Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Haemonchus: A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Pyrantel: A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Fenbendazole: Antinematodal benzimidazole used in veterinary medicine.Strongyloidea: A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Ascaridia: A genus of nematode worms in the superfamily Heterakoidea. A. galli and A. lineata are important intestinal parasites of domestic fowl.Haemonchiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Mebendazole: A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Trichostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the digestive tract of herbivorous animals. They cause incidental infections in humans from the following species: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. orientalis, T. axei, and T. probolurus.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Strongylida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.Ascariasis: Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.Trichuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.Bephenium Compounds: Analogs or derivatives of bephenium (N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-phenoxyethyl)benzenemethanaminium).Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Morantel: Antinematodal agent used mainly for livestock.Ascaris suum: A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.Ascaris lumbricoides: A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Ostertagia: A genus of parasitic nematodes occurring in the stomach of ruminants.Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Ancylostoma: A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Trichostrongylosis: Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Strongyle Infections, Equine: Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. Characteristics include the development of hemorrhagic nodules on the abdominal peritoneum.Pyrantel Pamoate: Broad spectrum antinematodal anthelmintic used also in veterinary medicine.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Salicylanilides: 2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.Trichostrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.Aminoacetonitrile: Cyanomethylamine.Ancylostomiasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Teucrium: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. Members contain teuscordonin. There have been reports of hepatoxicity by this genus.Ascaridida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order ASCARIDIDA.Agave: A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Ascaridoidea: A superfamily of polymyarian nematode worms. An important characteristic of this group is the presence of three prominent lips around the mouth of the organism.Annona: A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.Pyrvinium CompoundsMetastrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Flacourtiaceae: The Indian plum plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae class Magnoliopsida, that are tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Heligmosomatoidea: A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which were formerly considered a part of TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA. It includes the following genera: Heligmosomum, NEMATOSPIROIDES, and NIPPOSTRONGYLUS. The hosts are rodents.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Trichostrongyloidiasis: Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.Strongyloides: A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.Oesophagostomum: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Loganiaceae: A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. They have leaflike appendages at the base of the leafstalks, have terminal flower clusters. Petals have four or five overlapping lobes and the fruit is a capsule containing winged or wingless seeds.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Ostertagiasis: A disease of herbivorous mammals, particularly cattle and sheep, caused by stomach worms of the genus OSTERTAGIA.Anticestodal Agents: Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Hymenolepiasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Niclosamide: An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)Cymbopogon: A plant genus of the family POACEAE which is a source of citronella oil and lemongrass oil.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Combretaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly trees and shrubs growing in warm areas.Verbascum: A plant genus of the family SCROPHULARIACEAE.Melia azedarach: A plant species of the genus MELIA, family MELIACEAE, which is toxic to insects. The name is very similar to Melia azadirachta (AZADIRACHTA).Ascaris: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.Thiabendazole: 2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Melastomataceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.EcuadorAlpinia: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain galangin, yakuchinone-A, and diarylheptanoids.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Clausena: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain anethole and CARBAZOLES.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Hymenolepis nana: The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Nippostrongylus: A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.Clerodendrum: A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae. Inerminosides (iridoid glycosides); colebroside A; STEROIDS; STEROLS; terpenoid glucosides; and abietane DITERPENES have been found in this genus.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Necator americanus: A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Meliaceae: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Toxocara canis: A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Strongyloidiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.PhenylenediaminesLigand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.Acetogenins: Polyketides of up to a few dozen carbons in length, formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES and oxygenated to form tetrahydrofuran and lactone rings along the length of the chain. They are found in ANNONACEAE and other PLANTS. Related compounds cyclize to MACROLIDES.Schistosomicides: Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Metabolic Detoxication, Phase I: Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.

Neurocysticercosis in an Italian traveler to Latin America. (1/1248)

Neurocysticercosis is rarely reported in short-term travelers, although the disease remains a major public health problem in tropical regions. We present a case of neurocysticercosis that was probably acquired by ingestion of Taenia solium eggs contained in the stomach of a pig butchered by the traveler. Complete clinical resolution was obtained by medical treatment, underlying the importance of early suspicion and diagnosis of the disease.  (+info)

Ivermectin distribution using community volunteers in Kabarole district, Uganda. (2/1248)

Ivermectin mass distribution for the control of onchocerciasis in Uganda began in 1991. This report describes a community based ivermectin distribution programme covering two foci in the Kabarole district which have an estimated 32,000 persons infected and another 110,000 at risk. Through nodule palpation in adult males, 143 villages were identified where nodule prevalence exceeded 20%. Skin snips were also taken from a sample of the population to measure changes in community microfilarial load (CMFL) with treatment. The delivery programme was integrated into the district health management structure, and used community volunteers supervised by medical assistants from adjacent health facilities for annual ivermectin distribution campaigns. After initial efforts by the community to support distributors in-kind proved inadequate, ivermectin distributors earned money retailing condoms as part of the social marketing component of district STD/AIDS programme. Reduction in the CMFL ranged from 40-62% twelve months after the second ivermectin treatment in three villages, and from 69-84% six months after the fourth round of treatment in two villages. After four years of treatment, 85% of eligible persons were receiving ivermectin from community volunteers in each treatment cycle. Drop out rates among volunteers did not exceed 20% over the four years reported here. The direct cost of treatment was US $0.29 per person. Among the reasons for low per-person treatment costs were the strong supervisory structure, the presence of health centres in the foci and a well developed and capable district Primary Health Care management team.  (+info)

Efficacies of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone against In vitro-cultivated Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes. (3/1248)

The metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a parasitic disease affecting the liver, with occasional metastasis into other organs. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives such as mebendazole and albendazole are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of AE. Albendazole is poorly resorbed and is metabolically converted to its main metabolite albendazole sulfoxide, which is believed to be the active component, and further to albendazole sulfone. Chemotherapy with albendazole has been shown to have a parasitostatic rather than a parasitocidal effect; it is not effective in all cases, and the recurrence rate is rather high once chemotherapy is stopped. Thus, development of new means of chemotherapy of AE is needed. This could include modifications of benzimidazoles and elucidiation of the respective biological pathways. In this study we performed in vitro drug treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes with albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of vesicle fluids showed that the drugs were taken up rapidly by the parasite. Transmission electron microscopic investigation of parasite tissues and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of vesicle fluids demonstrated that albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone had similar effects with respect to parasite ultrastructure and changes in metabolites in vesicle fluids. This study shows that the in vitro cultivation model presented here provides an ideal first-round test system for screening of antiparasite drugs.  (+info)

