Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
Antinematodal benzimidazole used in veterinary medicine.
A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
A genus of nematode worms in the superfamily Heterakoidea. A. galli and A. lineata are important intestinal parasites of domestic fowl.
Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the digestive tract of herbivorous animals. They cause incidental infections in humans from the following species: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. orientalis, T. axei, and T. probolurus.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.
Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.
Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.
Analogs or derivatives of bephenium (N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-phenoxyethyl)benzenemethanaminium).
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.
Antinematodal agent used mainly for livestock.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
A genus of parasitic nematodes occurring in the stomach of ruminants.
A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.
A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.
A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.
Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.
Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. Characteristics include the development of hemorrhagic nodules on the abdominal peritoneum.
Broad spectrum antinematodal anthelmintic used also in veterinary medicine.
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.
A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.
Cyanomethylamine.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. Members contain teuscordonin. There have been reports of hepatoxicity by this genus.
Infections with nematodes of the order ASCARIDIDA.
A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
A superfamily of polymyarian nematode worms. An important characteristic of this group is the presence of three prominent lips around the mouth of the organism.
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.
Pyrvinium compounds are antihelminthic agents, specifically pyrazinylquinolines, that have been used in the treatment of intestinal infections caused by certain parasitic worms, such as pinworms and hookworms, by inhibiting their microtubular function and causing severe vacuolation within the worm's tissues.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The Indian plum plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae class Magnoliopsida, that are tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which were formerly considered a part of TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA. It includes the following genera: Heligmosomum, NEMATOSPIROIDES, and NIPPOSTRONGYLUS. The hosts are rodents.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.
A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. They have leaflike appendages at the base of the leafstalks, have terminal flower clusters. Petals have four or five overlapping lobes and the fruit is a capsule containing winged or wingless seeds.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A disease of herbivorous mammals, particularly cattle and sheep, caused by stomach worms of the genus OSTERTAGIA.
Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE which is a source of citronella oil and lemongrass oil.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly trees and shrubs growing in warm areas.
A plant genus of the family SCROPHULARIACEAE.
A plant species of the genus MELIA, family MELIACEAE, which is toxic to insects. The name is very similar to Melia azadirachta (AZADIRACHTA).
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.
2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ecuador" is a country in South America and not a medical term. The term you might be looking for is "ecdysone," which is a hormone found in arthropods that controls their molting process.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain galangin, yakuchinone-A, and diarylheptanoids.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain anethole and CARBAZOLES.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.
A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae. Inerminosides (iridoid glycosides); colebroside A; STEROIDS; STEROLS; terpenoid glucosides; and abietane DITERPENES have been found in this genus.
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.
A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).
A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
Phenylenediamines are chemical compounds that contain two amino groups (-NH2) linked to a phenyl ring, which have been used in certain pharmaceuticals and industrial applications, but can also pose health risks as potential allergens and carcinogens.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.
Polyketides of up to a few dozen carbons in length, formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES and oxygenated to form tetrahydrofuran and lactone rings along the length of the chain. They are found in ANNONACEAE and other PLANTS. Related compounds cyclize to MACROLIDES.
Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.
Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.

Neurocysticercosis in an Italian traveler to Latin America. (1/1248)

Neurocysticercosis is rarely reported in short-term travelers, although the disease remains a major public health problem in tropical regions. We present a case of neurocysticercosis that was probably acquired by ingestion of Taenia solium eggs contained in the stomach of a pig butchered by the traveler. Complete clinical resolution was obtained by medical treatment, underlying the importance of early suspicion and diagnosis of the disease.  (+info)

Ivermectin distribution using community volunteers in Kabarole district, Uganda. (2/1248)

Ivermectin mass distribution for the control of onchocerciasis in Uganda began in 1991. This report describes a community based ivermectin distribution programme covering two foci in the Kabarole district which have an estimated 32,000 persons infected and another 110,000 at risk. Through nodule palpation in adult males, 143 villages were identified where nodule prevalence exceeded 20%. Skin snips were also taken from a sample of the population to measure changes in community microfilarial load (CMFL) with treatment. The delivery programme was integrated into the district health management structure, and used community volunteers supervised by medical assistants from adjacent health facilities for annual ivermectin distribution campaigns. After initial efforts by the community to support distributors in-kind proved inadequate, ivermectin distributors earned money retailing condoms as part of the social marketing component of district STD/AIDS programme. Reduction in the CMFL ranged from 40-62% twelve months after the second ivermectin treatment in three villages, and from 69-84% six months after the fourth round of treatment in two villages. After four years of treatment, 85% of eligible persons were receiving ivermectin from community volunteers in each treatment cycle. Drop out rates among volunteers did not exceed 20% over the four years reported here. The direct cost of treatment was US $0.29 per person. Among the reasons for low per-person treatment costs were the strong supervisory structure, the presence of health centres in the foci and a well developed and capable district Primary Health Care management team.  (+info)

Efficacies of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone against In vitro-cultivated Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes. (3/1248)

The metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a parasitic disease affecting the liver, with occasional metastasis into other organs. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives such as mebendazole and albendazole are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of AE. Albendazole is poorly resorbed and is metabolically converted to its main metabolite albendazole sulfoxide, which is believed to be the active component, and further to albendazole sulfone. Chemotherapy with albendazole has been shown to have a parasitostatic rather than a parasitocidal effect; it is not effective in all cases, and the recurrence rate is rather high once chemotherapy is stopped. Thus, development of new means of chemotherapy of AE is needed. This could include modifications of benzimidazoles and elucidiation of the respective biological pathways. In this study we performed in vitro drug treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes with albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of vesicle fluids showed that the drugs were taken up rapidly by the parasite. Transmission electron microscopic investigation of parasite tissues and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of vesicle fluids demonstrated that albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone had similar effects with respect to parasite ultrastructure and changes in metabolites in vesicle fluids. This study shows that the in vitro cultivation model presented here provides an ideal first-round test system for screening of antiparasite drugs.  (+info)

Effect of anthelmintic treatment on sexual maturation in prepubertal beef heifers. (4/1248)

Heifers treated with ivermectin at weaning have been reported to reach puberty at a younger age and lighter weight than untreated heifers. We tested the hypothesis that heifers administered ivermectin would respond with earlier follicular development and a greater LH response to a 1-mg estradiol-17beta challenge (E2C) than untreated heifers. Fall-born Angus heifers (n = 32) were randomly assigned on 284 +/- 9 d of age (215.5 +/- 20.8 kg) to receive ivermectin (IVR) or albendazole (ALB), IVR + ALB, or to remain as untreated controls (CONT). Each group (n = 8) was housed separately in adjacent pens throughout the trial and managed to gain .8 kg/heifer on a ration containing 13.2% CP, 58.8% TDN, and 49.9% DM. The CONT heifers received an additional 2.27 kg/heifer of corn silage and 1.59 kg/heifer of corn daily to maintain ADG at comparable levels. Individual body weight was recorded weekly, and nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were measured every 21 d. Ultrasonography was performed on alternate days starting 2 wk prior to E2C to characterize follicular wave patterns. Follicles were separated into classes (C1 [3 to 5 mm], C2 [6 to 9 mm], and C3 [10 mm]) and sizes (largest [LF], second [SLF], third [TLF], and fourth largest follicles [FLF]). The sizes of the regressing dominant follicle 1 (DF1) and the progressing dominant follicle 2 (DF2) were also determined. Serum concentrations of LH were determined from hourly jugular blood samples collected 8 to 24 h after injection of E2C. The IVR + ALB treatment group had more C3 follicles than ALB and CONT (P < .07). The IVR-treated heifers had larger TLF than ALB and CONT (P < .04). The IVR- and IVR + ALB-treated heifers had larger FLF and DF2 than ALB and CONT (P < .1). Least squares means for DF2 were 9.5 +/- .5, 8.0 +/- .4, 9.5 +/- .3 and 8.3 +/- .3 mm, for IVR, ALB, IVR + ALB and CONT, respectively (P = .02 for treatment effect). The E2C-induced serum LH concentration did not differ with respect to treatment. We conclude that heifers administered IVR display increased follicular development, supporting our earlier investigations regarding reduced age at puberty in heifers treated with IVR near weaning.  (+info)

Cost of school-based drug treatment in Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development. (5/1248)

It has been argued that targeting delivery of anthelmintics to school-children by taking advantage of the existing education infrastructure and administrative system can be one of the most cost-effective approaches in minimizing the intensity of infections with both schistosomiasis and major intestinal nematodes in many developing countries. The study was conducted in January 1997, shortly after the completion of the drug intervention programme. This paper provides an analysis of the costs of providing age-targeted treatment of school-children for urinary schistosomiasis using praziquantel and for intestinal nematodes using albendazole as an integral part of the School Health Programme in Tanga Region, Tanzania. The analysis shows that the total financial cost of the intervention programme in 1996 prices was US$54 252.28 (exchange rate: TSH 573 = US$1). Of this amount, the cost of drugs constitutes 80.6%, while the delivery cost appears relatively low, representing just below 20%. Even when the opportunity cost of unpaid days of labour input is included, the cost of drugs still remains the highest cost component of the intervention (55.8%). In the current epidemiological and logistic setting of Tanzania, the financial cost per child treated using praziquantel, which involved prior screening at the school level, was US$0.79, while treatment using albendazole was as low as US$0.23, of which US$0.20 was drug purchase cost. It is concluded that the base cost of delivering a universal, standard, school-based health intervention such as albendazole can be as low as US$0.03 per child tested, but even a very slight increase in the complexity of delivery can have a very significant impact on the cost of intervention.  (+info)

Evidence for an improvement in cognitive function following treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Chinese primary schoolchildren. (6/1248)

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, treatment trial was conducted in Sichuan, China to investigate the unique and combined effects on the cognitive function (working memory) of children after treating geohelminth infections with albendazole and treating Schistosoma japonicum infection with praziquantel. One hundred eighty-one children 5-16 years of age participated. At baseline, the praziquantel and placebo groups were similar in all background characteristics. Three months after praziquantel treatment, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum infection. There were significant age group by praziquantel treatment interaction effects in three of the five cognitive tests, Fluency, Picture Search, and Free Recall, with effects being strongest in the youngest children (5-7 years old). Exploratory analysis within the youngest children showed a significant positive main effect of treatment on Fluency (P < 0.001), after controlling for sex, anthropometric, and parasitic and iron status. There was also a treatment by height-for-age interaction (P = 0.03) and a treatment by iron status interaction (P = 0.024) on Fluency. There was a treatment by S. japonicum intensity interaction (P < 0.001) on Free Recall, but the main effect of treatment on Picture Search was not significant (P = 0.058). Younger children and those who are physically the most vulnerable are likely to benefit the most from the treatment of S. japonicum infection in terms of improved performance on tests of working memory.  (+info)

Presystemic metabolism of albendazole: experimental evidence of an efflux process of albendazole sulfoxide to intestinal lumen. (7/1248)

Albendazole (ABZ) presystemic clearance was studied in rat by perfusion of a 25 microM ABZ solution in isolated intestinal loops. Significant secretion of the active metabolite, ABZSO, into the lumen was observed. The metabolite was also present in mesenteric blood. After 30 min of intestinal perfusion, 64% of the ABZ dose had disappeared from lumen. The total amount of ABZSO measured was 0.341 +/- 0.04 nmol/cm with 0.176 +/- 0.03 nmol/cm in mesenteric blood. The metabolite secretion to intestinal lumen was 0.165 +/- 0.05 nmol/cm. Intestinal sulfoxidation was induced by repeated administration of ABZ and ABZ coadministered with surfactants, especially polysorbate 80. The enantioselectivity of the in vitro intestinal sulfoxidation of ABZ showed that the relative contribution of P-450 and flavin-containing monooxygenase was quite similar, but after the induction by ABZ coadministered with polysorbate 80, the cytochrome P-450 system contribution was significantly increased. The appearance of ABZSO in mesenteric blood clearance was also increased under these conditions.  (+info)

Population biology of human onchocerciasis. (8/1248)

Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is the filarial infection caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted among people through the bites of the Simulium vector. Some 86 million people around the world are at risk of acquiring the nematode, with 18 million people infected and 600,000 visually impaired, half of them partially or totally blind. 99% of cases occur in tropical Africa; scattered foci exist in Latin America. Until recently control programmes, in operation since 1975, have consisted of antivectorial measures. With the introduction of ivermectin in 1988, safe and effective chemotherapy is now available. With the original Onchocerciasis Control Programme of West Africa coming to an end, both the new African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas, rely heavily on ivermectin self-sustained mass delivery. In consequence, the need for understanding the processes regulating parasite abundance in human and simuliid populations is of utmost importance. We present a simple mathematical framework built around recent analyses of exposure- and density-dependent processes operating, respectively, within the human and vector hosts. An expression for the basic reproductive ratio, R0, is derived and related to the minimum vector density required for parasite persistence in localities of West Africa in general and northern Cameroon in particular. Model outputs suggest that constraints acting against parasite establishment in both humans and vectors are necessary to reproduce field observations, but those in humans may not fully protect against reinfection. Analyses of host age-profiles of infection prevalence, intensity, and aggregation for increasing levels of endemicity and intensity of transmission in the Vina valley of northern Cameroon are in agreement with these results and discussed in light of novel work on onchocerciasis immunology.  (+info)

Anthelmintics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These medications work by either stunting the growth of the worms, paralyzing them, or killing them outright, allowing the body to expel the worms through normal bodily functions. Anthelmintics are commonly used to treat infections caused by roundworms, tapeworms, flukeworms, and hookworms. Examples of anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, and ivermectin.

Nematode infections, also known as roundworm infections, are caused by various species of nematodes or roundworms. These parasitic worms can infect humans and animals, leading to a range of health problems depending on the specific type of nematode and the location of the infection within the body.

Common forms of nematode infections include:

1. Ascariasis: Caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, this infection occurs when people ingest the parasite's eggs through contaminated food or water. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the worms may obstruct the intestines or migrate to other organs, leading to potentially life-threatening complications.
2. Hookworm infections: These are caused by Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. The larvae penetrate the skin, usually through bare feet, and migrate to the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and protein loss.
3. Trichuriasis: Also known as whipworm infection, this is caused by Trichuris trichiura. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and reside in the large intestine, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal prolapse in severe cases.
4. Strongyloidiasis: Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, this infection occurs when the larvae penetrate the skin, usually through contaminated soil, and migrate to the lungs and then the small intestine. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. In immunocompromised individuals, strongyloidiasis can lead to disseminated disease, which is potentially fatal.
5. Toxocariasis: This infection is caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, found in dogs and cats, respectively. Humans become infected through ingestion of contaminated soil or undercooked meat. Symptoms include fever, cough, abdominal pain, and vision loss in severe cases.
6. Enterobiasis: Also known as pinworm infection, this is caused by Enterobius vermicularis. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and reside in the large intestine, causing perianal itching and restlessness, especially at night.

