Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.
Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.
The largest of the medial nuclei of the thalamus. It makes extensive connections with most of the other thalamic nuclei.
Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.
A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.
A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
A narrow strip of cell groups on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus. It includes the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and the PULVINAR.

Group II selective metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists and local cerebral glucose use in the rat. (1/66)

The novel mGluR agonist LY354740 and a related analogue LY379268 are selective for mGluR2/3 receptors and are centrally active after systemic administration. In this study, rates of local cerebral glucose use were measured using the [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique to examine the functional consequences of their systemic administration in the conscious rat. Both LY354740 (0.3, 3.0, 30 mg/kg) and LY379268 (0.1, 1.0, 10 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent changes in glucose use. After LY354740 (3.0mg/kg), 4 of the 42 regions measured showed statistically significant changes from vehicle-treated controls: red nuclei (-16%), mammillary body (-25%), anterior thalamus (-29%), and the superficial layer of the superior colliculus (+50%). An additional 15 regions displayed significant reductions in function-related glucose use (P < .05) in animals treated with LY354740 (30 mg/ kg). LY379268 (0.1, 1.0, 10 mg/kg) produced changes in glucose metabolism in 20% of the brain regions analyzed. Significant increases (P < .05) in glucose use were evident in the following: the superficial layer of the superior colliculus (+81%), locus coeruleus (+57%), genu of the corpus callosum (+31%), cochlear nucleus (+26%), inferior colliculus (+20%), and the molecular layer of the hippocampus (+14%). Three regions displayed significant decreases: mammillary body (-34%), anteroventral thalamic nucleus (-28%), and the lateral habenular nucleus (-24%). These results show the important functional involvement of the limbic system together with the participation of components of different sensory systems in response to the activation of mGluR2 and mGluR3 with LY354740 and LY379268.  (+info)

Primary somatosensory cortex activation is not altered in patients with ventroposterior thalamic lesions: a PET study. (2/66)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We know remarkably little about the mechanisms underlying cortical activation. Such mechanisms might be better understood by studying the effect of well-localized lesions on the cortical activations in simple paradigms. METHODS: We used H(2)(15)O and positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during hand vibration in 7 patients with unilateral thalamic lesion involving the ventroposterior (VP) somatosensory thalamic relay nuclei. We compared the results with those obtained in 6 patients with thalamic lesions sparing the VP nuclei and 6 healthy controls. RESULTS: The patients with VP lesions had a selective hypoperfusion at rest in the ipsilesional primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1). This hypoperfusion was significantly correlated with the degree of contralateral somatosensory deficit. This abnormality may reflect the deafferentation of SM1 from its somatosensory thalamic input. Despite this deafferentation, the ipsilesional SM1 was normally activated by the vibration of the hypoesthetic hand. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that a lesion of the somatosensory thalamic relay nuclei alters the rCBF at rest in SM1 but not its activation by hand vibration indicates that the mechanism of cortical activation is complex, even in the case of simple sensory stimulation. In addition, a dissociation may occur between obvious neurological deficits and apparently normal activation patterns, which suggests that activation studies should be interpreted cautiously in patients with focal brain lesions.  (+info)

Calcium-independent afterdepolarization regulated by serotonin in anterior thalamus. (3/66)

Previous studies have identified an afterdepolarization (ADP) in thalamocortical neurons that is mediated by an upregulation of the hyperpolarization-activated current I(h). This ADP has been suggested to play a key role in the generation of spindle oscillations. In the lateral geniculate nucleus, upregulation of I(h) has been shown to be signaled by a rise in intracellular calcium leading to the activation of adenylate cyclase and formation of cAMP. However, it is unclear how generalizable this mechanism is to other thalamic nuclei. We have used whole cell recording to examine the electrophysiological properties of neurons of the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, a nucleus thought not to undergo spindle oscillations. We now report that cells in this nucleus also display an ADP mediated by I(h). Surprisingly, the ADP and the underlying upregulation of I(h) persisted even after buffering intracellular calcium and blocking calcium influx. These results indicate that, in neurons of the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, an I(h)-mediated ADP can occur through a mechanism that does not involve a rise in intracellular calcium. We next examined the possibility that this calcium-independent ADP might be modulated by serotonin. Serotonin produced a robust enhancement in the amplitude of the ADP even after strong buffering of intracellular calcium and blockade of calcium channels. These results indicate that neurons of the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus display a calcium-independent, I(h)-mediated ADP and that this ADP is a target for regulation by serotonin. These findings identify a novel mechanism by which serotonin can regulate neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Modeling attractor deformation in the rodent head-direction system. (4/66)

We present a model of the head-direction circuit in the rat that improves on earlier models in several respects. First, it provides an account of some of the unique characteristics of head-direction (HD) cell firing in the lateral mammillary nucleus and the anterior thalamus. Second, the model functions without making physiologically unrealistic assumptions. In particular, it implements attractor dynamics in postsubiculum and lateral mammillary nucleus without directionally tuned inhibitory neurons, which have never been observed in vivo, and it integrates angular velocity without the use of multiplicative synapses. The model allows us to examine the relationships among three HD areas and various properties of their representations. A surprising result is that certain combinations of purported HD cell properties are mutually incompatible, suggesting that the lateral mammillary nucleus may not be the primary source of head direction input to anterior thalamic HD cells.  (+info)

