Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.
Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.
The largest of the medial nuclei of the thalamus. It makes extensive connections with most of the other thalamic nuclei.
Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.
A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.
A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
A narrow strip of cell groups on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus. It includes the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and the PULVINAR.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Former state in north central Germany. Formally abolished March 1, 1947. Kingdom established 1701.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.
Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.
Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.

Group II selective metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists and local cerebral glucose use in the rat. (1/66)

The novel mGluR agonist LY354740 and a related analogue LY379268 are selective for mGluR2/3 receptors and are centrally active after systemic administration. In this study, rates of local cerebral glucose use were measured using the [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique to examine the functional consequences of their systemic administration in the conscious rat. Both LY354740 (0.3, 3.0, 30 mg/kg) and LY379268 (0.1, 1.0, 10 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent changes in glucose use. After LY354740 (3.0mg/kg), 4 of the 42 regions measured showed statistically significant changes from vehicle-treated controls: red nuclei (-16%), mammillary body (-25%), anterior thalamus (-29%), and the superficial layer of the superior colliculus (+50%). An additional 15 regions displayed significant reductions in function-related glucose use (P < .05) in animals treated with LY354740 (30 mg/ kg). LY379268 (0.1, 1.0, 10 mg/kg) produced changes in glucose metabolism in 20% of the brain regions analyzed. Significant increases (P < .05) in glucose use were evident in the following: the superficial layer of the superior colliculus (+81%), locus coeruleus (+57%), genu of the corpus callosum (+31%), cochlear nucleus (+26%), inferior colliculus (+20%), and the molecular layer of the hippocampus (+14%). Three regions displayed significant decreases: mammillary body (-34%), anteroventral thalamic nucleus (-28%), and the lateral habenular nucleus (-24%). These results show the important functional involvement of the limbic system together with the participation of components of different sensory systems in response to the activation of mGluR2 and mGluR3 with LY354740 and LY379268.  (+info)

Primary somatosensory cortex activation is not altered in patients with ventroposterior thalamic lesions: a PET study. (2/66)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We know remarkably little about the mechanisms underlying cortical activation. Such mechanisms might be better understood by studying the effect of well-localized lesions on the cortical activations in simple paradigms. METHODS: We used H(2)(15)O and positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during hand vibration in 7 patients with unilateral thalamic lesion involving the ventroposterior (VP) somatosensory thalamic relay nuclei. We compared the results with those obtained in 6 patients with thalamic lesions sparing the VP nuclei and 6 healthy controls. RESULTS: The patients with VP lesions had a selective hypoperfusion at rest in the ipsilesional primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1). This hypoperfusion was significantly correlated with the degree of contralateral somatosensory deficit. This abnormality may reflect the deafferentation of SM1 from its somatosensory thalamic input. Despite this deafferentation, the ipsilesional SM1 was normally activated by the vibration of the hypoesthetic hand. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that a lesion of the somatosensory thalamic relay nuclei alters the rCBF at rest in SM1 but not its activation by hand vibration indicates that the mechanism of cortical activation is complex, even in the case of simple sensory stimulation. In addition, a dissociation may occur between obvious neurological deficits and apparently normal activation patterns, which suggests that activation studies should be interpreted cautiously in patients with focal brain lesions.  (+info)

Calcium-independent afterdepolarization regulated by serotonin in anterior thalamus. (3/66)

Previous studies have identified an afterdepolarization (ADP) in thalamocortical neurons that is mediated by an upregulation of the hyperpolarization-activated current I(h). This ADP has been suggested to play a key role in the generation of spindle oscillations. In the lateral geniculate nucleus, upregulation of I(h) has been shown to be signaled by a rise in intracellular calcium leading to the activation of adenylate cyclase and formation of cAMP. However, it is unclear how generalizable this mechanism is to other thalamic nuclei. We have used whole cell recording to examine the electrophysiological properties of neurons of the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, a nucleus thought not to undergo spindle oscillations. We now report that cells in this nucleus also display an ADP mediated by I(h). Surprisingly, the ADP and the underlying upregulation of I(h) persisted even after buffering intracellular calcium and blocking calcium influx. These results indicate that, in neurons of the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, an I(h)-mediated ADP can occur through a mechanism that does not involve a rise in intracellular calcium. We next examined the possibility that this calcium-independent ADP might be modulated by serotonin. Serotonin produced a robust enhancement in the amplitude of the ADP even after strong buffering of intracellular calcium and blockade of calcium channels. These results indicate that neurons of the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus display a calcium-independent, I(h)-mediated ADP and that this ADP is a target for regulation by serotonin. These findings identify a novel mechanism by which serotonin can regulate neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Modeling attractor deformation in the rodent head-direction system. (4/66)

We present a model of the head-direction circuit in the rat that improves on earlier models in several respects. First, it provides an account of some of the unique characteristics of head-direction (HD) cell firing in the lateral mammillary nucleus and the anterior thalamus. Second, the model functions without making physiologically unrealistic assumptions. In particular, it implements attractor dynamics in postsubiculum and lateral mammillary nucleus without directionally tuned inhibitory neurons, which have never been observed in vivo, and it integrates angular velocity without the use of multiplicative synapses. The model allows us to examine the relationships among three HD areas and various properties of their representations. A surprising result is that certain combinations of purported HD cell properties are mutually incompatible, suggesting that the lateral mammillary nucleus may not be the primary source of head direction input to anterior thalamic HD cells.  (+info)

Coinciding early activation of the human primary visual cortex and anteromedial cuneus. (5/66)

Proper understanding of processes underlying visual perception requires information on the activation order of distinct brain areas. We measured dynamics of cortical signals with magnetoencephalography while human subjects viewed stimuli at four visual quadrants. The signals were analyzed with minimum current estimates at the individual and group level. Activation emerged 55-70 ms after stimulus onset both in the primary posterior visual areas and in the anteromedial part of the cuneus. Other cortical areas were active after this initial dual activation. Comparison of data between species suggests that the anteromedial cuneus either comprises a homologue of the monkey area V6 or is an area unique to humans. Our results show that visual stimuli activate two cortical areas right from the beginning of the cortical response. The anteromedial cuneus has the temporal position needed to interact with the primary visual cortex V1 and thereby to modify information transferred via V1 to extrastriate cortices.  (+info)

Background, but not foreground, spatial cues are taken as references for head direction responses by rat anterodorsal thalamus neurons. (6/66)

Two populations of limbic neurons are likely neurophysiological substrates for cognitive operations required for spatial orientation and navigation: hippocampal pyramidal cells discharge selectively when the animal is in a certain place (the "firing field") in the environment, whereas head direction cells discharge when the animal orients its head in a specific, "preferred" direction. Cressant et al. (1997) showed that the firing fields of hippocampal place cells reorient relative to a group of three-dimensional objects only if these are at the periphery, but not the center of an enclosed platform. To test for corresponding responses in head direction cells, three objects were equally spaced along the periphery of a circular platform. Preferred directions were measured before and after the group of objects was rotated. (The rat was disoriented in total darkness between sessions). This was repeated in the presence or absence of a cylinder enclosing the platform. When the enclosure was present, the preferred directions of all 30 cells recorded shifted by the same angle as the objects. In the absence of the enclosure, the preferred directions did not follow the objects, remaining fixed relative to the room. These results provide a possible neurophysiological basis for observations from psychophysical experiments in humans that background, rather than foreground, cues are preferentially used for spatial orientation.  (+info)

Active locomotion increases peak firing rates of anterodorsal thalamic head direction cells. (7/66)

Head direction (HD) cells discharge selectively in macaques, rats, and mice when they orient their head in a specific ("preferred") direction. Preferred directions are influenced by visual cues as well as idiothetic self-motion cues derived from vestibular, proprioceptive, motor efferent copy, and command signals. To distinguish the relative importance of active locomotor signals, we compared HD cell response properties in 49 anterodorsal thalamic HD cells of six male Long-Evans rats during active displacements in a foraging task as well as during passive rotations. Since thalamic HD cells typically stop firing if the animals are tightly restrained, the rats were trained to remain immobile while drinking water distributed at intervals from a small reservoir at the center of a rotatable platform. The platform was rotated in a clockwise/counterclockwise oscillation to record directional responses in the stationary animals while the surrounding environmental cues remained stable. The peak rate of directional firing decreased by 27% on average during passive rotations (r(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001). Individual cells recorded in sequential sessions (n = 8) reliably showed comparable reductions in peak firing, but simultaneously recorded cells did not necessarily produce identical responses. All of the HD cells maintained the same preferred directions during passive rotations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of locomotor activity provides a state-dependent modulation of the response magnitude of AD HD cells. This could result from diffusely projecting neuromodulatory systems associated with motor state.  (+info)

The conjoint importance of the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei for allocentric spatial learning: evidence from a disconnection study in the rat. (8/66)

A disconnection procedure was used to test whether the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei form functional components of the same spatial memory system. Unilateral excitotoxic lesions were placed in the anterior thalamic (AT) nuclei and hippocampus (HPC) in either the same (AT-HPC Ipsi group) or contralateral (AT-HPC Contra group) hemispheres of rats. The behavioral effects of these combined lesions were compared in several spatial memory tasks sensitive to bilateral hippocampal lesions. In all of the tasks tested, T-maze alternation, radial arm maze, and Morris water maze, those animals with lesions placed in the contralateral hemispheres were more impaired than those animals with lesions in the same hemisphere. These results provide direct support for the notion that the performance of tasks that require spatial memory rely on the operation of the anterior thalamus and hippocampus within an integrated neural network.  (+info)