Preventive measures include:

1. Proper hand hygiene: Wash hands with soap and water after using the toilet, changing diapers, handling pets or their feces, and before preparing or eating food.
2. Personal hygiene: Keep fingernails short and clean, avoid biting nails, and wear shoes in public areas, especially where soil may be contaminated with human or animal feces.
3. Food safety: Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly, cook meat properly, and avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or fish.
4. Environmental cleanliness: Regularly clean surfaces that come into contact with food, such as countertops, cutting boards, and utensils. Dispose of trash properly and maintain a clean living environment.
5. Pet care: Keep pets healthy and regularly deworm them as recommended by a veterinarian. Pick up pet feces promptly to prevent contamination of the environment.
6. Public health measures: Implement public health interventions, such as regular waste disposal, sewage treatment, and vector control, to reduce the transmission of parasitic infections.

Haemonchus is a genus of parasitic roundworms, also known as nematodes, that are commonly found in the abomasum (the true stomach) of ruminant animals such as sheep, goats, cattle, and deer. The species Haemonchus contortus, also known as the barber pole worm, is the most widespread and pathogenic member of this genus.

Haemonchus worms have a complex life cycle that involves both larval and adult stages. The adults are blood-sucking parasites that can cause significant harm to their hosts by consuming large quantities of blood, leading to anemia, weight loss, and potentially death in severe cases. These worms are particularly problematic in warm, humid climates where they can multiply rapidly and cause significant production losses in livestock operations.

Preventative measures such as strategic grazing management, regular fecal egg counts, and anthelmintic treatments are commonly used to control Haemonchus infections in livestock. However, the development of anthelmintic resistance has become a significant concern in recent years, making it increasingly difficult to manage these parasites effectively.

Antinematodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by nematodes, which are also known as roundworms. These agents work by either killing the parasitic worms or preventing them from reproducing. Some examples of antinematodal agents include albendazole, ivermectin, and mebendazole. These medications are used to treat a variety of nematode infections, such as ascariasis, hookworm infection, and strongyloidiasis. It is important to note that the use of antinematodal agents should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Pyrantel is an anthelmintic medication used to treat and prevent gastrointestinal parasitic infections caused by roundworms, hookworms, and pinworms in humans and animals. It works by paralyzing the parasites, allowing them to be expelled from the body. Pyrantel is available in various formulations, including tablets, suspensions, and pastes, for human and veterinary use. Common brand names include Pin-X, Reese's Pinworm Medicine, and Strongid.

Ivermectin is an anti-parasitic drug that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by parasites such as roundworms, threadworms, and lice. It works by paralyzing and killing the parasites, thereby eliminating the infection. Ivermectin is available in various forms, including tablets, creams, and solutions for topical use, as well as injections for veterinary use.

Ivermectin has been shown to be effective against a wide range of parasitic infections, including onchocerciasis (river blindness), strongyloidiasis, scabies, and lice infestations. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as COVID-19, although its effectiveness for this use has not been proven.

Ivermectin is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects in some people, including skin rashes, nausea, and diarrhea. It should be used with caution in pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease.

Fenbendazole is an anti-parasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infestations in both humans and animals. In humans, it is primarily used to treat intestinal worms such as roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. It works by binding to the parasite's tubulin, which disrupts its microtubule function and ultimately leads to the death of the parasite. Fenbendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, granules, and suspensions, and is typically administered orally.

It is important to note that while fenbendazole is approved for use in animals, its use in humans is off-label and should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Additionally, long-term or high-dose use of fenbendazole in humans has not been well studied, and there may be potential risks associated with such use.

Strongyloidea is a superfamily of parasitic nematode (roundworm) worms that includes several medically important genera such as Strongyloides and Rhabditis. These parasites are known to infect humans and other animals, causing a variety of symptoms depending on the species and the location of the infection in the body.

The genus Strongyloides contains several species that can infect humans, including S. stercoralis, S. fuelleborni, and S. kellyi. These parasites are known to cause strongyloidiasis, a disease characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloating, as well as skin rashes and respiratory symptoms in some cases.

The life cycle of Strongyloides species is complex and involves both free-living and parasitic stages. The worms can infect humans through contact with contaminated soil or water, and can then reproduce within the human body, causing ongoing infection and potentially serious complications if left untreated.

Treatment for strongyloidiasis typically involves administration of anti-parasitic drugs such as ivermectin or albendazole, which can help to eliminate the infection and prevent further transmission.

Helminthiasis, in general, refers to the infection or infestation of humans and animals by helminths, which are parasitic worms. When referring to "Animal Helminthiasis," it specifically pertains to the condition where animals, including domestic pets and livestock, are infected by various helminth species. These parasitic worms can reside in different organs of the animal's body, leading to a wide range of clinical signs depending on the worm species and the location of the infestation.

Animal Helminthiasis can be caused by different types of helminths:

1. Nematodes (roundworms): These include species like Ascaris suum in pigs, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina in cats, and Toxocara canis in dogs. They can cause gastrointestinal issues such as diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
2. Cestodes (tapeworms): Examples include Taenia saginata in cattle, Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and goats, and Dipylidium caninum in dogs and cats. Tapeworm infestations may lead to gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea or constipation and may also cause vitamin deficiencies due to the worm's ability to absorb nutrients from the host animal's digestive system.
3. Trematodes (flukes): These include liver flukes such as Fasciola hepatica in sheep, goats, and cattle, and schistosomes that can affect various animals, including birds and mammals. Liver fluke infestations may cause liver damage, leading to symptoms like weight loss, decreased appetite, and jaundice. Schistosome infestations can lead to issues in multiple organs depending on the species involved.

Preventing and controlling Helminthiasis in animals is crucial for maintaining animal health and welfare, as well as ensuring food safety for humans who consume products from these animals. Regular deworming programs, good hygiene practices, proper pasture management, and monitoring for clinical signs are essential components of a comprehensive parasite control strategy.

"Ascaridia" is a genus of parasitic roundworms that infect the gastrointestinal tract of various animals, including birds and mammals. The most common species to infect humans is Ascaris lumbricoides, also known as the "human roundworm."

Ascaridia infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the severity of the infestation. Mild infections may not cause any noticeable symptoms, while more severe infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. In extreme cases, Ascaris worms can obstruct the intestines or migrate to other parts of the body, causing potentially life-threatening complications.

Ascaridia infections are typically transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated food or water that contains eggs shed by infected individuals. Once inside the body, the eggs hatch and release larvae that migrate to the lungs, where they mature before being coughed up and swallowed, eventually settling in the small intestine and developing into adult worms.

Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands thoroughly with soap and water after using the toilet or handling soil, and cooking food thoroughly to kill any potential parasites. In areas where Ascaridia infections are common, preventive treatment with anthelmintic medications may be recommended for high-risk populations.

Haemonchiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) Haemonchus contortus, also known as the barber pole worm. This parasite primarily infects the abomasum (the fourth stomach compartment) of ruminant animals such as sheep, goats, and cattle, where it feeds on their blood.

The infection can lead to significant blood loss, anemia, weight loss, and even death in severe cases. Haemonchiasis is transmitted through the ingestion of infective larvae present on pastures. In humans, although rare, haemonchiasis can occur but is not clinically significant due to differences in the human abomasum structure compared to ruminants.

Nematoda is a phylum of pseudocoelomate, unsegmented worms with a round or filiform body shape. They are commonly known as roundworms or threadworms. Nematodes are among the most diverse and numerous animals on earth, with estimates of over 1 million species, of which only about 25,000 have been described.

Nematodes are found in a wide range of habitats, including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments. Some nematode species are free-living, while others are parasitic, infecting a variety of hosts, including plants, animals, and humans. Parasitic nematodes can cause significant disease and economic losses in agriculture, livestock production, and human health.

The medical importance of nematodes lies primarily in their role as parasites that infect humans and animals. Some common examples of medically important nematodes include:

* Ascaris lumbricoides (human roundworm)
* Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
* Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms)
* Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm or threadworm)
* Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa (filarial nematodes that cause lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and loiasis, respectively)

Nematode infections can cause a range of clinical symptoms, depending on the species and the location of the parasite in the body. Common symptoms include gastrointestinal disturbances, anemia, skin rashes, and lymphatic swelling. In some cases, nematode infections can lead to serious complications or even death if left untreated.

Medical management of nematode infections typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs, which are medications that kill or expel parasitic worms from the body. The choice of drug depends on the species of nematode and the severity of the infection. In some cases, preventive measures such as improved sanitation and hygiene can help reduce the risk of nematode infections.

Albendazole is an antiparasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis (a tapeworm infection that affects the brain), hydatid disease (a parasitic infection that can affect various organs), and other types of worm infestations such as pinworm, roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections.

Albendazole works by inhibiting the polymerization of beta-tubulin, a protein found in the microtubules of parasitic cells, which disrupts the parasite's ability to maintain its shape and move. This leads to the death of the parasite and elimination of the infection.

Albendazole is available in oral form and is typically taken two to three times a day with meals for several days or weeks, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects of albendazole include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and neurological problems.

It is important to note that albendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, it is not effective against all types of parasitic infections, so proper diagnosis is essential before starting treatment.

A "Parasite Egg Count" is a laboratory measurement used to estimate the number of parasitic eggs present in a fecal sample. It is commonly used in veterinary and human medicine to diagnose and monitor parasitic infections, such as those caused by roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and other intestinal helminths (parasitic worms).

The most common method for measuring parasite egg counts is the McMaster technique. This involves mixing a known volume of feces with a flotation solution, which causes the eggs to float to the top of the mixture. A small sample of this mixture is then placed on a special counting chamber and examined under a microscope. The number of eggs present in the sample is then multiplied by a dilution factor to estimate the total number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces.

Parasite egg counts can provide valuable information about the severity of an infection, as well as the effectiveness of treatment. However, it is important to note that not all parasitic infections produce visible eggs in the feces, and some parasites may only shed eggs intermittently. Therefore, a negative egg count does not always rule out the presence of a parasitic infection.

Mebendazole is a medication used to treat various types of worm infections, such as roundworm, whipworm, hookworm, and threadworm. It belongs to a class of drugs called anthelmintics, which work by preventing the worms from absorbing nutrients, leading to their eventual death and elimination from the body.

Mebendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, chewable tablets, and suspensions. It is usually taken as a single dose or for several days, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that mebendazole is not effective against all types of worm infections, so it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional. Additionally, while taking mebendazole, it's recommended to maintain good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding contaminated food or water, to prevent reinfection.

Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication used to treat parasitic worm infections. It works by paralyzing the worms, allowing the body to remove them from the system. In addition, levamisole has been used in veterinary medicine as an immunomodulator, a substance that affects the immune system.

In human medicine, levamisole was previously used in the treatment of colon cancer and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, its use in these areas has largely been discontinued due to side effects and the availability of more effective treatments.

It is important to note that levamisole has also been identified as a common adulterant in cocaine, which can lead to various health issues, including agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), skin lesions, and neurological symptoms.

Trichostrongylus is a genus of nematode (roundworm) parasites that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants such as sheep, goats, and cattle. These parasites can also infect humans, particularly those who come into contact with contaminated soil or water.

The medical definition of Trichostrongylus is:

A genus of strongylid nematodes that are parasitic in the gastrointestinal tract of various mammals, including humans. The adult worms are slender and measure 8-20 mm in length. They have a characteristic curved mouthpart called the buccal capsule, which is used to pierce and feed on the host's tissues.

Trichostrongylus species have a direct life cycle, with eggs hatching into larvae that develop through several stages before becoming infective. The infective larvae are then ingested by the host, where they mature into adults and reproduce.

Human infection with Trichostrongylus species can cause a condition known as trichostrongyliasis, which is characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss. Treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic medications such as albendazole or mebendazole.

Helminths are a type of parasitic worm that can infect humans and animals. They are multi-cellular organisms that belong to the phyla Platyhelminthes (flatworms) or Nematoda (roundworms). Helminths can be further classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminth infections are typically acquired through contact with contaminated soil, food, or water. The symptoms of helminth infections can vary widely depending on the type of worm and the location and extent of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and malnutrition.

Helminths have complex life cycles that often involve multiple hosts. They can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and in some cases, may require long-term treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. Preventive measures such as good hygiene practices, proper sanitation, and access to clean water can help reduce the risk of helminth infections.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

Helminthiasis is a medical condition characterized by the infection and infestation of body tissues and organs by helminths, which are parasitic worms. These worms can be classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminthiasis infections can occur through various modes of transmission, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, skin contact with contaminated soil, or direct contact with an infected person or animal. The severity of the infection depends on several factors, including the type and number of worms involved, the duration of the infestation, and the overall health status of the host.

Common symptoms of helminthiasis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. In severe cases, the infection can lead to organ damage or failure, impaired growth and development in children, and even death.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify the presence and type of worms. Treatment usually consists of administering anthelmintic drugs that are effective against specific types of worms. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

Strongylida is an order of parasitic roundworms, also known as nematodes. These parasites are primarily found in the gastrointestinal tracts of various hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles. Strongylida species have a complex life cycle that involves both free-living and parasitic stages. They are known for their strong epidemiological significance, as they can cause significant disease burden and production losses in livestock industries worldwide.

Some well-known Strongylida genera include:

* Strongyloides (threadworms)
* Ancylostoma (hookworms)
* Necator (hookworms)
* Ostertagia (brown stomach worms)
* Haemonchus (barber's pole worms)

These parasites can cause a range of clinical signs, depending on the species and intensity of infection. Common symptoms include diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and decreased productivity in affected animals. In humans, Strongyloides species can cause strongyloidiasis, which may present as cutaneous larva migrans or intestinal infection, with potential dissemination to various organs in severe cases.

Ascariasis is a medical condition caused by infection with the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. This type of worm infection, also known as intestinal ascariasis, occurs when people ingest contaminated soil, food, or water that contains Ascaris eggs. Once inside the body, these eggs hatch into larvae, which then migrate through the tissues and eventually reach the small intestine, where they mature into adult worms.

The adult worms can grow to be several inches long and live in the small intestine, where they feed on partially digested food. Female worms can produce thousands of eggs per day, which are then passed out of the body in feces. If these eggs hatch and infect other people, the cycle of infection continues.

Symptoms of ascariasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection. Mild infections may not cause any symptoms, while more severe infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. In some cases, the worms can cause intestinal blockages or migrate to other parts of the body, leading to potentially serious complications.

Treatment for ascariasis typically involves medication to kill the adult worms and prevent them from producing more eggs. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom and before eating, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water.

Trichuriasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) Trichuris trichiura, also known as the whipworm. This infection primarily affects the large intestine (cecum and colon). The main symptoms of trichuriasis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. In heavy infections, there can be severe complications such as anemia, growth retardation, and rectal prolapse. Trichuriasis is typically transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated soil containing Trichuris trichiura eggs, often through poor hygiene practices or exposure to contaminated food and water.