Coinciding early activation of the human primary visual cortex and anteromedial cuneus. (5/66)

Proper understanding of processes underlying visual perception requires information on the activation order of distinct brain areas. We measured dynamics of cortical signals with magnetoencephalography while human subjects viewed stimuli at four visual quadrants. The signals were analyzed with minimum current estimates at the individual and group level. Activation emerged 55-70 ms after stimulus onset both in the primary posterior visual areas and in the anteromedial part of the cuneus. Other cortical areas were active after this initial dual activation. Comparison of data between species suggests that the anteromedial cuneus either comprises a homologue of the monkey area V6 or is an area unique to humans. Our results show that visual stimuli activate two cortical areas right from the beginning of the cortical response. The anteromedial cuneus has the temporal position needed to interact with the primary visual cortex V1 and thereby to modify information transferred via V1 to extrastriate cortices.  (+info)

Background, but not foreground, spatial cues are taken as references for head direction responses by rat anterodorsal thalamus neurons. (6/66)

Two populations of limbic neurons are likely neurophysiological substrates for cognitive operations required for spatial orientation and navigation: hippocampal pyramidal cells discharge selectively when the animal is in a certain place (the "firing field") in the environment, whereas head direction cells discharge when the animal orients its head in a specific, "preferred" direction. Cressant et al. (1997) showed that the firing fields of hippocampal place cells reorient relative to a group of three-dimensional objects only if these are at the periphery, but not the center of an enclosed platform. To test for corresponding responses in head direction cells, three objects were equally spaced along the periphery of a circular platform. Preferred directions were measured before and after the group of objects was rotated. (The rat was disoriented in total darkness between sessions). This was repeated in the presence or absence of a cylinder enclosing the platform. When the enclosure was present, the preferred directions of all 30 cells recorded shifted by the same angle as the objects. In the absence of the enclosure, the preferred directions did not follow the objects, remaining fixed relative to the room. These results provide a possible neurophysiological basis for observations from psychophysical experiments in humans that background, rather than foreground, cues are preferentially used for spatial orientation.  (+info)

Active locomotion increases peak firing rates of anterodorsal thalamic head direction cells. (7/66)

Head direction (HD) cells discharge selectively in macaques, rats, and mice when they orient their head in a specific ("preferred") direction. Preferred directions are influenced by visual cues as well as idiothetic self-motion cues derived from vestibular, proprioceptive, motor efferent copy, and command signals. To distinguish the relative importance of active locomotor signals, we compared HD cell response properties in 49 anterodorsal thalamic HD cells of six male Long-Evans rats during active displacements in a foraging task as well as during passive rotations. Since thalamic HD cells typically stop firing if the animals are tightly restrained, the rats were trained to remain immobile while drinking water distributed at intervals from a small reservoir at the center of a rotatable platform. The platform was rotated in a clockwise/counterclockwise oscillation to record directional responses in the stationary animals while the surrounding environmental cues remained stable. The peak rate of directional firing decreased by 27% on average during passive rotations (r(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001). Individual cells recorded in sequential sessions (n = 8) reliably showed comparable reductions in peak firing, but simultaneously recorded cells did not necessarily produce identical responses. All of the HD cells maintained the same preferred directions during passive rotations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of locomotor activity provides a state-dependent modulation of the response magnitude of AD HD cells. This could result from diffusely projecting neuromodulatory systems associated with motor state.  (+info)

The conjoint importance of the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei for allocentric spatial learning: evidence from a disconnection study in the rat. (8/66)

A disconnection procedure was used to test whether the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei form functional components of the same spatial memory system. Unilateral excitotoxic lesions were placed in the anterior thalamic (AT) nuclei and hippocampus (HPC) in either the same (AT-HPC Ipsi group) or contralateral (AT-HPC Contra group) hemispheres of rats. The behavioral effects of these combined lesions were compared in several spatial memory tasks sensitive to bilateral hippocampal lesions. In all of the tasks tested, T-maze alternation, radial arm maze, and Morris water maze, those animals with lesions placed in the contralateral hemispheres were more impaired than those animals with lesions in the same hemisphere. These results provide direct support for the notion that the performance of tasks that require spatial memory rely on the operation of the anterior thalamus and hippocampus within an integrated neural network.  (+info)

The anterior thalamic nuclei are a group of nuclei in the thalamus, which is a part of the brain. The thalamus serves as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The anterior thalamic nuclei, specifically, are involved in various functions such as memory, navigation, and arousal. They receive inputs from the hippocampus and other limbic structures and project to the cingulate gyrus and other areas of the cerebral cortex. The anterior thalamic nuclei have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia.

Thalamic nuclei refer to specific groupings of neurons within the thalamus, a key relay station in the brain that receives sensory information from various parts of the body and transmits it to the cerebral cortex for processing. The thalamus is divided into several distinct nuclei, each with its own unique functions and connections. These nuclei can be broadly categorized into three groups:

1. Sensory relay nuclei: These nuclei receive sensory information from different modalities such as vision, audition, touch, and taste, and project this information to specific areas of the cerebral cortex for further processing. Examples include the lateral geniculate nucleus (vision), medial geniculate nucleus (audition), and ventral posterior nucleus (touch and taste).
2. Association nuclei: These nuclei are involved in higher-order cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, and executive control. They receive inputs from various cortical areas and project back to those same areas, forming closed loops that facilitate information processing and integration. Examples include the mediodorsal nucleus and pulvinar.
3. Motor relay nuclei: These nuclei are involved in motor control and coordination. They receive inputs from the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia and project to the brainstem and spinal cord, helping to regulate movement and posture. Examples include the ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei.