Effect of anthelmintic treatment on sexual maturation in prepubertal beef heifers. (4/1248)

Heifers treated with ivermectin at weaning have been reported to reach puberty at a younger age and lighter weight than untreated heifers. We tested the hypothesis that heifers administered ivermectin would respond with earlier follicular development and a greater LH response to a 1-mg estradiol-17beta challenge (E2C) than untreated heifers. Fall-born Angus heifers (n = 32) were randomly assigned on 284 +/- 9 d of age (215.5 +/- 20.8 kg) to receive ivermectin (IVR) or albendazole (ALB), IVR + ALB, or to remain as untreated controls (CONT). Each group (n = 8) was housed separately in adjacent pens throughout the trial and managed to gain .8 kg/heifer on a ration containing 13.2% CP, 58.8% TDN, and 49.9% DM. The CONT heifers received an additional 2.27 kg/heifer of corn silage and 1.59 kg/heifer of corn daily to maintain ADG at comparable levels. Individual body weight was recorded weekly, and nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were measured every 21 d. Ultrasonography was performed on alternate days starting 2 wk prior to E2C to characterize follicular wave patterns. Follicles were separated into classes (C1 [3 to 5 mm], C2 [6 to 9 mm], and C3 [10 mm]) and sizes (largest [LF], second [SLF], third [TLF], and fourth largest follicles [FLF]). The sizes of the regressing dominant follicle 1 (DF1) and the progressing dominant follicle 2 (DF2) were also determined. Serum concentrations of LH were determined from hourly jugular blood samples collected 8 to 24 h after injection of E2C. The IVR + ALB treatment group had more C3 follicles than ALB and CONT (P < .07). The IVR-treated heifers had larger TLF than ALB and CONT (P < .04). The IVR- and IVR + ALB-treated heifers had larger FLF and DF2 than ALB and CONT (P < .1). Least squares means for DF2 were 9.5 +/- .5, 8.0 +/- .4, 9.5 +/- .3 and 8.3 +/- .3 mm, for IVR, ALB, IVR + ALB and CONT, respectively (P = .02 for treatment effect). The E2C-induced serum LH concentration did not differ with respect to treatment. We conclude that heifers administered IVR display increased follicular development, supporting our earlier investigations regarding reduced age at puberty in heifers treated with IVR near weaning.  (+info)

Cost of school-based drug treatment in Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development. (5/1248)

It has been argued that targeting delivery of anthelmintics to school-children by taking advantage of the existing education infrastructure and administrative system can be one of the most cost-effective approaches in minimizing the intensity of infections with both schistosomiasis and major intestinal nematodes in many developing countries. The study was conducted in January 1997, shortly after the completion of the drug intervention programme. This paper provides an analysis of the costs of providing age-targeted treatment of school-children for urinary schistosomiasis using praziquantel and for intestinal nematodes using albendazole as an integral part of the School Health Programme in Tanga Region, Tanzania. The analysis shows that the total financial cost of the intervention programme in 1996 prices was US$54 252.28 (exchange rate: TSH 573 = US$1). Of this amount, the cost of drugs constitutes 80.6%, while the delivery cost appears relatively low, representing just below 20%. Even when the opportunity cost of unpaid days of labour input is included, the cost of drugs still remains the highest cost component of the intervention (55.8%). In the current epidemiological and logistic setting of Tanzania, the financial cost per child treated using praziquantel, which involved prior screening at the school level, was US$0.79, while treatment using albendazole was as low as US$0.23, of which US$0.20 was drug purchase cost. It is concluded that the base cost of delivering a universal, standard, school-based health intervention such as albendazole can be as low as US$0.03 per child tested, but even a very slight increase in the complexity of delivery can have a very significant impact on the cost of intervention.  (+info)

Evidence for an improvement in cognitive function following treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Chinese primary schoolchildren. (6/1248)

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, treatment trial was conducted in Sichuan, China to investigate the unique and combined effects on the cognitive function (working memory) of children after treating geohelminth infections with albendazole and treating Schistosoma japonicum infection with praziquantel. One hundred eighty-one children 5-16 years of age participated. At baseline, the praziquantel and placebo groups were similar in all background characteristics. Three months after praziquantel treatment, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum infection. There were significant age group by praziquantel treatment interaction effects in three of the five cognitive tests, Fluency, Picture Search, and Free Recall, with effects being strongest in the youngest children (5-7 years old). Exploratory analysis within the youngest children showed a significant positive main effect of treatment on Fluency (P < 0.001), after controlling for sex, anthropometric, and parasitic and iron status. There was also a treatment by height-for-age interaction (P = 0.03) and a treatment by iron status interaction (P = 0.024) on Fluency. There was a treatment by S. japonicum intensity interaction (P < 0.001) on Free Recall, but the main effect of treatment on Picture Search was not significant (P = 0.058). Younger children and those who are physically the most vulnerable are likely to benefit the most from the treatment of S. japonicum infection in terms of improved performance on tests of working memory.  (+info)

Presystemic metabolism of albendazole: experimental evidence of an efflux process of albendazole sulfoxide to intestinal lumen. (7/1248)

Albendazole (ABZ) presystemic clearance was studied in rat by perfusion of a 25 microM ABZ solution in isolated intestinal loops. Significant secretion of the active metabolite, ABZSO, into the lumen was observed. The metabolite was also present in mesenteric blood. After 30 min of intestinal perfusion, 64% of the ABZ dose had disappeared from lumen. The total amount of ABZSO measured was 0.341 +/- 0.04 nmol/cm with 0.176 +/- 0.03 nmol/cm in mesenteric blood. The metabolite secretion to intestinal lumen was 0.165 +/- 0.05 nmol/cm. Intestinal sulfoxidation was induced by repeated administration of ABZ and ABZ coadministered with surfactants, especially polysorbate 80. The enantioselectivity of the in vitro intestinal sulfoxidation of ABZ showed that the relative contribution of P-450 and flavin-containing monooxygenase was quite similar, but after the induction by ABZ coadministered with polysorbate 80, the cytochrome P-450 system contribution was significantly increased. The appearance of ABZSO in mesenteric blood clearance was also increased under these conditions.  (+info)

Population biology of human onchocerciasis. (8/1248)

Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is the filarial infection caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted among people through the bites of the Simulium vector. Some 86 million people around the world are at risk of acquiring the nematode, with 18 million people infected and 600,000 visually impaired, half of them partially or totally blind. 99% of cases occur in tropical Africa; scattered foci exist in Latin America. Until recently control programmes, in operation since 1975, have consisted of antivectorial measures. With the introduction of ivermectin in 1988, safe and effective chemotherapy is now available. With the original Onchocerciasis Control Programme of West Africa coming to an end, both the new African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas, rely heavily on ivermectin self-sustained mass delivery. In consequence, the need for understanding the processes regulating parasite abundance in human and simuliid populations is of utmost importance. We present a simple mathematical framework built around recent analyses of exposure- and density-dependent processes operating, respectively, within the human and vector hosts. An expression for the basic reproductive ratio, R0, is derived and related to the minimum vector density required for parasite persistence in localities of West Africa in general and northern Cameroon in particular. Model outputs suggest that constraints acting against parasite establishment in both humans and vectors are necessary to reproduce field observations, but those in humans may not fully protect against reinfection. Analyses of host age-profiles of infection prevalence, intensity, and aggregation for increasing levels of endemicity and intensity of transmission in the Vina valley of northern Cameroon are in agreement with these results and discussed in light of novel work on onchocerciasis immunology.  (+info)

*Anthelmintic

Anthelmintics at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Holden-Dye, L. and Walker, R.J. ... Pills containing anthelmintics are used in mass deworming campaigns of school-aged children in many developing countries. For ... Play media Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other ... Treatment with an antihelminthic drug kills worms whose phenotype renders them susceptible to the drug, but resistant parasites ...

*Helminthiasis

"Anthelmintics". Drugs.com. Retrieved 17 November 2014. "Overview of Anthelmintics". The Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck Sharp & ... whereas Quarterly Antihelminthic Treatment Improves Growth, Appetite, and Anemia in Zanzibari Preschool Children". The Journal ... can be pre-treated with the anthelmintic drug albendazole. Areas with the highest prevalence of helminthiasis are tropical and ...

*Cysteine protease

They provide an alternative mechanism of action to current anthelmintics and the development of resistance is thought to be ... Stepek G, Behnke JM, Buttle DJ, Duce IR (July 2004). "Natural plant cysteine proteinases as anthelmintics?". Trends Parasitol. ... Behnke JM, Buttle DJ, Stepek G, Lowe A, Duce IR (2008). "Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases". ... Currently there is no widespread use of cysteine proteases as approved and effective anthelmintics but research into the ...

*Grapefruit-drug interactions

Anthelmintics: Used for treating certain parasitic infections; includes praziquantel Apremilast (Otezla): Used to treat ...

*Trichinella spiralis

Anthelmintics can treat and prevent Trichinella infections. Trichinosis (trichinellosis) is a disease caused by tissue-dwelling ...

*Gloriosa superba

It is an anthelmintic. It has been used as a laxative and an alexiteric. The sap is used to treat acne and head lice. In a ... 2010). Anthelmintic activity of Gloriosa superba Linn (Liliaceae). International Journal of PharmTech Research 2(2) 1483-87. ...

*Flubendazole

... is an anthelmintic. Its brand name is Flutelmium which is a paste manufactured by Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. used ...

*Ascariasis

Howes HL (June 1971). "Anthelmintic studies with pyrantel. II. Prophylactic activity in a mouse-ascaris suum test model". J. ...

*Desaspidin

... is an anthelmintic. Desapidin may occur in natural form within some plants such as Coastal woodfern, Dryopteris ...

*Oxantel

... is an anthelmintic. It has typically been used human and animal use as a standard treatment for intestinal worms. ...

*Artemisinin

... and its derivatives are all potent anthelmintics. Artemisinins were later found to possess a broad spectrum of ... A serendipitous discovery was made in China in the early 1980s while searching for novel anthelmintics for schistosomiasis that ...

*Dysphania ambrosioides

... formerly used as an anthelmintic". Epazote essential oil contains ascaridole (up to 70%), limonene, p-cymene, and smaller ...

*Rottlerin

Rao, VS; Seshadri, TR (1947). "Kamala dye as an anthelmintic". Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 26 (3): 178-181. ...

*Oxyclozanide

... is a salicylanilide anthelmintic. It is used in the treatment and control of fascioliasis in ruminants mainly ... "Repurposing Salicylanilide Anthelmintic Drugs to Combat Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus". PLoS ONE. 10 (4): e0124595. doi: ...

*Bunostomum

All available anthelmintics are efficient at treating the infection. Prophylactic anthelmintic treatment may help prevent the ...

*Dog health

Anthelmintics such as praziquantel may help prevent this condition. Prohibition of the feeding of dogs with uncooked offals may ...

*Ostertagia ostertagi

Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on 62 beef cattle farms in the North Island of New Zealand. NZ Vet J 546: 278-282. http ... Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy cattle in the Macalister Irrigation District of Victoria. Aust ... Anthelmintic resistance of ''Ostertagia ostertagi'' and ''Cooperia oncophora'' to macrocyclic lactones in cattle from the ... Due to routine, blanket herd treatment, there is widespread resistance to anthelmintic drugs in warm climates in sheep, and ...

*Piperazine

These drugs are often referred to simply as "piperazine" which may cause confusion between the specific anthelmintic drugs, the ... Piperazine was first introduced as an anthelmintic in 1953[citation needed]. A large number of piperazine compounds have ... Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals, 3rd edition, 7332 Martin RJ (31 July 1997). "Modes of action of anthelmintic ... anthelmintic action. Their mode of action is generally by paralysing parasites, which allows the host body to easily remove or ...

*Triclabendazole

It is a member of the benzimidazole family of anthelmintics. The benzimidazole drugs share a common molecular structure, ...

*Mallotus japonicus

In addition, the fruit has anthelmintic properties. M. japonicus shows physical, chemical, and biotic resistance traits against ...

*Metagonimiasis

Only after antihelminthic treatment will adult worms be seen in the feces, and then can be used as part of a diagnostic ... "Antihelminthic Effects of Various Drugs against Metagonimiasis." Korean Journal of Parasitology. Vol. 16: 117-122. 1978. Rim, ... but its use has been superseded by new antihelminthic drugs (like Praziquantel). A 1978 study also looked at the efficacy of ...

*Deworming

... (sometimes known as worming or drenching) is the giving of an anthelmintic drug (a wormer, dewormer, or drench) to a ... Anthelmintic Horse care Parasitism "Soil Transmitted Helminths". WHO. Retrieved 28 July 2015. Miguel, Edward; et al. (May 2015 ... Deworming (drenching) a sheep is usually done with a specific drenching gun that squirts an anthelmintic into the sheep's ...