Bephenium compounds are a type of anti-parasitic drug that is primarily used to treat intestinal infections caused by parasites such as worms. The most common bephenium compound is bephenium hydroxynaphthoate, which works by paralyzing and eliminating the parasites from the body. These compounds were widely used in the past, but their use has decreased with the development of more modern anti-parasitic drugs. They are still available in some parts of the world as an over-the-counter or prescription medication. As with any medication, bephenium compounds should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and it's important to follow the recommended dosage and duration of treatment.

Hookworm infections are parasitic diseases caused by the ingestion or penetration of hookworm larvae (immature worms) into the human body. The two main species that infect humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.

The infection typically occurs through skin contact with contaminated soil, often when walking barefoot on dirty ground. The larvae then penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and travel to the lungs where they mature further. They are coughed up and swallowed, eventually reaching the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, chronic hookworm infections can lead to serious complications such as protein malnutrition and heart failure. Treatment typically involves the use of anti-parasitic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the adult worms and allow the body to expel them. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene practices, wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, and regular deworming of at-risk populations.

Morantel is an anthelmintic (a medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms) that belongs to the class of drugs called tetrahydropyrimidines. It works by paralyzing the worms, which are then expelled from the body. Morantel is commonly used to treat roundworm and stomach worm infections in animals, particularly in swine and cattle.

It's important to note that morantel is not approved for use in humans and should only be administered under the supervision of a veterinarian to animals.

'Ascaris suum' is a species of roundworm that primarily infects pigs, although it can also rarely infect humans. It is a type of parasitic nematode that lives in the intestines of its host and obtains nutrients from ingested food. The adult female worm can grow up to 40 cm in length and produces thousands of eggs every day. These eggs are passed in the feces of infected animals and can survive in the environment for years, making them a significant source of infection for other pigs or humans who come into contact with them.

In pigs, 'Ascaris suum' infection can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and stunted growth. In severe cases, it can lead to intestinal blockages or pneumonia. Humans who become infected with 'Ascaris suum' typically experience milder symptoms, such as abdominal pain, coughing, and wheezing. However, in rare cases, the infection can cause more serious complications, particularly if the worms migrate to other parts of the body.

Preventing 'Ascaris suum' infection involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or coming into contact with soil that may contain infected feces. It is also important to properly cook pork before eating it and to avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat. In areas where 'Ascaris suum' is common, deworming programs for pigs can help reduce the risk of infection for both animals and humans.

'Ascaris lumbricoides' is the medical term for a type of intestinal roundworm that can infect humans. This parasitic worm is one of the largest that can infest humans, and it is particularly prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene.

The life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides begins when an infected person passes eggs in their feces. These eggs can then be ingested through contaminated food or water, or by accidentally ingesting soil that contains the eggs. Once inside the body, the larvae hatch from the eggs and migrate through the tissues to the lungs, where they mature further. They are then coughed up and swallowed, entering the digestive system again, where they mature into adult worms.

Adult female Ascaris lumbricoides worms can grow up to 20-35 cm in length, while males are smaller, typically around 15-30 cm. They live in the small intestine and feed on partially digested food. Females can lay tens of thousands of eggs per day, which are passed in the feces and can infect other people if they come into contact with them.

Symptoms of ascariasis (the infection caused by Ascaris lumbricoides) can vary depending on the number of worms present and the severity of the infestation. Mild infections may cause no symptoms at all, while more severe infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. In rare cases, the worms can cause intestinal obstruction or migrate to other parts of the body, leading to serious complications.

Treatment for ascariasis typically involves medication to kill the worms, such as albendazole or mebendazole. Preventing infection requires good hygiene practices, including washing hands thoroughly with soap and water after using the toilet and before eating, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water.

Parasitic intestinal diseases are disorders caused by microscopic parasites that invade the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the small intestine. These parasites include protozoa (single-celled organisms) and helminths (parasitic worms). The most common protozoan parasites that cause intestinal disease are Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica. Common helminthic parasites include roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), tapeworms (Taenia saginata and Taenia solium), hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis).

Parasitic intestinal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. The severity and duration of the symptoms depend on the type of parasite, the number of organisms present, and the immune status of the host.

Transmission of these parasites can occur through various routes, including contaminated food and water, person-to-person contact, and contact with contaminated soil or feces. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before handling food, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or seafood.

Treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications that target the specific parasite causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may also be necessary.

Ostertagia is a genus of nematode parasites that can infect the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, such as cattle and sheep. The adult worms live in the abomasum (the fourth stomach compartment) and feed on the host's digestive juices and tissue.

Ostertagia infection, also known as ostertagiosis or type I ostertagiasis, can cause significant production losses in livestock due to reduced feed conversion efficiency, weight gain, and milk production. The parasite can also cause clinical signs of disease, such as diarrhea, reduced appetite, and decreased body condition.

Infection occurs when larvae ingested through contaminated pasture or feed develop into adult worms in the abomasum. The severity of infection depends on various factors, including the number of infective larvae ingested, the age and immune status of the host, and environmental conditions that affect larval survival and development.

Prevention and control measures for Ostertagia infection include pasture management practices, such as rotational grazing and fecal removal, strategic deworming programs, and genetic selection for resistance to parasites in livestock populations.

Ancylostomatoidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that includes the genera Ancylostoma and Necator, which are commonly known as hookworms. These parasites are primarily found in the small intestine of their hosts, which can include humans and other animals.

Ancylostomatoidea parasites have a complex life cycle that involves both free-living and parasitic stages. The life cycle begins when the parasite's eggs are passed in the feces of an infected host and hatch into larvae in the soil. The larvae then infect a new host by penetrating the skin, usually through contact with contaminated soil.

Once inside the host, the larvae migrate through the body to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed, allowing them to reach the small intestine. Here, they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on the host's blood, causing anemia and other symptoms of hookworm infection.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to anemia, intestinal obstruction, and even death. Prevention measures include wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, practicing good hygiene, and treating infected individuals to prevent the spread of the parasite.

Ancylostoma is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are commonly known as hookworms. These intestinal parasites infect humans and other animals through contact with contaminated soil, often via the skin or mouth. Two species of Ancylostoma that commonly infect humans are Ancylostoma duodenale and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

Ancylostoma duodenale is found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Mediterranean, Africa, Asia, and southern Europe. It can cause a disease called ancylostomiasis or hookworm infection, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and impaired growth in children.

Ancylostoma ceylanicum is found mainly in Southeast Asia, southern China, and some parts of Australia. It can also cause ancylostomiasis, with symptoms similar to those caused by Ancylostoma duodenale. However, Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections are often less severe than those caused by Ancylostoma duodenale.

Preventive measures for hookworm infection include wearing shoes in areas where the soil may be contaminated with feces, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet or handling soil, and avoiding ingestion of contaminated soil or water. Treatment for hookworm infection typically involves administration of anthelmintic drugs to eliminate the parasites from the body.

Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms belonging to the phylum Platyhelminthes, also known as flatworms. Cestodes are commonly known as tapeworms and have a long, flat, segmented body that can grow to considerable length in their adult form. They lack a digestive system and absorb nutrients through their body surface.

Cestodes have a complex life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts, usually insects or crustaceans, and a definitive host, which is typically a mammal, including humans. The tapeworm's larval stage develops in the intermediate host, and when the definitive host consumes the infected intermediate host, the larvae mature into adults in the host's intestine.

Humans can become infected with tapeworms by eating raw or undercooked meat from infected animals or through accidental ingestion of contaminated water or food containing tapeworm eggs or larvae. Infection with tapeworms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and vitamin deficiencies.

Trichostrongylosis is a parasitic disease caused by infection with nematode (roundworm) species belonging to the genus Trichostrongylus. These parasites are primarily found in sheep, goats, and cattle, but can also infect humans, particularly those who have close contact with animals or consume contaminated vegetables.

The life cycle of these parasites involves ingestion of infective larvae, which then mature into adults in the gastrointestinal tract. Adult worms live in the mucosal lining of the small intestine and feed on blood and tissue. Heavy infections can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and protein loss.

Diagnosis is typically made through identification of eggs or larvae in stool samples. Treatment involves administration of anthelmintic medications, which are drugs that kill parasitic worms. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands after handling animals and before eating, and thorough cooking of vegetables that may have been grown in contaminated soil.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Goat diseases" refers to illnesses that affect goats specifically. It does not mean diseases that are caused by goats or related to them in some way. Here are some examples of goat diseases:

1. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects goats, causing arthritis, pneumonia, and sometimes encephalitis.
2. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A bacterial disease that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes of goats.
3. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by mycoplasma bacteria.
4. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.
5. Pasteurellosis: A bacterial disease that can cause pneumonia, septicemia, and other infections in goats.
6. Salmonellosis: A bacterial disease caused by Salmonella bacteria, which can cause diarrhea, fever, and septicemia in goats.
7. Soremouth (Orf): A viral disease that causes sores and scabs around the mouth and nose of goats.

These are just a few examples of diseases that can affect goats. If you have any specific questions about goat health or diseases, I would recommend consulting with a veterinarian who specializes in small ruminants.

"Trichuris" is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are known to infect the intestines of various mammals, including humans. The species that commonly infects humans is called "Trichuris trichiura," which is also known as the human whipworm. These worms are named for their long, thin shape that resembles a whip.

The life cycle of Trichuris involves ingestion of eggs containing infective larvae through contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, the larvae hatch and migrate to the large intestine, where they mature into adult worms that live in the caecum and colon. Adult female worms lay thousands of eggs every day, which are passed in the feces and can survive in the environment for years, waiting to infect a new host.

Infections with Trichuris trichiura can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, and weight loss. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, malnutrition, and impaired growth in children. Treatment for trichuriasis typically involves medication that kills the adult worms, such as albendazole or mebendazole.

Equine strongyle infections refer to parasitic diseases caused by various species of Strongylus spp. and other related nematode (roundworm) parasites that infect horses. The term "strongyles" is used to describe large and small strongyles, which have different clinical significance and life cycles.

1. Large Strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, and S. equinus): These parasites have a significant clinical impact on horses. They have a complex life cycle involving migratory larval stages that travel through the horse's circulatory system and cause damage to blood vessels, heart, liver, and lungs. The adult strongyles reside in the large intestine and lay eggs, which are passed in the feces and further infect the horse upon ingestion of contaminated pasture.
2. Small Strongyles (Cyathostominae subfamily): These parasites have a simpler life cycle and are less clinically significant compared to large strongyles. The larvae encyst within the intestinal wall, where they can remain dormant for extended periods. When environmental conditions become favorable, these larvae emerge from their cysts and mature into adults in the large intestine, causing damage and potentially leading to clinical signs of disease.

Clinical signs of strongyle infections may include diarrhea, colic, weight loss, anemia, and decreased performance. Diagnosis is typically made by identifying parasite eggs in fecal samples using microscopic examination or coprological techniques. Treatment involves the use of anthelmintics (dewormers) specifically labeled for strongyle infections in horses. Preventative measures include pasture management, strategic deworming programs, and regular fecal egg count monitoring to assess parasite burden and treatment efficacy.

Pyrantel pamoate is an anthelmintic medication used to treat intestinal worm infections, such as pinworms, roundworms, and hookworms. It works by paralyzing the adult worms, which are then expelled from the body through the natural digestive process.

Pyrantel pamoate is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, chewable tablets, and suspensions. The medication is typically taken as a single dose, but it may be repeated after two weeks for some types of worm infections.

It's important to note that while pyrantel pamoate can effectively treat intestinal worm infections, it does not prevent reinfection. Therefore, good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or feces, are essential to reduce the risk of re-infection.

As with any medication, pyrantel pamoate should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, especially in children, pregnant women, and people with certain medical conditions or who are taking other medications.

Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication, which is used to treat and prevent trematode (fluke) infections, including schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever), clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and fasciolopsiasis. It works by causing severe spasms in the muscle cells of the parasites, ultimately leading to their death. Praziquantel is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally in a single dose, although the dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that praziquantel is not effective against tapeworm infections, and other medications such as niclosamide or albendazole are used instead for those infections. Also, Praziquantel should be taken under medical supervision, as it may have some side effects, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache.

It's important to consult a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Salicylanilides are a group of synthetic compounds that contain a salicylic acid moiety (a phenolic ring with a hydroxyl and a carboxyl group) linked to an aniline part through a carbon chain. They are known for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Some common representatives of this class include salicylanilide, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid methyl ester, and 3-amino-5-chlorosalicylanilide. These compounds have been used in various medical and veterinary applications, such as topical antimicrobial agents, ovicides (agents that kill the eggs of parasites), and anthelmintics (agents that expel or destroy parasitic worms). However, due to concerns about potential toxicity and environmental persistence, their use has been limited in recent years.

Trichostrongyloidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that includes several medically and veterinarily important genera. These parasites primarily infect the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts, which can include humans, ruminants, equids, and other animals.

The life cycle of Trichostrongyloidea species typically involves eggs being passed in the feces of an infected host, hatching into larvae in the environment, and then infecting a new host through ingestion or skin penetration. The parasites then mature into adults in the host's gastrointestinal tract, where they feed on blood or tissue and cause various symptoms depending on the species and the severity of the infection.

Some common genera of Trichostrongyloidea include:
- Trichostrongylus (barber pole worm)
- Necator (human hookworms)
- Ancylostoma (hookworms that infect both humans and animals)
- Haemonchus (barber pole worm)
- Ostertagia (brown stomach worm)

Symptoms of Trichostrongyloidea infections can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and protein deficiency. Treatment typically involves administration of anthelmintic drugs to kill the parasites. Prevention measures include good sanitation and hygiene practices, as well as regular deworming of animals in veterinary settings.

Aminoacetonitrile is a chemical compound with the formula NH₂CH₂CN. It is an organic compound that contains both an amino group (-NH₂) and a cyano group (-CN). This colorless liquid is used in organic synthesis and as a building block for the production of certain pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

It's important to note that Aminoacetonitrile itself is not a medication or a drug, but it can be used in the synthesis of certain drugs and chemicals. It is not a naturally occurring compound and must be produced through chemical reactions.

As with any chemical compound, Aminoacetonitrile should be handled with care, following appropriate safety guidelines, to minimize the risk of exposure and potential health effects.

Ancylostomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. These tiny worms infect the human intestines, specifically in the small intestine, where they attach themselves to the intestinal wall and feed on the host's blood.

The infection is typically acquired through skin contact with contaminated soil, particularly in areas where human feces are used as fertilizer or where there is poor sanitation. The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and migrate to the lungs, where they mature further before being coughed up and swallowed, eventually reaching the small intestine.

Symptoms of ancylostomiasis can range from mild to severe and may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, particularly in children or individuals with weakened immune systems, the infection can lead to protein-energy malnutrition, cognitive impairment, and even death.

Treatment for ancylostomiasis typically involves administration of anthelmintic medications such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the parasitic worms. Improved sanitation and hygiene practices can help prevent reinfection and reduce the spread of the disease.

