Anterior Thalamic Nuclei: Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Korsakoff Syndrome: An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Mamillary Bodies: A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.Midline Thalamic Nuclei: Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.Mediodorsal Thalamic Nucleus: The largest of the medial nuclei of the thalamus. It makes extensive connections with most of the other thalamic nuclei.Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei: Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.Ventral Thalamic Nuclei: A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.Posterior Thalamic Nuclei: A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Lateral Thalamic Nuclei: A narrow strip of cell groups on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus. It includes the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and the PULVINAR.

Group II selective metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists and local cerebral glucose use in the rat. (1/66)

The novel mGluR agonist LY354740 and a related analogue LY379268 are selective for mGluR2/3 receptors and are centrally active after systemic administration. In this study, rates of local cerebral glucose use were measured using the [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique to examine the functional consequences of their systemic administration in the conscious rat. Both LY354740 (0.3, 3.0, 30 mg/kg) and LY379268 (0.1, 1.0, 10 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent changes in glucose use. After LY354740 (3.0mg/kg), 4 of the 42 regions measured showed statistically significant changes from vehicle-treated controls: red nuclei (-16%), mammillary body (-25%), anterior thalamus (-29%), and the superficial layer of the superior colliculus (+50%). An additional 15 regions displayed significant reductions in function-related glucose use (P < .05) in animals treated with LY354740 (30 mg/ kg). LY379268 (0.1, 1.0, 10 mg/kg) produced changes in glucose metabolism in 20% of the brain regions analyzed. Significant increases (P < .05) in glucose use were evident in the following: the superficial layer of the superior colliculus (+81%), locus coeruleus (+57%), genu of the corpus callosum (+31%), cochlear nucleus (+26%), inferior colliculus (+20%), and the molecular layer of the hippocampus (+14%). Three regions displayed significant decreases: mammillary body (-34%), anteroventral thalamic nucleus (-28%), and the lateral habenular nucleus (-24%). These results show the important functional involvement of the limbic system together with the participation of components of different sensory systems in response to the activation of mGluR2 and mGluR3 with LY354740 and LY379268.  (+info)

Primary somatosensory cortex activation is not altered in patients with ventroposterior thalamic lesions: a PET study. (2/66)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We know remarkably little about the mechanisms underlying cortical activation. Such mechanisms might be better understood by studying the effect of well-localized lesions on the cortical activations in simple paradigms. METHODS: We used H(2)(15)O and positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during hand vibration in 7 patients with unilateral thalamic lesion involving the ventroposterior (VP) somatosensory thalamic relay nuclei. We compared the results with those obtained in 6 patients with thalamic lesions sparing the VP nuclei and 6 healthy controls. RESULTS: The patients with VP lesions had a selective hypoperfusion at rest in the ipsilesional primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1). This hypoperfusion was significantly correlated with the degree of contralateral somatosensory deficit. This abnormality may reflect the deafferentation of SM1 from its somatosensory thalamic input. Despite this deafferentation, the ipsilesional SM1 was normally activated by the vibration of the hypoesthetic hand. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that a lesion of the somatosensory thalamic relay nuclei alters the rCBF at rest in SM1 but not its activation by hand vibration indicates that the mechanism of cortical activation is complex, even in the case of simple sensory stimulation. In addition, a dissociation may occur between obvious neurological deficits and apparently normal activation patterns, which suggests that activation studies should be interpreted cautiously in patients with focal brain lesions.  (+info)

Calcium-independent afterdepolarization regulated by serotonin in anterior thalamus. (3/66)