The anterior thalamic nuclei are important for spatial and episodic memory, however, surprisingly little is known about the status of these nuclei in neurological conditions that present with memory impairments, such as Down syndrome. We quantified neurons and glial cells in the anterior thalamic nuclei of four older patients with Down syndrome. There was a striking reduction in the volume of the anterior thalamic nuclei and this appeared to reflect the loss of approximately 70% of neurons. The number of glial cells was also reduced but to a lesser degree than neurons. The anterior thalamic nuclei appear to be particularly sensitive to effects of aging in Down syndrome and the pathology in this region likely contributes to the memory impairments observed. These findings reaffirm the importance of examining the status of the anterior thalamic nuclei in conditions where memory impairments have been principally assigned to pathology in the medial temporal lobe ...
The hippocampus projects to the anterior thalamic nuclei both directly and indirectly via the mammillary bodies, but little is known about the electrophysiological properties of these convergent pathways. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of long-term plasticity in anterior thalamic nuclei synapses in response to high- and low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in urethane-anesthetized rats. We compared the synaptic changes evoked via the direct vs. the indirect hippocampal pathways to the anterior thalamus, and found that long-term potentiation (LTP) of the thalamic field response is induced predominantly through the direct hippocampal projections. Furthermore, we have estimated that that long-term depression (LTD) can be induced only after stimulation of the indirect connections carried by the mammillothalamic tract. Interestingly, basal synaptic transmission mediated by the mammillothalamic tract undergoes use-dependent, BDNF-mediated potentiation, revealing a distinct form of ...
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), a central component of Papez circuit, are generally assumed to be key constituents of the neural circuits responsible for certain categories of learning and memory. Supporting evidence for this contention is that damage to either of two brain regions, the medial temporal lobe and the medial diencephalon, is most consistently associated with anterograde amnesia. Within these respective regions, the hippocampal formation and the ATN (anteromedial, anteroventral, and anterodorsal) are the particular structures of interest. The extensive direct and indirect hippocampal-anterior thalamic interconnections and the presence of theta-modulated cells in both sites further support the hypothesis that these structures constitute a neuronal network crucial for memory and cognition. The major tool in understanding how the brain processes information is the analysis of neuronal output at each hierarchical level along the pathway of signal propagation coupled with ...
Take-home message - two key findings: (1) there are head-direction cells in the anteroventral thalamus (head direction cells fire when the head is pointed in a particular orientation); (2) a large fraction of these cells are theta-modulated (a strong 7-12 Hz oscillation in the EEG, studied most frequently in the hippocampal formation). These data are interesting because they suggests that the anterior thalamus…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sonication of the anterior thalamus with MRI-Guided transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) alters pain thresholds in healthy adults. T2 - A double-blind, sham-controlled study. AU - Badran, Bashar W.. AU - Caulfield, Kevin A.. AU - Stomberg-Firestein, Sasha. AU - Summers, Philipp M.. AU - Dowdle, Logan T.. AU - Savoca, Matt. AU - Li, Xingbao. AU - Austelle, Christopher W.. AU - Short, E. Baron. AU - Borckardt, Jeffrey J.. AU - Spivak, Norman. AU - Bystritsky, Alexander. AU - George, Mark S.. N1 - Funding Information: Funding for this study was provided by the Tiny Blue Dot Foundation (TBD) . Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Authors. PY - 2020/11/1. Y1 - 2020/11/1. N2 - Background: Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation method that may modulate deep brain structures. This study investigates whether sonication of the right anterior thalamus would modulate thermal pain thresholds in healthy individuals. Methods: We enrolled 19 healthy individuals ...
The brain regions that may be functionally involved in the control of anxiety and the development of seizures were examined using quantitative 1-14C-deoxyglucose autoradiography. For this purpose, beta- carbolines FG 7142 and DMCM were employed. They exert their effects via the benzodiazepine receptor, and whereas both possess anxiogenic properties, FG 7142 is a proconvulsant and DMCM a potent convulsant. The pattern of increases of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) induced by FG 7142 was mainly restricted to limbic structures, such as the lateral septal nucleus, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the mamillary nuclei. However, structures involved in motor regulation were also affected. A pronounced increase in LCGU was observed in the posterior part of the substantia nigra, pars reticulata. Further, the LCGU of the globus pallidus, the ventral thalamic nucleus, and the cerebellum was increased. DMCM likewise increased LCGU of the mamillary body and the lateral septal nucleus. In contrast ...
The study of the limbic system explains how emotions are generated. Four interconnected modules: the hypothalamus, the anterior thalamic nucleus, the cingulate gyrus and the hippocampus
Some neurons encode information about the orientation or position of an animal, and can maintain their response properties in the absence of visual input. Examples include head direction cells in rats and primates, place cells in rats and spatial view cells in primates. Continuous attractor neural networks model these continuous physical spaces by using recurrent collateral connections between the neurons which reflect the distance between the neurons in the state space (e.g. head direction space) of the animal. These networks maintain a localized packet of neuronal activity representing the current state of the animal. We show how the synaptic connections in a one-dimensional continuous attractor network (of for example head direction cells) could be self-organized by associative learning. We also show how the activity packet could be moved from one location to another by idiothetic (self-motion) inputs, for example vestibular or proprioceptive, and how the synaptic connections could self-organize to
The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has a number of biologic activities, including pronounced effects on the nervous and neuroendocrine systems. In this study, in situ histochemical techniques were used to investigate the distribution of cells expressing type I IL-1 receptor mRNA in the CNS, pituitary, and adrenal gland of the mouse. Hybridization of 35S-labeled antisense cRNA probes derived from a murine T-cell IL-1 receptor cDNA revealed a distinct regional distribution of the type I IL-1 receptor, both in brain and in the pituitary gland. In the brain, an intense signal was observed over the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, over the entire midline raphe system, over the choroid plexus, and over endothelial cells of postcapillary venules throughout the neuraxis. A weak to moderate signal was observed over the pyramidal cell layer of the hilus and CA3 region of the hippocampus, over the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, over Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex, and in scattered clusters ...
Thalamic contributions to memory were assessed in monkeys with lesions placed in the medial portions of either the anterior or posterior thalamus (AMT and PMT respectively). Nine cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were trained on a recognition task which required the animal to select a novel object in preference to a sample object which had been presented to the monkey 10s earlier. Three monkeys then received surgical lesions centred in the anterior nuclei (AMT) and three received lesions centred in nucleus medialis dorsalis (PMT). Although the experimental monkeys rapidly relearned this task of object recognition, both the AMT and PMT groups performed significantly worse than the unoperated control monkeys when the task was made harder by requiring the animals to distinguish the sample objects after increasing delays (30s, 60s, 120s) or after additional intervening objects (3, 5, and then 10). Furthermore, all three PMT animals and two of the AMT group were moderately impaired on a test ...
The ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. It is likely connected to frontal cortex 6 areas (8-44) according to Talairach 1988, and it gets input from the basal ganglia according to Heimer. The ventroanterior nucleus is not the same as the anteroventral nucleus (that appear in the anterior thalamic nuclear group). ...
The thalamus has now been almost completely removed, the anterior and medial portion being all that remains. The subthalamic nucleus is left in place. Fibers of the ansa lenticularis (5) lie above this nucleus and pass laterally toward the ventral lateral nucleus (now removed) and ventral anterior nucleus (removed). The mass of fibers which forms the posterior stalk of the thalamus is visible in the lateral and posterior wall of the thalamic dissection. The fasciculus retroflexus is exposed farther ventrally toward the interpeduncular fossa ...
Our previous study found volume reduction of the amygdala when we estimated regional GM volume using optimized VBM for the PD patients.37 The present study showed volume reduction of amygdala in PD patients, confirmed on both manual tracing and optimized VBM with small-volume correction. Furthermore, smaller amygdala was associated with anxiety, suggesting that the amygdala, especially the corticomedial nuclear group, is a crucial area of the neurobiological pathway underlying PD.. The amygdala is a heterogeneous collection of nuclear groups located in the temporal lobe.38 A variety of different functions has been attributed to the amygdaloid complex, including memory, attention, interpretation of emotional significance of sensory stimuli, perception of body movements and generation of emotional aspects of dreams.39-41 The amygdala consists of anterior nucleus (AN), LA, BA, CE, ME, CO and ABA. Notably, LA, BA and CE are candidate nuclei related to PD pathophysiology.42,43 The LA and BA receive ...
There are some product types that are the same or similar between Drilling/Completions and Stimulation groups as can be seen. There are also some product types that are unique to the group.. ...
Nuestros profesionales han sido expositores sobre Tecnología del ADN en diversos congresos, cursos y eventos nacionales e internacionales.
Brazski 11 years ago. Hmmm, as the others have said, this account should be deleted adn given to smeone interesting, I mean come on, the only reason why half....or all....of the comments are here are because we were bored and looked up uid=69..haha sixty-nine!. ...
The Seizure and Cognitive Outcome of Anterior Thalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Patients with Intractable Epilepsy, Yuguang Guan, Sichang Chen, Yao Zhang, Changqing Liu,
The treatment of patients with refractory epilepsy has always been challenging. Despite the availability of multiple antiepileptic medications and surgical procedures with which to resect seizure foci, there is a subset of epilepsy patients for whom little can be done. Currently available treatment options for these unfortunate patients include vagus nerve stimulation, the ketogenic diet, and electric stimulation, both direct and indirect, of brain nuclei thought to be involved in epileptogenesis. Studies of electrical stimulation of the brain in epilepsy treatment date back to the early 20th century, beginning with research on cerebellar stimulation. The number of potential targets has increased over the years to include the hippocampus, subthalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, centromedian nucleus, and anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT). Recently the results of a large randomized controlled trial, the electrical Stimulation of the Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus for Epilepsy (SANTE) trial, were ...
Discrete populations of brain cells signal heading direction, rather like a compass. These head direction cells are largely confined to a closely-connected network of sites. We describe, for the first time, a population of head direction cells in nucleus reuniens of the thalamus in the freely-moving rat. This novel subcortical head direction signal potentially modulates the hippocampal CA fields directly and, thus, informs spatial processing and memory. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MR imaging of compact white matter pathways. AU - Curnes, J. T.. AU - Burger, P. C.. AU - Djang, W. T.. AU - Boyko, Orest. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - A prominent decreased signal intensity can be seen in many of the heavily myelinated, compact fiber pathways of the brain on T2-weighted spin-echo MR images (TR = 2500 msec, TE = 80 msec). These areas include the anterior commissure, internal capsule, optic tract and radiations, fornix, mammillothalamic tract, superior frontooccipital fasciculus, cingulum, corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. All these pathways could be identified in normal subjects 3 years old and older when 1.5-T axial and coronal images of 50 adults and 17 children were reviewed. Correlation of the in vivo and postmortem MR appearance of two human brains with Perls and Luxol fast blue stains indicates that the short T2 reflects heavy myelination and fiber density, not iron deposition. This is in contrast to the short T2 ...
Medtronic Inc. received FDA approval for its DBS System for Epilepsy on April 27, 2018.. The Medtronic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) System for Epilepsy is a device that delivers controlled electrical pulses to a location inside the brain which is involved in seizures. The system consists of a pulse generator (IPG) implanted under the skin of the upper chest, and two leads implanted in the brain. The system sends a constant stream of tiny electrical pulses through the leads to the electrodes in selected area of the brain; these impulses block seizures associated with epilepsy. The device helps reduce the frequency of seizures in patients who have frequent, disabling, partial-onset seizures, and have not responded well to antiepileptic medications.. The clinical trial SANTE (Stimulation of the Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus for Epilepsy) demonstrated that patients with the device turned on experienced a 17 percent greater reduction in the average number of seizures per month as compared to the ...