Overall, thalamic nuclei play a crucial role in integrating sensory, motor, and cognitive information, allowing for adaptive behavior and conscious experience.

Korsakoff syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder typically caused by alcohol abuse, specifically thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain. It's often associated with Wernicke encephalopathy, and the two together are referred to as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

The main features of Korsakoff syndrome include severe memory impairment, particularly anterograde amnesia (inability to form new memories), confabulation (making up stories due to gaps in memory), and a lack of insight into their condition. Other cognitive functions like intelligence and perception are usually preserved.

The syndrome is believed to result from damage to the mammillary bodies and other structures in the diencephalon, particularly the thalamus. Treatment involves abstinence from alcohol, thiamine replacement, and a balanced diet. The prognosis varies but often includes some degree of permanent memory impairment.

The mamillary bodies are a pair of small, round structures located in the hypothalamus region of the brain. They play a crucial role in the limbic system, which is involved in emotions, memory, and learning. Specifically, the mamillary bodies are part of the circuit that forms the Papez circuit, a neural network responsible for memory and cognitive functions.

The mamillary bodies receive inputs from several brain regions, including the hippocampus, anterior thalamic nuclei, and cingulate gyrus. They then project this information to the thalamus, which in turn sends it to the cerebral cortex for further processing.

Damage to the mamillary bodies can result in memory impairment, as seen in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, a condition often associated with chronic alcohol abuse.

The midline thalamic nuclei are a group of nuclei located in the thalamus, which is a part of the diencephalon in the brain. The thalamus serves as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The midline thalamic nuclei are situated in the most medial portion of the thalamus, along the midline. They include several distinct nuclei, such as the paraventricular nucleus, the reuniens nucleus, the rhomboid nucleus, and the central medial nucleus. These nuclei have complex connections with various brain regions, including the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex. They are involved in a variety of functions, such as memory, emotion, and sleep regulation.

The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDTN) is a collection of neurons located in the dorsal part of the thalamus, a region of the brain that serves as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The MDTN is primarily involved in cognitive functions such as memory, attention, and emotion regulation.

The MDTN receives inputs from various regions of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and projects to the same areas of the cerebral cortex. It has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression.

Anatomically, the MDTN is divided into several subnuclei, including the parvocellular, magnocellular, and intermediate parts, each with distinct connectivity patterns and functions. Overall, the MDTN plays a crucial role in integrating information from different brain regions to facilitate higher-order cognitive processes.

The Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei are a group of nuclei located within the thalamus, a part of the brain that serves as a relay station for sensory and motor signals. These nuclei are situated between the laminae (layers) of the thalamus and are characterized by their intricate internal organization. They play a crucial role in various functions, including attention, consciousness, and sleep-wake regulation. The Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei have extensive connections with the cerebral cortex and other subcortical structures, making them an essential component of the brain's neural circuitry.

The ventral thalamic nuclei are a group of nuclei located in the ventral part of the thalamus, a region of the diencephalon in the brain. These nuclei play a crucial role in sensory and motor functions, as well as cognitive processes such as attention and memory. They include several subnuclei, such as the ventral anterior (VA), ventral lateral (VL), ventral medial (VM), and ventral posterior (VP) nuclei.

The ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei are involved in motor control and receive inputs from the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cortex. They project to the premotor and motor areas of the cortex, contributing to the planning, initiation, and execution of movements.

The ventral medial nucleus is associated with emotional processing and receives inputs from the limbic system, including the amygdala and hippocampus. It projects to the prefrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus, contributing to the regulation of emotions and motivation.

The ventral posterior nuclei are involved in sensory processing, particularly for tactile and proprioceptive information. They receive inputs from the spinal cord and brainstem and project to the primary somatosensory cortex, where they contribute to the perception of touch, pressure, temperature, and body position.

Overall, the ventral thalamic nuclei are an essential component of the neural circuits involved in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, and their dysfunction has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders.

The posterior thalamic nuclei are a group of nuclei located in the dorsal part of the thalamus, a major relay center in the brain. These nuclei include the lateroposterior nucleus (LP), pulvinar, and the medial and lateral geniculate bodies (MGN, LGN). They play crucial roles in processing and integrating sensory information, particularly from visual and auditory pathways, as well as motor and cognitive functions.

1. Lateroposterior nucleus (LP): This nucleus is involved in the processing of somatosensory information, which includes touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception (body position sense). It receives input from the cerebellum and sends outputs to the parietal cortex, contributing to the perception of body movement and position.

2. Pulvinar: The pulvinar is the largest nucleus in the thalamus and is primarily involved in visual processing. It receives inputs from multiple sources, including the retina, superior colliculus, and visual cortex, and sends outputs to various areas of the visual cortex. The pulvinar plays a critical role in attentional selection, object recognition, and scene perception.