Previous studies have identified an afterdepolarization (ADP) in thalamocortical neurons that is mediated by an upregulation of the hyperpolarization-activated current I(h). This ADP has been suggested to play a key role in the generation of spindle oscillations. In the lateral geniculate nucleus, upregulation of I(h) has been shown to be signaled by a rise in intracellular calcium leading to the activation of adenylate cyclase and formation of cAMP. However, it is unclear how generalizable this mechanism is to other thalamic nuclei. We have used whole cell recording to examine the electrophysiological properties of neurons of the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, a nucleus thought not to undergo spindle oscillations. We now report that cells in this nucleus also display an ADP mediated by I(h). Surprisingly, the ADP and the underlying upregulation of I(h) persisted even after buffering intracellular calcium and blocking calcium influx. These results indicate that, in neurons of the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, an I(h)-mediated ADP can occur through a mechanism that does not involve a rise in intracellular calcium. We next examined the possibility that this calcium-independent ADP might be modulated by serotonin. Serotonin produced a robust enhancement in the amplitude of the ADP even after strong buffering of intracellular calcium and blockade of calcium channels. These results indicate that neurons of the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus display a calcium-independent, I(h)-mediated ADP and that this ADP is a target for regulation by serotonin. These findings identify a novel mechanism by which serotonin can regulate neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Modeling attractor deformation in the rodent head-direction system. (4/66)

We present a model of the head-direction circuit in the rat that improves on earlier models in several respects. First, it provides an account of some of the unique characteristics of head-direction (HD) cell firing in the lateral mammillary nucleus and the anterior thalamus. Second, the model functions without making physiologically unrealistic assumptions. In particular, it implements attractor dynamics in postsubiculum and lateral mammillary nucleus without directionally tuned inhibitory neurons, which have never been observed in vivo, and it integrates angular velocity without the use of multiplicative synapses. The model allows us to examine the relationships among three HD areas and various properties of their representations. A surprising result is that certain combinations of purported HD cell properties are mutually incompatible, suggesting that the lateral mammillary nucleus may not be the primary source of head direction input to anterior thalamic HD cells.  (+info)

Coinciding early activation of the human primary visual cortex and anteromedial cuneus. (5/66)

Proper understanding of processes underlying visual perception requires information on the activation order of distinct brain areas. We measured dynamics of cortical signals with magnetoencephalography while human subjects viewed stimuli at four visual quadrants. The signals were analyzed with minimum current estimates at the individual and group level. Activation emerged 55-70 ms after stimulus onset both in the primary posterior visual areas and in the anteromedial part of the cuneus. Other cortical areas were active after this initial dual activation. Comparison of data between species suggests that the anteromedial cuneus either comprises a homologue of the monkey area V6 or is an area unique to humans. Our results show that visual stimuli activate two cortical areas right from the beginning of the cortical response. The anteromedial cuneus has the temporal position needed to interact with the primary visual cortex V1 and thereby to modify information transferred via V1 to extrastriate cortices.  (+info)

Background, but not foreground, spatial cues are taken as references for head direction responses by rat anterodorsal thalamus neurons. (6/66)

Two populations of limbic neurons are likely neurophysiological substrates for cognitive operations required for spatial orientation and navigation: hippocampal pyramidal cells discharge selectively when the animal is in a certain place (the "firing field") in the environment, whereas head direction cells discharge when the animal orients its head in a specific, "preferred" direction. Cressant et al. (1997) showed that the firing fields of hippocampal place cells reorient relative to a group of three-dimensional objects only if these are at the periphery, but not the center of an enclosed platform. To test for corresponding responses in head direction cells, three objects were equally spaced along the periphery of a circular platform. Preferred directions were measured before and after the group of objects was rotated. (The rat was disoriented in total darkness between sessions). This was repeated in the presence or absence of a cylinder enclosing the platform. When the enclosure was present, the preferred directions of all 30 cells recorded shifted by the same angle as the objects. In the absence of the enclosure, the preferred directions did not follow the objects, remaining fixed relative to the room. These results provide a possible neurophysiological basis for observations from psychophysical experiments in humans that background, rather than foreground, cues are preferentially used for spatial orientation.  (+info)

Active locomotion increases peak firing rates of anterodorsal thalamic head direction cells. (7/66)