Antiparasitic agents are a type of medication used to treat parasitic infections. These agents include a wide range of drugs that work to destroy, inhibit the growth of, or otherwise eliminate parasites from the body. Parasites are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive nutrients at the host's expense.

Antiparasitic agents can be divided into several categories based on the type of parasite they target. Some examples include:

* Antimalarial agents: These drugs are used to treat and prevent malaria, which is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
* Antiprotozoal agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that can cause diseases such as giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and sleeping sickness.
* Antihelminthic agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by helminths, which are parasitic worms that can infect various organs of the body, including the intestines, lungs, and skin. Examples include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Antiparasitic agents work in different ways to target parasites. Some disrupt the parasite's metabolism or interfere with its ability to reproduce. Others damage the parasite's membrane or exoskeleton, leading to its death. The specific mechanism of action depends on the type of antiparasitic agent and the parasite it is targeting.

It is important to note that while antiparasitic agents can be effective in treating parasitic infections, they can also have side effects and potential risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any antiparasitic medication to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Teucrium is a genus of plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It includes several species commonly known as germander, which have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. However, it's important to note that the use of some Teucrium species as herbal remedies has been associated with serious side effects, including liver toxicity. Therefore, their medical use is not recommended without proper medical supervision and scientific evidence supporting their safety and efficacy.

Ascaridida infections are caused by roundworms belonging to the order Ascaridida, which includes several species that can infect humans and animals. The most common species that infects humans is Ascaris lumbricoides, also known as the human roundworm. Other species that can cause infection in humans include Toxocara spp., Baylisascaris procyonis, and Ascaris suum (the pig roundworm).

Infection with these parasites typically occurs through ingestion of contaminated food or water containing eggs or larvae. The larvae hatch in the small intestine and then migrate through the body to various organs, including the liver, lungs, and eyes, where they can cause damage. After several weeks, the larvae return to the small intestine, where they mature into adult worms and begin producing eggs.

Symptoms of ascariasis (infection with Ascaris lumbricoides) can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the worms in the body. Mild infections may cause no symptoms or only mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. More severe infections can lead to intestinal obstruction, malnutrition, and other complications.

Infection with Toxocara spp. can cause a condition called visceral larva migrans, which is characterized by fever, cough, rash, and liver enlargement. Ocular larva migrans can occur when the larvae migrate to the eye, causing inflammation and potentially leading to vision loss.

Baylisascaris procyonis infection can cause a similar condition called neural larva migrans, which can lead to neurological symptoms such as seizures, muscle weakness, and paralysis.

Prevention of Ascaridida infections involves practicing good hygiene, including washing hands thoroughly with soap and water after using the toilet or handling soil or contaminated objects. Proper cooking and cleaning of food can also help prevent infection. In areas where ascariasis is common, treatment of human waste and improvement of sanitation infrastructure can help reduce transmission.

'Agave' is a genus of plants, primarily found in hot and dry regions of the Americas. It is not a medical term or concept. Agave plants are known for their rosette-shaped arrangement of stiff, sharp leaves, and many species produce a tall flowering stalk after several years of growth. Some agave species are cultivated for the production of various products, such as tequila, a distilled beverage made from the blue agave plant (Agave tequilana), and agave nectar or syrup, derived from several different species.

While not directly related to medical terminology, it is worth noting that some agave species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions, wounds, or digestive issues. However, these uses are not well-studied and should not be considered a substitute for evidence-based modern medical treatments.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Cestode infections, also known as tapeworm infections, are caused by the ingestion of larval cestodes (tapeworms) present in undercooked meat or contaminated water. The most common types of cestode infections in humans include:

1. Taeniasis: This is an infection with the adult tapeworm of the genus Taenia, such as Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). Humans become infected by consuming undercooked beef or pork that contains viable tapeworm larvae. The larvae then mature into adult tapeworms in the human intestine, where they can live for several years, producing eggs that are passed in the feces.
2. Hydatid disease: This is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, which is commonly found in dogs and other carnivores. Humans become infected by accidentally ingesting eggs present in dog feces or contaminated food or water. The eggs hatch in the human intestine and release larvae that migrate to various organs, such as the liver or lungs, where they form hydatid cysts. These cysts can grow slowly over several years and cause symptoms depending on their location and size.
3. Diphyllobothriasis: This is an infection with the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, which is found in freshwater fish. Humans become infected by consuming raw or undercooked fish that contain viable tapeworm larvae. The larvae mature into adult tapeworms in the human intestine and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vitamin B12 deficiency.

Preventing cestode infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meat thoroughly, avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked fish, and washing fruits and vegetables carefully before eating. In some cases, treatment with antiparasitic drugs may be necessary to eliminate the tapeworms from the body.

Strongylida infections are a group of parasitic diseases caused by roundworms that belong to the order Strongylida. These nematodes infect various hosts, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations depending on the specific species involved. Here are some examples:

1. Strongyloidiasis: This is an infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. The parasite can penetrate the skin and migrate to the lungs and small intestine, causing respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms such as cough, wheezing, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In immunocompromised individuals, the infection can become severe and disseminated, leading to systemic illness and even death.
2. Hookworm infections: The hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus infect humans through skin contact with contaminated soil. The larvae migrate to the lungs and then to the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood. Heavy infections can cause anemia, protein loss, and developmental delays in children.
3. Trichostrongyliasis: This is a group of infections caused by various species of nematodes that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The parasites can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and anemia.
4. Toxocariasis: This is an infection caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, which infect dogs and cats, respectively. Humans can become infected through accidental ingestion of contaminated soil or food. The larvae migrate to various organs such as the liver, lungs, and eyes, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, abdominal pain, and vision loss.

Preventive measures for Strongylida infections include personal hygiene, proper sanitation, and avoidance of contact with contaminated soil or water. Treatment usually involves antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole or ivermectin, depending on the specific infection and severity of symptoms.

Ascaridoidea is a superfamily of parasitic nematode roundworms that includes several medically important genera such as Ascaris, Toxocara, and Baylisascaris. These worms have a complex life cycle involving intermediate hosts like insects or mammals, and definitive hosts such as humans or other animals.

In humans, the most common species of Ascaridoidea are Ascaris lumbricoides (also known as "human roundworm") and Toxocara canis (dog roundworm) or Toxocara cati (cat roundworm). Infection with these parasites typically occurs through ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil.

Ascaris lumbricoides infection, known as ascariasis, can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Severe infections may lead to intestinal obstruction, malnutrition, or impaired growth in children.

Toxocara infection, also called toxocariasis, can result in visceral larva migrans (VLM) or ocular larva migrans (OLM), depending on the organs affected. VLM may cause fever, cough, wheezing, and hepatomegaly, while OLM can lead to vision loss or eye inflammation.

Preventive measures include proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or feces. In some cases, medication may be necessary to treat these infections.

"Annona" is a genus of plants in the custard apple family, Annonaceae. It includes several species that produce edible fruit, such as Annona squamosa (sugar-apple or sweetsop), Annona reticulata (custard apple or bullock's heart), and Annona cherimola (cherimoya). These fruits are native to tropical regions of the Americas and have been cultivated for their sweet, aromatic flesh.

In a medical context, "Annona" is not commonly used as a term. However, some research has investigated the potential medicinal properties of compounds found in Annona species. For example, acetogenins found in the seeds and bark of certain Annona species have been studied for their potential anti-cancer, insecticidal, and anti-malarial properties.

It's worth noting that while some research has suggested that these compounds may have therapeutic potential, more studies are needed to confirm their safety and efficacy in humans. Additionally, it's important to note that the seeds and bark of Annona species can be toxic if ingested in large quantities, so they should not be consumed without medical supervision.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyrvinium compounds" is not a widely recognized medical term or category. Pyrvinium is an antiparasitic medication that is used to treat certain types of intestinal worm infections. The most common compound is Pyrvinium pamoate, which is the active ingredient in the branded medication "Vanquin."

Pyrvinium works by inhibiting the metabolism of the parasites, leading to their death and elimination from the body. It'… Read more

Metastrongyloidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that have complex life cycles involving intermediate hosts such as mollusks or arthropods. The adult worms typically reside in the respiratory system, lungs, or other tissues of various mammalian hosts, including humans.

The Metastrongyloidea superfamily includes several medically and veterinarily important genera such as:

* Metastrongylus (e.g., M. pudendotectus, M. salmi) - found in the lungs of suids (pigs, wild boars, warthogs)
* Angiostrongylus (e.g., A. cantonensis, A. costaricensis) - parasites of rodents and other mammals, with zoonotic potential
* Crenosoma (e.g., C. vulpis, C. striatum) - found in the respiratory tracts of canids (dogs, wolves, foxes) and mustelids (otters, weasels)
* Varestrongylus (e.g., V. capreoli, V. alces) - parasites of cervids (deer, elk, moose)

These nematodes are often associated with respiratory and pulmonary diseases in their respective hosts, causing conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, or granulomatous inflammation. In humans, angiostrongyliasis can lead to eosinophilic meningitis, a severe neurological condition caused by the migration of larvae through the central nervous system.

Parasitic sensitivity tests, also known as parasite drug susceptibility tests, refer to laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of specific antiparasitic medications against a particular parasitic infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which drugs are most likely to be effective in treating an individual's infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance or increased risk of side effects.

There are several types of parasitic sensitivity tests, including:

1. In vitro susceptibility testing: This involves culturing the parasite in a laboratory setting and exposing it to different concentrations of antiparasitic drugs. The growth or survival of the parasite is then observed and compared to a control group that was not exposed to the drug. This helps identify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, which is the lowest concentration required to prevent the growth of the parasite.
2. Molecular testing: This involves analyzing the genetic material of the parasite to detect specific mutations or gene variations that are associated with resistance to certain antiparasitic drugs. This type of testing can be performed using a variety of methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.
3. Phenotypic testing: This involves observing the effects of antiparasitic drugs on the growth or survival of the parasite in a laboratory setting. For example, a parasite may be grown in a culture medium and then exposed to different concentrations of a drug. The growth of the parasite is then monitored over time to determine the drug's effectiveness.

Parasitic sensitivity tests are important for guiding the treatment of many parasitic infections, including malaria, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis. These tests can help healthcare providers choose the most effective antiparasitic drugs for their patients, reduce the risk of drug resistance, and improve treatment outcomes.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Flacourtiaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, specifically a family of flowering plants. Flacourtiaceae includes around 80 genera and 1,200 species of trees, shrubs, and lianas found primarily in the tropics. The plants in this family have simple, alternate leaves and small, usually greenish or white flowers. Some examples of genera within Flacourtiaceae are Casearia, Xylosma, and Hoecama.

If you have a medical term that you would like me to define or provide more information about, please let me know!

"Achillea" is the genus name for a group of flowering plants commonly known as yarrows. These plants belong to the family Asteraceae and are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The name "Achillea" comes from Achilles, the legendary Greek hero of the Trojan War, who was said to have used the plant to treat wounds on the battlefield.

Yarrows are hardy herbaceous plants that typically grow to a height of 1-2 feet. They have feathery, aromatic leaves and produce clusters of small flowers in shades of white, yellow, pink, or red. The flowers are popular with bees and butterflies, making yarrows a good choice for pollinator gardens.

Yarrows have a long history of use in traditional medicine. The leaves and flowers can be made into teas, tinctures, or salves to treat a variety of ailments, including wounds, cuts, bruises, and inflammation. Some studies suggest that certain species of yarrow may have antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties, although more research is needed to confirm these effects.

It's worth noting that some people may experience allergic reactions to yarrow, particularly if they are sensitive to plants in the Asteraceae family. If you are considering using yarrow for medicinal purposes, it's a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider first to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for your needs.

Heligmosomatoidea is a superfamily of nematodes (roundworms) that include several medically and veterinarily important parasitic genera. These parasites primarily infect the gastrointestinal tract of various mammalian hosts, including humans, rodents, and ruminants. Some well-known genera within Heligmosomatoidea are Heligmosomum, Nippostrongylus, and Syphacia.

The life cycles of these parasites typically involve eggs being passed in the host's feces, which then hatch into infective larvae in the environment. The larvae can then be ingested by a new host, either through contaminated food or water, or directly from the environment. Once inside the host, the larvae migrate to the gastrointestinal tract and mature into adults, where they lay eggs and continue the life cycle.

Infections with Heligmosomatoidea parasites can cause a range of symptoms in humans and animals, depending on the species and the severity of the infection. These may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and anemia. In some cases, these infections can also lead to more serious complications, particularly in immunocompromised individuals.

Prevention and control measures for Heligmosomatoidea infections typically involve good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet or handling contaminated soil, and cooking food thoroughly before eating. In addition, veterinarians may recommend deworming treatments for pets and livestock to help prevent the spread of these parasites.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Trichostrongyloidiasis is a parasitic infection caused by nematode (roundworm) species belonging to the family Trichostrongylidae. The most common species that infect humans are Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale (hookworms), and Trichostrongylus species.

The infection primarily occurs through contact with contaminated soil, often via walking barefoot or handling contaminated vegetables. Ingesting the larvae can also lead to infection. The larvae penetrate the skin, migrate to the lungs, and are then swallowed, reaching the small intestine where they mature into adults. Adult worms attach themselves to the intestinal wall and feed on blood and tissue, which can lead to iron deficiency anemia, protein loss, and other complications in severe or chronic cases.

Symptoms of trichostrongyloidiasis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, weight loss, and fatigue. Infections with hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) can also cause cutaneous larva migrans, a skin condition characterized by an intensely pruritic, serpiginous rash caused by the migration of larvae through the skin.

Diagnosis is typically made by identifying eggs or larvae in stool samples. Treatment usually involves administering anthelmintic medications such as albendazole, mebendazole, or ivermectin to eliminate the parasites. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, and thoroughly washing and cooking vegetables before consumption.

Strongyloides is a type of parasitic roundworm that can infect humans and other animals. The most common species to infect humans is Strongyloides stercoralis. These tiny worms can cause a condition known as strongyloidiasis, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes.

The life cycle of Strongyloides is unique among parasitic roundworms because it can complete its entire life cycle within a single host, without needing to exit the body and infect a new host. This is known as "autoinfection" and it allows the worm to persist in the human body for many years, even in the absence of new infections.

Strongyloides infection typically occurs when larvae (immature worms) penetrate the skin, often through contaminated soil. The larvae then travel through the bloodstream to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed, allowing them to reach the intestines and mature into adults. Female adult worms can lay eggs that hatch into larvae, which can either be excreted in feces or undergo autoinfection by penetrating the intestinal wall and entering the bloodstream again.

While many people with Strongyloides infection do not experience any symptoms, severe infections can lead to complications such as chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, and bacterial bloodstream infections. In immunocompromised individuals, Strongyloides infection can be life-threatening due to the rapid multiplication of larvae in the body, a condition known as "hyperinfection."