3. Medial geniculate body (MGN): This nucleus is a part of the auditory pathway and receives input from the inferior colliculus in the midbrain. The MGN sends outputs to the primary auditory cortex, where sound processing and interpretation occur.

4. Lateral geniculate body (LGN): The LGN is a critical component of the visual pathway, receiving direct input from the retina and sending outputs to the primary visual cortex. It contains six layers, with alternating ON and OFF layers that process information from corresponding regions of the visual field.

In summary, the posterior thalamic nuclei are essential for sensory processing, attention, and perception in various modalities, including vision, audition, and somatosensation.

The thalamus is a large, paired structure in the brain that serves as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. It is located in the dorsal part of the diencephalon and is made up of two symmetrical halves, each connected to the corresponding cerebral hemisphere.

The thalamus receives inputs from almost all senses, except for the olfactory system, and processes them before sending them to specific areas in the cortex. It also plays a role in regulating consciousness, sleep, and alertness. Additionally, the thalamus is involved in motor control by relaying information between the cerebellum and the motor cortex.

The thalamus is divided into several nuclei, each with distinct connections and functions. Some of these nuclei are involved in sensory processing, while others are involved in motor function or regulation of emotions and cognition. Overall, the thalamus plays a critical role in integrating information from various brain regions and modulating cognitive and emotional processes.

The lateral thalamic nuclei are a group of nuclei located in the dorsolateral part of the thalamus, a major relay station for sensory and motor signals in the brain. These nuclei include the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and pulvinar. They play a role in various functions such as attention, awareness, and visuospatial processing. Damage to these nuclei can result in neurological disorders like neglect syndrome, where patients have difficulty attending to stimuli on one side of their body or environment.