Head direction (HD) cells discharge selectively in macaques, rats, and mice when they orient their head in a specific ("preferred") direction. Preferred directions are influenced by visual cues as well as idiothetic self-motion cues derived from vestibular, proprioceptive, motor efferent copy, and command signals. To distinguish the relative importance of active locomotor signals, we compared HD cell response properties in 49 anterodorsal thalamic HD cells of six male Long-Evans rats during active displacements in a foraging task as well as during passive rotations. Since thalamic HD cells typically stop firing if the animals are tightly restrained, the rats were trained to remain immobile while drinking water distributed at intervals from a small reservoir at the center of a rotatable platform. The platform was rotated in a clockwise/counterclockwise oscillation to record directional responses in the stationary animals while the surrounding environmental cues remained stable. The peak rate of directional firing decreased by 27% on average during passive rotations (r(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001). Individual cells recorded in sequential sessions (n = 8) reliably showed comparable reductions in peak firing, but simultaneously recorded cells did not necessarily produce identical responses. All of the HD cells maintained the same preferred directions during passive rotations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the level of locomotor activity provides a state-dependent modulation of the response magnitude of AD HD cells. This could result from diffusely projecting neuromodulatory systems associated with motor state.  (+info)

The conjoint importance of the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei for allocentric spatial learning: evidence from a disconnection study in the rat. (8/66)

A disconnection procedure was used to test whether the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei form functional components of the same spatial memory system. Unilateral excitotoxic lesions were placed in the anterior thalamic (AT) nuclei and hippocampus (HPC) in either the same (AT-HPC Ipsi group) or contralateral (AT-HPC Contra group) hemispheres of rats. The behavioral effects of these combined lesions were compared in several spatial memory tasks sensitive to bilateral hippocampal lesions. In all of the tasks tested, T-maze alternation, radial arm maze, and Morris water maze, those animals with lesions placed in the contralateral hemispheres were more impaired than those animals with lesions in the same hemisphere. These results provide direct support for the notion that the performance of tasks that require spatial memory rely on the operation of the anterior thalamus and hippocampus within an integrated neural network.  (+info)

*Thalamocortical radiations

... bilateral interruption or severing of the connection between thalamocortical radiations the medial and anterior thalamic nuclei ... Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ... and somatosensory input in the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Thalamic nuclei project to cortical areas of distinct ... The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) receives incoming signals via corticothalamic pathways and regulates activity within the ...

*Korsakoff's syndrome

These findings imply damage to anterior thalamic nuclei can result in disruptive memory. A number of factors may increase a ... Damage to the dorsomedial nucleus or anterior group of the thalamus (limbic-specific nuclei) is also associated with this ... Thalamic damage is thought to have been the trigger for the amnestic syndrome. Alcoholic dementia Alcoholism Beriberi Dementia ... Severe damage to the medial dorsal nucleus inevitably results in memory deficit. Additionally, autopsies of patients with ...

*Papez circuit

Hypothalamic effects reach the cortex via a relay in the anterior thalamic nuclei." However, there has not been additional ... This may occur due to damage in the mammillary bodies, ventral anterior nucleus, and ventral lateral nucleus which has resulted ... Damage to the mammillothalamic tract, ventral anterior nucleus, and ventral lateral nucleus can result in memory and language ... anterior thalamic nucleus → cingulum → entorhinal cortex → hippocampal formation. A photograph of the inferior medial view of ...

*Head direction cells

... the anterior dorsal and the lateral dorsal thalamic nuclei), lateral mammillary nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus and striatum ... Two years later, Taube found HD cells in the nearby anterior thalamic nuclei. Chen et al. found limited numbers of HD cells in ... Taube, J. S. (1995-01-01). "Head direction cells recorded in the anterior thalamic nuclei of freely moving rats". The Journal ... Taube, JS (January 1, 1995). "Head direction cells recorded in the anterior thalamic nuclei of freely moving rats". J. Neurosci ...

*Phonagnosia

The limbic system is made up of several brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum ... The MRI of KL showed bilateral anterior temporal lobe atrophy, with more damage on the right side and in the inferior temporal ... shows bilateral fronto-temporal atrophy mostly in the right anterior temporal lobe but extending back within the temporal lobe ...