Oesophagostomum is a genus of parasitic roundworms that infect the gastrointestinal tract of various mammals, including primates and pigs. The adult worms are typically found in the large intestine, where they lay their eggs, which are passed in the feces and can contaminate the environment.

In humans, Oesophagostomum infection is also known as "nodular worm" or "whipworm of the large intestine." The larvae hatch from the eggs and penetrate the skin, causing a pruritic rash. They then migrate to the lungs, where they cause coughing and other respiratory symptoms before being swallowed and passing into the gastrointestinal tract.

Symptoms of Oesophagostomum infection in humans can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss. In severe cases, the worms can cause intestinal obstruction or perforation. Treatment typically involves administration of anthelmintic drugs to kill the parasites.

Benzimidazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a benzene fused to a imidazole ring. They have a wide range of pharmacological activities and are used in the treatment of various diseases. Some of the benzimidazoles are used as antiparasitics, such as albendazole and mebendazole, which are effective against a variety of worm infestations. Other benzimidazoles have antifungal properties, such as thiabendazole and fuberidazole, and are used to treat fungal infections. Additionally, some benzimidazoles have been found to have anti-cancer properties and are being investigated for their potential use in cancer therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.

Loganiaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Gentianales. It includes trees, shrubs, and herbs, with simple, opposite leaves and showy, often bilaterally symmetrical flowers. The fruits are typically drupes or capsules. Some members of this family contain toxic alkaloids and have been used in traditional medicine. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants for medicinal purposes should only be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional due to their potential toxicity.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Ostertagiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode roundworm Ostertagia ostertagi in the abomasum (the fourth stomach compartment) of ruminants, such as cattle and sheep. The larvae of the worm infect the host by ingesting contaminated grass, leading to inflammation, reduced feed conversion, diarrhea, and decreased growth rates. In severe cases, it can cause a syndrome known as Type II ostertagiasis or "thin cow syndrome," which is characterized by weight loss, lethargy, and even death in extreme cases. It is a significant concern for the agricultural industry, leading to economic losses due to decreased productivity and increased treatment costs.

Anticestodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by tapeworms (cestodes) and other related parasites. These agents work by either stunting the growth or killing the parasites, which allows the body to expel them naturally. Common anticestodal agents include niclosamide, praziquantel, and albendazole. It is important to note that proper diagnosis of the specific type of tapeworm infection is necessary for effective treatment, as different medications may be more or less effective against certain species.

Ericaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as heath family or heather family. It includes a number of genera with over 4000 species, many of which are evergreen shrubs and trees. Some well-known members of this family include blueberries, cranberries, rhododendrons, azaleas, and heathers. These plants typically prefer acidic soils and are often found in woodland, mountain, and coastal habitats.

Hymenolepiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworms Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm) or Hymenolepis diminuta (rat tapeworm).

The dwarf tapeworm, H. nana, is the most common cause of hymenolepiasis and can complete its life cycle within a single host, making human-to-human transmission possible through the fecal-oral route. This means that eggs are ingested, often through contaminated food or water, and then hatched in the small intestine, where they develop into adult tapeworms.

On the other hand, H. diminuta requires an intermediate host, usually a rat or beetle, to complete its life cycle. Humans can become infected by ingesting the infected insect or contaminated food.

Symptoms of hymenolepiasis may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and weight loss. In severe cases, anemia and intestinal inflammation can occur. The infection is typically diagnosed through the identification of eggs or tapeworm segments in stool samples. Treatment usually involves administering a course of medication that targets the parasite, such as praziquantel or niclosamide.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Niclosamide is an antihelminthic medication, which means it is used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms. It works by disrupting the metabolism of the worms, leading to their elimination from the body. Niclosamide is specifically indicated for the treatment of tapeworm infections (such as Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, and Hymenolepis nana).

It's important to note that niclosamide is not typically absorbed into the human body when taken as directed, so it primarily affects the worms in the digestive tract. However, if you have any specific questions about niclosamide or its use, please consult a healthcare professional for medical advice tailored to your particular circumstances.

'Cymbopogon' is a genus of tropical grasses in the family Poaceae, also known as lemongrass. It includes several species that are used for their aromatic leaves and essential oils, which have various applications in cooking, traditional medicine, and perfumery. Some common examples of Cymbopogon species include C. citratus (West Indian lemongrass), C. flexuosus (East Indian lemongrass), and C. nardus (citronella grass).

Depsipeptides are a type of naturally occurring or synthetic modified peptides that contain at least one amide bond replaced by an ester bond in their structure. These compounds exhibit diverse biological activities, including antimicrobial, antiviral, and antitumor properties. Some depsipeptides have been developed as pharmaceutical drugs for the treatment of various diseases.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Combretaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the combretum family or shrubs and small trees. It includes approximately 600 species across 30 genera, which are primarily found in tropical and warm temperate regions around the world. The plants in this family have simple, opposite leaves and flowers that are usually arranged in spikes or racemes. They produce fruits that are typically woody and have various shapes and sizes depending on the genus. Some of the well-known genera in Combretaceae include Combretum, Terminalia, Anogeissus, and Buchenavia. The plants in this family have a variety of uses, including medicinal, timber, tannin, and ornamental purposes.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Verbascum" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of plants commonly known as mulleins. These plants have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating respiratory conditions and skin irritations. However, it's important to note that the effectiveness and safety of these uses have not been thoroughly studied or proven in modern clinical trials. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment or therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Melia azedarach" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for a type of tree commonly known as the "Chinaberry tree" or "Persian Lilac." This tree is native to parts of Asia and has been introduced to many other regions around the world. While the tree itself is not a medical term, its fruits, leaves, and bark have been used in traditional medicine in various cultures. However, it's important to note that these uses have not been thoroughly researched or proven to be safe or effective by modern medical standards. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment or therapy.

'Ascaris' is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are known to infect the human gastrointestinal tract. The two species that commonly infect humans are Ascaris lumbricoides (also known as the "large roundworm") and Ascaris suum (the "pig roundworm").

Human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water containing the worm's eggs. Once inside the human body, these eggs hatch into larvae, which migrate through various tissues before reaching the small intestine, where they mature into adult worms. Adult female worms can grow up to 20-35 cm in length and produce thousands of eggs per day, which are then excreted in feces and can contaminate the environment, perpetuating the transmission cycle.

Symptoms of ascariasis (the infection caused by Ascaris) can range from mild to severe, depending on the number of worms present and the individual's overall health status. Light infections may not cause any symptoms, while heavy infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and intestinal obstruction. In some cases, Ascaris worms may migrate to unusual locations such as the lungs or bile ducts, causing additional complications.

Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene practices, such as handwashing with soap and water, proper disposal of human feces, and cooking food thoroughly before consumption. Treatment typically involves administration of anthelmintic medications that kill the worms, followed by appropriate follow-up care to ensure complete eradication of the infection.

Thiabendazole is a medication that belongs to the class of antiparasitic drugs. It works by inhibiting the growth of parasites, particularly roundworms, hookworms, and threadworms, in the body. Thiabendazole is used to treat a variety of infections caused by these parasites, including intestinal infections, skin infections, and eye infections. It may also be used to prevent certain parasitic infections in people who are at high risk.

Thiabendazole works by interfering with the metabolism of the parasite's cells, which ultimately leads to their death. The medication is available in both oral and topical forms, depending on the type of infection being treated. Thiabendazole is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting thiabendazole therapy.

It is important to note that Thiabendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and should not be used for self-treatment without proper medical advice.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

Phytochemicals are compounds that are produced by plants (hence the "phyto-") for their own defense against predators and diseases. They are found in various plant parts such as fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, and teas. Phytochemicals can have beneficial effects on human health as they exhibit protective or disease preventive properties.

These compounds belong to a diverse group with varying structures and chemical properties. Some common classes of phytochemicals include carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, organosulfides, and alkaloids. They have been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and immune system-enhancing properties, among others.

It is important to note that while phytochemicals can contribute to overall health and wellness, they should not be considered a cure or treatment for medical conditions. A balanced diet rich in various fruits, vegetables, and whole foods is recommended for optimal health benefits.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Melastomataceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the Melastomataceae family of plants, also known as the melastome or blueberry family. This family includes around 400 genera and 5,000 species of flowering plants, many of which are found in tropical regions around the world.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help. Please provide me with more information so that I can better assist you.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Ecuador" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in South America, officially known as the "República del Ecuador." If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Alpinia is a genus of plants in the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) that includes around 230 species. These plants are native to tropical regions of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. Many Alpinia species have aromatic rhizomes that are used in traditional medicine and cooking. Some common names for Alpinia include galangal, greater galangal, lesser galangal, and thai ginger.

In a medical context, Alpinia species such as Alpinia galanga and Alpinia officinarum have been studied for their potential medicinal properties. For example, some research suggests that these plants may have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the safety and effectiveness of using Alpinia for medical purposes.

It's important to note that while Alpinia species have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, they should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment. If you are considering using Alpinia or any other herbal remedy, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider first to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Macrolides are a class of antibiotics derived from natural products obtained from various species of Streptomyces bacteria. They have a large ring structure consisting of 12, 14, or 15 atoms, to which one or more sugar molecules are attached. Macrolides inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit, thereby preventing peptide bond formation. Common examples of macrolides include erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. They are primarily used to treat respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

"Clausena" is a genus of plants in the family Rutaceae, which includes various species such as Clausena excavata, Clausena lansium, and Clausena indica. These plants are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia. They have been used in traditional medicine for treating various ailments, including gastrointestinal disorders, skin diseases, and fever. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support these claims.

The medical definition of "Clausena" would refer to the pharmacological or medicinal properties of the plants in this genus. Some studies have suggested that certain species of Clausena contain bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic benefits, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medicinal properties of these plants and their potential applications in modern medicine.

It's important to note that while some Clausena species may have medicinal benefits, they can also contain toxic compounds that can be harmful if ingested or applied topically in high concentrations. Therefore, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any Clausena-based remedies or supplements.

Helminth proteins refer to the proteins that are produced and expressed by helminths, which are parasitic worms that cause diseases in humans and animals. These proteins can be found on the surface or inside the helminths and play various roles in their biology, such as in development, reproduction, and immune evasion. Some helminth proteins have been identified as potential targets for vaccines or drug development, as blocking their function may help to control or eliminate helminth infections. Examples of helminth proteins that have been studied include the antigen Bm86 from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, and the tetraspanin protein Sm22.6 from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

Rosaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an family of flowering plants. However, many physicians and dermatologists are familiar with some members of this family because they cause several common skin conditions.

Rosaceae refers to a family of plants that include roses, strawberries, blackberries, and many other ornamental and edible plants. Some genera within this family contain species known to cause various dermatologic conditions in humans, particularly affecting the face.

The most well-known skin disorders associated with Rosaceae are:

1. Acne rosacea (or rosacea): A chronic inflammatory skin condition primarily affecting the central face, characterized by flushing, persistent erythema (redness), telangiectasia (dilated blood vessels), papules, pustules, and sometimes rhinophyma (enlarged, bulbous nose).
2. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by persistent central facial erythema, flushing, and telangiectasia without papules or pustules.
3. Phymatous rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by thickening skin, irregular surface nodularities, and enlargement, particularly of the nose (rhinophyma).
4. Ocular rosacea: Inflammation of the eyes and eyelids associated with rosacea, causing symptoms like dryness, grittiness, foreign body sensation, burning, stinging, itching, watering, redness, and occasional blurry vision.

While not a medical term itself, Rosaceae is an essential concept in dermatology due to the skin conditions it encompasses.

"Carica" is a genus name that refers to a group of plants commonly known as papayas. The most widely cultivated and well-known species in this genus is Carica papaya, which is native to Central America and southern Mexico. This plant produces large, edible fruits that are rich in nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin A, and potassium.

The fruit of the Carica papaya tree is often used for its medicinal properties, including its anti-inflammatory and digestive benefits. The leaves, stems, and roots of the plant also have various traditional uses in different cultures, such as treating wounds, reducing fever, and alleviating symptoms of digestive disorders.

It's worth noting that while Carica papaya has been studied for its potential health benefits, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety profile. As with any treatment or supplement, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before using Carica papaya for medicinal purposes.

Hymenolepis nana, also known as the dwarf tapeworm, is a small intestine-infecting cestode parasite that primarily affects humans and rodents. The adult worms are typically 15-40 mm in length and have a scolex (head) with four suckers but no hooks. The proglottids (segments) of the worm contain both male and female reproductive organs, allowing for self-fertilization.

The life cycle of Hymenolepis nana can be direct or indirect. In the direct life cycle, eggs are passed in the feces of an infected individual and ingested by another person through contaminated food, water, or fomites (inanimate objects). Once inside the human host, the eggs hatch in the small intestine, releasing oncospheres that invade the intestinal wall and develop into cysticercoids. The cysticercoids then mature into adult tapeworms within 10-15 days.

In the indirect life cycle, eggs are ingested by an intermediate host, usually a beetle or flea, where they hatch and develop into cysticercoids. When the infected insect is consumed by a rodent or human, the cysticercoids excyst in the small intestine and mature into adult tapeworms.

Symptoms of Hymenolepis nana infection can range from mild to severe and may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, and anemia. In some cases, particularly in children or individuals with weakened immune systems, the infection can lead to more serious complications such as intestinal obstruction or inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis).

Parasitic diseases, animal, refer to conditions in animals that are caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive benefits from the host at its expense. Parasites can be classified into different groups such as protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., ticks, fleas).

Parasitic diseases in animals can cause a wide range of clinical signs depending on the type of parasite, the animal species affected, and the location and extent of infection. Some common examples of parasitic diseases in animals include:

* Heartworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Dirofilaria immitis
* Coccidiosis in various animals caused by different species of Eimeria
* Toxoplasmosis in cats and other animals caused by Toxoplasma gondii
* Giardiasis in many animal species caused by Giardia spp.
* Lungworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Angiostrongylus vasorum or Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
* Tapeworm infection in dogs, cats, and other animals caused by different species of Taenia or Dipylidium caninum

Prevention and control of parasitic diseases in animals typically involve a combination of strategies such as regular veterinary care, appropriate use of medications, environmental management, and good hygiene practices.

Nippostrongylus is a genus of parasitic nematode (roundworm) that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract of various mammalian hosts, including rodents and primates. The most common species that infects humans is Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, although it's not a common human parasite in normal circumstances. It is more frequently used in laboratory settings as a model organism to study immunology and host-parasite interactions.

The adult worms live in the alveoli of the lungs, where they mature and reproduce, releasing eggs that are coughed up, swallowed, and then hatch in the small intestine. The larvae then mature into adults and complete the life cycle. Infections can cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, but these are typically mild in immunocompetent individuals.

It's worth noting that human infections with Nippostrongylus are rare and usually occur in people who have close contact with infected animals or who consume contaminated food or water. Proper sanitation and hygiene practices can help prevent infection.