... main thalamic projections from anterior nuclei. d23b, dorsal part of 23b, weak connections from the anterior nuclei. Brodmann ... H. Shibata, M. Yukie, "Differential thalamic connections of the posteroventral and dorsal posterior cingulate gyrus in the ... Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded dorsally by the dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, rostrally by the ventral anterior ... Cytoarchitecture and thalamic afferents", Journal of Comparative Neurology, 262(2):256-270. ...
... the anterior dorsal and the lateral dorsal thalamic nuclei), lateral mammillary nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus and striatum ... Two years later, Taube found HD cells in the nearby anterior thalamic nuclei. Chen et al. found limited numbers of HD cells in ... Taube, J. S. (1995-01-01). "Head direction cells recorded in the anterior thalamic nuclei of freely moving rats". The Journal ... Taube, JS (January 1, 1995). "Head direction cells recorded in the anterior thalamic nuclei of freely moving rats". J. Neurosci ...
Hypothalamic effects reach the cortex via a relay in the anterior thalamic nuclei." However, there has not been additional ... This may occur due to damage in the mammillary bodies, ventral anterior nucleus, and ventral lateral nucleus which has resulted ... Damage to the mammillothalamic tract, ventral anterior nucleus, and ventral lateral nucleus can result in memory and language ... anterior thalamic nucleus → cingulum → entorhinal cortex → hippocampal formation. A photograph of the inferior medial view of ...
These findings imply damage to anterior thalamic nuclei can result in disruptive memory. A number of factors may increase a ... Damage to the medial dorsal nucleus or anterior nuclei of the thalamus (limbic-specific nuclei) is also associated with this ... Additionally, autopsies of people who had KS have showed lesions in both the midline and anterior thalamus, and thalamic ... Severe damage to the medial dorsal nucleus inevitably results in memory deficit. ...
The anterior cingulate cortex receives primarily its afferent axons from the intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei (see ... The anterior cingulate cortex sends axons to the anterior nucleus and through the cingulum to other Broca's limbic areas. The ... The nucleus anterior receives mamillo-thalamic afferences. The mamillary neurons receive axons from the subiculum. The whole ... that the anterior cingulate gyrus has reciprocal connections with the rostral part of the thalamic posterior lateral nucleus ...
Barson, Jessica R.; Ho, Hui Tin; Leibowitz, Sarah F. (2015). "Anterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus is involved in ... Anterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus is involved in intermittent access ethanol drinking: Role of orexin receptor 2. ... Substance P in the anterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus: Role in ethanol drinking in relation to orexin from the ... Barson investigates neuropeptide signalling in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus as well as the nucleus accumbens to ...
It contains afferent fibers from the septal nuclei, lateral preoptico-hypothalamic region, and anterior thalamic nuclei to the ... The SM emerges as a bilateral compact fascicle just posterior to the anterior commissure, where it converges with the fornix ...
Programmed deep brain stimulation of the anterior thalamic nucleus may treat seizures arising from more than 2 brain areas. The ... However, study outcomes are more variable on language non-dominant anterior temporal lobectomy leading to nonverbal memory ... Penfield and Flanigan first described anterior temporal lobectomy, partial surgical removal of the temporal lobe, for treatment ... In a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing anterior temporal lobectomy to medical therapy for pharmacoresistant ...
The limbic system is made up of several brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum ... The MRI of KL showed bilateral anterior temporal lobe atrophy, with more damage on the right side and in the inferior temporal ... shows bilateral fronto-temporal atrophy mostly in the right anterior temporal lobe but extending back within the temporal lobe ...
... and with anterior thalamic nuclei and the hippocampus. Neurophysiological studies of retrosplenial cortex have mainly been done ...
These nuclei are considered to be association nuclei, one of the three broader subdivisions of thalamic nuclei. These nuclei ... The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are a collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal ... The anterior nuclei regulates what input is redistributed to the cortex. The connections of the anterior nuclei are similar to ... The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are recently thought to be connected in pathways serving a spatial navigation role in ...
... nucleus in the thalamus forms the motor functional division in the thalamic nuclei along with the ventral anterior nucleus. The ... The ventral lateral nucleus (VL) is a nucleus in the ventral nuclear group of the thalamus. It receives neuronal inputs from ... Output from the ventral lateral nucleus then goes to the primary motor cortex. The function of the ventral lateral nucleus is ... Stained brain slice images which include the "ventral+lateral+nucleus+of+thalamus" at the BrainMaps project (Thalamus). ...
The nigral territory corresponds to the nucleus ventralis anterior (VA) (see also List of thalamic nuclei) (different from the ... The nigral neurons have their own territory distinct from the cerebellar and the pallidal in the nucleus ventralis anterior VA ... The pars reticulata is one of the two primary output nuclei of the basal ganglia system to the motor thalamus (the other output ... It receives axons from the subthalamic nucleus and a dopaminergic innervation from the dopaminergic ensemble. ...
... is functionally connected to the hippocampus as part of the extended hippocampal system at the thalamic anterior nuclei with ... Lateral group of the thalamic nuclei. Medial group of the thalamic nuclei. 5-HT7 receptor Krista and Tatiana Hogan - conjoined ... Thalamic nuclei have strong reciprocal connections with the cerebral cortex, forming thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuits that are ... The exposure to SHH leads to differentiation of thalamic neurons. SHH signaling from the MDO induces a posterior-to-anterior ...
... anterior thalamic nuclei, and limbic cortex) is affected by those closest to us (limbic resonance) and synchronizes with them ( ...
... bilateral interruption or severing of the connection between thalamocortical radiations the medial and anterior thalamic nuclei ... Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ... and somatosensory input in the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Thalamic nuclei project to cortical areas of distinct ... can be found only in principal sensory and motor relay nuclei, and in the pulvinar nuclei as well as the intralaminar nuclei. ...
... the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the interconnections among these structures constituted a harmonious mechanism which ...