*Stria medullaris of thalamus

... and anterior thalamic nuclei to the habenula. It forms a horizontal ridge on the medial surface of the thalamus, and is found ... It projects to the habenular nuclei, from anterior perforated substance and hypothalamus, to habenular trigone, to habenular ... It is a fiber bundle containing afferent fibers from the septal nuclei, lateral preoptico-hypothalamic region, ... commissure, to habenular nucleus. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~rswenson/NeuroSci/chapter_10.html. ...

*Retrosplenial cortex

... and with anterior thalamic nuclei and the hippocampus. Neurophysiological studies of retrosplenial cortex have mainly been done ...

*Anterior nuclei of thalamus

These nuclei are considered to be association nuclei, one of the three broader subdivisions of thalamic nuclei. These nuclei ... The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are a collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal ... The anterior nuclei regulates what input is redistributed to the cortex. The connections of the anterior nuclei are similar to ... The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are recently thought to be connected in pathways serving a spatial navigation role in ...

*A General Theory of Love

... anterior thalamic nuclei, and limbic cortex) is affected by those closest to us (limbic resonance) and synchronizes with them ( ...

*Limbic system

It includes the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, fornix, columns of fornix, ... Anterior nuclei of thalamus receive input from the mammillary bodies. Involved in memory processing. The structures of the ... particularly the mammillary bodies and septal nuclei Subcortical areas: Septal nuclei, a set of structures that lie in front of ... Nucleus accumbens: involved in reward, pleasure, and addiction. Diencephalic structures: Hypothalamus: a center for the limbic ...

*James Papez

... the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the interconnections among these structures constituted a harmonious mechanism which ...

*Deep brain stimulation

... and for epilepsy treatment to the anterior thalamic nucleus. All three components are surgically implanted inside the body. ... for Parkinson plus patients to two nuclei simultaneously, subthalamic nucleus and tegmental nucleus of pons, with the use of ... nucleus accumbens, ventral capsule/ventral striatum, inferior thalamic peduncle, and the lateral habenula. A recently proposed ... for OCD and depression to the nucleus accumbens; for incessant pain to the posterior thalamic region or periaqueductal gray; ...

*Mammillothalamic fasciculus

... the ventral tegmental nuclei, and the anterior thalamic nucleus The mammillothalamic tract was first described by the French ... "The term 'angular thalamic nucleus' refers to a group of cells ventral to the lateral dorsal nucleus in the mouse.") The axons ... Angular Thalamic Nucleus --> "What, Where and How Big is It?" BrainInfo. Accessed January 25, 2011. Yoneoka Y, Takeda N, Inoue ... The bundle of Vicq d'Azyr spreads out fan-like as it terminates in the anterior or dorsal nucleus of the thalamus[ ...

*List of MeSH codes (A08)

... thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.080 --- anterior thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.444 --- ... midline thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.700 --- posterior thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.900 ... intralaminar thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.485 --- lateral thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826. ... anterior MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.063 --- anterior hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.400 --- ...

*Cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex receives primarily its afferent axons from the intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei (see ... The anterior cingulate cortex sends axons to the anterior nucleus and through the cingulum to other Broca's limbic areas. The ... The nucleus anterior receives mamillo-thalamic afferences. The mamillary neurons receive axons from the subiculum. The whole ... that the anterior cingulate gyrus has reciprocal connections with the rostral part of the thalamic posterior lateral nucleus ...

*Brodmann area 23

... main thalamic projections from anterior nuclei. d23b, dorsal part of 23b, weak connections from the anterior nuclei. Brodmann ... H. Shibata, M. Yukie, "Differential thalamic connections of the posteroventral and dorsal posterior cingulate gyrus in the ... Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded dorsally by the dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, rostrally by the ventral anterior ... Cytoarchitecture and thalamic afferents", Journal of Comparative Neurology, 262(2):256-270. ...