'Clerodendrum' is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae, also known as the mint or deadnettle family. These plants are native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the world, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. The name 'Clerodendrum' comes from the Greek words "kleros" meaning chance, and "dendron" meaning tree.

The plants in this genus can vary greatly in size, shape, and appearance, but they typically have opposite, simple leaves that are often fragrant. The flowers of Clerodendrum species are usually tubular or funnel-shaped and borne in clusters at the ends of branches. They come in a variety of colors, including white, pink, red, purple, and yellow.

Some Clerodendrum species are grown for their ornamental value, while others have medicinal uses. For example, the leaves and roots of some species are used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments, such as fever, malaria, and skin conditions. However, it is important to note that the safety and efficacy of these treatments have not been thoroughly studied and should be used with caution.

Drug residues refer to the remaining amount of a medication or drug that remains in an animal or its products after the treatment period has ended. This can occur when drugs are not properly metabolized and eliminated by the animal's body, or when withdrawal times (the recommended length of time to wait before consuming or selling the animal or its products) are not followed.

Drug residues in animals can pose a risk to human health if consumed through the consumption of animal products such as meat, milk, or eggs. For this reason, regulatory bodies set maximum residue limits (MRLs) for drug residues in animal products to ensure that they do not exceed safe levels for human consumption.

It is important for farmers and veterinarians to follow label instructions and recommended withdrawal times to prevent the accumulation of drug residues in animals and their products, and to protect public health.

Necator americanus is a species of parasitic hookworm that primarily infects the human intestine. The medical definition of Necator americanus would be:

A nematode (roundworm) of the family Ancylostomatidae, which is one of the most common causes of human hookworm infection worldwide. The adult worms live in the small intestine and feed on blood, causing iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Infection occurs through contact with contaminated soil, often through bare feet, and results in a skin infection called cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption). After penetrating the skin, the larvae migrate to the lungs, ascend the respiratory tract, are swallowed, and then mature into adults in the small intestine.

The life cycle of Necator americanus involves several developmental stages, including eggs, larvae, and adult worms. The eggs are passed in the feces of infected individuals and hatch in warm, moist soil. The larvae then mature and become infective, able to penetrate human skin upon contact.

Preventive measures include wearing shoes in areas with known hookworm infection, avoiding walking barefoot on contaminated soil, improving sanitation and hygiene practices, and treating infected individuals to break the transmission cycle. Treatment of hookworm infection typically involves administration of anthelmintic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the adult worms in the intestine.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Meliaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the Mahogany family of plants, which includes around 50 genera and over 1,300 species of trees and shrubs. Some of these plants have medicinal properties, but "Meliaceae" itself does not have a medical definition.

"Toxocara canis" is a species of roundworm that primarily infects canids, such as dogs and foxes. The adult worms live in the intestines of the host animal, where they lay eggs that are passed in the feces. These eggs can then mature and become infective to other animals, including humans, if they ingest them.

In humans, infection with "Toxocara canis" can cause a range of symptoms known as toxocariasis, which can include fever, coughing, wheezing, rash, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, the larvae of the worm can migrate to various organs in the body, including the eyes, leading to potentially serious complications.

Preventive measures for "Toxocara canis" infection include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands after handling pets or coming into contact with soil that may contain infected feces, and regular deworming of pets.

'Artemia' is a genus of aquatic branchiopod crustaceans, also known as brine shrimp. They are commonly found in saltwater environments such as salt lakes and highly saline ponds. Artemia are known for their ability to produce cysts (also called "resting eggs") that can survive extreme environmental conditions, making them an important organism in research related to survival in harsh environments and space exploration.

In a medical context, Artemia is not typically used as a term but may be referenced in scientific studies related to biology, genetics, or astrobiology. The compounds derived from Artemia, such as astaxanthin and other carotenoids, have been studied for their potential health benefits, including antioxidant properties and support for eye and heart health. However, these applications are still under research and not yet considered part of mainstream medical practice.

Acanthaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes around 2,500 species distributed across 220-400 genera. These plants are primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, with some extending into temperate zones. The family is characterized by the presence of stiff, spiny bracts, which are often colorful and modified to attract pollinators.

The plants in Acanthaceae can vary widely in form, from herbaceous annuals and perennials to shrubs and trees. They have simple or opposite leaves that may be entire or lobed. The flowers are typically bisexual, with a two-lipped calyx and corolla, and four stamens.

Some well-known members of Acanthaceae include the garden plants Shrimp Plant (Justicia brandegeeana) and Whorled Tubelet (Lepidagathis formosa), as well as the medicinal plant Indian Snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina).

In a medical context, some species of Acanthaceae have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions, fevers, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants should be done with caution and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can also contain toxic compounds.

New World camelids are a family of mammals (Camelidae) that are native to South America. The family includes four species: the llama (Lama glama), the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), and the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). These animals are characterized by their long necks, long legs, and a pad on their chest instead of a true knee joint. They are known for their ability to survive in harsh environments with limited water and food resources.

Strongyloidiasis is a tropical and subtropical parasitic disease caused by the nematode (roundworm) Strongyloides stercoralis. The infection occurs when the larvae of this parasite penetrate the skin, usually of the feet, and are carried through the bloodstream to the lungs. Here they mature, are coughed up and swallowed, and then mature in the small intestine where they lay eggs. These hatch into larvae that can either pass out with the feces or penetrate the skin of the anal area and restart the cycle.

The disease is often asymptomatic but can cause a range of symptoms including gastrointestinal (diarrhea, abdominal pain) and pulmonary (cough, wheezing) symptoms. Disseminated strongyloidiasis, where the larvae spread throughout the body, can occur in immunocompromised individuals and can be life-threatening.

Treatment is with anti-parasitic drugs such as ivermectin or thiabendazole. Prevention involves avoiding skin contact with contaminated soil and good hygiene practices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oligochaeta" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically referring to a class of segmented worms, including earthworms and related species. They are characterized by having a simple circulatory system, and most have separate sexes. They are not directly relevant to human medical definition or healthcare context.

Phenylenediamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a phenylene diamine group, which consists of two amino groups (-NH2) attached to a benzene ring. They are used in various applications, including as intermediates in the synthesis of dyes and pigments, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Some phenylenediamines also have potential use as antioxidants and reducing agents.

In a medical context, some phenylenediamines are used in the manufacture of certain drugs, such as certain types of local anesthetics and vasodilators. However, it's important to note that not all phenylenediamines have medical applications, and some may even be harmful or toxic in certain contexts.

Exposure to phenylenediamines can occur through various routes, including skin contact, inhalation, or ingestion. Some people may experience allergic reactions or irritation after exposure to certain phenylenediamines, particularly those used in hair dyes and cosmetics. It's important to follow proper safety precautions when handling these compounds, including wearing protective clothing and using appropriate ventilation.

Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are transmembrane proteins found in excitable and non-excitable cells that play a crucial role in rapid signal transmission across the cell membrane. They are called "ligand-gated" because they open or close their ion conduction pathway in response to the binding of a specific ligand, usually a neurotransmitter or a drug molecule.

LGICs form a central pore through which ions can flow upon activation. These channels are selective for certain ions such as sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), and calcium (Ca2+). The binding of the ligand to the receptor causes a conformational change in the protein, leading to the opening or closing of the ion channel.

LGICs can be classified into two main categories: cationic channels, which are permeable to positive ions like Na+ and Ca2+, and anionic channels, which are permeable to negative ions like Cl-. Examples of cationic LGICs include the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), and serotonin type 3 receptors (5-HT3Rs). GABAA and glycine receptors are examples of anionic LGICs.

Ligand-gated ion channels play a significant role in various physiological processes, including neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction, and cell volume regulation. Dysfunction of these channels has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative diseases.

"Strongyloides stercoralis" is a species of parasitic roundworm that can infect humans and other animals. The adult female worms live in the small intestine, where they lay eggs that hatch into larvae. These larvae can then either mature into adult worms within the host's intestine or be passed out of the body in feces. If the larvae in the feces come into contact with suitable moist soil, they can mature into infective larvae that can penetrate the skin of a new host and cause infection.

In humans, "Strongyloides stercoralis" infection can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, and weight loss. In some cases, the infection can become chronic and lead to serious complications, such as disseminated disease or gram-negative sepsis, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

The diagnosis of "Strongyloides stercoralis" infection typically involves the detection of larvae in the stool or other bodily fluids, although serological tests and PCR assays are also available. Treatment usually involves the use of anti-parasitic drugs, such as ivermectin or albendazole, to kill the worms and prevent the progression of the infection.

Acetogenins are a type of compound that are produced by certain plants, particularly those in the family Annonaceae. They are known for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-cancer, anti-malarial, and insecticidal activities. Acetogenins have a complex structure, consisting of a long chain of carbon atoms with various functional groups attached. They work by inhibiting the function of certain enzymes that are necessary for the survival of cancer cells and other target organisms.

Schistosomicides are medications specifically used to treat Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever or bilharzia. This is a parasitic disease caused by several species of flatworms belonging to the genus Schistosoma. The drugs that act against these parasites are called schistosomicides.

The most common schistosomicides include:

1. Praziquantel: This is the first-line treatment for all forms of Schistosomiasis. It works by causing paralysis of the worms, which then detach from the host's tissues and are swept out of the body.

2. Oxamniquine (Mansil): Primarily used to treat infections caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It works by causing the worms to lose their grip on the blood vessels, leading to their death and elimination from the body.

3. Triclabendazole: Used for the treatment of liver fluke infections, but it has also shown efficacy against some Schistosoma species, particularly Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma japonicum.

It is important to note that while these medications are effective at killing the adult worms, they do not prevent reinfection. Therefore, measures should be taken to avoid contact with contaminated water where the parasites are present.

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding and raising animals for agricultural purposes, such as for the production of meat, milk, eggs, or fiber. It involves providing proper care for the animals, including feeding, housing, health care, and breeding management. The goal of animal husbandry is to maintain healthy and productive animals while also being mindful of environmental sustainability and animal welfare.

Neurocysticercosis is a neurological disorder caused by the infection of the brain's tissue with larval stages of the parasitic tapeworm, Taenia solium. The larvae, called cysticerci, can invade various parts of the body including the brain and the central nervous system, leading to a range of symptoms such as seizures, headaches, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric disorders.

The infection typically occurs when a person ingests tapeworm eggs through contaminated food or water, and the larvae hatch and migrate to various tissues in the body. In neurocysticercosis, the cysticerci can cause inflammation, swelling, and damage to brain tissue, leading to neurological symptoms that can vary depending on the location and number of cysts in the brain.

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis typically involves a combination of imaging techniques such as MRI or CT scans, blood tests, and sometimes lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to examine cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment may involve anti-parasitic medications to eliminate the cysts, anti-inflammatory drugs to manage swelling and inflammation, and symptomatic treatment for seizures or other neurological symptoms.

Parasitic diseases are infections or illnesses caused by parasites, which are organisms that live and feed on host organisms, often causing harm. Parasites can be protozoans (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), or ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas). These diseases can affect various body systems and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection. They are typically spread through contaminated food or water, insect vectors, or direct contact with an infected host or contaminated environment. Examples of parasitic diseases include malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, and leishmaniasis.

'Caenorhabditis elegans' is a species of free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm) that is widely used as a model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of biology and genetics. It has a simple anatomy, short lifespan, and fully sequenced genome, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes and diseases.

Some notable features of C. elegans include:

* Small size: Adult hermaphrodites are about 1 mm in length.
* Short lifespan: The average lifespan of C. elegans is around 2-3 weeks, although some strains can live up to 4 weeks under laboratory conditions.
* Development: C. elegans has a well-characterized developmental process, with adults developing from eggs in just 3 days at 20°C.
* Transparency: The transparent body of C. elegans allows researchers to observe its internal structures and processes easily.
* Genetics: C. elegans has a fully sequenced genome, which contains approximately 20,000 genes. Many of these genes have human homologs, making it an excellent model for studying human diseases.
* Neurobiology: C. elegans has a simple nervous system, with only 302 neurons in the hermaphrodite and 383 in the male. This simplicity makes it an ideal organism for studying neural development, function, and behavior.

Research using C. elegans has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including cell division, apoptosis, aging, learning, and memory. Additionally, studies on C. elegans have led to the discovery of many genes associated with human diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia or snail fever, is a parasitic infection caused by several species of the trematode flatworm Schistosoma. The infection occurs when people come into contact with freshwater contaminated with the parasite's larvae, which are released by infected freshwater snails.

The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and mature into adult worms in the blood vessels of the urinary tract or intestines. The female worms lay eggs, which can cause inflammation and scarring in various organs, including the liver, lungs, and brain.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis may include fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, and diarrhea. In chronic cases, the infection can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and seizures. Schistosomiasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitation and lack of access to safe drinking water. It is preventable through improved water supply, sanitation, and snail control measures. Treatment typically involves the use of a medication called praziquantel, which kills the adult worms.

Parasitic pregnancy complications refer to a rare condition where a parasitic twin takes over the development of the dominant twin's reproductive system and becomes pregnant. This condition is also known as fetus in fetu or vanishing twin syndrome with a parasitic twin. The parasitic twin may have some organs developed, but it is not fully formed and relies on the dominant twin for survival. The pregnancy can pose risks to the dominant twin, such as abnormal growth patterns, organ damage, and complications during childbirth. This condition is usually detected during prenatal ultrasound examinations.

"Taenia solium" is a medical term that refers to a type of tapeworm that infects the human intestines. This parasitic worm is acquired by ingesting undercooked pork containing larval cysts (cysticerci) of the parasite. Once inside the human body, these cysts develop into adult tapeworms, which can grow up to 8 meters in length and live for several years.

The infection caused by T. solium is called taeniasis when it affects the intestines, and cysticercosis when the larval cysts infect other parts of the body, such as muscles, eyes, or the brain. Cysticercosis can cause serious health complications, including seizures, neurological disorders, and even death in some cases.

Preventing taeniasis and cysticercosis involves practicing good hygiene, cooking pork thoroughly before eating it, and avoiding contact with human feces. In areas where T. solium is endemic, public health interventions such as mass deworming campaigns and improvements in sanitation and hygiene can help reduce the burden of infection.

Metabolic detoxification, Phase I, also known as biotransformation, is the first step in the body's process of breaking down and eliminating potentially harmful substances. This phase involves a group of enzymes, primarily found in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells in the liver, that chemically modify lipophilic (fat-soluble) toxic substances into more hydrophilic (water-soluble) intermediates. These intermediate metabolites are often more reactive and potentially toxic than the original substance, which makes Phase II detoxification crucial for further neutralization and elimination.