... and for epilepsy treatment to the anterior thalamic nucleus.[citation needed] All three components are surgically implanted ... According to one long-term follow-up study, DBS targeting the anterior nucleus of the thalamus may be somewhat more effective ... These are the globus pallidus internus, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus and the pedunculopontine nucleus. However, most DBS ... nucleus accumbens, ventral capsule/ventral striatum, inferior thalamic peduncle, and the lateral habenula. A recently proposed ...
It connects the mammillary body to the dorsal tegmental nuclei, the ventral tegmental nuclei, and the anterior thalamic nuclei ... Angular Thalamic Nucleus --> "What, Where and How Big is It?" BrainInfo. Accessed January 25, 2011. Kamali, Arash; Zhang, ... Aggleton, J. P; O'Mara, S. M; Vann, S. D; Wright, N. F; Tsanov, M; Erichsen, J. T (2010). "Hippocampal-anterior thalamic ... The MTT spreads fan-like as it terminates in the medial dorsal nucleus. Some fibers pass through the dorsal nucleus to the ...
... the anterior and lateral thalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex). The posterior ... The anterior node of the DMN is formed, in part, by the highly connected PCC and Brodmann area 25. These two regions are ... Dense connections to the thalamus in the form of a continuous strip that crosses numerous pulvinar nuclei and the striatum. As ... They also found that greater damage to the cingulum bundle, that connects the PCC to the anterior DMN, was correlated with ...
Different thalamic nuclei, (from the anterior and midline groups), the medial septal nucleus, the supramammillary nucleus of ... Its projecting pathways include the medial septal nucleus and supramammillary nucleus. The dorsal hippocampus also has more ... the anterior olfactory nucleus, and to the primary olfactory cortex. There continues to be some interest in hippocampal ... and from the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus to field CA1. A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, ...
... targeted the anterior intralaminar nuclei of thalamus and adjacent paralaminar regions of thalamic association nuclei. Both ... This allowed maximum coverage of the thalamic bodies. A DBS stimulation was conducted such that the patient was exposed to ... activation of frontal cortical and basal ganglia systems that were innervated by neurons within the thalamic association nuclei ... "Clinicaltrials.gov". Laureys S, Owen AM, Schiff ND (August 2007). "Behavioural improvements with thalamic stimulation after ...
It is an output nucleus whose fibres project to thalamic nuclei, such as the ventral anterior nucleus, the ventral lateral ... It acts in part as a relay nucleus from the nucleus accumbens to the medial dorsal nucleus. The nucleus accumbens projects to ... The information is relayed to the medial dorsal and ventral anterior nuclei of the thalamus. It is unclear whether the ventral ... Along with the external globus pallidus, it is separated from other basal ganglia nuclei by the anterior commissure. The limbic ...
"Chapter 10 - Thalamic Organization". Review of clinical and functional neuroscience. Dartmouth Medical School. Retrieved 9 May ... The ventral anterior nucleus (VA) is a nucleus of the thalamus. It acts with the anterior part of the ventral lateral nucleus ... The ventral anterior nucleus receives neuronal inputs from the basal ganglia. Its main afferent fibres are from the globus ... The efferent fibres from this nucleus pass into the premotor cortex for initiation and planning of movement. It helps to ...
... thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.080 - anterior thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.444 - ... midline thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.700 - posterior thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.900 ... intralaminar thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.485 - lateral thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826. ... anterior MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.063 - anterior hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.400 - ...
Some pain-temperature fibers are sent to the medial dorsal thalamic nucleus (MD), which projects to the anterior cingulate ... Diffuse thalamic projections from the IL and other thalamic nuclei are responsible for a given level of consciousness, with the ... All sensory information is sent to specific nuclei in the thalamus. Thalamic nuclei, in turn, send information to specific ... This nucleus is analogous to the dorsal column nuclei (the gracile and cuneate nuclei) of the spinal cord, which contain a ...
... anterior (rostral) group central medial nucleus paracentral nucleus central lateral nucleus posterior (caudal) intralaminar ... The intralaminar thalamic nuclei (ITN) are collections of neurons in the internal medullary lamina of the thalamus that are ... Diagram at University of Florida v t e (Articles with TA98 identifiers, Thalamic nuclei, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs) ... Maxwell, William L.; MacKinnon, Mary Anne; Smith, Douglas H.; McIntosh, Tracy K.; Graham, David I. (2006). "Thalamic Nuclei ...
... anterior pulvinar nucleus lateral pulvinar nucleus medial pulvinar nucleus inferior pulvinar nucleus lateral posterior nucleus ... belongs to anterior group ventral nuclear group ventral anterior nucleus ventral lateral nucleus ventral intermediate nucleus ... Intralaminar nuclei) anterior (rostral) group paracentral nucleus central lateral nucleus central medial nucleus posterior ( ... Nuclear groups of the thalamus include: anterior nuclear group anteroventral nucleus anterodorsal nucleus anteromedial nucleus ...
... before they jointly enter the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. Estomih Mtui; Gregory Gruener (2006). Clinical ... The thalamic fasciculus is a component of the subthalamus. It is synonymous with field H1 of Forel. Nerve fibres form a tract ... The thalamic fasciculus consists of fibers from the ansa lenticularis and from the lenticular fasciculus, coming from different ... Thalamic connections, All stub articles, Neuroscience stubs). ...
Therefore, as a result of these various pathways, the neurons of the dentate nucleus are able to traverse all thalamic nuclei, ... It is located between the denate and fastigial nuclei. It receives afferent supply from the anterior (toward the front) lobe of ... Interposed: The globose and emboliform nuclei together make up the interposed nucleus. The interposed nucleus is the smallest ... which together are referred to as the interposed nucleus, and the fastigial nucleus. The dentate nucleus is responsible for the ...
... main thalamic projections from anterior nuclei. d23b, dorsal part of 23b, weak connections from the anterior nuclei. Brodmann ... H. Shibata, M. Yukie, "Differential thalamic connections of the posteroventral and dorsal posterior cingulate gyrus in the ... Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded dorsally by the dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, rostrally by the ventral anterior ... Cytoarchitecture and thalamic afferents", Journal of Comparative Neurology, 262(2):256-270. ...