*Tiabendazole

2-(4'-Thiazolyl)-Benzimidazole, A New Anthelmintic". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 83 (7): 1764-1765. doi:10.1021/ ... "A new broad-spectrum anthelmintic: 2-(4-Thiazolyl)-5-isopropoxycarbonylamino-benzimidazole". Experientia. 26 (5): 550-551. doi: ...

*Oxfendazole

... is an anthelmintic (wormer) compound used in veterinary practice. It comes under the chemical class of the ... Oxfendazole is a broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic. Its main use is for protecting livestock against roundworm, ...

*Ethnoveterinary medicine

"Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia brevifolia in sheep." J Ethnopharmacol. 93 (2-3): 265-8. ITDG and IIRR, 1996. ... Iqbal (2004) compared the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Artemisia brevifolia with levamisole. In vitro studies ... The anthelmintic efficacies of Teminalia glaucescens (48.4%), Solanum aculeastrum (34.4%), Khaya anthoteca (55.8%) and Vernonia ... revealed anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous (CAE) and methanol extracts (CME) of Artemisia brevifolia (whole plant) on live ...
While surveys in Southern Africa indicate anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to be common in small ruminants in South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe, there have been no reports of resistance in Zambia. The objective of this study was to determine whether anthelmintic resistance occurs in Zambia, and to obtain information on nematode control practices in the country. During the rainy season six commercial sheep farms were selected in and around Lusaka and Chisamba. Worm control practices were gauged by means of a questionnaire, and the Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test was performed for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole, levamisole and ivermectin. On all farms, anthelmintic treatment was the only approach used to control nematode infections. Frequency of treatment varied from twice a year to every 6 weeks and drugs of different anthelmintic groups were alternated within the same year. There was a wide range in faecal egg counts of individual sheep before treatment, with ...
Objective To establish the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in ovine gastrointestinal nematodes in southern Queensland. Design An observational parasitological study using the faecal egg count reduction test. Methods Sheep farms (n = 20) enrolled in this study met the twin criteria of using worm testing for drench decisions and having concerns about anthelmintic efficacy. On each farm, 105 sheep were randomly allocated to one of six treatment groups or an untreated control group. Faecal samples were collected on day 0 and days 10-14 for worm egg counts and larval differentiation. Single- and multi-combination anthelmintics, persistent and non-persistent, oral liquid or capsule, pour-on and injectable formulations were tested. Monepantel was not tested. Farmers also responded to a questionnaire on drenching practices. Results Haemonchus contortus was the predominant species. Efficacy ,95% was recorded on 85% of farms for one or more anthelmintics and on 10% of farms for six anthelmintics. No ...
Before revised World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines on the detection of anthelmintic resistance can be produced, validation of modified and new methods is required in laboratories in different parts of the world. There is a great need for improved methods of detection of anthelmintic resistance particularly for the detection of macrocyclic lactone resistance and for the detection of resistant nematodes in cattle. Therefore, revised and new methods are provided here for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of ruminants, horses and pigs as a basis for discussion and with the purpose that they are evaluated internationally to establish whether they could in the future be recommended by the WAAVP. The interpretation of the faecal egg count reduction test has been modified and suggestions given on its use with persistent anthelmintics and continuous release devices. An egg hatch test for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance is described. A ...
Approximately 10% of sheep producers in Ireland [20] participated in the STAP drench test task. To the authors knowledge, this is the largest field survey investigating anthelmintic inefficacy in the world to date and provides some baseline valuable data on treatment failure in Irish flocks. While the FECRT [6] is still regarded as the method of choice to investigate anthelmintic efficacy, the drench test employed in this survey represents a cost-effective modified version where samples from each flock were pooled instead of analysed separately by the laboratory, the results of which should be interpreted as an indicator of anthelmintic treatment failure and not anthelmintic resistance per se [21].. The majority of drench tests were carried out in the border and west regions, representing the areas of Ireland where the majority of sheep farming is conducted [20]. In the first year only 28% of the drench tests were carried out according to the instructions provided. Compliance improved in ...
A recent national survey on anthelmintic resistance in cattle and sheep in New Zealand indicated that the magnitude of the problem has increased from very low levels only a few years ago to disturbingly high levels now. There is a particular problem with multiple resistance to all three action families of anthelmintic currently available in Ostertagia (= Teladorsagia) spp in sheep, and to both macrocyclic lactones (ML) and benzimidazoles in Cooperia spp in cattle. The prevalence and extent of resistance indicate that all cattle farmers and most sheep farmers should now be using a combination anthelmintic on most occasions just to achieve effective control of all parasites. Despite this, die presence of resistant parasites has generally not been appreciated by the majority of affected farmers, possibly because most have not formally tested to determine die resistance status of nematodes on their farms. Anthelmintics will remain the cornerstone of gastrointestinal nematode control in sheep and ...
Play media Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. They may also be called vermifuges (those that stun) or vermicides (those that kill). Anthelmintics are used to treat people who are infected by helminths, a condition called helminthiasis. These drugs are also used to treat infected animals. Pills containing anthelmintics are used in mass deworming campaigns of school-aged children in many developing countries. For example, the treatment of choice for soil-transmitted helminths is mebendazole and albendazole and praziquantel for schistosomiasis. Antiparasitics that specifically target Ascaris worms are called ascaricides. Benzimidazoles: Albendazole - effective against threadworms, roundworms, whipworms, tapeworms, hookworms Mebendazole - effective against pinworms, roundworms and hookworms ...
With almost 2,000 farmers opting to complete the drench test task as one of their two technical tasks for inclusion in the STAP programme it became the most popular task. Despite this encouraging response, compliance with task instructions was low (27.8% n = 527). While, 16% of participants submitted only one sample, almost 15% of farmers did not report which anthelmintic product they used and the efficacy of these treatments could not be included in the study. Approximately 2% of farmers used an inappropriate product, such as a product active only as a flukicide or a combination (BZ/LEV) anthelmintic, and were also excluded from the study. A further 39.6% of farmers either did not provide information on time of sampling or did not meet the criteria concerning timeframes pre- and post-treatment (10-14, 4-7 or 14-18 days for BZ, LEV and ML products, respectively).. Over 1300 farmers reported which anthelmintic product they used and amongst those farmers 46% used a BZ product, making this drug ...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF NOVEL 3-BENZYL-2-(4- SUBSTITUTED PHENYL)-4(5H)-(4-NITROPHENYL AMINO)-1, 3-OXAZOLIDINES DERIVATIVES
The bark extracts of Prosopis staphaniana have been investigated for their anthelmintic activity aganist Pheretima posthuma. The different concentrati..
lbendazole + Ivermectin Bolus, is a powerful antiparasitic combination therapy indicated for treatment against worms. In bolus form, they are used against a wide range of parasitic worm infestations in animals. As a broad spectrum anthelmintic...
The continued existence of New Zealands critically endangered and endemic black stilt or kakï (Himantopus novaezelandiae) relies on an intensive captive management programme. While this is successful at rearing large numbers of birds for release to the wild, poor survivability of these birds is limiting significant increases in the wild population. Predation and starvation are suspected to be the most common causes of death in released birds, but underlying contributing factors to these mortalities have not been fully evaluated. This research investigates the possible contribution of gastrointestinal (GI) helminth burdens and suboptimal digestive organ development to the high mortality rates of released kakï. Emphasis is placed on evaluating the methods used to assess the importance of these factors and to make informed recommendations for future management. The efficacy of the anthelmintic regime used for kakï was assessed by dosing half of the 80 captive birds with praziquantel (PZQ) prior ...
Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes can be a problem in sheep, goats, horses, cattle and pigs. The most widespread resistance problems occur to benzimidazol anthelmintics in nematodes of sheep, goats and horses. Reports of this type of resistance have emanated from Australia. Africa, Europe North and South America; wherever animals are regularly treated with anthelmintics and investigation have been made. Beveridge et al. (1990), Eady et al. (1998), Rolfe (1993) and Waller et al.( !986) found a high level of benzimidazole resistance in gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep in Australia. In Europe an increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep were reported in Great Britain (Coles 1997, Hunt et al. 1992), in France (Guerin 1996) and in Denmark (Maingi et al. 1997). In USA benzimidazole resistance of gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep were found in North Carolina (Uhlinger et al. 1992) and in eastern region (Lyons et al. 1992). Benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomes in horses has ...
Anthelmintics are drugs that are used to treat infections with parasitic worms. This includes both flat worms, e.g., flukes and tapeworms and round worms, i.e.,
Description: Solas (Mabendazole) is an effective and versatile broad spectrum anthelmintic agent; it eradicates warms by inhibiting nutrition uptake irreversibly. It is safe even in anaemic and mainutritive patients due to its negligible absorption...
Endospec 10% SC with the selenium and colbalt is a broad spectrum multi purpose anthelmintic for the control of mature and developing immature forms of gastrointestinal roundworms, lungworms, tapewormsand adult liver fluke in cattle and ...
N-[2-(Substituted amido)phenyl]-N,N-bis-carbonylguanidines bearing an optionally substituted phenoxy, phenylthio, phenylsulfinyl or phenylsulfonyl group in the 4- or 5-position of the 2-(substituted amido)phenyl group are anthelmintic agents. The compounds, of which N-(2-acetamido-4-phenylthiophenyl)-N,N-bis-carbomethoxyguanidine is a typical example, are prepared through the reaction of isothiourea-S-alkyl ether and an appropriately substituted 2-aminoanilide.
So why is resistance a growing issue? As discussed already, many individuals have relied exclusively on one type of dewormer. Eventually, as is typical in nature, organisms adapt to their environment to be more successful and to pass on their genetic code to future generations. Essentially, once the worms adapt, or a few individuals survive a purge deworming, they are able to pass on these enhanced genetics to a future generation of worms which will also have that advantage of being immune to that drug. If they are never exposed to a different type of dewormer, essentially the horse owner is just developing a breeding program for resistant worms! One strategy to adopt when thinking about "breeding" worms is to increase the number of refugia, or the population of worms which have not been exposed to dewormers. These would be the worms that would be in horses that were untreated, the encysted larval stages or perhaps those in the pasture. These non-exposed worms actually help to dilute out the ...
Helminths are arguably the most important parasites affecting livestock production throughout the world causing a range of disorders which particularly affect the productivity, fertility and welfare of farmed ruminants. Gastro-intestinal nematodes can cause scouring, reductions in appetite and ill thrift and have been estimated to cost the British sheep industry around 84 million pounds per annum, based upon the costs of lost production, preventive measures and treatment of affected animals.
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The objective of the Health Products Regulatory Authority is to ensure in so far as possible, consistent with current medical and scientific knowledge, the quality, safety and efficacy of medicines available in Ireland and to participate in systems designed to do that throughout the European Union.
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PANG Chang-Hong , MATSUZAKI Keiichi , IKEDA Haruo , TANAKA Haruo , OMURA Satoshi Journal of antibiotics 48(1), 59-66, 1995-01-25 参考文献11件 被引用文献6件 ...
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ABSTRACT. A survey was conducted on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed sheep in a semi-arid area near Mafikeng South Africa, from January to March 2006. In the herds belonging to twelve smallholder sheep farmers, the efficacies of albendazole, levamisole and closantel were tested by faecal egg count reduction tests where 80 % efficacy was considered the cut off for anthelmintic resistance. The results of the faecal egg count reduction tests showed more than 80 % efficacy with all the drugs used in most cases, but there were notable exceptions. In 1 case, closantel had an efficacy of 72%, albendazole had an efficacy of 68 % and levamisole showed efficacies of 58%, 60% and 75 =% respectively on 4 farms. The occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in this farming sector is of concern and steps should be taken to prevent its further spread and development to avoid a situation developing as on numerous commercial sheep farms in South Africa where resistance is ...
The practice of traditional medicine is as old as the human race and plants are an important source of research and development of new drugs. Anthelmintic resistance in human and animal pathogenic helminths has been spreading in prevalence and severity to a point where there is multi-drug resistance against the three major classes of anthelmintics. It has become a global phenomenon in gastrointestinal nematodes of farm animals, and hence the need for novel anthelmintic products. The objectives of this study were to document plants which are commonly used in the treatment and control of helminthosis in Loitoktok District of Kenya and to determine the bioactivity, anthelmintic efficacy and preliminary phytochemistry of herbal remedies from selected plants from the study area. An ethnopharmacological study was done through gathering information from 23 traditional health practitioners from across the district. Plants used traditionally as anthelmintics were identified by the traditional healers and ...
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IMIDAZOTHIAZOLES, anthelmintics for the control of parasitic roundworms in CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS, PIG, POULTRY, DOGS and CATS. Nematicide, wormer, dewormer, antiparasitic, Features, characteristics, mode of action, mechanism of action, active ingredients, formulations, delivery forms, safety, toxicity, resistance, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacology, absorption, metabolism, excretion, chemical structure, molecular structure, Livestock anthelmintics, pet anthelmintics, Cattle, cow, calf, calves, bull, ox, heifer, veal, bovine, bovid, feedlot, range, dairy, Sheep, lamb, ram, ovine, goat, ruminant, ewe, ewes, wether, Pig, sow, swine, boar, hog, porcine, farrow, piglet, Poultry, hen, layers, broilers, breeders, chicken, rooster, cock, turkey, ducks, goose, gander, pigeon, dove, guinea fowl, fowl, Horse, mare, colt, filly, stallion, Dog, bitch, puppy, puppies, canine, canids Cat, queen, kitten, feline, felids, pussy
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Epidemiological studies have shown inverse associations between geohelminth (intestinal helminth) infection and atopy, leading to the suggestion that geohelminths might protect against allergy. Periodic deworming of school children with anthelmintics is a widely implemented intervention and has raised concerns that such programmes could increase allergy. We investigated the effect of repeated anthelmintic treatments with albendazole over 12 months on the prevalence of atopy and clinical indices of allergy. ...
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The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic (drench) resistance in gastrointestinal parasite populations is decreasing the profitability of the Australian sheep industry. Refugia management can delay its development by not exposing a proportion of the worm population to chemical control. A dynamic-optimisation model is used to assess the economic value of refugia for management of the worm species Teladorsagia circumcincta and macrocyclic lactone drenches in an application to Western Australian sheep flocks. A low rate of refugia (2 per cent) is most profitable under standard circumstances because it slows the development of resistance, but also reduces the proportion of the flock not exposed to chemical control. Frequent drench application should remain the primary method of control. However, its efficacy should be preserved through refugia management, rather than greatly reducing treatment frequency ...
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Prevention/Control: This is based on avoiding pastures grazed by lambs during previous grazing seasons. Adult sheep are highly resistant to infection and only lambs produce significant number of eggs. Anthelmintic prophylaxis timing is guided upon environmental temperatures and disease forecasts. Typically, in normal risk situations, anthelmintic treatment should be given 3 weeks apart during May. In high risk situations, 3 anthelmintic treatments are given, extending the drenching period into June. ...
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Oncotarget | https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.16255 Sung Yong Ahn, Ji Hye Yang, Nam Hee Kim, Kyungro Lee, Yong Hoon Cha, Jun Seop Yun, Hee Eun Kang, Yoonmi Lee, Jiwon Choi, Hyun Sil Kim, Jong In Yook
