APG IV-systemet er en moderne taksonomi til klassificering af blomsterplanterne. Den blev offentliggjort den 6. april 2016 af Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) i tidsskriftet Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 7 år efter, at forgængeren, APG III-systemet, blev offentliggjort i samme blad.[1] Mens man sidst bragte et forslag til en ledsagende, men særskilt og formel fylogenetisk klassifikation for alle landplanter, der var i overensstemmelse med APG III-klassifikationen, har man denne gang besluttet at indføje klassifikationen i selve APG IV-systembeskrivelsen. ...
Chaffinches first breed when they are one year old. They are mainly monogamous and the pair-bond for residential subspecies such as gengleri sometimes persists from one year to the next.[33] The date for breeding is dependent on the spring temperature and is earlier in southwest Europe and later in the northeast. In Britain most clutches are laid between late April and the middle of June. A male attracts a female to his territory through song.[34]. Nests are built entirely by the female and are usually located in the fork of a bush or a tree several metres above the ground.[35] The nest has a deep cup and is lined with a layer of thin roots and feathers. The outside is covered with a layer of lichen and spider silk over an inner layer of moss and grass. The eggs are laid in early morning at daily intervals until the clutch is complete.[36] The clutch is typically 4-5 eggs which are smooth and slightly glossy but very variable in colour. They range from pale-blueish green to light red with purple ...
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants. It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988) and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) (see Bibliography). Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses. While the scheme was widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998. The system as laid out in Cronquist's An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) counts 64 orders and 321 families in class Magnoliopsida and 19 orders and 65 families in class Liliopsida. ...
Addition of a complexant like crown ether or 2,2,2-cryptand to a solution of [Na(NH3)6]+e− affords [Na(crown ether)]+e− or [Na(2,2,2-crypt)]+e−. Evaporation of these solutions yields a blue-black paramagnetic salt with the formula [Na(2,2,2-crypt)]+e−. Most solid electride salts decompose above 240 K, although [Ca24Al28O64]4+(e−)4 is stable at room temperature.[3] In these salts, the electron is delocalized between the cations. Electrides are paramagnetic and Mott insulators. Properties of these salts have been analyzed.[4]. ...
Many species are widely grown in the garden in temperate and sub-tropical regions. They may also be grown as potted plants. Numerous ornamental hybrids have been developed. They can be used in herbaceous borders, woodland and shrub plantings, and as patio plants. Some lilies, especially Lilium longiflorum, form important cut flower crops. These may be forced for particular markets; for instance, Lilium longiflorum for the Easter trade, when it may be called the Easter lily. Lilies are usually planted as bulbs in the dormant season. They are best planted in a south-facing (northern hemisphere), slightly sloping aspect, in sun or part shade, at a depth 2½ times the height of the bulb (except Lilium candidum which should be planted at the surface). Most prefer a porous, loamy soil, and good drainage is essential. Most species bloom in July or August (northern hemisphere). The flowering periods of certain lily species begin in late spring, while others bloom in late summer or early autumn.[21] They ...
Adverse effects have been documented from vitamin B6 supplements, but never from food sources. Damage to the dorsal root ganglia is documented in human cases of overdose of pyridoxine.[36] Although it is a water-soluble vitamin and is excreted in the urine, doses of pyridoxine in excess of the dietary upper limit (UL) over long periods cause painful and ultimately irreversible neurological problems.[17] The primary symptoms are pain and numbness of the extremities. In severe cases, motor neuropathy may occur with "slowing of motor conduction velocities, prolonged F wave latencies, and prolonged sensory latencies in both lower extremities", causing difficulty in walking.[37] Sensory neuropathy typically develops at doses of pyridoxine in excess of 1,000 mg per day, but adverse effects can occur with much less, so doses over 200 mg are not considered safe.[38] Symptoms among women taking lower doses have been reported.[39]. Existing authorizations and valuations vary considerably worldwide. As ...
The show is centered on Orange (voiced by Dane Boedigheimer), who resides on a fruit cart display in a kitchen with other objects such as his best friend, Pear, an irritable but geeky Bartlett pear (also voiced by Boedigheimer). Other fruits include Passion, a sensible passion fruit and Orange's love interest played by Justine Ezarik, an arrogant grapefruit (voiced by Bob Jennings), a tiny but hot-blooded Red delicious apple known as Midget Apple (though he prefers the name Little Apple), a happy-go-lucky and slightly eccentric marshmallow who always sees everything filled with enthusiasm, an elderly lemon named Grandpa Lemon and Grapefruit who tends to do bodybuilding, all of whom were not main characters until later episodes. Most episodes consist of Orange heckling other characters until they meet a sudden and gruesome end, usually by evisceration with a chef's knife (although the implements used to cut them up range from a blender to a toy pinwheel). Usually, Orange tries to "warn" them ...