... subthalamic nucleus; VA/VL: ventral anterior/ventrolateral thalamic nuclei. ... ventral anterior nucleus of thalamus, pars magnocellularis; VApc: ventral anterior nucleus of thalamus, pars parvocellularis; ... VLa: anterior ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus; VLcr: ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus, pars caudalis, rostral division; ... The basal ganglia (BG) include the striatum, which comprises the caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, the globus ...
KS has been associated with more severe damage to the anterior thalamic nuclei, hypometabolism in the thalamus, and hippocampal ... Harding A, Halliday G, Caine D, Kril J. Degeneration of anterior thalamic nuclei differentiates alcoholics with amnesia. Brain ... Only patients with Korsakoff psychosis have neuronal loss in the anterior thalamic nuclei. [33] ... 35] In severe cases, other brainstem nuclei and anterior motor neurons in the spinal cord may be affected. ...
2015) Anterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus is involved in intermittent access ethanol drinking: role of orexin receptor 2 ... 2017) Collateralization of projections from the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to the nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus ... 2018) Anterior paraventricular thalamus to nucleus accumbens projection is involved in feeding behavior in a novel environment ... 2012) Sources of inputs to the anterior and posterior aspects of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Brain Struct ...
... its output travels through the fornix to the anterior thalamic nuclei and other destinations. Prior to Cajals observations, ... The lenticular nucleus (E) is a lens-shaped bundle of neurons that, along with the caudate nucleus (R) and the internal capsule ... Acoustic nucleus. The ventral cochlear nucleus is the first processing center for auditory signals in the central nervous ... Other structures, such as the nucleus gracilis (A), and the nucleus cuneatus (B), which contain neurons responsible for fine ...
Cognitive improvement after long-term electrical stimulation of bilateral anterior thalamic nucleus in refractory epilepsy ... Tröster, A.I.; Meador, K.J.; Irwin, C.P.; Fisher, R.S. Memory and mood outcomes after anterior thalamic stimulation for ... Electrical Stimulation of the Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus for the Treatment of Intractable Epilepsy. Epilepsia 2004, 45, ... Electrical stimulation of the anterior nucleus of thalamus for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia 2010, 51, 899-908. [ ...
2001) The conjoint importance of the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei for allocentric spatial learning: evidence from a ... In nine animals there was near complete cell loss while one animal had some sparing in the most anterior portion of the ... 2007) Thalamic-prefrontal cortical-ventral striatal circuitry mediates dissociable components of strategy set shifting. Cereb ... All animals had additional minor damage in the anterior cingulate cortex and in seven animals there was minor damage in the ...
... the anterior and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei) are defined as declarative. We have studied the MTL activity as indicated by ... as well as anterior lingual and anterior fusiform gyri) during retrieval in the less practiced memory state compared to the ... In the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) there was only a suggested activation when the allodynic state was compared with the non ... Hagoort, P., Ramsey, N., Rutten, G.-J., & Van Rijen, P. (1999). The role of the left anterior temporal cortex in language ...
The purpose of this study is to to use functional imaging to study the mechanisms of anterior thalamic nucleus (ANT) Deep Brain ... The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the RNS® System for thalamic stimulation is safe and effective as an ...
... the anterior thalamic nuclei, and connections between these completed a mechanism that was the basis of emotion. ...
... major thalamic nuclei include the anterior nuclear group, the mediodorsal nucleus, and the pulvinar. The anterior nuclear group ... anterior fontanel (anatomy). fontanel: The largest fontanel, the anterior, is at the crown between the halves of the frontal ... anterior fontanelle (anatomy). fontanel: The largest fontanel, the anterior, is at the crown between the halves of the frontal ... anterior vagal trunk (anatomy). human nervous system: Vagus nerve (CN X or 10): …form the posterior (right) and anterior (left ...
Responsive neurostimulation targeting anterior thalamic nucleus in generalized epilepsy. Herlopian, A., Cash, S. S., Eskandar, ... Aura Type and Outcome After Anterior Temporal Lobectomy. Rendon, L. F., Bick, S. K., Cash, S. S., Cole, A. J., Eskandar, E. N. ... Responsive Thalamic Neurostimulation: A Systematic Review of a Promising Approach for Refractory Epilepsy. Feigen, C. M. & ...
... and deep location of team As electrodes was obviously far away from the coordinates of the more anterior thalamic nucleus ... 1991) Long-term suppression of tremor by chronic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Lancet 337:403-406. ... 1987) Combined (thalamotomy and stimulation) stereotactic surgery of the Vim thalamic nucleus for bilateral Parkinson disease. ... the nucleus ventralis intermedius (VIM), the internal part of the globus pallidus (GPi), and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). ...
... this paper a cortical area is described that covers approximately the posterior two-thirds of the ventral bank of the anterior ... ectosylvian sulcus of the cat and is called anterior ectosylvian visual area (AEV). In cats anesthetized with a combination of ... Thalamic Nuclei / anatomy & histology * Thalamic Nuclei / physiology* * Visual Cortex / anatomy & histology * Visual Cortex / ... Physiologic and anatomic investigation of a visual cortical area situated in the ventral bank of the anterior ectosylvian ...
... mice in the Morris water maze is influenced by visual and vestibular cues and is dependent on the anterior thalamic nucleiJ ... 2021Distributed processing for action control by prelimbic circuits targeting anterior-posterior dorsal striatal subregions ... 1996Inactivation of hippocampus or caudate nucleus with lidocaine differentially affects expression of place and response ... 1996Inactivation of hippocampus or caudate nucleus with lidocaine differentially affects expression of place and response ...
The uncinate fasciculus, at the level of basolateral nuclei groups, was considered as the anterior-lateral border. The amygdalo ... and pulvinar thalamic nuclei [65]. The particular role of amygdala in negative human emotions could indicate that AHC atrophy ... The posterior end of amygdaloid nucleus was defined as the point where gray matter starts to appear superior to the alveolus ... The increase of alpha3/alpha2 ratio in our results supports the concomitance of anterior attentive mechanism impairment in ...