Naftalofos is an insecticide and an anthelmintic. Naftalofos represents an effective therapeutic alternative for incorporation into worm control programmes.
The action of anthelmintics on parasites located outside of the alimentary canal / by Brayton Howard Ransom, Chief of the Zoological Division and Maurice C. Hall, assistant zoologist, Zoological Division ...
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Emodepside is a resistance-breaking anthelmintic of a new chemical class, the cyclooctadepsipeptides. A major determinant of its anthelmintic effect is the calcium-activated potassium channel SLO-1. SLO-1 belongs to a family of channels that are highly conserved across the animal phyla and regulate neurosecretion, hormone release, muscle contraction, and neuronal network excitability. To investigate the selective toxicity of emodepside, we performed transgenic experiments in which the nematode SLO-1 channel was swapped for a mammalian ortholog, human KCNMA1. Expression of either the human channel or Caenorhabditis elegans slo-1 from the native slo-1 promoter in a C. elegans slo-1 functional null mutant rescued behavioral deficits that otherwise resulted from loss of slo-1 signaling. However, worms expressing the human channel were 10- to 100-fold less sensitive to emodepside than those expressing the nematode channel. Strains expressing the human KCNMA1 channel were preferentially sensitive to ...
Albendazole is an anthelmintic (an-thel-MIN-tik) or anti- worm medication. It prevents newly hatched insect larvae (worms) from growing or multiplying in your body. Albendazole is used to treat certain infections caused by worms such as pork tapeworm and dog tapeworm. Albendazole may also be used for purposes not listed...
Impact of Anthelminthic Treatment in Pregnancy and Childhood on Immunisations, Infections and Eczema in Childhood: A Randomised Controlled Trial http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325?imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050325.t002 Background Helminth infections may modulate immune responses to unrelated pathogens and allergens; these effects may commence prenatally. We addressed the hypothesis that anthelminthic treatment in pregnancy and early childhood would improve responses to immunisation and…
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On 8 December, the European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) and The Global Health Innovative Technology Fund (GHIT) announced that they will be co-funding the Phase III clinical study conducted by the Pediatric Praziquantel Consortium. This study aims to provide clinical data and support for registration of a new praziquantel (PZQ) tablet formulation to treat schistosomiasis in preschool-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa.. ...
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Broad spectrum anthelmintic effective in the removal and control of internal parasites of cattle. Oral administration is less stressful than injectable wormers; avoid injection site lumps or bumps. DOSAGE: 4 ml. per 100 lbs. of body weight. CAUTION: Do not administer to female cattle during the first 45 days of pregnancy or for 45 days after removal of bulls. Do not use in dairy cattle of breeding age, because a withdrawal time for milk has not been established. 27 Day slaughter withdrawal.. ...
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The immunity of adult ewes wanes at lambing time. This is known as periparturient relaxation in immunity (PPRI) and allows the worms to produce more eggs. Normal practice is to treat ewes, but if you treat the whole flock, this will increase selection for anthelmintic resistance (AR). To compromise, the Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep recommends not treating the fittest 10% ewes with twins and those with single lambs as they are most likely to maintain immunity.. ...
Mebendazole (Mbz), a poorly water-soluble anthelminthic drug, possesses siginificant antineoplastic effects in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Microemulsions (PM1 37nm and PM2 478 nm) and nanosuspensions (NS-167nm ...
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Veloxa Chewable Tablets for Dogs are a broad-spectrum anthelmintic for treatment of mixed infections by the following roundworms and tapeworms in dogs and puppies: Ascarids – Toxocar canis, Toxscaris leonine (adult and late immature forms) Hookworms...
Animals, Classification, Risk, Sensitivity, Sheep, Gold, Anthelmintics, Bias, Calibration, Death, Evaluation, Haemonchus, Hand, Persons, Production, Season, Adjustment, Power, Receiver Operating Characteristic, Roc Curve
26 May 1995 How resistance to sheep wormers is growing in the UK UK SHEEP producers are urged to improve their anthelmintic control strategies or suffer th
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In the present study anthelmintic activity of Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. (Rubiaceae) stem-bark was performed in vitro against earthworms. Methanol extract of dried stem-bark was used for the study. The methanolic extract of M. parvifolia stem bark at the concentration of 100 mg/ml produced significant anthelmintic activity, whereas 20 mg/ml lower concentration did not produce significant results when compared with standard (P. Key words: Mitragyna parvifolia, Rubiaceae, Anthelmintic activity ...
This study examined the development of resistance to anthelmintics in Haemonchus contortus in lambs under suppressive or selective treatment regimens that included monepantel. Twenty Ile de France and 20 Santa Ines lambs were allocated to two anthelmintic treatment regimens, based on body weight and nematode faecal egg counts (FEC): targeted selective treatment (TST) or suppressive treatment, both with monepantel. Lambs of the TST group were treated individually when they presented with a packed cell volume (PCV) ≤20%. On 7 October 2016, the lambs were allocated to clean pastures, where they grazed in separated paddocks by group until late February 2017. The experimental area was contaminated with nematodes that were introduced with the experimental Ile de France and Santa Ines lambs, naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. To maintain the grazing lambs in the suppressive treatment group and their pasture as free of worms as possible, these lambs were treated with anthelmintics before
2019, Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Introduction: Paramphistomosis is a disease caused by the rumen flukes which cause an acute gastroenteritis and anemia with high mortality particularly in young ruminants. Materials and methods: In this study, we have investigated the anthelmintic effect of medicinal plant extracts from leaves and heartwoods of Cassia siamea L., roots of Plumbago zeylanica L. and Plumbago indica L., and leaves of Terminalia catappa L. against Carmyerius spatiosus. Results: The highest anthelminthic effect on the flukes after 24 h of exposure was found in heartwood ethyl acetate extract of C. siamea (LC50 = 374.30; LC90 = 749.03 ppm), root n-butanol extract of P. zeylanica (LC50 = 1005.12; LC90 = 2411.55 ppm), root hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol extract of P. indica (LC50 = 34.38, 211.34, 506.92; LC90 = 64.09, 496.05, 934.86 ppm), and leaf n-butanol and water extract of T. catappa (LC50 = 487.17, 470.28; LC90 = 913.27, 848.23 ...
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The in vitro anthelmintic evaluation of the crude extracts and solvent partitions on Pheretima posthuma and Ascarissuum (eggs and L2 stage) respectively showed significant results at the same concentration (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/ml). This study provides a clear evidence for usage of Mucuna pruriens and Canarium schweinfurthii as an anthelmintic. The most potent ovicidal partition of C. schweinfurthii (Engl) leaves and bark and leaves of M. pruriens (DC) is hexane (100.00 ± 0.33), chloroform (98.20 ± 0.12) and chloroform (98.70 ± 0.88) partitioned crude respectively at 80 mg/ml while the most potent larvicidal partition is hexane (0.06%), chloroform (0.1%) and chloroform (0.2%). The active compounds are predominantly in the non-polar solvent which supports the tegumental diffusing activity of the compounds.
The identification of diphyllobothriidean tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) that infect humans and intermediate/paratenic hosts is extremely difficult due to their morphological similarities, particularly in the case of Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra species. A pyrosequencing method for the molecular identification of pathogenic agents has recently been developed, but as of yet there have been no reports of pyrosequencing approaches that are able to discriminate among diphyllobothriidean species. This study, therefore, set out to establish a pyrosequencing method for differentiating among nine diphyllobothriidean species, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, Diphyllobothrium ditremum, Diphyllobothrium latum, Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense, Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum, Diplogonoporus balaenopterae, Adenocephalus pacificus, Spirometra decipiens and Sparganum proliferum, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene as a molecular marker ...
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Anthelmintic efficacy of Sesbania grandiflora leaves and Solanum torvum fruits against the nematode parasite Ascaridia galli  -...Anthelmintic efficacy of Sesbania grandiflora leaves and Solanum torvum fruits against the nematode parasite Ascaridia galli -...