The main enzyme systems involved in Phase I detoxification include:

1. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) mixed-function oxidases: These enzymes catalyze oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis reactions, introducing polar functional groups such as hydroxyl (-OH), carboxyl (-COOH), or amino (-NH2) groups into the toxic substance.
2. Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO): These enzymes catalyze oxidation reactions, primarily introducing oxygen atoms into substrates.
3. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases: These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, which can then be further metabolized in Phase II detoxification.
4. Epoxide hydrolases: These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides (three-membered rings containing a single oxygen atom) into diols (two hydroxyl groups), reducing their reactivity and toxicity.

It is important to note that some Phase I metabolites can be more harmful than the original substance, so an efficient and balanced Phase II detoxification process is essential for overall health and well-being. Additionally, certain factors such as genetics, age, lifestyle, environmental exposures, and nutritional status can influence the efficiency and capacity of Phase I detoxification.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

To the best of my knowledge, "Côte d'Ivoire" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country, which is officially known as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. The country is located in West Africa and is bordered by countries such as Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Liberia.

Côte d'Ivoire was once a French colony and gained its independence in 1960. The country has a diverse population and a developing economy, with agriculture being a major contributor to its GDP. The capital city of Côte d'Ivoire is Yamoussoukro, while the largest city is Abidjan.

It's important to note that medical terminology and concepts are typically related to anatomy, physiology, diseases, treatments, and other health-related topics. Therefore, it's unlikely that a country name like Côte d'Ivoire would have a direct medical definition or application.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tanzania" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