*Thalamus

... is functionally connected to the hippocampus as part of the extended hippocampal system at the thalamic anterior nuclei with ... Thalamic nuclei have strong reciprocal connections with the cerebral cortex, forming thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuits that are ... Deep dissection List of regions in the human brain List of thalamic nuclei Neothalamus Primate basal ganglia system Thalamic ... The exposure to SHH leads to differentiation of thalamic neurons. SHH signaling from the MDO induces a posterior-to-anterior ...

*Posterior cingulate

... the anterior and lateral thalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex). The posterior ... The anterior node of the DMN is formed, in part, by the highly connected PCC and Brodmann area 25. The two regions are ... They also found that greater damage to the cingulum bundle, that connects the PCC to the anterior DMN, was linked to ... Dense connections the thalamus, in the form of a continuous strip crossing numerous pulvinar nuclei, and the striatum. As is ...

*Ventral lateral nucleus

... nucleus in the thalamus forms the motor functional division in the thalamic nuclei along with the ventral anterior nucleus. The ... The ventral lateral nucleus (VL) is a nucleus of the thalamus. It receives neuronal inputs from the basal nuclei which includes ... Output from the ventral lateral nucleus then goes to the primary motor cortex. The function of the ventral lateral nucleus is ... 2007). "Feeling sounds after a thalamic lesion". Annals of Neurology. 62 (5): 433-41. doi:10.1002/ana.21219. PMID 17893864. ...

*Pars reticulata

The nigral territory corresponds to the nucleus ventralis anterior (VA) (see also List of thalamic nuclei) (different from the ... The nigral neurons have their own territory distinct from the cerebellar and the pallidal in the nucleus ventralis anterior VA ... The pars reticulata is one of the two primary output nuclei of the basal ganglia system to the motor thalamus (the other output ... It receives axons from the subthalamic nucleus and a dopaminergic innervation from the dopaminergic ensemble. ...

*Ventral anterior nucleus

"Chapter 10 - Thalamic Organization". Review of clinical and functional neuroscience. Dartmouth Medical School. Retrieved 9 May ... The ventral anterior nucleus (VA) is a nucleus of the thalamus. It acts with the anterior part of the ventral lateral nucleus ... The ventral anterior nucleus receives neuronal inputs from the basal ganglia. Its main afferent fibres are from the globus ... The efferent fibres from this nucleus pass into the premotor cortex for initiation and planning of movement. It helps to ...

*Hippocampus

Different thalamic nuclei, (from the anterior and midline groups), the medial septal nucleus, the supramamillary nucleus of the ... Its projecting pathways include the medial septal nucleus and supramammillary nucleus. The dorsal hippocampus also has more ... the anterior olfactory nucleus, and to the primary olfactory cortex. There continues to be some interest in hippocampal ... and from the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus to field CA1. A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, ...

*Minimally conscious state

... targeted the anterior intralaminar nuclei of thalamus and adjacent paralaminar regions of thalamic association nuclei. Both ... This allowed maximum coverage of the thalamic bodies. A DBS stimulation was conducted such that the patient was exposed to ... activation of frontal cortical and basal ganglia systems that were innervated by neurons within the thalamic association nuclei ... "Clinicaltrials.gov". Laureys S, Owen AM, Schiff ND (August 2007). "Behavioural improvements with thalamic stimulation after ...

*Ventral pallidum

It is an output nucleus whose fibres project to thalamic nuclei, such as the ventral anterior nucleus, the ventral lateral ... It acts in part as a relay nucleus from the nucleus accumbens to the medial dorsal nucleus. The nucleus accumbens projects to ... Along with the external globus pallidus, it is separated from other basal ganglia nuclei by the anterior commissure. The limbic ... The information is relayed to the medial dorsal and ventral anterior nuclei of the thalamus. The ventral pallidum receives ...

*Spinal trigeminal nucleus

... nucleus in the contralateral thalamus via the anterior trigeminothalamic tract. In mice, this thalamic nucleus has significant ... The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain, and ... Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives input from cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X. The spinal nucleus is composed of ... This nucleus projects to the ventral posteriomedial (VPM) ... Trigeminal nerve nuclei Brainstem Nuclei George Paxinos (2004 ...