... reflecting anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and core-capsular relationships. This 3D topographic map ultimately provides ... thalamic nuclei, axons from both L5 and L6 MOs neurons are located on the anterior, whereas axons from MOp appear at the ... thalamic nuclei than L5 neurons in the MOs (Fig. 6B and Supplementary Movie S1). Although the mediodorsal thalamic nuclei (MD) ... and anterior-posterior/medial-lateral relationship in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RT) (Figs 5 and 6A). ...
... the right ventral lateral thalamic nucleus, the right anterior cingulate cortex and regions involved in motor imagery and motor ... which held for all four groups in thalamic regions, PMv, left superior parietal lobule [hey, whats that about??], but not ... the middle portion of the right anterior cingulate, and left middle temporal gyrus in controls. The observed group differences ... the women with eating disorders had greater activation in the left medial orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and ...
... anterior thalamic nuclei, internal capsule, cingulate gyrus, and cingulum. For example, polyclonal elevations of IgG levels ... It is most commonly associated with lesions of the contralateral subthalamic nucleus. Projections for the Future Total annual ...
Comparisons across the two groups showed that mean LCGU in the anterior and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei was significantly ... The present findings suggest that the anterior and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei represent diecephalic components of a neural ... and the parvocellular and magnocellular components of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. ...
The limbic system is composed of the amygdala, hippocampus, septum, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum, fornix and limbic cortex ...
5. In contrast with other thalamic nuclei, the slow oscillation has not been observed in anterior thalamic neurones despite ... as a result of brain stem-thalamic as well as cortico-thalamic deafferentation. We postulate a thalamic contribution in the ... associational and intralaminar thalamic nuclei. The oscillation consisted of rhythmic low-threshold spikes alternating with ... receive a large serotonergic projection from the raphe nuclei and express 5-HT receptors at high density. Here, we studied the ...
ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ANTERIORES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS DE LINEA MEDIA. MIDLINE THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS DA ... INTRALAMINAR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS INTRALAMINARES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS LATERALES. LATERAL THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ... POSTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS POSTERIORES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS VENTRALES. VENTRAL THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ... SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS. NÚCLEO SUBTALÂMICO. NUCLEO TALAMICO MEDIODORSAL. MEDIODORSAL THALAMIC NUCLEUS. NÚCLEO MEDIODORSAL DO ...
ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ANTERIORES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS DE LINEA MEDIA. MIDLINE THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS DA ... INTRALAMINAR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS INTRALAMINARES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS LATERALES. LATERAL THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ... POSTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS POSTERIORES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS VENTRALES. VENTRAL THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ... SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS. NÚCLEO SUBTALÂMICO. NUCLEO TALAMICO MEDIODORSAL. MEDIODORSAL THALAMIC NUCLEUS. NÚCLEO MEDIODORSAL DO ...
ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ANTERIORES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS DE LINEA MEDIA. MIDLINE THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS DA ... INTRALAMINAR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS INTRALAMINARES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS LATERALES. LATERAL THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ... POSTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS POSTERIORES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS VENTRALES. VENTRAL THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ... SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS. NÚCLEO SUBTALÂMICO. NUCLEO TALAMICO MEDIODORSAL. MEDIODORSAL THALAMIC NUCLEUS. NÚCLEO MEDIODORSAL DO ...
SINDROME DE LA ARTERIA ESPINAL ANTERIOR SÍNDROME DA ARTÉRIA ESPINHAL ANTERIOR ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI NUCLEOS TALAMICOS ... ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY ARTERIA CEREBRAL ANTERIOR ARTÉRIA CEREBRAL ANTERIOR ANTERIOR SPINAL ARTERY SYNDROME ... INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY INFARTO DE LA ARTERIA CEREBRAL ANTERIOR INFARTO DA ARTÉRIA CEREBRAL ANTERIOR ... LATERAL THALAMIC NUCLEI NUCLEOS TALAMICOS LATERALES NÚCLEOS LATERAIS DO TÁLAMO LATERAL VENTRICLES VENTRICULOS LATERALES ...
SINDROME DE LA ARTERIA ESPINAL ANTERIOR SÍNDROME DA ARTÉRIA ESPINHAL ANTERIOR ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI NUCLEOS TALAMICOS ... ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY ARTERIA CEREBRAL ANTERIOR ARTÉRIA CEREBRAL ANTERIOR ANTERIOR SPINAL ARTERY SYNDROME ... INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY INFARTO DE LA ARTERIA CEREBRAL ANTERIOR INFARTO DA ARTÉRIA CEREBRAL ANTERIOR ... LATERAL THALAMIC NUCLEI NUCLEOS TALAMICOS LATERALES NÚCLEOS LATERAIS DO TÁLAMO LATERAL VENTRICLES VENTRICULOS LATERALES ...
ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI NUCLEOS TALAMICOS ANTERIORES NÚCLEOS DA LINHA MÉDIA DO TÁLAMO MIDLINE THALAMIC NUCLEI NUCLEOS ... LATERAL THALAMIC NUCLEI NUCLEOS TALAMICOS LATERALES NÚCLEOS POSTERIORES DO TÁLAMO POSTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI NUCLEOS TALAMICOS ... ENTOPEDUNCULAR NUCLEUS NUCLEO ENTOPEDUNCULAR NÚCLEO MEDIODORSAL DO TÁLAMO MEDIODORSAL THALAMIC NUCLEUS NUCLEO TALAMICO ... ARTÉRIA CEREBRAL ANTERIOR ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY ARTERIA CEREBRAL ANTERIOR ARTÉRIA CEREBRAL MÉDIA MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY ...
ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ANTERIORES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS DE LINEA MEDIA. MIDLINE THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS DA ... INTRALAMINAR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS INTRALAMINARES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS LATERALES. LATERAL THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ... POSTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS POSTERIORES DO TÁLAMO. NUCLEOS TALAMICOS VENTRALES. VENTRAL THALAMIC NUCLEI. NÚCLEOS ... SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS. NÚCLEO SUBTALÂMICO. NUCLEO TALAMICO MEDIODORSAL. MEDIODORSAL THALAMIC NUCLEUS. NÚCLEO MEDIODORSAL DO ...

No FAQ available that match "anterior thalamic nuclei"

No images available that match "anterior thalamic nuclei"