Harjutada võiks liivakastis (NB! loo enda oma) ning võib kasutada blogiabi. Kohe Vikipeediasse kirjutades peaks artikkel enne salvestamist juba üsna kõlblik olema. Alustatud kirje link lisage siia lehele oma eriala tähistuse alla. Kui alustasite liivakastis ja viisite artikli hiljem Vikipeediasse üle, tuleb oma link siin vastavalt muuta. Kirjutamisel (eesti keeles) tuleb järgida Vikipeedia vormistusreegleid. Artikli sees linkimist vt. "Lingid Vikipeedias". Kirje (Artikli) teema või märksõna leidmisel on abiks mõistete loendid. Punase lingiga terminil artiklit veel pole ja saate seda alustada, sinise lingiga terminil artikkel on ja võibolla oskate seda täiendada. Kui olete kasutajanimega sisse logitud (ja muidugi olete!), on teie töö näha, kui klikite lehekülje üleval keskel "Näita ajalugu". Tehtud töö on näha ka, kui klikite vasakul veerul "Viimased muudatused" - mõistlik on oma kirjutatu enne salvestamist eelvaates (korduvalt) üle kontrollida, et ei oleks vaja ...
ലഘുവായ അന്തരീക്ഷമർദ്ദമായതിനാൽ തന്നെ ചൊവ്വയുടെ ഉപരിതലത്തിൽ, ഏറ്റവും താഴ്ന്ന ഭാഗങ്ങളിൽ കുറഞ്ഞ നേരത്തേക്കല്ലാതെ, ദ്രവജലത്തിന്‌ നിലനിൽക്കാനാകില്ല.[42][43] എങ്കിലും ജലം ഹിമരൂപത്തിൽ നിലവിലുണ്ട്, രണ്ട് ധ്രുവങ്ങളിലുമുള്ള ഹിമങ്ങൾ പ്രധാനമായും ജലത്തിന്റേതാണെന്നാണ്‌ അറിവ്.[44][45] ദക്ഷിണ ധ്രുവത്തിലെ ജലഹിമം ഉരുക്കുകയാണെങ്കിൽ ഗ്രഹോപരിതലം മുഴുവൻ 11 മീറ്റർ ആഴത്തോടെ മൂടുവാനാവശ്യമായ ജലം ...
... is a category o polymers that conteen the ester functional group in their main chain. As a speceefic material, it maist commonly refers tae a teep cried polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include naiturally occurrin chemicals, such as in the cutin o plant cuticles, as well as seenthetics throu step-growth polymerisation such as polybutyrate. Naitural polyesters an a few seenthetic anes are biodegradable, but maist synthetic polyesters are nae. This material is uised very widely in cleidin. ...
පළමු ලෝක යුද්ධය ආරම්භ වන වකවානුවේ හිට්ලර් මියුනිච් හි ජිවත් වු අතර ඒ අනුව ඔහු ඔස්ට්‍රියනුවෙක් වශයෙන් බැව්රියාවේ හමුදාවට ස්වේච්ඡාවෙන් එක්විය. මුල්ම වරට ඔහු යුධ හමුදාවට යෑවූ අයෑදුම් පත්‍රය නිෂ්ඵල වූයේය. තවද, 1914 පෙබරවාරි මාසයේ දී හමුදා සේවයට සුදුසු ද යන්න පරික්ෂා කර බැලීම සඳහා හිට්ලර් තාවකාලික ව ඔස්ට්‍රියාවට කැඳවන ලද නමුදු අවි දැරීමට තරම් ශක්තියක් නොමැති දුර්වලයකු සේ සලකා ඒ සඳහා ...
பித்தநீர் பழுப்புடன் பச்சை நிறமுடையது. இது கல்லீரலிருந்து தோன்றும் காரப்பொருளாகும். பித்தப்பையில் சேகரிக்கப்பட்டுப் பித்தநாளத்தின் வழியே முன் சிறுகுடலை அடையும். பித்த நீரில் நீர், கோழைப் பொருள், உப்புகள், கொலஸ்ட்ரால், பித்த நிறமிகள், பித்த நீர் உப்புகள் போன்றவையுள்ளன. பித்த நீர் உப்புகள் பெரிய கொழுப்புப் பொருட்களைச் சிறிய கொழுப்புத் திவலைகளாக மாற்றுகின்றன.. ...
గ్రసని (Pharynx ; బహువచనం: Pharynges) గొంతు (Throat) లోని ఒక భాగం. ఇది నోరు మరియు ముక్కు వెనుక భాగంలో ఉంటుంది. గ్రసని మూడు భాగాలుగా పరిగణిస్తారు. నాసికాగ్రసని లేదా అధిగ్రసని (nasopharynx or epipharynx), అస్యగ్రసని (oropharynx or mesopharynx), మరియు laryngopharynx (hypopharynx). గ్రసని భాగం జీర్ణ వ్యవస్థ మరియు శ్వాస వ్యవస్థ లు రెండింటికి సంబంధించినది. జీవులు మాట్లాడటం మరియు తినడం అనే ప్రక్రియలో ఇది ముఖ్యమైన పాత్రను పోషిస్తుంది. ...
... anthopeurine. 2. The effect of proline is mediated by a receptor that is specific for the structure and configuration of the ... in the sense that the effects of a given proline concentration can be overridden by an increase in anthopeurine concentration. ...

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