... shows anthelmintic activity Anthelmintic resistance in parasites is now widespread. It is a major threat to the sustainability ... Anthelmintics at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Holden-Dye, L. and Walker, R.J. ... Pills containing anthelmintics are used in mass deworming campaigns of school-aged children in many developing countries. The ... Treatment with an antihelminthic drug kills worms whose phenotype renders them susceptible to the drug, but resistant parasites ...
Canada, Health (17 May 1996). "Anthelmintics". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 23 November 2021. Prevention, CDC-Centers for Disease ...
"Anthelmintics". Drugs.com. Retrieved 17 November 2014. "Overview of Anthelmintics". The Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck Sharp & ... can be pre-treated with the anthelmintic drug albendazole. Areas with the highest prevalence of helminthiasis are tropical and ...
Monk, Edward J. M.; Abba, Katharine; Ranganathan, Lakshmi N. (2021-06-01). "Anthelmintics for people with neurocysticercosis". ...
Among anthelmintics, Blizzard et al. 1990 found only paraherquamide to have similar activity to phenothiazine. It is possible ... Jul 2014). "Anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites--current evidence and knowledge gaps". Vet Parasitol. 204 (1-2): 55-63 ... 369 In the 1940s it also was introduced as antihelminthic for humans; since it was often given to children, the drug was often ...
Anthelmintic is any drug that acts to expel parasites mainly helminths from the host's body through either stunning or killing ... Using an oral drench gun attached to the back of the operator, anthelmintic chemicals which are in a pack worn on the back are ... "Anthelmintic Drugs , Basic Concepts in Pharmacology: What You Need to Know for Each Drug Class, 5e , AccessPharmacy , McGraw- ... There are a wide range of anthelmintic drugs that can be used however three classes are available for sale on the livestock ...
Steward, J. S. (1 November 1955). "Anthelmintic studies. II. A double entero-nemacidal anthelmintic test covering a wide range ... Steward, J. S. (September 1964). "On the Importance of the Base in the Formulation of Anthelmintics". Proceedings of the First ... Steward, J. S. (1 November 1955). "Anthelmintic studies. IV. The loss of efficiency by division of the dose". Parasitology. 45 ... Steward, J. S. (1 November 1955). "Anthelmintic studies. I. A controlled critical entero-nemacidal test". Parasitology. 45 (3-4 ...
Anthelmintic drug resistance is a widespread emerging problem. Resistance has been reported to all broad spectrum anthelmintics ... Broad spectrum anthelmintics include benzimidazoles (BZs). BZs have been used since the 1960s, and resistance was detected in ... Broad spectrum anthelmintics are also effective against adult worms and larvae. There are several benzimidazoles were ... Gross, S. J.; Ryan, W. G.; Ploeger, H. W. (1999-05-22). "Anthelmintic treatment of dairy cows and its effect on milk production ...
can be treated with different anthelmintics. These treatments include albendazole, niclosamide, and praziquantel. Prevalence of ...
They provide an alternative mechanism of action to current anthelmintics and the development of resistance is thought to be ... Stepek G, Behnke JM, Buttle DJ, Duce IR (July 2004). "Natural plant cysteine proteinases as anthelmintics?". Trends in ... Behnke JM, Buttle DJ, Stepek G, Lowe A, Duce IR (September 2008). "Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine ... Serpins Stefins IAPs Currently there is no widespread use of cysteine proteases as approved and effective anthelmintics but ...
According to Ayurveda, the plant is anthelmintic, alexiteric, restorative, and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of ... SEED uses Anthelmintic ; ROOT uses Nutritive Tephrosia purpurea is used as a fish poison for fishing. Its leaves and seeds ...
Anthelmintics: Used for treating certain parasitic infections; includes praziquantel Buprenorphine: Metabolized into ...
Anthelmintics can treat and prevent Trichinella infections. Trichinosis (trichinellosis) is a disease caused by tissue-dwelling ...
It is an anthelmintic.[citation needed] It has been used as a laxative and an alexiteric. The sap is used to treat acne and ...
Howes HL (June 1971). "Anthelmintic studies with pyrantel. II. Prophylactic activity in a mouse-ascaris suum test model". The ... Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group) (April 2020). "Anthelmintic drugs for treating ascariasis". The Cochrane Database of ...
... is an anthelmintic. Desapidin may occur in natural form within some plants such as Coastal woodfern, Dryopteris ... Anthelmintics, Cyclohexadienes, Piceol ethers, Resorcinols, Propyl compounds, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ...
... is an anthelmintic. It has typically been used in human and animal medicine as a treatment for intestinal worms. ...
Retrieved 7 January 2020.[dead link] LAL, M. B. (19 April 1947). "Acanthocephala of Trout and Anthelmintics : Behaviour in ...
... is a broad-spectrum antihelminthic agent of the benzimidazole type. Mebendazole came into use in 1971, after it was ... Sasaki J, Ramesh R, Chada S, Gomyo Y, Roth JA, Mukhopadhyay T (November 2002). "The anthelmintic drug mebendazole induces ... Islam N, Chowdhury NA (March 1976). "Mebendazole and pyrantel pamoate as broad-spectrum anthelmintics". The Southeast Asian ... Anthelmintics, Aromatic ketones, Belgian inventions, Benzimidazoles, Carbamates, Embryotoxicants, Johnson & Johnson brands, ...
This resistance has arisen from the persistent use of the same anthelmintic drugs for the past 40 years. In dogs, ivermectin is ... December 2015). "Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe". ... Ivermectin is only effective in killing some of these parasites, this is because of an increase in anthelmintic resistance. ... Conterno LO, Turchi MD, Corrêa I, Monteiro de Barros Almeida RA (April 2020). "Anthelmintic drugs for treating ascariasis". The ...
Chen, Wei; Mook, Robert A.; Premont, Richard T.; Wang, Jiangbo (January 2018). "Niclosamide: Beyond an antihelminthic drug". ... Alternative methods for treating coenurosis include administering anthelmintics and glucocorticoids. Praziquantel, Niclosamide ...
Matthews JB (December 2014). "Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes". Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 4 (3): 310-5. ...
Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J. "Anthelmintic drugs". WormBook. Retrieved 23 May 2018. Scholar, Eric M.; Pratt, William B ...
Rao VS, Seshadri TR (1947). "Kamala dye as an anthelmintic". Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 26 (3): 178-181. ...
... is a salicylanilide anthelmintic. It is used in the treatment and control of fascioliasis in ruminants mainly ... "Repurposing Salicylanilide Anthelmintic Drugs to Combat Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus". PLOS ONE. 10 (4): e0124595. ... Anthelmintics, Chloroarenes, Phenols, Salicylanilides, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ...
All available anthelmintics are efficient at treating the infection. Prophylactic anthelmintic treatment may help prevent the ...
Then it is discovered that using any type of anthelmintic actually causes more excruciating pain and eventual death. Chaos ... Pharmacies are crowded with people desperate to get anthelmintics. Matters become worse when more people jump into rivers ...
Anthelmintics such as praziquantel may help prevent this condition. Prohibition of the feeding of uncooked offals may be the ...
Bosman CH (1965). "Anthelmintic tests with Haloxon in cattle". Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 36 (2): 251 ...
Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on 62 beef cattle farms in the North Island of New Zealand. NZ Vet J 546: 278-282. doi: ... Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of cattle: a global issue? Trend Parasitol 27: 176-181. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2010.11. ... Anthelmintic resistance of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora to macrocyclic lactones in cattle from the western ... Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy cattle in the Macalister Irrigation District of Victoria. Aust ...
... shows anthelmintic activity Anthelmintic resistance in parasites is now widespread. It is a major threat to the sustainability ... Anthelmintics at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Holden-Dye, L. and Walker, R.J. ... Pills containing anthelmintics are used in mass deworming campaigns of school-aged children in many developing countries. The ... Treatment with an antihelminthic drug kills worms whose phenotype renders them susceptible to the drug, but resistant parasites ...
Anthelmintic resistance There are several different parasitic worms that can affect horses and ponies. Horses consume the worm ... The threat of anthelmintic resistance affects every horse and every owner. The decisions we make regarding wormers have a ... From stamping out strangles to fighting anthelmintic resistance, we adopt and support evidence-based research and campaigns ...
Chemical composition, insecticidal and in vitro anthelmintic activitiesof Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) essential oil ... 15/11/2015). Chemical composition, insecticidal and in vitro anthelmintic activitiesof Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) essential ... chalepensis essential oil has a potential insecti-cidal and anthelmintic benefit and further in vitro and in vivo trials ... ethanol induced no toxic effect on larvae.In vitro anthelmintic effects against Haemonchus contortus from sheep were ...
Anthelmintic Baiting of Foxes against Echinococcus multilocularis in Small Public Area, Japan Kohji Uraguchi1. , Takao Irie12, ... Anthelmintic Baiting of Foxes against Echinococcus multilocularis in Small Public Area, Japan. ...
Impact of anthelmintic price increases on practice patterns of healthcare providers caring for immigrant and refugee ... In the United States, prices of long-established, generic anthelmintic medications have markedly risen. In the past decade, ... Other ways in which price increases impacted practice patterns included prescribing anthelmintics other than albendazole, ... reducing anthelmintic dosing regimens to fewer pills (9.4%); and advising patients to purchase medications on the Internet (6.3 ...
Comparison of anthelmintic and anti-bacterial agents fed weanling pigs reared on pasture (1977). ... Koch, B A.; Kruckenberg, S M.; and Hines, Robert H. (1977) "Comparison of anthelmintic and anti-bacterial agents fed weanling ... Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service); 312; Swine; Anthelmintic; Anti-Bacterial agents; Weanling ...
Investigating Anthelmintics for Vector Control. wusarah 2021-10-29T15:06:09-07:00 October 29th, 2021,Biology, Health and ... Investigating Anthelmintics for Vector Control. wusarah 2022-04-29T14:08:41-07:00 February 11th, 2022,Literature Review, ...
1954). Evaluation of Hetrazan as an anthelmintic in children. 69(11). Gabbard, Mildred B. and Kotcher, Emil and Pulliam, E. D ... Title : Evaluation of Hetrazan as an anthelmintic in children Personal Author(s) : Gabbard, Mildred B.;Kotcher, Emil;Pulliam, E ... "Evaluation of Hetrazan as an anthelmintic in children" vol. 69, no. 11, 1954. Export RIS Citation Information.. ... "Evaluation of Hetrazan as an anthelmintic in children" 69, no. 11 (1954). Gabbard, Mildred B. et al. " ...
Several anthelmintic drugs are available for established infection. Thiabendazole was a therapeutic option for strongyloidiasis ...
The development of anthelmintic resistance to the traditional treatments (benzimidazoles, imidazothiazoles and macrocyclic ...
How Does Anthelmintic Resistance Develop?. What is anthelmintic resistance?. Anthelmintic resistance happens when worms no ... How Does Anthelmintic Resistance Develop?. August 18, 2023. by Editorial Team Key Takeaways. *Anthelmintic resistance happens ... How fast can anthelmintic resistance develop in worm populations?. The speed at which anthelmintic resistance develops depends ... Do all types of livestock and horses get anthelmintic resistance?. Yes, anthelmintic resistance has been reported in many host ...
AN ANTHELMINTIC COMPOSITION.. Abstract. The present invention discloses an anthelmintic composition comprising: an anthelmintic ... 1. An anthelmintic composition comprising: an anthelmintic compound selected from the j. class of macrocyclic lactones, such as ... This invention relates to anthelmintic compositions. The anthelmintic is chosen from the class. of macrocyclic lactones ... The present invention discloses an anthelmintic composition comprising: an. anthelmintic compound selected from the class of ...
... anthelmintics",Anthelmintics , Antifungal agents , Antihistamines , Antimicrobial sore throat treatments , Aspartame , Aspirin ... Anthelmintics. The most commonly occurring worms in Australia are threadworms. Other types of worms (e.g. roundworm, hookworm, ... The product labels should not encourage the regular use of anthelmintics. In addition, the product labels or a package insert ...
High quality Anthelmintics Veterinary API Albendazole Powder 99% Cas 54965-21-8 from China, Chinas leading Cas 54965-21-8 ... which is one of the benzimidazoles with the broadest anthelmintic spectrum and the strongest anthelmintic effect. ... Albendazole is a highly effective broad-spectrum anthelmintic, ... Antiparasitic Anthelmintic Albendazole Powder For Animal CAS ...
SildenafilForEd is a reputable online platform offering a wide range of generic medications to help individuals address erectile dysfunction and related health concerns. With a user-friendly interface and a commitment to quality ...
We synthesized 47 analogues, which allowed us to define features of the molecules essential for anthelmintic action as well as ... We are seeking to develop new anthelmintic drugs specifically with activity against whipworm as a priority and previously ... Here, we report a systematic investigation of the structure-activity relationship of the anthelmintic activity of DHB compounds ... These results demonstrate the potential of DHB and DBQ compounds for further development as broad-spectrum anthelmintics. ...
Text; Format: print Publication details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 1995Other title: Drugs used in parasitic diseases.Title translated: Fiches modèles OMS d information à l usage des prescripteurs : médicaments utilisés en parasitologie; Modelo OMS de informaciòn sobre prescripción de medicamentos : medicamentos utilizados en las enfermedades parasitarias.Online access: Click here to access online , Click here to access online Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ (2)Call number: QV 253 95WH, ... Not available: WHO HQ: Withdrawn (1). ...
Other benzimidazole anthelmintics and also the organophosphorus compound naphthalophos were only moderately effective against ... The isolation of a field strain of Haemonchus contortus in Queensland showing multiple anthelmintic resistance ... The isolation of a field strain of Haemonchus contortus in Queensland showing multiple anthelmintic resistance. Australian ... resistance to both naphthalophos and the newer benzimidazole anthelmintics increased dramatically. This is the first report of ...
The study justified the need for alternative anthelmintics. The study places emphasis on the increasing anthelmintic resistance ... The objective of this study was to provide a basis for plant based anthelmintics as possible alternatives against poultry ... Plants from a broad range of species produce a wide variety of compounds that are potential anthelmintics candidates. Important ... mechanism of resistance, and preparational protocols for plant anthelmintics and their associated mechanism of action. ...
Keywords : Shikakai; Acacia concinna; Anthelmintic activity; Antibacterial activity; Source : Download. Find it from : Google ... ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ACACIA CONCINNA LINN. Journal: Indo American Journal of ...
Preventive Anthelmintic Treatments. Educating and Counseling Pet Owners. References. POINT OF CONTACT FOR THIS DOCUMENT:. ... For preventive treatment of very young pups, give an anthelmintic approved for nursing pups (2-3 weeks of age). The drug should ... Where both ascarids and hookworms are commonly transmitted, anthelmintic drugs should be given to pups at ages 2, 4, 6, and 8 ... How infection in both pets and people can be prevented by well-timed prophylactic anthelmintic treatment of pups and kittens ...
A novel function of the antihelminthic drug Praziquantel: new strategy for combatting schistosomiasis. ... The standard treatment is with the anthelmintic drug, PZQ. PZQ has been shown to cause rapid paralysis of schistosome ... The anthelmintic praziquantel is a human serotoninergic G-protein-coupled receptor ligand. Nature ... A novel function of the antihelminthic drug Praziquantel: new strategy for combatting schistosomiasis. ...
Bachaya, H. A., Iqbal, Z., Khan, M. N., Jabbar, A., Gilani, A. H., & Islam-Ud-Din (2009). In vitro and In vivo Anthelmintic ... Bachaya, HA, Iqbal, Z, Khan, MN, Jabbar, A, Gilani, AH & Islam-Ud-Din 2009, In vitro and In vivo Anthelmintic activity of ... In vitro and In vivo Anthelmintic activity of Terminalia arjuna bark. Hafiz Allah Bachaya, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan, ... In vitro and In vivo Anthelmintic activity of Terminalia arjuna bark. In: International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. ...
The improvement of variable degrees of drug resistance amongst nematodes has been reported for all groups of anthelmintics [3] ... the effectiveness of the accessible anthelmintics over time has turn out to be limited CYP2 Activator review resulting from ... In addition, new anthelmintics may well be found amongst drugs or other compounds with entirely diverse indications of use. A ... Veterinary Study(2021) 52:Web page two ofrecent anthelmintic in wide use, has occurred inside much less than four years from ...
Synthesis, characterization, and anthelmintic activity of novel 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-5-phenyl-2-benzylidine-3-substituted ... Out of 15 compounds, only 6e and 6o had good anthelmintic activity. Experimental data led to the conclusion that the ... quinazoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anthelmintic activity in a passive avoidance test. Chemical ... synthesized compounds have anthelmintic activity.. KEYWORDS: Thiazolo quinazoline, thiazolo quinazoline phenyl hydrazone, ...
... and expenditures for anthelmintics. The disease has a cosmopolitan distribution, with cases reported from Scandinavia to New ...
Medicinal plants used as anthelmintics: Ethnomedical, pharmacological, and phytochemical studies.. Romero-Benavides, Juan ...
  • From stamping out strangles to fighting anthelmintic resistance, we adopt and support evidence-based research and campaigns focused on improving the lives of horses and ponies and the humans who live and work with them. (mareandfoal.org)
  • 0.001) while, ethanol induced no toxic effect on larvae.In vitro anthelmintic effects against Haemonchus contortus from sheep were ascertained by egg hatchingand worm motility inhibitions compared with a reference drug albendazole. (icarda.org)
  • Albendazole is an imidazole derivative broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug. (xahnb.com)
  • Albendazole is a highly effective broad-spectrum anthelmintic, which is one of the benzimidazoles with the broadest anthelmintic spectrum and the strongest anthelmintic effect. (xahnb.com)
  • After passaging the strain for four generations with both levamisole and albendazole, resistance to both naphthalophos and the newer benzimidazole anthelmintics increased dramatically. (qld.gov.au)
  • Albendazole is an anthelmintic medicine approved by food and drug administration (FDA) in the mid-90s. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Emodepside) - effective against a variety of gastrointestinal helminths Monepantel (aminoacetonitrile class) - effective against a variety of nematodes including those resistant to other anthelmintic classes Spiroindoles (e.g. derquantel) - effective against a variety of nematodes including those resistant to other anthelmintic classes Artemisinin - shows anthelmintic activity Anthelmintic resistance in parasites is now widespread. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cattle, prevalence of anthelminthic resistance varied between anthelmintic classes from 0-100% (benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones), 0-17% (levamisole) and 0-73% (moxidectin), and both Cooperia and Ostertagia survived treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with an antihelminthic drug kills worms whose phenotype renders them susceptible to the drug, but resistant parasites survive and pass on their "resistance" genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The threat of anthelmintic resistance affects every horse and every owner. (mareandfoal.org)
  • How Does Anthelmintic Resistance Develop? (answercatch.com)
  • Anthelmintic resistance happens when worms become resistant to deworming medicine. (answercatch.com)
  • Anthelmintic resistance has happened with different types of worms and dewormers on many continents. (answercatch.com)
  • This article will look at how anthelmintic resistance develops in detail. (answercatch.com)
  • The goal is to provide a deep look at the development of anthelmintic resistance. (answercatch.com)
  • Read on to learn all about the development of anthelmintic resistance in livestock and horses. (answercatch.com)
  • What is anthelmintic resistance? (answercatch.com)
  • Anthelmintic resistance happens when worms no longer respond to deworming treatments. (answercatch.com)
  • What causes anthelmintic resistance to develop? (answercatch.com)
  • How does anthelmintic resistance work biologically? (answercatch.com)
  • How can anthelmintic resistance be prevented or delayed? (answercatch.com)
  • How fast can anthelmintic resistance develop in worm populations? (answercatch.com)
  • The speed at which anthelmintic resistance develops depends on several factors. (answercatch.com)
  • Do all types of livestock and horses get anthelmintic resistance? (answercatch.com)
  • Yes, anthelmintic resistance has been reported in many host species. (answercatch.com)
  • This is the first report of a field strain of H. contortus exhibiting resistance to benzimidazole, non-benzimidazole and organophosphorus anthelmintics. (qld.gov.au)
  • Emerging Anthelmintic Resistance in Poultry: Can Ethnopharmacological Approaches Offer a Solution? (kab.ac.ug)
  • The objective of this study was to provide a basis for plant based anthelmintics as possible alternatives against poultry anthelmintic resistance. (kab.ac.ug)
  • The study places emphasis on the increasing anthelmintic resistance, mechanism of resistance, and preparational protocols for plant anthelmintics and their associated mechanism of action. (kab.ac.ug)
  • Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the accessible anthelmintics over time has turn out to be limited CYP2 Activator review resulting from rising drug resistance in nematode populations [3]. (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • The improvement of variable degrees of drug resistance amongst nematodes has been reported for all groups of anthelmintics [3] plus the prevalence of resistance has enhanced globally due to massive drug administration [4, 5]. (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • The present invention discloses an anthelmintic composition comprising: an anthelmintic compound selected from the class of macrocyclic lactones, such as herein described, together with a vegetable oil such as herein described and a co-solvent such as herein described, selected from the group consisting of alcohols having 4 or more carbon atoms. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The anthelmintic is chosen from the class of macrocyclic lactones including but not limited to the avermectins, ivermectin, doramectin, abamectin, milbemycin and moxidectin. (allindianpatents.com)
  • One aspect of the invention provides an injectable solution containing an anthelmintic chosen from the class of macrocyclic lactones including but not limited to the avermectins, ivermectin, doramectin, abamectin, milbemycin, and moxidectin, together with a vegetable oil and a co- solvent chosen from the group comprising alcohols having 4 or more carbon atoms. (allindianpatents.com)
  • In another aspect the invention provides a pour-on composition containing an anthelmintic chosen from the class of macrocyclic lactones including but not limited to the avermectins, ivermectin, doramectin, abamectin, milbemycin, and moxidectin, together with a vegetable oil and a co-solvent chosen from the group comprising alcohols having 4 or more carbon atoms. (allindianpatents.com)
  • We are seeking to develop new anthelmintic drugs specifically with activity against whipworm as a priority and previously identified a hit series of dihydrobenzoxazepinone (DHB) compounds that block motility of ex vivo Trichuris muris. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we report a systematic investigation of the structure-activity relationship of the anthelmintic activity of DHB compounds. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results demonstrate the potential of DHB and DBQ compounds for further development as broad-spectrum anthelmintics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Plants from a broad range of species produce a wide variety of compounds that are potential anthelmintics candidates. (kab.ac.ug)
  • In addition, new anthelmintics may well be found amongst drugs or other compounds with entirely diverse indications of use. (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • A screening of a small-molecules library of compounds applied in human clinical trials against the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans uncovered the anthelmintic activity of the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline (SRT), paroxetine and chlorpromazine [10]. (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • Out of 15 compounds, only 6e and 6o had good anthelmintic activity. (ddtjournal.com)
  • Experimental data led to the conclusion that the synthesized compounds have anthelmintic activity. (ddtjournal.com)
  • Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most anthelmintic drugs can also kill the eggs laid by these worms from being hatched. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Consequently considerable efforts happen to be devoted to the development of new anthelmintic drugs, specifically those with much more pronounced efficacy in nematodes resistant to classical anthelmintics [8]. (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • Subsequently, these FDA-approved drugs showed substantial anthelmintic activity against three nematode species in reduced powerful concentrations: they reduce motility of adult Trichuris muris whipworms, avoid hatching and improvement of Ancylostoma caninum hookworms, and kill Schistosoma mansoni flatworms [10]. (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • These data reveal a function for praziquantel as a regulator of vascular tone in treated hosts and support a strategy for developing novel anthelmintics with more efficacious activity. (immunopaedia.org.za)
  • The data revealed dose-dependent anthelmintic activity both in the in vitro and in vivo studies, thus justifying its use in the traditional medicine system of Pakistan. (aku.edu)
  • Veterinary Study(2021) 52:Web page two ofrecent anthelmintic in wide use, has occurred inside much less than four years from the product initial being introduced is certainly disturbing [6, 7]. (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • Structural Requirements for Dihydrobenzoxazepinone Anthelmintics: Actions against Medically Important and Model Parasites: Trichuris muris, Brugia malayi, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, and Schistosoma mansoni. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Anthelmintics are used to treat people who are infected by helminths, a condition called helminthiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthelmintics are drugs that work on helminths as either vermicides (by killing) or vermifuges (by expelling). (trustedbusinessinsights.com)
  • We synthesized 47 analogues, which allowed us to define features of the molecules essential for anthelmintic action as well as broadening the chemotype by identification of dihydrobenzoquinolinones (DBQs) with anthelmintic activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The present study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. (aku.edu)
  • Among these, drug repurposing is an intriguing technique based on testing drugs approved for the therapy of other diseases for anthelmintic activity. (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • Synthesis, characterization, and anthelmintic activity of novel 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-5-phenyl-2-benzylidine-3-substituted hydrazino thiazolo (2,3-b) quinazoline derivatives and analogues. (ddtjournal.com)
  • Several novel 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-5-phenyl-2-benzylidine-3-substituted hydrazine thiazolo (2,3-b) quinazoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anthelmintic activity in a passive avoidance test. (ddtjournal.com)
  • Mebendazole is in a class of medications called anthelmintics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These guidelines address transmission of intestinal ascarids and hookworms from dogs and cats to people and recommend counseling of dog and cat owners and well-timed preventive anthelmintic treatments for pets. (cdc.gov)
  • Several anthelmintic drugs are available for established infection. (medscape.com)
  • In this report, 2018 has been considered as the base year and 2019 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Anthelmintic Drugs. (trustedbusinessinsights.com)
  • This report studies the global market size of Anthelmintic Drugs, especially focuses on the key regions like United States, European Union, China, and other regions (Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia). (trustedbusinessinsights.com)
  • This study presents the Anthelmintic Drugs sales volume, revenue, market share and growth rate for each key company, and also covers the breakdown data (sales, revenue and market share) by regions, type and applications. (trustedbusinessinsights.com)
  • 1. Market size (sales, revenue and growth rate) of Anthelmintic Drugs industry. (trustedbusinessinsights.com)
  • 2. Global major manufacturers' operating situation (sales, revenue, growth rate and gross margin) of Anthelmintic Drugs industry. (trustedbusinessinsights.com)
  • 3. SWOT analysis, New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis, Upstream raw materials and manufacturing equipment & Industry chain analysis of Anthelmintic Drugs industry. (trustedbusinessinsights.com)
  • 4. Market size (sales, revenue) forecast by regions and countries from 2019 to 2025 of Anthelmintic Drugs industry. (trustedbusinessinsights.com)
  • In the United States, prices of long-established, generic anthelmintic medications have markedly risen. (healthpartners.com)
  • For example, the commercially available injectable antiparasitic agent based on an aqueous co-solvent formulation containing ivermectin, water and an organic co-solvent, has been shown to result in some precipitation of the ivermectin at the injection site, with the possibility of irritation to the animal, and possible loss of effectiveness as an anthelmintic. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Preferaby the anthelmintic is chosen from the group comprising abamectin and ivermectin. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Pills containing anthelmintics are used in mass deworming campaigns of school-aged children in many developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concerning anthelmintics, broadening the range of target helminth species or treated organisms represents probably the most standard tactic. (nrtisinhibitor.com)
  • Deworming medicines called anthelmintics help control these infections. (answercatch.com)
  • The study justified the need for alternative anthelmintics. (kab.ac.ug)
  • RSR: study conception, Costa Rica es el país que se considera más endémico, se ha evidenciado en distintas revisiones que la mayoría de los manuscript design, literature casos se presentan en niños y personas del sexo masculino. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatment of neurocysticercosis and the use of anthelmintics are complex topics. (who.int)
  • In this workshop aimed at physicians, Dr Agnes Fleury covers the basics of treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis and the considerations for the use of anthelmintics for the treatment of neurocysticercosis. (who.int)
  • Medicinal plants used as anthelmintics: Ethnomedical, pharmacological, and phytochemical studies. (bvsalud.org)
  • citation needed] Dysphania ambrosioides, an herb native to Central and South America Santonin, a historical anthelmintic no longer in use WHO (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • The product labels should not encourage the regular use of anthelmintics. (tga.gov.au)
  • Optionally, a wetting agent such as ethyl oleate may be used to assist in dissolving the anthelmintic in solution. (allindianpatents.com)
  • It is an object of this invention to provide improved compositions containing an anthelmintic, or one which will at least provide the public with a useful choice. (allindianpatents.com)

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