Anthelmintic efficacy of Sesbania grandiflora leaves and Solanum torvum fruits against the nematode parasite Ascaridia galli ... Anthelmintic efficacy of Sesbania grandiflora leaves and Solanum torvum fruits against the nematode parasite Ascaridia galli. ... Karumari, R. Jothi, S. Sumathi, K. Vijayalakshmi and S. Ezhilarasi Balasubramanian (2014) Anthelmintic efficacy of Sesbania ...
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Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) Medication: AnthelminticsSchistosomiasis (Bilharzia) Medication: Anthelmintics

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Make research projects and school reports about Anthelmintics easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... Antihelminthic Drugs. Definition. Antihelminthic drugs are used to treat parasitic infestations.. Purpose. Parasitic ... Some antihelminthic drugs can pass into breast milk. Breastfeeding may have to be discontinued until the antihelminthic ... Some antihelminthic drugs work best when ingested along with fatty foods, such as milk or ice cream. Oral drugs should be taken ...
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... killing or ejecting intestinal wormsOrigin of anthelmintic ant(i)- + Classical Greek helmins (gen. helminthos), worm + -ic an ... comparative more anthelmintic, superlative most anthelmintic). *(medicine) Destructive to parasitic intestinal worms.. Research ... Malefern, santonine, thymol and other anthelmintic remedies are prescribed.. *Its chief use is as an anthelmintic to destroy ... plural anthelmintics). *(medicine) A drug for the treatment of intestinal worm infestation, either by killing the worms or by ...
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anthelmintic synonyms, anthelmintic pronunciation, anthelmintic translation, English dictionary definition of anthelmintic. ... anthelmintic. (ˌænθɛlˈmɪntɪk) , anthelminthic. or antihelminthic. n. (Pharmacology) med another name for vermifuge ... Anthelmintic - definition of anthelmintic by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/anthelmintic ... anthelmintic. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ant·hel·min·tic. (ănt′hĕl-mĭn′tĭk, ăn′thĕl-) also ant ...
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Anthelmintics at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Holden-Dye, L. and Walker, R.J. ... Pills containing anthelmintics are used in mass deworming campaigns of school-aged children in many developing countries. For ... Play media Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other ... Treatment with an antihelminthic drug kills worms whose phenotype renders them susceptible to the drug, but resistant parasites ...
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Words that start with antihelminthic | Words starting with antihelminthicWords that start with antihelminthic | Words starting with antihelminthic

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The anti-helminthic niclosamide inhibits Wnt/Frizzled1 signaling.  - PubMed - NCBIThe anti-helminthic niclosamide inhibits Wnt/Frizzled1 signaling. - PubMed - NCBI

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Antihelminthic Drugs | definition of Antihelminthic Drugs by Medical dictionaryAntihelminthic Drugs | definition of Antihelminthic Drugs by Medical dictionary