*TENM3

In E17 mouse, Ten-m3 mRNA is expressed in the parafascicular thalamic nucleus, a subregion of the thalamus, and in the striatum ... anterior somites and the limb buds. Between these stages, Ten-m3 and Ten-m4 are expressed in complementary patterns in the ... A weak nuclear localisation signal in the ICD of Ten-m3 facilitates the translocation of the ICD into the nucleus. TCAPs from ... Ten-m3 guides some of the axon projections from dorsal regions of the parafascicular nucleus (PF) of the thalamus to dorsal ...
Synonyms for Anterior thalamic nucleus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Anterior thalamic nucleus. 19 synonyms for nucleus: centre, heart, focus, basis, core, pivot, kernel, nub, bud, embryo, germ, kernel, seed, spark, cell nucleus, karyon, core, core group. What are synonyms for Anterior thalamic nucleus?
Our major finding was that she displayed a deficit in the temporal order tasks for remotely acquired information. The temporal memory deficits displayed by this amnesic patient cannot be ascribed to cognitive deficits associated with frontal lobe dysfunction. She performed normally on non-memory cognitive tasks of frontal lobe functioning, and neuroradiographic studies showed no evidence of frontal lobe involvement. Likewise, her content memory for events about which she failed to make correct temporal judgments was good, indicating that her poor temporal memory was not the result of the impairment of content memory.. The lesion in the present patient included not only the fornix but also parts of the dorsomedial and anterior thalamic nuclei, so it is possible that the additional damage in the dorsomedial or anterior thalamic nuclei affected her temporal order memory. However, retrograde temporal order deficits without amnesia for content memories were not seen in the previous reports of ...
Take-home message - two key findings: (1) there are head-direction cells in the anteroventral thalamus (head direction cells fire when the head is pointed in a particular orientation); (2) a large fraction of these cells are theta-modulated (a strong 7-12 Hz oscillation in the EEG, studied most frequently in the hippocampal formation). These data are interesting because they suggests that the anterior thalamus…
The brain regions that may be functionally involved in the control of anxiety and the development of seizures were examined using quantitative 1-14C-deoxyglucose autoradiography. For this purpose, beta- carbolines FG 7142 and DMCM were employed. They exert their effects via the benzodiazepine receptor, and whereas both possess anxiogenic properties, FG 7142 is a proconvulsant and DMCM a potent convulsant. The pattern of increases of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) induced by FG 7142 was mainly restricted to limbic structures, such as the lateral septal nucleus, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the mamillary nuclei. However, structures involved in motor regulation were also affected. A pronounced increase in LCGU was observed in the posterior part of the substantia nigra, pars reticulata. Further, the LCGU of the globus pallidus, the ventral thalamic nucleus, and the cerebellum was increased. DMCM likewise increased LCGU of the mamillary body and the lateral septal nucleus. In contrast ...
Previously we reported electrophysiological evidence for a role for the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) in human memory formation (Sweeney-Reed et al. 2014). Theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling (CFC) predicted successful memory formation, with the involvement of gamma oscillations suggesting memory-relevant local processing in the ATN. The importance of the theta frequency range in memory processing is well-established, and phase alignment of oscillations is considered to be necessary for synaptic plasticity. We hypothesized that theta phase alignment in the ATN would be necessary for memory encoding. Further analysis of the electrophysiological data reveal that phase alignment in the theta rhythm was greater during successful compared with unsuccessful encoding, and that this alignment was correlated with the CFC. These findings support an active processing role for the ATN during memory formation.. ...
The study of the limbic system explains how emotions are generated. Four interconnected modules: the hypothalamus, the anterior thalamic nucleus, the cingulate gyrus and the hippocampus
Some neurons encode information about the orientation or position of an animal, and can maintain their response properties in the absence of visual input. Examples include head direction cells in rats and primates, place cells in rats and spatial view cells in primates. Continuous attractor neural networks model these continuous physical spaces by using recurrent collateral connections between the neurons which reflect the distance between the neurons in the state space (e.g. head direction space) of the animal. These networks maintain a localized packet of neuronal activity representing the current state of the animal. We show how the synaptic connections in a one-dimensional continuous attractor network (of for example head direction cells) could be self-organized by associative learning. We also show how the activity packet could be moved from one location to another by idiothetic (self-motion) inputs, for example vestibular or proprioceptive, and how the synaptic connections could self-organize to