New results show a 69% mean reduction in seizure frequency 5 years after stimulation of anterior nuclei in patients with refractory epilepsy.
The symptoms of Parkinsons disease result from the loss of pigmented dopamine-secreting (dopaminergic) cells in the pars compacta region of the substantia nigra (literally black substance). These neurons project to the striatum and their loss leads to alterations in the activity of the neural circuits within the basal ganglia that regulate movement, in essence an inhibition of the direct pathway and excitation of the indirect pathway. The direct pathway facilitates movement and the indirect pathway inhibits movement, thus the loss of these cells leads to a hypokinetic movement disorder. The lack of dopamine results in increased inhibition of the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus, which sends excitatory projections to the motor cortex, thus leading to hypokinesia. There are four major dopamine pathways in the brain; the nigrostriatal pathway, referred to above, mediates movement and is the most conspicuously affected in early Parkinsons disease. The other pathways are the mesocortical, ...
Follicular development and ovulation are suppressed during lactation in various mammalian species, mainly due to the suppression of pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. Metastin (kisspeptin-54), a KiSS-1 gene product, is an endogenous ligand for GPR54, a G-protein-coupled receptor, and suggested to play a critical role in regulating the gonadal axis. The present study therefore aims to determine whether metastin (kisspeptin-54)-GPR54 signaling in discrete brain areas is inhibited by the suckling stimulus that causes suppression of LH secretion in lactating rats. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the KiSS-1 mRNA level was significantly lower in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)-median eminence region in lactating ovariectomized (OVX) and estrogen-treated OVX rats than in nonlactating controls. KiSS-1 mRNA in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was kept at a low level in both lactating and nonlactating rats despite estrogen treatment. GPR54mRNAlevels were significantly lower in lactating than nonlactating ...
Lieberman, D. (2000) Learning: Behavior and Cognition. Belmont: Wadsworth. (pp. 367-384) Roberts, W.A (1998) Principles of Animal Cognition. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Chapter 3. Working Memory: Early Research and Contemporary Procedures and Findings. (1 copy on short loan at BK; 4 loan copies) Pearce J.M. (1997) Animal Learning and Cognition 2nd Edition. Hove: Psychology Press. Chapter 6 Part 2 Memory: Short-term Retention. (156.315 PEA in new section at Birkbeck. 1 normal and 1 Short Loan copy). Other References (Not normally required for Further Reading). Aggleton, J. P., & Brown, M. W. (1999). Episodic memory, amnesia and the hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22(3), 425-489. Albright, T. D., Kandel, E. R., & Posner, M. I. (2000). Cognitive neuroscience. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10(5), 612-624. Alvarez, P, Zola-Morgan, S and Squire, L (1994) The animal-model of human amnesia - long-term-memory impaired and short-term-memory intact. Proceedings of the ...
To orient ourselves, we mainly need two pieces of information: where am I and in which direction am I heading? Experiments in the rat have shown that these types of information are directly accessible and independently coded in the brain. When the rat explores a new territory, so-called place cells and head direction cells form within only a few minutes. Place cells are active when the rat visits a particular area, no matter which direction it is facing. In contrast, head direction cells code the direction the rat is heading, independent of where it is. Also humans presumably have these and other types of cells which specifically instruct its sense of orientation. Scientists around Mathias Franzius and Laurenz Wiskott from the Humboldt-University and Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Berlin (Germany) have now developed a theoretical model that can explain the emergence of all orientation-specific cells that are known in rats and primates to date.. Now my personal experience is that ...
Match Prefixes to Root Words #1. Affix is a word used to describe prefix and suffix. Then define the new word. mast(o)-of or pertaining to the breast. Dont include the dash (-) when you type in your answer and only type in the prefix/suffix - not the whole word. Modeling this approach with learners first, write the affix on the palm of the hand. Suffixes -ful and -less FREE . mammillothalamic. -ion The result or act of/ V-Adj/ protection Suffix 3. conception A general idea, : a complex product of abstract or reflective thinking, the sum of a persons ideas and beliefs concerning something 4. View PDF. The Prefix/Suffix Matching BAM! Suffix Change Up This is a really comprehensive worksheet. The meaning goes on the thumb and a word example is recorded on each finger. EUGENE M. MCCARTHY, PHD. Prefixes and suffixes are sets of letters that are added to the beginning or end of another word. 1. Review the meaning of prefixes and suffixes with the class. Print out a copy of the Prefix/Suffix Hand for each
The OP is inherently a less accurate plane to measure on account of the lack of precise landmarks. Zollikofer et al. (2005) and Brunet and Allemand (2005) did not provide details of how they measured the orientation of the OP, but judging from the illustrations it was obtained by drawing a vertical line in the middle of the orbit extending from the anterodorsal margin of the orbit to the antero-ventral edge of the orbit immediately beneath the former point. There are four main difficulties with this measurement, the first being that the left and right sides of the same skull may be different (in fact each orbit has its own OP). The second, and a more serious difficulty is that the upper and lower margins of the orbits are curved dorsoventrally (strongly) and mediolaterally (gently), and thus it is difficult to define precise points for consistent measurements between individuals or successive measurements in the same individual, and thus of obtaining reliable results for the orientation of the ...
2) CULTIVAREA FORMEI R CU ARN DIN TULPINI S 3) CULTIVAREA TULPINII R CU CAPSULA MUCOPOLIZAHARIDICA DIN TULPINA S 4) CULTIVAREA TULPINII R CU ADN EXTRAS SI PURIFICAT DIN FORMELE S - AU APARUT COLONII VIRULENTE CARE INJECTATE LA SOARECI AU PROVOCAT MOARTEA ACESTORA 5) CULTIVAREA FORMELOR VII R CU ADN -S DISTRUS IN PREALABIL CU ENZIME- DN-AZA- SE OBTIN FORME R NECAPSULATE SI NEVIRULENTE CONCLUZIE: ADN ESTE SUPORTUL EREDITATII The Big Bang Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (1952) DNA is genetic material. . Watson and Crick (1953) DNA is a double helix.. . INFORMATIA DETINUTA FIIND ACCESIBILA. ESTE SURSA DE VARIABILITATE MUTATIE.CARACTERE ADN . ARE CAPACITATE DE SINTEZA ( AUTOREPLICARE).IMPLICATIA IN EREDITATE ARE STRUCTURA SPECIFICA - SPECIFICITATE DE SPECIE PRIN ORDONAREA BAZELOR AZOTATE. INFORMATIA ADN POATE FI DECODIFICATA SI TRANSMISA ARN→ SINTEZA DE PROTEINE → CARACTERE (dogma centrală a geneticii moleculare). PRIN RECOMBINARE SI ARE O DISPUNERE LINIARA.. STRUCTURA ADN LOCALIZAREA CELULARA A ...
this may sound silly, but what is the difference between asn & adn? :wink2: when i registered they didnt have the option of choosing adn. i am going to start some online classes for my
Page 2 - No... I do not want to get into which one is better. I am in a BSN program, it was the best choice for me for a number of reasons and I am happy with that choice. I am simply curious why some
Reply: We thank Duprez et al for their attention and valuable comments concerning our article Acute Korsakoff Syndrome Following Mammillothalamic Tract Infarction (1) and also for presentation of their advanced work in neuroradiology and neuromodulation (2, 3). Their excellent depictions of the mammillothalamic tract (MTT) and implanted neuromodulation electrodes with MR imaging allow us the opportunity to further discuss amnesia-initiating lesion(s) in our case.. Korsakoff syndrome is defined as a disproportionate impairment in memory, relative to other aspects of cognitive function, resulting from a nutritional (thiamine) depletion (4). In our case, however, the patient developed acute amnesia with features of Korsakoff syndrome that were not attributable to malnutrition but were the result of a left MTT infarction. MR imaging studies revealed acute ischemic damage of the left MTT assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging and a previous contralateral right MTT infarct on T2-weighted and ...
Nucleus reuniens of the thalamus contains head direction cells | eLife. Maciej M Jankowski, Md Nurul Islam, Nicholas F Wright, Seralynne D Vann, Jonathan T Erichsen, John P Aggleton, Shane M OMara DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03075 Cite as eLife 2014;10.7554/eLife.03075 Abstract Discrete populations of brain cells signal heading direction, rather like a compass. These head direction cells…
48. Mirski MA, Ferrendelli JA. Selective metabolic activation of the mamillary bodies and their connections during ethosuximide-induced suppression of pentylenetetrazol seizures. Epilepsia 1985;51:194-203. 49. Mirski MA, Ferrendelli JA. Interruption of the mammillothalamic tracts prevents seizures in guinea pigs. Science 1984;226:72-74. 50. Mirski MA, Varelos P. Seizures in the ICU. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2001;13:163-175. 51. Kuijlen JM, Teernstra OP, Kessels AG, Herpers MJ, Beuls EA. Effectiveness of antiepileptic prophylaxis used with supratentorial craniotomies: a meta-analysis. Electroencephalography in brain edema (127 cases of brain tumour investigated by cranial computerized tomography). EEG Clin Electrophysiol 1979;46:239-255. 53. Williamson A, Patrylo PR, Lee S, Spencer DD. Physiology of human cortical neurons adjacent to cavernous malformations and tumors. Epilepsia 2003;44:1413-1419. 54. Beaumont A, Whittle IR. The pathogenesis of tumour associated epilepsy. Acta Neurochir (Wien) ...
The role of the thalamus in high-level cognition-attention, working memory (WM), rule-based learning, and decision making-remains poorly understood, especially in comparison to that of cortical frontoparietal networks [1-3]. Studies of visual thalamus have revealed important roles for pulvinar and lateral geniculate nucleus in visuospatial perception and attention [4-10] and for mediodorsal thalamus in oculomotor control [11]. Ventrolateral thalamus contains subdivisions devoted to action control as part of a circuit involving the basal ganglia [12, 13] and motor, premotor, and prefrontal cortices [14], whereas anterior thalamus forms a memory network in connection with the hippocampus [15]. This connectivity profile suggests that ventrolateral and anterior thalamus may represent a nexus between mnemonic and control functions, such as action or attentional selection. Here, we characterize the role of thalamus in the interplay between memory and visual attention. We show that ventrolateral lesions impair
The laterodorsal nucleus (LDN) of the thalamus provides a prominent afferent projection to the postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum). To characterize synaptic transmission in this pathway, we placed stimulating electrodes in the LDN and recorded fEPSPs elicited in the postsubiculum of urethane-anesthetized rats. LDN stimulation elicited a source-sink dipole between the deep and superficial layers of the postsubiculum, respectively, consistent with anatomical evidence for the termination of thalamic afferents in the superficial layers of the structure, and the existence of deep layer neurons with apical dendrites extending into these layers. Postsubicular fEPSPs were typically 0.5-1.0 mV in amplitude, with a peak latency of approximately 6 ms. Consistent with anatomical observations, the short onset latency of fEPSPs elicited by LDN stimulation, and their ability to follow a 60-Hz train of stimulation, indicate that the projection is monosynaptic. Paired-pulse stimulation revealed pronounced ...
The aims of this study were to i) identify substantia nigra subregions i.e. pars reticulata (SNr) and pars compacta (SNc), in human, and ii) to assess volumetric changes in these subregions in the diagnosis of Parkinsons disease. Current MR imaging techniques are unable to distinguish SNr and SNc. Segmentation of these regions may be clinically useful in Parkinsons disease (PD) as substantia nigra is invariably affected in PD. We acquired quantitative T1 as well as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from ten healthy subjects and ten PD patients. For each subject, the left and right SN were manually outlined on T1 images and then classified into two discrete regions based on the characteristics of their connectivity with the rest of the brain using an automated clustering method on the DTI data. We identified two regions in each subjects SN: an internal region that is likely to correspond with SNc because it was mainly connected with posterior striatum, pallidum, anterior thalamus, and prefrontal
The aim of this study was to i) identify substantia nigra subregions i.e. pars reticulata (SNr) and pars compacta (SNc), in human, and ii) to assess volumetric changes in these subregions in the diagnosis of Parkinsons disease. Current MR imaging techniques are unable to distinguish SNr and SNc. Segmentation of these regions may be clinically useful in Parkinsons disease (PD) as substantia nigra is invariably affected in PD. We acquired quantitative T1 as well as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from ten healthy subjects and ten PD patients. For each subject, the left and right SN were manually outlined on T1 images and then classified into two discrete regions based on the characteristics of their connectivity with the rest of the brain using an automated clustering method on the DTI data. We identified two regions in each subjects SN: an internal region that is likely to correspond with SNc because it was mainly connected with posterior striatum, pallidum, anterior thalamus, and prefrontal
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We aimed to test the hypothesis that lateral line placodes form both ampullary organs and neuromasts in cartilaginous fishes, by performing in vivo fate-mapping in the little skate. We used the fluorescent lipophilic dye DiI to label focally the anterodorsal lateral line placode alone, or the anterodorsal plus anteroventral lateral line placodes, in L. erinacea embryos at stage 25 (n=18). These placodes were selected because they are the largest cranial lateral line placodes, hence the easiest to target, and they give rise to both ampullary organs and neuromasts in the axolotl (Northcutt et al., 1995) and paddlefish (Modrell et al., 2011a). The anterodorsal and anteroventral lateral line placodes can both be recognized in skate embryos morphologically as thickenings of ectoderm caudal to the eye and dorsal to the mandibular and hyoid arches, respectively (Fig. 1D), and molecularly, by expression of the gene encoding the transcription co-factor Eya4 (Fig. 1E), an established marker of the ...