What is Antihelminthic Drugs? Meaning of Antihelminthic Drugs medical term. What does Antihelminthic Drugs mean? ... Looking for online definition of Antihelminthic Drugs in the Medical Dictionary? Antihelminthic Drugs explanation free. ... Antihelminthic Drugs. Antihelminthic Drugs. Definition. Antihelminthic drugs are used to treat parasitic infestations. ... Some antihelminthic drugs can pass into breast milk. Breastfeeding may have to be discontinued until the antihelminthic ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Antihelminthic+Drugs

Mebendazole Generic Mexican online pharmacy - Anthelmintics - Mexico pharmacy drugsMebendazole Generic Mexican online pharmacy - Anthelmintics - Mexico pharmacy drugs

Mebendazole is used to treat infections caused by worms such as whipworm, pinworm, roundworm, and hookworm. Available now at Medicines Mexico online Mexican pharmacy! Mexico pharmacy drugs
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Differential Diagnosis: Anthelmintic, Multiple skin lesionsDifferential Diagnosis: Anthelmintic, Multiple skin lesions

Logical Images, Inc. d/b/a VisualDx (hereinafter "VisualDx", "we", "us", or "our") has created this Acceptable Use Policy, Medical Disclaimer, & Copyright Notice (this "Notice") to inform you (hereinafter "you", "your", or "yourself") as a purchaser of a license for and/or user of the software hosted by VisualDx known as VisualDx (the "Software") of certain important terms and conditions set forth in the VisualDx End User License Agreement that governs your license for and/or use of the Software (the "EULA"). This Notice is subject to all of the terms and conditions set forth in the EULA and does not replace or limit it in anyway. You should read the EULA in detail prior to purchasing a license for or using the Software to make sure you understand and agree to its terms and conditions. Nothing in this Notice will (a) expand your rights or VisualDx′s obligations under the EULA or (b) modify or otherwise affect any terms and conditions of the EULA or the rights of the parties under the EULA. In ...
more infohttps://www.visualdx.com/visualdx/differential/anthelmintic/multiple%20skin%20lesions?moduleId=100&findingId=26022,25221&reqFId=26022

Anthelmintic effect of a methanol extract of Bombax malabaricum leaves on Paramphistomum explanatum | SpringerLinkAnthelmintic effect of a methanol extract of Bombax malabaricum leaves on Paramphistomum explanatum | SpringerLink

The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity... ... is used as anthelmintic in traditional system of medicine in Southern Punjab of Pakistan. ... Aswar M, Aswar U, Watkar B, Vyas M, Wagh A, Gujar KN (2008) Anthelmintic activity of Ficus benghalensis. Int J Green Phar 2(3): ... Tandon V, Pal P, Roy B, Rao HSP, Reddy KS (1997) In vitro anthelmintic activity of root-tuber extract of Flemingia vestita, an ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00436-011-2594-y

Thiabendazole-A New Anthelmintic Drug | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of PhysiciansThiabendazole-A New Anthelmintic Drug | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

Thiabendazole-A New Anthelmintic Drug B. H. KEAN, M.D., F.A.C.P. ... Thiabendazole-A New Anthelmintic Drug. Ann Intern Med. 1967;67: ...
more infohttps://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/681681/thiabendazole-new-anthelmintic-drug

PPT - Mechanisms of Anthelmintic Resistance PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3338567PPT - Mechanisms of Anthelmintic Resistance PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3338567

Mechanisms of Anthelmintic Resistance. Nick Sangster Faculty of Veterinary Science. 2003. 1995. 1991. 1999. 1987. Prevalence ... Anthelmintics Or Why I like drugs" -Anthelmintics or why i like drugs". nick sangster faculty of veterinary ... Mechanisms of Anthelmintic Resistance. An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: ... Aspects of anthelmintic resistance • Resistance is now common. • In nematodes of ruminants and horses, Fasciola • Resistance to ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/barr/mechanisms-of-anthelmintic-resistance

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Anthelmintic Activity of Pyrantel PamoateThe American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Anthelmintic Activity of Pyrantel Pamoate

Anthelmintic Activity of Pyrantel Pamoate * Authors: Robert S. Desowitz, Theodore Bell, Joseph Williams*, Richard Cardines, ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1970.19.775

Anthelmintic | Article about Anthelmintic by The Free DictionaryAnthelmintic | Article about Anthelmintic by The Free Dictionary

The action of different anthelmintics varies. Some preparations, such as... Explanation of Anthelmintic ... Find out information about Anthelmintic. anthelminthic , a preparation used to treat worm diseases, or helminthiases. ... Anthelmintic. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia. anthelmintic. [¦an·thel¦min·tik] (pharmacology) ... Anthelmintics are essential for worm control and, to avoid anthelmintic resistance developing through frequent use and mis-use ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Anthelmintic

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Experiences with the Anthelmintic Pyrantel PamoateThe American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Experiences with the Anthelmintic Pyrantel Pamoate

Experiences with the Anthelmintic Pyrantel Pamoate * Authors: Víctor M. Villarejos, Jorge A. Arguedas-Gamboa, Eduardo Eduarte* ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1971.20.842

Synthesis, anthelmintic and antiacetylcholinesterase activity of newer furan derivatives. | AbstractSynthesis, anthelmintic and antiacetylcholinesterase activity of newer furan derivatives. | Abstract

Synthesis, anthelmintic and antiacetylcholinesterase activity of newer furan derivatives.. Author(s): DP Gupta, S Ahmad, K ... The compounds were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity as well as the anthelmintic activity against H. nana. ...
more infohttp://www.ijpsonline.com/abstract/synthesis-anthelmintic-and-antiacetylcholinesterase-activity-of-newer-furan-derivatives-2686.html
  • 5) Treatment is difficult, combining careful surgical removal of cysts and anthelmintic therapy, (6) but is usually successful for infections occurring in Canada. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Implementation of this anthelmintic baiting strategy in suburban green spaces might significantly reduce risk for exposure by humans who use green spaces for recreation or live in close proximity to forested areas (9). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • new anthelmintic alternatives such as tribendimidine and Nitazoxanide have proved to be safe and effective against A. lumbricoides and other soil-transmitted helminthiases in human trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthelmintics at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Holden-Dye, L. and Walker, R.J.Anthelmintic drugs (November 2, 2007), WormBook, ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bombax malabaricum (family Bombacaceae) is used as anthelmintic in traditional system of medicine in Southern Punjab of Pakistan. (springer.com)
  • The Dengvaxia scare has seriously affected the conduct of health programs in Western Mindanao, including deworming, as parents have prevented health workers from administering the anthelmintic drugs to their children, officials said. (thefreedictionary.com)