Anthocerotophyta: A plant division that includes hornworts, named for the horn-like appearance of the spore-producing plant (sporophyte).UrobilinBryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Viridiplantae: A monophyletic group of green plants that includes all land plants (EMBRYOPHYTA) and all green algae (CHLOROPHYTA and STREPTOPHYTA).Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Gametogenesis: The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.South AmericaEl Nino-Southern Oscillation: El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From, accessed 5/12/2020)Jet Lag Syndrome: A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Pistacia: A plant genus in the ANACARDIACEAE family known for the Pistachio nuts and for gum Mastic.Sphagnopsida: A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.Chara: A genus of green plants in the family CHARACEAE, phylum STREPTOPHYTA. They have a strong garlic-like odor and are an important food source for waterfowl.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Annonaceae: The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Checklist: Aid for consistent recording of data such as tasks completed and observations noted.Catalogs, LibraryClassification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Catalogs as Topic: Ordered compilations of item descriptions and sufficient information to afford access to them.Catalogs, UnionDatabases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.

The evolution of chloroplast RNA editing. (1/14)

RNA editing alters the nucleotide sequence of an RNA molecule so that it deviates from the sequence of its DNA template. Different RNA-editing systems are found in the major eukaryotic lineages, and these systems are thought to have evolved independently. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of data on C-to-U editing sites in land plant chloroplasts and propose a model for the evolution of RNA editing in land plants. First, our data suggest that the limited RNA-editing system of seed plants and the much more extensive systems found in hornworts and ferns are of monophyletic origin. Further, although some eukaryotic editing systems appear to have evolved to regulate gene expression, or at least are now involved in gene regulation, there is no evidence that RNA editing plays a role in gene regulation in land plant chloroplasts. Instead, our results suggest that land plant chloroplast C-to-U RNA editing originated as a mechanism to generate variation at the RNA level, which could complement variation at the DNA level. Under this model, many of the original sites, particularly in seed plants, have been subsequently lost due to mutation at the DNA level, and the function of extant sites is merely to conserve certain codons. This is the first comprehensive model for the evolution of the chloroplast RNA-editing system of land plants and may also be applicable to the evolution of RNA editing in plant mitochondria.  (+info)

XET activity is found near sites of growth and cell elongation in bryophytes and some green algae: new insights into the evolution of primary cell wall elongation. (2/14)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In angiosperms xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET)/hydrolase (XTH) is involved in reorganization of the cell wall during growth and development. The location of oligo-xyloglucan transglucosylation activity and the presence of XTH expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the earliest diverging extant plants, i.e. in bryophytes and algae, down to the Phaeophyta was examined. The results provide information on the presence of an XET growth mechanism in bryophytes and algae and contribute to the understanding of the evolution of cell wall elongation in general. METHODS: Representatives of the different plant lineages were pressed onto an XET test paper and assayed. XET or XET-related activity was visualized as the incorporation of fluorescent signal. The Physcomitrella genome database was screened for the presence of XTHs. In addition, using the 3' RACE technique searches were made for the presence of possible XTH ESTs in the Charophyta. KEY RESULTS: XET activity was found in the three major divisions of bryophytes at sites corresponding to growing regions. In the Physcomitrella genome two putative XTH-encoding cDNA sequences were identified that contain all domains crucial for XET activity. Furthermore, XET activity was located at the sites of growth in Chara (Charophyta) and Ulva (Chlorophyta) and a putative XTH ancestral enzyme in Chara was identified. No XET activity was identified in the Rhodophyta or Phaeophyta. CONCLUSIONS: XET activity was shown to be present in all major groups of green plants. These data suggest that an XET-related growth mechanism originated before the evolutionary divergence of the Chlorobionta and open new insights in the evolution of the mechanisms of primary cell wall expansion.  (+info)

Contribution of genosystematics to current concepts of phylogeny and classification of bryophytes. (3/14)

This paper is a survey of the current state of molecular studies on bryophyte phylogeny. Molecular data have greatly contributed to developing a phylogeny and classification of bryophytes. The previous traditional systems of classification based on morphological data are being significantly revised. New data of the authors are presented on phylogeny of Hypnales pleurocarpous mosses inferred from nucleotide sequence data of the nuclear DNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1-2 and the trnL-F region of the chloroplast genome.  (+info)

