element concentrations were measured by X-ray microanalysis in seawater (SW) compartments and mucocytes in bulk, frozen-hydrated preparations of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of polyps sampled in the daytime revealed that concentrations of the elements Na, S, K and Ca were all significantly higher in a thin (10-20 micro m) external SW layer adjacent to the oral ectoderm (P<0.05, <0.05, <0.0001 and <0.01, respectively) than in standard SW. In polyps sampled during night-time, concentrations of Ca and S in this external SW layer were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Ca concentration in the coelenteron and extrathecal coelenteron was significantly higher (P<0.001) than in the external SW layer, regardless of time of sampling, suggesting that Ca(2+) transport across the oral epithelium occurs via an active, transcellular route. X-ray microanalyses of mucocytes revealed that the concentration of S was high and did not vary between epithelial layers, while that of Ca increased in an inward gradient toward the skeleton. We suggest that throughout the day, secreted mucus behaves as a Donnan matrix at the oral ectoderm-SW interface, facilitating intracellular Ca(2+) uptake. The accumulation within internal SW compartments of high concentrations of Ca relative to standard SW levels, however, appears to be independent of mucus secretion and is likely to be a consequence of active transport processes.  (+info)

  • An ITS region phylogeny of Siderastrea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Is S. Glynni endangered or introduced? (
  • Williams, G.C. 2013: New taxa and revisionary systematics of alcyonacean octocorals from the Pacific coast of North America (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). (
  • Most recently, this view was confirmed by the cloning of six fluorescent proteins from nonbioluminescent Anthozoa homologous to the GFP from A. victoria ( 22 ). (
  • I graduated in Joint Honours Botany and Zoology at the University of Bristol in 1981, and then progressed to doctorate research at the University of Oxford (St John's College), investigating the 'Ecology of Temperate Symbiotic Anthozoa' . (
  • Nematostella vectensis , also known as starlet sea anemone, is a species of Anthozoa that is known as a model organism - its genome and development have been carefully studied, including its nervous system. (
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A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Based on Mitochondrial CO1 Sequence Data (
Cnidaria Envenomation: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Cnidaria Envenomation: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology (
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Arctic Register of Marine Species - Anthozoa (
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Elkhorn coral - Wikipedia (
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Cnidaria - Wikipedia (
Cnidaria (
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Frontiers | Distribution and Suitable Habitat of the Cold-Water Corals Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea, and Primnoa...
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Coral - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Koeltz Botanical Books. Products tagged with '2500'
Koeltz Botanical Books. Products tagged with '2500' (
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