In Vivo Demonstration of Homonymous Hemimacular Loss of Retinal Ganglion Cells Due to a Thalamic Lesion Using Optical Coherence Tomography
This study was designed to determine whether the sympathetic nervous system exerts a protective or enhancing effect in acoustic overstimulation. The compound action potential of the cochlea (CAP) was recorded in guinea pigs while the cervical sympathetic nervous system (SNS) was electrically stimulated or after it was surgically eliminated. The stimulation or the elimination of the cervical SNS has no effect on the threshold of CAP. The threshold shift in CAP after acoustic overstimulation (110, 115, or 130 dB SPL for 10 min) was measured in the cervical SNS stimulation group, in the cervical SNS elimination group, and in the control group. When the animal was under insufficient sedation, there was no difference among these three groups. However, the CAP threshold shift was significantly smaller in the cervical SNS stimulation group than in the other two groups when the animals were sufficiently sedated. The cervical SNS stimulation had some protective effect on the susceptibility to acoustic trauma
The study did not meet the primary effectiveness outcome. The mean IDS-C 30-item change from baseline over weeks 10, 14, 18, and 22 (the Acute Phase) was not statistically different between the high dose and the low dose groups (Low vs. High stimulation group: P=0.8027) as well as between the medium dose and the low dose groups (Low vs. Medium stimulation group: P=0.8131).. Although on average the score for all 3 groups showed an improved score over time, this was not set as the primary study outcome and could be due to response to other treatments as well as natural course of the disorders or statistical regression to the mean, and perhaps to a placebo effect since the study was blinded to dosage but not to VNS Therapy implant. No statistically significant differences were noted between treatment groups for any of the effectiveness outcomes, in either of the study periods (Acure Phase or Long-term Phase ...
Head Direction (HD) cells are neurons located primarily in the limbic system that fire as a function of directional heading in the horizontal, or yaw, plane in the freely moving animal. Our hypothesis is that the HD signal is the result of two ...
Head Direction (HD) cells are neurons located primarily in the limbic system that fire as a function of directional heading in the horizontal, or yaw, plane in the freely moving animal. Our hypothesis is that the HD signal is the result of two ...
This thesis introduces a hierarchical model for unsupervised learning from naturalistic video sequences. The model is based on the principles of slowness and sparseness. Different approaches and implementations for these principles are discussed. A variety of neuron classes in the hippocampal formation of rodents and primates codes for different aspects of space surrounding the animal, including place cells, head direction cells, spatial view cells and grid cells. In the main part of this thesis, video sequences from a virtual reality environment are used for training the hierarchical model. The behavior of most known hippocampal neuron types coding for space are reproduced by this model. The type of representations generated by the model is mostly determined by the movement statistics of the simulated animal. The model approach is not limited to spatial coding. An application of the model to invariant object recognition is described, where artificial clusters of spheres or rendered fish are ...
In epigeic rodents, familiar landmarks exert primary control over a variety of spatial behaviors and related neural mechanisms (OKeefe and Nadel, 1978; Taube et al., 1990; Taube and Burton, 1995; Dudchenko et al., 1997; Sharp et al., 2001; Sharp, 2002). Nevertheless, a directional sense that is not linked to visual landmarks also appears to play a central role in many aspects of rodent spatial behavior and cognition (e.g. Knierim et al., 1995; Skinner et al., 2010; van der Meer et al., 2010). Species such as rats show a remarkable ability to place neural representations of different surroundings into register. When rats are transferred to an unfamiliar laboratory enclosure, directional properties of, for example, head direction cells and subicular place cells typically retain the same absolute alignment (Sharp and Green, 1994; Knierim et al., 1995; Taube and Burton, 1995; Dudchenko et al., 1997; Sharp, 1997; Sharp, 2002; Sharp et al., 2001), suggesting that these properties are transferred to ...
Montreal, QC. Introduction. An early symptom of Alzheimers disease is frequent disorientation in familiar settings, often resulting in patients getting lost on their routine commutes to work or home. What pathology in the brain causes this debilitating deficit in spatial cognition? Recent experiments have identified a neural circuit in the entorhinal cortex that is essential for spatial memory and navigation. This circuit contains three navigation-related neuronal types including `grid cells that track your movement through space (similar to a GPS), `head direction cells that act as the brains `internal compass, and `border cells that signal proximity to edges of the environment.. Objectives. We propose to test the hypothesis that a disruption of this entorhinal navigational circuit underlies the spatial memory and spatial cognition deficits reported in Alzheimers disease. The first objective is to identify whether the spatial firing patterns of neurons in this circuit undergo a ...
The objective of this trial is to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of pallidal DBS in HD patients, and show superiority of DBS on motor function in the stimulation group compared to stimulation-off group and that DBS is a good alternative to medication therapy. For ethical reasons all patients (including the controls) will receive best contact stimulation after assessment of the primary endpoint for 3 months and a final follow up is planned 6 month after study inclusion. All patients will receive a bilateral stereotactic insertion of quadripolar electrodes (Medtronic Inc, 3387) into the Globus pallidus (GP) for chronic high-frequency stimulation with the upper two contacts reaching the external GP (GPe) and the lower two contacts placed in the internal GP (GPi). The implantation of the stimulator (ACTIVA®PC) will take place in the same procedure. This approach has been successfully used in previous studies of DBS in dystonia. ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a short-term neuromuscular electrical stimulation program on exercise tolerance in hospitalized patients with advanced heart failure who have suffered an acute decompensation and are under continuous intravenous inotropic support. DESIGN: A randomized controlled study. SUBJECTS: Initially, 195 patients hospitalized for decompensated heart failure were recruited, but 70 were randomized. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized into two groups: control group subject to the usual care ( n = 35); neuromuscular electrical stimulation group ( n = 35) received daily training sessions to both lower extremities for around two weeks. MAIN MEASURES: The baseline 6-minute walk test to determine functional capacity was performed 24 hours after hospital admission, and intravenous inotropic support dose was daily checked in all patients. The outcomes were measured in two weeks or at the discharge if the patients were sent back home earlier than two weeks. RESULTS: After ...
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Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary information. genetically attenuated by the deletion of both and with tumor: liver organ ratios of 2,000:1, and colonization had not been detected in regular tissue 14 days post-injection16,17. Avirulent SL?ppGpp (?features seeing that a superb delivery automobile for ...
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Purificación del plásmido es una técnica utilizada para aislar y purificar ADN de plásmido de ADN genómico, las proteínas, los ribosomas y la pared celular...
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R, retina (contralateral eye); O, optic tectum; Pt, pretectal thalamus; Lt, lateral anterior thalamic nucleus; At, anterior ... The thalamic-pretectal region initiates avoidance behavior in the toad. More specifically, electrical triggering the thalamic- ... When the thalamic-pretectal region was removed, avoidance behavior was entirely absent while orienting behavior was enhanced ... Instead, he found that the optic tectum and the thalamic-pretectal region (in the diencephalon) play significant roles in the ...
... main thalamic projections from anterior nuclei. d23b, dorsal part of 23b, weak connections from the anterior nuclei. Brodmann ... H. Shibata, M. Yukie, "Differential thalamic connections of the posteroventral and dorsal posterior cingulate gyrus in the ... Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded dorsally by the dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, rostrally by the ventral anterior ... Cytoarchitecture and thalamic afferents", Journal of Comparative Neurology, 262(2):256-270. ...
... the anterior dorsal and the lateral dorsal thalamic nuclei), lateral mammillary nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus and striatum ... Two years later, Taube found HD cells in the nearby anterior thalamic nuclei. Chen et al. found limited numbers of HD cells in ... Taube, J. S. (1995-01-01). "Head direction cells recorded in the anterior thalamic nuclei of freely moving rats". The Journal ... Taube, JS (January 1, 1995). "Head direction cells recorded in the anterior thalamic nuclei of freely moving rats". J. Neurosci ...
Hypothalamic effects reach the cortex via a relay in the anterior thalamic nuclei." However, there has not been additional ... This may occur due to damage in the mammillary bodies, ventral anterior nucleus, and ventral lateral nucleus which has resulted ... Damage to the mammillothalamic tract, ventral anterior nucleus, and ventral lateral nucleus can result in memory and language ... anterior thalamic nucleus → cingulum → entorhinal cortex → hippocampal formation. A photograph of the inferior medial view of ...
These findings imply damage to anterior thalamic nuclei can result in disruptive memory. A number of factors may increase a ... Damage to the medial dorsal nucleus or anterior nuclei of the thalamus (limbic-specific nuclei) is also associated with this ... Additionally, autopsies of people who had KS have showed lesions in both the midline and anterior thalamus, and thalamic ... Severe damage to the medial dorsal nucleus inevitably results in memory deficit. ...
The anterior cingulate cortex receives primarily its afferent axons from the intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei (see ... The anterior cingulate cortex sends axons to the anterior nucleus and through the cingulum to other Broca's limbic areas. The ... The nucleus anterior receives mamillo-thalamic afferences. The mamillary neurons receive axons from the subiculum. The whole ... that the anterior cingulate gyrus has reciprocal connections with the rostral part of the thalamic posterior lateral nucleus ...
Barson, Jessica R.; Ho, Hui Tin; Leibowitz, Sarah F. (2015). "Anterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus is involved in ... Anterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus is involved in intermittent access ethanol drinking: Role of orexin receptor 2. ... Substance P in the anterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus: Role in ethanol drinking in relation to orexin from the ... Barson investigates neuropeptide signalling in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus as well as the nucleus accumbens to ...
The nigral territory corresponds to the nucleus ventralis anterior (VA) (see also List of thalamic nuclei) (different from the ... The nigral neurons have their own territory distinct from the cerebellar and the pallidal in the nucleus ventralis anterior VA ... The pars reticulata is one of the two primary output nuclei of the basal ganglia system to the motor thalamus (the other output ... It receives axons from the subthalamic nucleus and a dopaminergic innervation from the dopaminergic ensemble. ...
The limbic system is made up of several brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum ... The MRI of KL showed bilateral anterior temporal lobe atrophy, with more damage on the right side and in the inferior temporal ... shows bilateral fronto-temporal atrophy mostly in the right anterior temporal lobe but extending back within the temporal lobe ...
... the ventral tegmental nuclei, and the anterior thalamic nuclei. The mammillothalamic tract was first described by the French ... Some fibers pass through the dorsal nucleus to the angular nucleus of the thalamus. ("The term 'angular thalamic nucleus' ... Angular Thalamic Nucleus --> "What, Where and How Big is It?" BrainInfo. Accessed January 25, 2011. Kamali, Arash; Zhang, ... Aggleton, J. P; O'Mara, S. M; Vann, S. D; Wright, N. F; Tsanov, M; Erichsen, J. T (2010). "Hippocampal-anterior thalamic ...
... and anterior thalamic nuclei to the habenula. It forms a horizontal ridge on the medial surface of the thalamus, and is found ... It projects to the habenular nuclei, from anterior perforated substance and hypothalamus, to habenular trigone, to habenular ... It is a fiber bundle containing afferent fibers from the septal nuclei, lateral preoptico-hypothalamic region, ... commissure, to habenular nucleus. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~rswenson/NeuroSci/chapter_10.html v t e. ...
... and with anterior thalamic nuclei and the hippocampus. Neurophysiological studies of retrosplenial cortex have mainly been done ...
... targeted the anterior intralaminar nuclei of thalamus and adjacent paralaminar regions of thalamic association nuclei. Both ... This allowed maximum coverage of the thalamic bodies. A DBS stimulation was conducted such that the patient was exposed to ... activation of frontal cortical and basal ganglia systems that were innervated by neurons within the thalamic association nuclei ... "Clinicaltrials.gov". Laureys S, Owen AM, Schiff ND (August 2007). "Behavioural improvements with thalamic stimulation after ...
It is an output nucleus whose fibres project to thalamic nuclei, such as the ventral anterior nucleus, the ventral lateral ... It acts in part as a relay nucleus from the nucleus accumbens to the medial dorsal nucleus. The nucleus accumbens projects to ... Along with the external globus pallidus, it is separated from other basal ganglia nuclei by the anterior commissure. The limbic ... The information is relayed to the medial dorsal and ventral anterior nuclei of the thalamus. The ventral pallidum receives ...