Moss and liverwort xyloglucans contain galacturonic acid and are structurally distinct from the xyloglucans synthesized by hornworts and vascular plants. (4/14)


Bryophyte-specific primers for retrieving plastid genes suitable for phylogenetic inference. (5/14)


Inferring the higher-order phylogeny of mosses (Bryophyta) and relatives using a large, multigene plastid data set. (6/14)


Major transitions in the evolution of early land plants: a bryological perspective. (7/14)


The origin of the sporophyte shoot in land plants: a bryological perspective. (8/14)


  • Two books that are relevant and available in the library: Introduction to Bryophytes by A. Vanderpoorten & B. Goffinet (2009) (here the link to the book, ). (
  • Taxon reported in six to ten localities with a high risk of extinction or one to five localities but with high possibility to qualify for CR or EN in the medium term future. (
  • Taxon reported in more than ten localities with great possibility to be qualified for CR, EN or VU in the near future. (
  • Key Cretaceous plant groups featured include Anthocerotophyta, Anthophyta and Gnetales. (
  • The scientific name for their subdivision is Anthocerophyta - a name derived from the ancient Greek words anthos (bloom or blossom) and ceros (horn). (
Anthocerotophyta - Wikipedia, entziklopedia askea.
Anthocerotophyta - Wikipedia, entziklopedia askea. (
Ceratophyllum - Wikipedia
Ceratophyllum - Wikipedia (
Embryophyte - Wikipedia
Embryophyte - Wikipedia (
Bryophyta (
Keynote lectures/Botany - Wikiversity
Keynote lectures/Botany - Wikiversity (
Hornwort - New World Encyclopedia
Hornwort - New World Encyclopedia (
Bryophytes, Ferns and Fern allies
Bryophytes, Ferns and Fern allies (
Chlorophyta - Wikispecies
Chlorophyta - Wikispecies (
Malvales (
Chloroplast - Wikipedia
Chloroplast - Wikipedia (
29 Plant Diversity: How Plants Colonised Land Flashcards by Marrick NZIBO | Brainscape
29 Plant Diversity: How Plants Colonised Land Flashcards by Marrick NZIBO | Brainscape (
Plantae: Fossil Record and First Appearances | Curriki
Plantae: Fossil Record and First Appearances | Curriki (
Nova Hedwigia, Balogh International, algae books
Nova Hedwigia, Balogh International, algae books (
Non-Vascular Plants - Definition and Characteristics
Non-Vascular Plants - Definition and Characteristics (
Publications - Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research - CANBR
Publications - Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research - CANBR (
Plant - Academic Kids
Plant - Academic Kids (
Bryophyte | plant | Britannica
Bryophyte | plant | Britannica (
Correlates of monoicy and dioicy in hornworts, the apparent sister group to vascular plants | BMC Evolutionary Biology | Full...
Correlates of monoicy and dioicy in hornworts, the apparent sister group to vascular plants | BMC Evolutionary Biology | Full... (
ಸಸ್ಯ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
ಸಸ್ಯ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ (
Plant Kingdom
Plant Kingdom (
FAQs on Hornwort/Coontail
FAQs on Hornwort/Coontail (
Juan Carlos Villarreal - EEBedia
Juan Carlos Villarreal - EEBedia (
Palaeos Plants: Bryophyta: Bryophyta-1
Palaeos Plants: Bryophyta: Bryophyta-1 (
Naturally occurring phenols - Wikipedia
Naturally occurring phenols - Wikipedia (
CO2 sequestration in plants: lesson from divergent strategies | Springer for Research & Development
CO2 sequestration in plants: lesson from divergent strategies | Springer for Research & Development (
Identification of a Novel Gene, CIA6, Required for Normal Pyrenoid Formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii | Plant Physiology
Identification of a Novel Gene, CIA6, Required for Normal Pyrenoid Formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii | Plant Physiology (
                - Students | Britannica Kids | Homework...
Plant - Students | Britannica Kids | Homework... (
Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches | BMC Evolutionary...
Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches | BMC Evolutionary... (
Llista Vermella | Laboratori de Briologia
Llista Vermella | Laboratori de Briologia (