Different thalamic nuclei, (from the anterior and midline groups), the medial septal nucleus, the supramammillary nucleus of ... Its projecting pathways include the medial septal nucleus and supramammillary nucleus. The dorsal hippocampus also has more ... the anterior olfactory nucleus, and to the primary olfactory cortex. There continues to be some interest in hippocampal ... and from the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus to field CA1. A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, ...
... is functionally connected to the hippocampus as part of the extended hippocampal system at the thalamic anterior nuclei with ... Lateral group of the thalamic nuclei. Medial group of the thalamic nuclei. 5-HT7 receptor Krista and Tatiana Hogan - conjoined ... Thalamic nuclei have strong reciprocal connections with the cerebral cortex, forming thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuits that are ... The exposure to SHH leads to differentiation of thalamic neurons. SHH signaling from the MDO induces a posterior-to-anterior ...
... anterior thalamic nuclei, and limbic cortex) is affected by those closest to us (limbic resonance) and synchronizes with them ( ...
... bilateral interruption or severing of the connection between thalamocortical radiations the medial and anterior thalamic nuclei ... Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ... and somatosensory input in the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Thalamic nuclei project to cortical areas of distinct ... can be found only in principal sensory and motor relay nuclei, and in the pulvinar nuclei as well as the intralaminar nuclei. ...
... the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the interconnections among these structures constituted a harmonious mechanism which ...
... and for epilepsy treatment to the anterior thalamic nucleus. All three components are surgically implanted inside the body. ... These are the globus pallidus internus, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus and the pedunculopontine nucleus. However, most DBS ... nucleus accumbens, ventral capsule/ventral striatum, inferior thalamic peduncle, and the lateral habenula. A recently proposed ... for OCD and depression to the nucleus accumbens; for incessant pain to the posterior thalamic region or periaqueductal gray; ...
... the anterior and lateral thalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex). The posterior ... The anterior node of the DMN is formed, in part, by the highly connected PCC and Brodmann area 25. These two regions are ... Dense connections to the thalamus in the form of a continuous strip that crosses numerous pulvinar nuclei and the striatum. As ... They also found that greater damage to the cingulum bundle, that connects the PCC to the anterior DMN, was correlated with ...
Thalamic reticular nucleus. Hypothalamus (limbic system) (HPA axis)[edit]. *Anterior *Medial area *Parts of preoptic area * ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... Pontine cranial nerve nuclei *chief or pontine nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V) ... upper limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Accessory cuneate nucleus → Cuneocerebellar tract → ICP → Anterior lobe of ...
These nuclei are considered to be association nuclei, one of the three broader subdivisions of thalamic nuclei. These nuclei ... The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are a collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal ... The anterior nuclei regulates what input is redistributed to the cortex. The connections of the anterior nuclei are similar to ... The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are recently thought to be connected in pathways serving a spatial navigation role in ...
... thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.080 - anterior thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.444 - ... midline thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.700 - posterior thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.900 ... intralaminar thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.485 - lateral thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826. ... anterior MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.063 - anterior hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.400 - ...
"Chapter 10 - Thalamic Organization". Review of clinical and functional neuroscience. Dartmouth Medical School. Retrieved 9 May ... The ventral anterior nucleus (VA) is a nucleus of the thalamus. It acts with the anterior part of the ventral lateral nucleus ... The ventral anterior nucleus receives neuronal inputs from the basal ganglia. Its main afferent fibres are from the globus ... The efferent fibres from this nucleus pass into the premotor cortex for initiation and planning of movement. It helps to ...
... nucleus in the thalamus forms the motor functional division in the thalamic nuclei along with the ventral anterior nucleus. The ... The ventral lateral nucleus (VL) is a nucleus in the ventral nuclear group of the thalamus. It receives neuronal inputs from ... Output from the ventral lateral nucleus then goes to the primary motor cortex. The function of the ventral lateral nucleus is ... 2007). "Feeling sounds after a thalamic lesion". Annals of Neurology. 62 (5): 433-41. doi:10.1002/ana.21219. PMID 17893864. ...
Some pain-temperature fibers are sent to the medial dorsal thalamic nucleus (MD), which projects to the anterior cingulate ... Diffuse thalamic projections from the IL and other thalamic nuclei are responsible for a given level of consciousness, with the ... All sensory information is sent to specific nuclei in the thalamus. Thalamic nuclei, in turn, send information to specific ... This nucleus is analogous to the dorsal column nuclei (the gracile and cuneate nuclei) of the spinal cord, which contain a ...
... anterior pulvinar nucleus lateral pulvinar nucleus medial pulvinar nucleus inferior pulvinar nucleus lateral posterior nucleus ... belongs to anterior group ventral nuclear group ventral anterior nucleus ventral lateral nucleus ventral intermediate nucleus ... Intralaminar nuclei) anterior (rostral) group paracentral nucleus central lateral nucleus central medial nucleus posterior ( ... Nuclear groups of the thalamus include: anterior nuclear group anteroventral nucleus anterodorsal nucleus anteromedial nucleus ...
The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem. These nuclei are also ... Left anterior temporal and inferior frontal regions that were activated in the musical semantic memory task produced activation ... Ghazanfar, A. A.; Nicolelis, MA (2001). "Feature Article: The Structure and Function of Dynamic Cortical and Thalamic Receptive ... Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve,[5][6] the cochlear nucleus,[5][7] the inferior ...
"Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation: summary and meta-analysis of outcomes." Mov Disord. 2006 Jun;21 Suppl 14:S290-304 ... "Behavioural improvements with thalamic stimulation after severe traumatic brain injury". Nature. 448, 600-3. (2007) PMID ... Nuttin B, Cosyns P, Demeulemeester H, Gybels J, Meyerson B (1999). "Electrical stimulation in anterior limbs of internal ... Ackermans, L. (24 February 2011). "Double-blind clinical trial of thalamic stimulation in patients with Tourette syndrome". ...
On the other hand, when anticipating loss, the central and basal nuclei of amygdala, right posterior insula extending into the ... dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and parts of the dorsomedial thalamus connecting to temporal and prefrontal cortex. There is ... affecting thalamic norepinephrine transmission, as well as neural structure and activities. Outcome anticipation and ensuing ... This involves the ventral caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen, bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, superior frontal and middle gyri ...
The aim of the operation is to disconnect the orbitofrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei by inducing a lesion in the anterior ... the operation disconnects the thalamic and posterior frontal regions and damages the anterior cingulate region. Anterior ... Success rates for anterior capsulotomy, anterior cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and limbic leucotomy in treating ... certain thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, and cingulate gyrus - all connected by fibre ...
... the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus.[8] However, in terms of glial cells, adults had far larger estimates than those in newborns; ... Forward signaling between ephrin-A and EphA, along the anterior-posterior axis, has been found to inhibit retinal axon branch ... which differs greatly in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. In a study conducted in 2007 by Oxford University, researchers ...
Mammillary body → Mammillothalamic tract → Anterior nuclei of thalamus →. Telencephalon. *Anterior limb of internal capsule → ... "Limbic and cortical information processing in the nucleus accumbens". Trends in Neurosciences. 31 (11): 552-8. doi:10.1016/j. ...
The anterior insula receives a direct projection from the basal part of the ventral medial nucleus of the thalamus and a ... The insula also receives differential cortical and thalamic input along its length. John Allman and his colleagues have shown ... the anterior insular cortex with the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann area 33) and the anterior and posterior mid- ... In contrast, the anterior insula projects to the anterior amygdaloid area as well as the medial, the cortical, the accessory ...
Neuroaxonal swellings are seen in the gracile and cuneate nuclei. Similar changes can be produced in rats and monkeys with ... Anterior. *Central/Syringomyelia). *Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord (B12). *Cauda equina syndrome ... Thalamic syndrome. Other. *Subclavian steal syndrome. *Upper motor neurone lesion (Clasp-knife response) ...
Anterior[edit]. Main article: Anterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary arises from an invagination of the oral ectoderm and ... Oxytocin, most of which is released from the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is one of the few hormones ... Anterior[edit]. The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes hormones. All releasing hormones (-RH) referred to, can also be ... The anterior pituitary is typically divided into two regions, a more anterior rostral portion and a posterior proximal portion ...
nuclei(英語:List of thalamic nuclei). *paired: AN(英語:Anterior nuclei of thalamus) ... VP(英語:Ventral posterior nucleus)/VPM(英語:Ventral posteromedial nucleus)/VPL(英語:Ventral posterolateral nucleus) ... VA(英語:Ventral anterior nucleus)/VL(英語:Ventral lateral nucleus) ... 基底核的結構,在兩張腦的切面中展示。藍色:尾狀核(Caudate nucleus)、核殼(英語:putamen);綠色:蒼白球(英語:globus
During chromatolysis, the soma and nucleus round and enlarge, the Nissl bodies and Golgi bodies both disintegrate, and the ...
The medial globus pallidus acts to tonically inhibit the ventral lateral nucleus and ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. ... 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic fasciculus → VL of Thalamus ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... upper limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Accessory cuneate nucleus → Cuneocerebellar tract → ICP → Anterior lobe of ...
In addition to these outputs, the OFC also projects to the striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and ... The mid-anterior OFC has been found to consistently track subjective pleasure in neuroimaging studies. A hedonic hotspot has ... "Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loop Circuits of the Orbitofrontal Cortex: Promising Therapeutic Targets in Psychiatric Illness" ... Area 11 makes up a large part of the OFC involving both the lateral parts of the medial orbital gyrus as well as the anterior ...
In dementias, especially of the Alzheimer's disease type, the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and orbitofrontal ... First, it is considered to be part of the basal forebrain, the nucleus accumbens, and the amygdaloid nuclei because of its ... In most cases, the olfactory tubercle is identified as a round bulge along the basal forebrain anterior to the optic chiasm and ... These cells clusters, called the islands of calleja, are innervated by dopaminergic projections from the nucleus accumbens and ...
pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → Superior olivary nuclei →. *midbrain: Lateral lemniscus → Inferior ... 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic fasciculus → VL of Thalamus ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... upper limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Accessory cuneate nucleus → Cuneocerebellar tract → ICP → Anterior lobe of ...
The pretectal area is seven unique nuclei. Anterior, posterior and medial pretectal nuclei inhibit pain (indirectly), aid in ... The optic radiations, one on each side of the brain, carry information from the thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus to layer 4 ... Lateral geniculate nucleusEdit. Main article: Lateral geniculate nucleus. The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is a sensory ... The anterior visual pathway refers to structures involved in vision before the lateral geniculate nucleus. The posterior visual ...
... nucleus in the contralateral thalamus via the ventral trigeminal tract. In mice, this thalamic nucleus has significant amounts ... Spinal trigeminal nucleus. The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in ... Anterior trigeminothalamic tract. *Central tegmental tract. White: Motor. *Inferior cerebellar peduncle *Vestibulocerebellar ... The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain, and ...
nuclei(英语:List of thalamic nuclei). *paired: AN(英语:Anterior nuclei of thalamus) ... VP(英语:Ventral posterior nucleus)/VPM(英语:Ventral posteromedial nucleus)/VPL(英语:Ventral posterolateral nucleus) ... VA(英语:Ventral anterior nucleus)/VL(英语:Ventral lateral nucleus) ... 层间核(英语:Intralaminar nuclei of thalamus) *中央内侧核(英语:Centromedian
The anterior cingulate cortex receives primarily its afferent axons from the intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei (see ... The nucleus anterior receives mamillo-thalamic afferences. The mamillary neurons receive axons from the subiculum. The whole ... The anterior cingulate cortex sends axons to the anterior nucleus and through the cingulum to other Broca's limbic areas. The ... Anterior cingulate cortexEdit. Main article: Anterior cingulate cortex. This corresponds to areas 24, 32 and 33 of Brodmann and ...
The CB1 receptor is expressed by a number of neurons that project from the anterior olfactory nucleus to the ipsilateral main ... thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, and other subcortical regions (e.g., the septal region), cerebellar cortex, and brainstem ... Targeting this receptor with rimonabant has been found to prevent the THC-induced enhancement of DA release in the nucleus ... In a rodent neuropathic pain model, increased expression of these receptors was seen in thalamic neurons, the spinal cord, and ...
The GPi acts to tonically inhibit the ventral lateral nucleus and ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. As these two nuclei ... 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic fasciculus → VL of Thalamus ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... The GABAergic neurons send their axons to the ventral anterior nucleus (VA) and the ventral lateral nucleus (VL) in the dorsal ...
pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → Superior olivary nuclei →. *midbrain: Lateral lemniscus → Inferior ... 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic fasciculus → VL of Thalamus ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... The medial vestibulospinal tract originates in the medial vestibular nucleus or Schwalbe's nucleus.[2] The Schwalbe's nucleus ...
The loop continues to connect to the ventral pallidum, which connects to the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. This ... Cognitive deterioration could have occurred through the genu infarcts affecting the inferior and anterior thalamic peduncles. ... Damage to anterior cingulate circuit[edit]. The anterior cingulate circuit consists of the anterior cingulate cortex, also ... It is well documented that the caudate nucleus is involved in degenerative diseases of the central nervous system such as ...
Stria medullaris of thalamus · Thalamic reticular nucleus · Taenia thalami. Grey matter/. nuclei ... Anterior trigeminothalamic tract. Medullary laminae ... Pulvinar nuclei) · Metathalamus (MG, LG). midline: MD · ... Mammillothalamic fasciculus · Pallidothalamic tracts (Ansa lenticularis, Lenticular fasciculus, Thalamic fasciculus) · PCML ( ...
upper limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Accessory cuneate nucleus → Cuneocerebellar tract → ICP → Anterior lobe of ... 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic fasciculus → VL of Thalamus ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... 1° (Free nerve ending → A delta fiber) → 2° (Anterior white commissure → Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic tract → Spinal ...
The anterior olfactory nucleus projects, via the anterior commissure, to the contralateral olfactory bulb, inhibiting it. The ... The three-layered piriform cortex projects to a number of thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, the hippocampus and amygdala and ... the anterior olfactory nucleus, the olfactory tubercle, the amygdala, the piriform cortex, and the entorhinal cortex. ... The anterior piriform cortex (APC) appears to be better at determining the chemical structure of the odorant molecules, and the ...
... vestibular nucleus, thalamic reticular nucleus, locus coeruleus, inferior olivary nucleus, mesencephalic nucleus of the ... "Considerations for the aesthetic restoration of endodontically treated anterior teeth following intracoronal bleaching". Pract ...
... specifically the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), contains brain signals including that of head direction cells, which fire as a ... specifically the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), contains brain signals including that of head direction cells, which fire as a ... Figure 1. (A) Left: The anterodorsal thalamic nuclei (AD), anteroventral thalamic nuclei (AV), and stria medullaris (SM) are ... Taube, J. S. (1995). Head direction cells recorded in the anterior thalamic nuclei of freely moving rats. J. Neurosci. 15, 70- ...
Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT-DBS) is effective in treating temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) ... Anterior thalamic nucleus stimulation protects hippocampal neurons by activating autophagy in epileptic monkeys ...
The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are a collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal ... anterior_thalamic_nucleus.txt. · Last modified: 2018/07/31 10:51 by administrador. ... can be detected reliably in the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN). Further studies are needed to validate these findings 1). ... Automated detection of mesial temporal and temporoperisylvian seizures in the anterior thalamic nucleus. Epilepsy Res. 2018 Jul ...
A, Anterior thalamic nuclei group (ATN). B, Intralaminar nucleus/lateral thalamic lesion group (ILN/LT). Numbers (in mm) ... Recent studies have shown that the anterior (ATN) and lateral thalamic nuclei (including the intralaminar nuclei; ILN/LT) play ... and anterior central medial nuclei) and the adjacent lateral mediodorsal thalamic nuclei (ILN/LT lesions) impair performance in ... 2008) Anterior but not intralaminar thalamic nuclei support allocentric spatial memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem 90:71-80. ...
... basal nucleus explanation free. What is basal nucleus? Meaning of basal nucleus medical term. What does basal nucleus mean? ... Looking for online definition of basal nucleus in the Medical Dictionary? ... anterior thalamic nucleus The most rostral of the thalamic nuclei. The anterior thalamic nucleus is the only thalamic nucleus ... Synonym: anterior interposed nucleus; nucleus interpositus anterior. external cuneate nucleus. A secondary sensory nucleus in ...
... the anterior thalamic nuclei are prominent, both for their vital contributions to episodic memory and for how these same nuclei ... Appreciating the importance of the anterior thalamic nuclei for memory and attention provides a more balanced understanding of ... This alternate view is further strengthened by the interdependent relationship between the anterior thalamic nuclei and ... As thalamic abnormalities occur in some of the earliest stages of the disease, the idea that such changes are merely secondary ...
R, retina (contralateral eye); O, optic tectum; Pt, pretectal thalamus; Lt, lateral anterior thalamic nucleus; At, anterior ... The thalamic-pretectal region initiates avoidance behavior in the toad. More specifically, electrical triggering the thalamic- ... When the thalamic-pretectal region was removed, avoidance behavior was entirely absent while orienting behavior was enhanced ... Instead, he found that the optic tectum and the thalamic-pretectal region (in the diencephalon) play significant roles in the ...
... , ... Meng DW, Liu HG, Yang AC, et al. Stimulation of Anterior Thalamic Nuclei Protects Against Seizures and Neuronal Apoptosis in ... The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anterior thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (ANT-DBS) for ... The Seizure and Cognitive Outcome of Anterior Thalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Patients with Intractable Epilepsy. ...
NMDA lesion of anterior thalamic nuclei. -. -. -. -. -. No. Yes. 1: VDR, VMCL. 2: VMCL+R. Not stated. No effect. No effect. -. ... Effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of the ... NMDA lesion of mediodorsal thalamic nuclei. -. -. -. -. -. No. Yes. No effect. No effect. -. Impaired. No effect. Impaired. ... Quinolinic acid central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) lesion. -. -. -. -. -. Yes. n/a. No effect. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. - ...
... main thalamic projections from anterior nuclei. d23b, dorsal part of 23b, weak connections from the anterior nuclei. Brodmann ... H. Shibata, M. Yukie, "Differential thalamic connections of the posteroventral and dorsal posterior cingulate gyrus in the ... Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded dorsally by the dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, rostrally by the ventral anterior ... Cytoarchitecture and thalamic afferents", Journal of Comparative Neurology, 262(2):256-270. ...
Nuclei of the limbic system : 1. Limbic lobe : fo… ... Adel Abdel Aziz It is formed of groups of nuclei connected ... li,,/ul,,ul,,li,4. Thalamic nuclei : anterior and medial nuclei. ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,5. The prefrontal cortex (the personality ... li,,/ul,,ul,,li,3. Mamillothalamic tract : connects the mamillary body with the anterior thalamic nucleus. ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,4 ... Fibers pass to the anterior commissure to end in the anterior nuclei of thalamus . ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,3. Fibers pass to the ...
Inhibitory effect of anterior cingulate cortex on spontaneous activity of thalamic ventrobasal nucleus neurons / 生理学报 ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Physiology / Rats / Thalamic Nuclei / Male / Rats, Sprague- ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Physiology / Rats / Thalamic Nuclei / Male / Rats, Sprague- ... Inhibitory effect of anterior cingulate cortex on spontaneous activity of thalamic ventrob ...
The Anterior and Medial Thalamic Nuclei and the Human Limbic System: Tracing the Structural Connectivity Using Diffusion- ... The Anterior and Medial Thalamic Nuclei and the Human Limbic System: Tracing the Structural Connectivity Using Diffusion- ... Grodd, W., Kumar, V., Schüz, A., Lindig, T., & Scheffler, K. (2020). The Anterior and Medial Thalamic Nuclei and the Human ... The results revealed that the ANT nuclei are part of the limbic and the memory system as they mainly connect via the mammillary ...
The anterior thalamic nuclei appear to be particularly sensitive to effects of aging in Down syndrome and the pathology in this ... The anterior thalamic nuclei are important for spatial and episodic memory, however, surprisingly little is known about the ... Striking reduction in neurons and glial cells in anterior thalamic nuclei of older patients with Down syndrome. Publikation: ... We quantified neurons and glial cells in the anterior thalamic nuclei of four older patients with Down syndrome. There was a ...
The anterior cingulate cortex receives primarily its afferent axons from the intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei (see ... The nucleus anterior receives mamillo-thalamic afferences. The mamillary neurons receive axons from the subiculum. The whole ... The anterior cingulate cortex sends axons to the anterior nucleus and through the cingulum to other Brocas limbic areas. The ... Anterior cingulate cortex[edit]. Main article: Anterior cingulate cortex. This corresponds to areas 24, 32 and 33 of Brodmann ...
... anterior dorsal thalamic nucleus; ld, lateral dorsal thalamic nucleus; SNC, substantia nigra pars compacta; SNR, substantia ... and vice versa in SN and anterodorsal thalamic nucleus (ad). When the distribution of aG2A-5 immunoreactivity was compared with ... Nucleus (N) and Golgi apparatus (G) are indicated. B, A high-magnification photograph of a synapse (filled arrow) on the soma ... 1996) G protein-gated K+ channel (GIRK1) protein is expressed presynaptically in the paraventricular nucleus of the ...
... the anterior dorsal and the lateral dorsal thalamic nuclei), lateral mammillary nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus and striatum ... Two years later, Taube found HD cells in the nearby anterior thalamic nuclei. Chen et al. found limited numbers of HD cells in ... Taube, J. S. (1995-01-01). "Head direction cells recorded in the anterior thalamic nuclei of freely moving rats". The Journal ... Taube, JS (January 1, 1995). "Head direction cells recorded in the anterior thalamic nuclei of freely moving rats". J. Neurosci ...
... thalamic anterior nucleus; Prec, precuneus; and PcG, precentral gyrus. Activations were considered significant at p , 0.001, ... and paracentral lobule in addition to the bilateral caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia, and the anterior nucleus of the ... anterior nucleus of the thalamus; PcG, precentral gyrus; and MFG, middle frontal gyrus. Activations were considered significant ... ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens), dorsomedial frontal motor areas, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, ...
... medial dorsal thalamic nucleus; VA, ventral anterior thalamic nucleus; VL, ventral lateral thalamic nucleus. (From F. Vargha- ...
Ventral Posteromedial Nucleus, Anterior Thalamic Nucleus, Ventral Lateral Nucleus, Ventral Thalamic Nucleus. ... Anterior nucleus of thalamus, Anterior Thalamic Nuclei, Nuclei, Anterior Thalamic, Thalamic Nuclei, Anterior, anterior nuclear ... Anterior thalamic nucleus, Anterior thalamic nucleus (body structure), Anterior nuclei of thalamus, Anterior thalamic nuclei, ... anterior thalamic nuclei, ANG, anterior thalamus, anterior thalamic nucleus, anterior nucleus of thalamus, anterior nuclei of ...
Anterior Thalamic Nuclei / cytology. Behavior, Animal. Female. Head Movements / physiology*. Locomotion / physiology*. Motor ... In the present study, we recorded HD cell activity from the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus while the animal was locomoting in an ...
What have we learned from 8 years of deep brain stimulation of the anterior thalamic nucleus? Experiences and insights of a ... of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT), systematic single-center investigations are essential to establish effective ...
... anterior nuclei) correlated with L-dlPFC connectivity changes. In green, thalamic areas (medio-dorsal nucleus and anterior ... In yellow, thalamic areas correlated with both R-dlPFC and L-dlPFC seeds (anterior nuclei). Red arrows indicate area shown in ... nuclei) correlated with R-dlPFC connectivity changes. ...
Mismatch negativity; P300; Subthalamic nucleus; Internal globus pallidus; Anterior thalamic nucleus; Ventral intermediate ... in the subthalamic nucleus plus the internal globus pallidus and synchronisation in the anterior thalamic nucleus. When the ... The electrodes were implanted into the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus, then in the anterior and ventral ... Are the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus and thalamus involved in thinking?. Autoři. MINKS Eduard JURÁK Pavel ...
Next is the anterior thalamic nucleus. Its cortical partner is the vast expanse of the cingulate gyrus, a major constituent of ... Lying just behind this anterior nucleus is the small lateral dorsal nucleus (LD). It is involved in the emotional functions of ... Cortical projections of three thalamic nuclei are shown at the top right (MD, LP, P).© 2003 Christopher Wikoff[/caption] ... The decreases can block the transmission of sensory messages up through the lateral posterior (LP) thalamic nucleus and prevent ...
Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus, ... Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus. ...
Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus, ... Murine Left Anterior Descending (LAD) Coronary Artery Ligation: An Improved and Simplified Model for Myocardial Infarction, A ... Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus. ... Murine Left Anterior Descending (LAD) Coronary Artery Ligation: An Improved and Simplified Model for Myocardial Infarction. ...
Lesions in the anterior thalamic nuclei of rats do not disrupt acquisition of stimulus sequence learning. The Quarterly Journal ... Lesions in the anterior thalamic nuclei of rats do not disrupt acquisition of stimulus sequence learning. The Quarterly Journal ... Do the rat anterior thalamic nuclei contribute to behavioural flexibility?. Behavioural Brain Research 359, pp. 536-549. ( ... Do the rat anterior thalamic nuclei contribute to behavioural flexibility?. Behavioural Brain Research 359, pp. 536-549. ( ...
The anterior portion of this ancient thalamic grey consisting of the nucleus fasciculous and reuniens, pars ventralis of ... Each thalamic growth shell is correspondingly denoted by a distinct pair of thalamic nuclei analogous to the paired belt areas ... The magnocelluar portions of the medial geniculate, ventro-anterior, and dorso-medial thalamic nuclei collectively comprise the ... This entire series of thalamic age levels (including the reticu1ar nucleus) comprise what is termed the sub thalamic gradient ...
Human anterior thalamic nuclei are involved in emotion-attention interaction  Sun, Lihua; Peräkylä, Jari; Polvivaara, Markus; ... such as at the anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT). ... ...
  • see Anterior Thalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation . (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anterior thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (ANT-DBS) for patients with intractable epilepsy based on seizure and cognitive outcomes. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • What have we learned from 8 years of deep brain stimulation of the anterior thalamic nucleus? (thejns.org)
  • In the absence of a standard or guideline for the treatment of epilepsy patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT), systematic single-center investigations are essential to establish effective approaches. (thejns.org)
  • Patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) provide an opportunity to study affective processes in humans with "lesion on demand" at key nodes in the limbic circuitries, such as at the anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT). (uta.fi)
  • The purpose of this study is to to use functional imaging to study the mechanisms of anterior thalamic nucleus (ANT) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). (mayoclinic.org)
  • Today, two different approaches are approved, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation in the anterior thalamic nuclei (DBS-ANT). (smw.ch)
  • The anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) is a common target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy. (thejns.org)
  • Immediate effects of deep brain stimulation of anterior thalamic nuclei on executive functions and emotion-attention interaction in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT) is a novel promising therapeutic method for treating refractory epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • The input to this nucleus is mainly from the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex via the fornix and the mammillary body . (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • This nucleus receives afferents from the hippocampus and the mesial temporal region, which are known to be highly epileptogenic. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • This nucleus receives axons from the mammillary body via the mammillothalamic tract, from the hippocampus via the fornix, and from cholinergic nuclei in the basal forebrain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 6. Anterior column of fornix Body of fornix Crus of fornix Pes hippocampus Hippocampus Fimbria Dentate gyrus Splenium Stria terminalis Inf. (slideshare.net)
  • The results revealed that the ANT nuclei are part of the limbic and the memory system as they mainly connect via the mammillary tract, mammillary body, anterior commissure, fornix, and retrosplenial cortices to the hippocampus, amygdala, medio-temporal, orbito-frontal and occipital cortices. (mpg.de)
  • There are 2 primary DBS targets for AD: the fornix (an axonal output tract of the Papez circuit that connects the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies) and the nucleus basalis of Meynert (cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain projecting to the neocortex). (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Mint1 mRNA expression was greatest in the limbic system including cingulate cortex, hippocampus, anterior thalamic nuclei, medial habenular nucleus, and mammillary body. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • He hypothesized that the hippocampus, the cingulate gyrus (Broca's callosal lobe), the hypothalamus, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the interconnections among these structures constituted a harmonious mechanism which elaborate the functions of emotions. (nih.gov)
  • You can begin with four interconnected modules: the hypothalamus, the anterior thalamic nucleus, the cingulate gyrus and the hippocampus (the Papez circuit). (nutramed.com)
  • The limbic system (or Paleomammalian brain) is a set of brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, and limbic cortex, which support a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, long term memory, and olfaction. (bartleby.com)
  • Coherence between the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nucleus as a tool to improve the effect of neurostimulation in temporal lobe epilepsy: An experimental study. (harvard.edu)
  • All these beneficial effects are due to the massive network that connects vestibular nuclei to various brain areas like hippocampus, para-brachial nuclei, basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus and cerebral cortical areas which are collectively called vestibular cortex [ 6 - 13 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Some axons from the mitral cells in the olfactory bulb synapse on anterior olfactory neurons, and anterior olfactory neurons contribute axons to the olfactory tract. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There was a striking reduction in the volume of the anterior thalamic nuclei and this appeared to reflect the loss of approximately 70% of neurons. (regionh.dk)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of electrical stimulation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on spontaneous activity of neurons in thalamic ventrobasal nucleus (VB). (bvsalud.org)
  • Interposed between the dorsal thalamus and the cortex, lies the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a thin sheet of inhibitory neurons that intercept communication between the dorsal thalamus and the cortex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Projections from thalamic core cells synapse on neurons in all cortical layers to some extent (Keller and White, 1989) but predominantly in deep layer III and in layer IV in granular cortex, as well as on the apical dendrites of layer VI neurons (Molinari et al. (scholarpedia.org)
  • This effect of PCP involves the preferential blockade of NMDA-R on GABAergic neurons of the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, which provides feedforward inhibition to the rest of thalamic nuclei. (springer.com)
  • It is relayed via the basolateral amygdala which consists of the orbitofrontal and anterior temporal cortex, the amygdala and part of the thalamus. (wikiversity.org)
  • McLean added the orbitofrontal and medialfrontal cortices (prefrontal area), the parahippocampal gyrus and subcortical modules such as the amygdala, the medial thalamic nucleus, the septal area, basal nuclei and a few brainstem formations. (nutramed.com)
  • The amygdalae (Latin, also corpus amygdaloideum, singular amygdala, from Greek αμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'almond', 'tonsil', listed in the Gray's Anatomy as the nucleus amygdalæ)[1] are almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. (bartleby.com)
  • Anterior cingulate cortex can further be divided in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (near the genu) and midcingulate cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior cingulate cortex receives primarily its afferent axons from the intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei (see thalamus ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] The anterior cingulate cortex sends axons to the anterior nucleus and through the cingulum to other Broca's limbic areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The posterior cingulate cortex receives a great part of its afferent axons from the superficial nucleus (or nucleus superior- falsely LD- [ citation needed ] ) of the thalamus (see thalamus ), which itself receives axons from the subiculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Y. Kobayashi, D. G. Amaral, Journal of Comparative Neurology, 426:339+ Brent A. Vogt, D. N. Pandya, D. L. Rosene, " Cingulate cortex of the rhesus monkey: I. Cytoarchitecture and thalamic afferents", Journal of Comparative Neurology, 262(2):256-270. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior thalamic nuclei is connected with the orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, and plays a role in emotional control. (wikiversity.org)
  • More specifically, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), linked with ANT, has been assigned roles related to response inhibition and attention allocation to threat. (nih.gov)
  • In a follow-up study, the authors studied the effect of electrical stimulation of the mamillary nuclei in rat model of PTZ-induced seizures 4) . (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Anterior thalamic nucleus stimulation modulates regional cerebral metabolism: an FDG-MicroPET study in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Anterior thalamus stimulation in medically intractable epilepsy, part II. (springer.com)
  • Within the hypothalamus, OX1R mRNA is most abundant in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus whereas OX2R is predominantly expressed in the paraventricular nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • ATN lesions targeted the anterodorsal, anteromedial, and anteroventral thalamic nuclei, while ILN/LT lesions included the centrolateral, paracentral, rostral central medial, and the lateral/paralamellar mediodorsal nuclei. (jneurosci.org)
  • Accordingly, diffusion imaging data of 730 subjects obtained from the Human Connectome Project and the masks of six nuclei (anterodorsal, anteromedial, anteroventral, lateral dorsal, Hb, and MD) served as seed regions for a direct probabilistic tracking to the rest of the brain using diffusion-weighted imaging. (mpg.de)
  • The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. (fpnotebook.com)
  • In the present study, we recorded HD cell activity from the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus while the animal was locomoting in an upside-down orientation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HD cells are found in many brain areas, including the cortical regions of postsubiculum (also known as the dorsal presubiculum), retrosplenial cortex, and entorhinal cortex, and subcortical regions including the thalamus (the anterior dorsal and the lateral dorsal thalamic nuclei), lateral mammillary nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus and striatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three sensory pathways described above (especially vision) are perhaps the best studied, but other thalamic nuclei receive subcortical input, project to cortex, and are innervated by cortex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Large nucleus in the midbrain that recieves inputs from the cerebellum & motor cortex & sends axons to the spinal cord via the rubrospinal tract to various subcortical motor nuclei. (cueflash.com)
  • The organization of a number of the subcortical afferents to the mediodorsal nucleus was determined in detail using injections of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase, or tritiated amino acids in areas identified as a source of mediodorsal afferents in. (meta.org)
  • These nuclei have prominent direct and indirect connections with the hippocampal system and/or the prefrontal cortex and may thus participate in the time-dependent reorganization of memory traces during systems-level consolidation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The anterior nucleus of the thalamus connects to the cerebral cortex and limbic system anatomically. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • This alternate view is further strengthened by the interdependent relationship between the anterior thalamic nuclei and retrosplenial cortex, given how dysfunctions in the latter cortical area provide some of the earliest in vivo imaging evidence of prodromal Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
  • Interposed between the thalamus and cortex, the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus intercepts and regulates communication between the two structures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent findings demonstrate that a unique circuitry links the prefrontal cortex with the reticular nucleus and may underlie the process of selective attention to enhance salient stimuli and suppress irrelevant stimuli in behavior. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Unlike other cortices, some prefrontal areas issue widespread projections to the reticular nucleus, extending beyond the frontal sector to the sensory sectors of the nucleus and may influence the flow of sensory information from the thalamus to the cortex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Unlike other thalamic nuclei, the mediodorsal nucleus, which is the principal thalamic nucleus for the prefrontal cortex, has similarly widespread connections with the reticular nucleus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Reciprocal circuits between the dorsal thalamus and the cortex involve first-order thalamic nuclei, which relay information from ascending pathways to the cortex, and high-order thalamic nuclei that receive input from one cortical area and transmit it to other cortical areas. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pathways from the sensory periphery that terminate in first-order thalamic nuclei, which then project to the middle layers of the cortex, are driver pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The primary sensory signals of vision , audition and touch pass through thalamus en route to cortex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Those thalamic nuclei in turn project topographically to well-defined architectonic fields of cortex, which reciprocally project back topographically to their innervating thalamic nuclei. (scholarpedia.org)
  • From a given thalamic nucleus, core cells project topographically to a sharply bounded, associated architectonic field of cortex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • OX2R mRNA is mainly expressed in cerebral cortex, nucleus accumbens, subthalamic and paraventricular thalamic nuclei, anterior pretectal nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • As a matter of speculation, both symptoms might represent responses to a sensory loss, but in this case the pathway might have been selectively affected providing inhibition from the lateral to the medial segment of the VPLT, which is linked to the anterior cingulate (limbic) cortex engaged in emotional behaviour. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The images were preprocessed and analyzed as described previously ( 2 ), except for the use of a thalamic reference area (10 × 10 pixels, Fig. 1 A ) instead of a reference area in the frontal cortex (which had poor image quality). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The UAB team led by Sandipan Pati, M.D., assistant professor of neurology, found that nearly all of the epileptic seizures detected in the three patients - which began in focal areas of the cortex outside of the thalamus - also recruited seizure-like electrical activity in the anterior thalamic nucleus after a very short time lag. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the organization of the afferents of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in relation to the reciprocal connections of this nucleus with different areas of the prefrontal cortex. (meta.org)
  • Injections of wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase or fluorescent tracers were placed in different portions of the prefrontal cortex, and the lectin Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin was injected in the mediodorsal nucleus in order to verify in more detail the point-to-point relationship in the mediodorsal-prefrontal connections. (meta.org)
  • Are the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus and thalamus involved in thinking? (muni.cz)
  • The electrodes were implanted into the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus, then in the anterior and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus bilaterally. (muni.cz)
  • There was also a significant difference in eventrelated de/synchronisations at 500-1500 ms latency in 7 out of 8 patients in the beta band and desynchronisation in the subthalamic nucleus plus the internal globus pallidus and synchronisation in the anterior thalamic nucleus. (muni.cz)
  • Conclusion: The results suggest that the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus and maybe also the thalamus are involved firstly in the subconscious cognitive process 100-250 ms after the stimuli, then in the conscious cognitive processes at the level of the afferent information processing network at 250-400 ms and finally they affect conscious cognitive activity at a time of large brain neuronal network 500-1500 ms after stimuli. (muni.cz)
  • Dynamic changes in activity and connectivity of the human subthalamic nucleus reflect whether a decision will be made in haste or with caution. (elifesciences.org)
  • Previous imaging studies independently highlighted the role of the anterior thalamus (ANT) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in successful memory retrieval. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • The nucleus accumbens is part of the ventral striatum nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Synapses in the nucleus accumbens use dopamine as their neurotransmitter. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is thought to partly explain the addictive effect of those drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamine, that increase the level of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Finally, the inhibitory influence by the reticular nuclei on the thalamocortical circuitry in the AN-cortical projections is rather scarce compared with that present in other thalamic nuclei. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • 2019. Separate cortical and hippocampal cell populations target the rat nucleus reuniens and mammillary bodies . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • 1997). Projections from a given thalamic core region extend to a cortical area roughly 0.5-1.0 mm wide, somewhat larger than the size of physiologically-delineated functional columns (Jones, 1981). (scholarpedia.org)
  • They are subject to feedback inhibition by nucleus reticularis (RT) and cortical inhibitory interneurons (II), respectively, shown as filled circles. (intechopen.com)
  • The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are a collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal thalamus. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • The most rostral of the thalamic nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded dorsally by the dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, rostrally by the ventral anterior cingulate area 24, and ventrorostrally in its caudal half by the retrosplenial region (Brodmann-1909). (wikipedia.org)
  • The 4 large thalamic nuclei groups (anterior, lateral, medial, posterior) could be detected reliably. (ajnr.org)
  • These sensory pathways include the optic tract ( vision ), the the brachium of the inferior colliculus ( audition ), and the medial lemniscus ( somatosensation ), which target, respectively, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, the medial geniculate complex, and the ventral posterior complex of the thalamus. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In addition, wepresent models of anterior and posterior exemplar thalamic lesions andinvestigate their effects on this circuitry. (ufl.edu)
  • Posterior thalamic lesions result inless than fifteen percent connectivity reduction for Broca's area-ventralanterior nucleus pathways. (ufl.edu)
  • We conclude thatdifferential effects of anterior/posterior thalamic lesions on circuitryconnecting Broca's area and the thalamus may explain differences in languagedeficits in patients who had suffered damage to the dominant thalamus. (ufl.edu)
  • Previous animal research indicates that the anterior nuclear group of the thalamus (ANT), as well as the habenula (Hb) and the adjacent mediodorsal nucleus (MD) each play a vital role in the limbic circuitry. (mpg.de)
  • For this purpose injections of horseradish peroxidase, or horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheatgerm agglutinin were placed in different parts of the mediodorsal nucleus. (meta.org)
  • These nuclei are thought to play a role in the modulation of alertness and are involved in learning and episodic memory. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Within this system, the anterior thalamic nuclei are prominent, both for their vital contributions to episodic memory and for how these same nuclei appear vulnerable in prodromal Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
  • The anterior thalamic nuclei are important for spatial and episodic memory, however, surprisingly little is known about the status of these nuclei in neurological conditions that present with memory impairments, such as Down syndrome. (regionh.dk)
  • pv23b, posteroventral part for 23b, main thalamic projections from anterior nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Degeneration of the basal forebrain, and more specifically the nucleus of Meynert, results in decreased cholinergic projections to the neocortex and a reduction in long-term potentiation. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Unlike sensory association cortices, some terminations from prefrontal areas to the reticular nucleus are large, suggesting efficient transfer of information. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We propose a model showing that the specialized features of prefrontal pathways in the reticular nucleus may allow selection of relevant information and override distractors, in processes that are deranged in schizophrenia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Both the thalamocortical fibers and the reciprocal corticothalamic fibers also send collaterals to the thalamic reticular nucleus (nucleus reticularis thalami) (Liu and Jones, 1999) which is a thin shell of GABAergic cells surrounding the thalamus. (scholarpedia.org)
  • 2020. Deconstructing the direct reciprocal hippocampal-anterior thalamic pathways for spatial learning . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • 2015. The impact of fornix lesions in rats on spatial learning tasks sensitive to anterior thalamic and hippocampal damage . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Anterior thalamic nuclei lesions have a greater impact than mammillothalamic tract lesions on the extended hippocampal system. (nih.gov)
  • The anterior thalamic nucleus is the only thalamic nucleus that is directly part of the limbic circuitry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For details of the internal circuitry of thalamic nuclei see Thalamus . (scholarpedia.org)
  • Stria terminalis : it begins in the septal area and in the habenular nucleus. (slideshare.net)
  • The bed nuclei lie lateral to the columns of the fornix and dorsal to the anterior commissure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anterior column of the fornix: each one terminates in the mamillary body. (slideshare.net)
  • The limbic thalamus, specifically the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), contains brain signals including that of head direction cells, which fire as a function of an animal's directional orientation in an environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mamillothalamic tract : connects the mamillary body with the anterior thalamic nucleus. (slideshare.net)
  • It is formed of groups of nuclei connected together by fiber bundles. (slideshare.net)
  • Anterior thalamic nuclei lesions in rats disrupt markers of neural plasticity in distal limbic brain regions. (umassmed.edu)
  • A limbic nucleus that sits at the ventral head of the striatum, contiguous with the caudate and putamen and adjacent to the olfactory tubercle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With its interconnected neighbor, the putamen, the caudate forms a single functional nucleus called the striatum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The basal forebrain consists of the medial septal nucleus, diagonal band nucleus, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Furthermore, the ANT nuclei showed connections to the mesencephalon and brainstem to varying extents, a pattern rarely described in experimental findings. (mpg.de)
  • Specifically, he identified two main regions of the brain, the tectum and the thalamic-pretectal region, that were responsible for discriminating prey from non-prey and revealed the neural pathways that connected them. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the lesion eliminates more than half ofBroca's area-pulvinar pathways and more than seventy percent of Broca'sarea-ventral anterior nucleus-pulvinar en passage pathways. (ufl.edu)
  • The anterior thalamus has connections to prefrontal and limbic networks important for cognitive control and emotional reactivity. (nih.gov)
  • The superior vestibular nucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2012 ) Directional responding of C57BL/6J mice in the Morris water maze is influenced by visual and vestibular cues and is dependent on the anterior thalamic nuclei. (neurotree.org)
  • We demonstrate that Broca's area shares direct connections with bothof these thalamic nuclei and present a Broca's area-thalamocortical (orcorticothalamic) network involved in linguistic processing. (ufl.edu)
  • 2011. Lesions in the anterior thalamic nuclei of rats do not disrupt acquisition of stimulus sequence learning . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • It refers to a large myelinated bundle arising in mammillary nuclei and terminating in the anterior thalamic nuclei of the brain. (ebscohost.com)
  • Hypothalamic and brain stem nuclei perceive and integrate circulating metabolic (e.g., glucose and lipids) and hormonal (e.g., leptin, insulin, and various gut peptides) cues reflecting available fuel sources. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As neurosurgeons inserted long, thin, needle-like electrodes into the brain to map the location of the electrical storm that initiates an epileptic seizure, they also carefully positioned the electrodes to add one more task - simultaneously record the electrical activity at the anterior nucleus of the thalamus. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The UAB researchers also used electroencelphalography, or EEG, brain recordings from the patients to develop and validate an algorithm that was able to automatically detect initiation of that seizure-like electrical activity in the anterior thalamic nucleus. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Future research on the postmortem histopathological analysis of brain tissues of KS patients is crucial for the advancement of our knowledge of KS, especially for associating its symptoms with lesions in various thalamic nuclei. (dovepress.com)
  • For example, the core cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus project topographically to V1 (Brodmann area 17). (scholarpedia.org)
  • A hypothalamic nucleus in the ventral wall of the third ventricle near the pituitary stalk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, DBS treatment allowed us to find the important role of the anterior thalamic nuclei in emotion-attention interaction in humans. (uta.fi)
  • Lesioning the mammillothalamic tract resulted in significant protection against both electrographic and clinical seizures, whereas lesioning of the surrounding nuclei (due to higher current settings) was not beneficial. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • The feasibility study, "Automated detection of mesial temporal and temporoperisylvian seizures in the anterior thalamic nucleus," is published in the journal Epilepsy Research. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Implication of Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in Mesial Temporal Lobe Seizures. (harvard.edu)
  • The ventroanterior nucleus is not the same as the anteroventral nucleus (that appear in the anterior thalamic nuclear group). (dtu.dk)
  • from the University of Alabama at Birmingham , United States demonstrates that seizure s in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and temporal-plus epilepsies (i.e., temporoperisylvian) can be detected reliably in the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN). (operativeneurosurgery.com)