The anterior thalamus (AT) is anatomically interconnected with the hippocampus and other structures known to be involved in memory, and the AT is involved in many of the same learning and memory functions as the hippocampus. For example, like the hip
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has a number of biologic activities, including pronounced effects on the nervous and neuroendocrine systems. In this study, in situ histochemical techniques were used to investigate the distribution of cells expressing type I IL-1 receptor mRNA in the CNS, pituitary, and adrenal gland of the mouse. Hybridization of 35S-labeled antisense cRNA probes derived from a murine T-cell IL-1 receptor cDNA revealed a distinct regional distribution of the type I IL-1 receptor, both in brain and in the pituitary gland. In the brain, an intense signal was observed over the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, over the entire midline raphe system, over the choroid plexus, and over endothelial cells of postcapillary venules throughout the neuraxis. A weak to moderate signal was observed over the pyramidal cell layer of the hilus and CA3 region of the hippocampus, over the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, over Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex, and in scattered clusters ...
The ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. It is likely connected to frontal cortex 6 areas (8-44) according to Talairach 1988, and it gets input from the basal ganglia according to Heimer. The ventroanterior nucleus is not the same as the anteroventral nucleus (that appear in the anterior thalamic nuclear group). ...
The thalamus has now been almost completely removed, the anterior and medial portion being all that remains. The subthalamic nucleus is left in place. Fibers of the ansa lenticularis (5) lie above this nucleus and pass laterally toward the ventral lateral nucleus (now removed) and ventral anterior nucleus (removed). The mass of fibers which forms the posterior stalk of the thalamus is visible in the lateral and posterior wall of the thalamic dissection. The fasciculus retroflexus is exposed farther ventrally toward the interpeduncular fossa ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Our previous study found volume reduction of the amygdala when we estimated regional GM volume using optimized VBM for the PD patients.37 The present study showed volume reduction of amygdala in PD patients, confirmed on both manual tracing and optimized VBM with small-volume correction. Furthermore, smaller amygdala was associated with anxiety, suggesting that the amygdala, especially the corticomedial nuclear group, is a crucial area of the neurobiological pathway underlying PD.. The amygdala is a heterogeneous collection of nuclear groups located in the temporal lobe.38 A variety of different functions has been attributed to the amygdaloid complex, including memory, attention, interpretation of emotional significance of sensory stimuli, perception of body movements and generation of emotional aspects of dreams.39-41 The amygdala consists of anterior nucleus (AN), LA, BA, CE, ME, CO and ABA. Notably, LA, BA and CE are candidate nuclei related to PD pathophysiology.42,43 The LA and BA receive ...
Brazski 11 years ago. Hmmm, as the others have said, this account should be deleted adn given to smeone interesting, I mean come on, the only reason why half....or all....of the comments are here are because we were bored and looked up uid=69..haha sixty-nine!. ...
The treatment of patients with refractory epilepsy has always been challenging. Despite the availability of multiple antiepileptic medications and surgical procedures with which to resect seizure foci, there is a subset of epilepsy patients for whom little can be done. Currently available treatment options for these unfortunate patients include vagus nerve stimulation, the ketogenic diet, and electric stimulation, both direct and indirect, of brain nuclei thought to be involved in epileptogenesis. Studies of electrical stimulation of the brain in epilepsy treatment date back to the early 20th century, beginning with research on cerebellar stimulation. The number of potential targets has increased over the years to include the hippocampus, subthalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, centromedian nucleus, and anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT). Recently the results of a large randomized controlled trial, the electrical Stimulation of the Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus for Epilepsy (SANTE) trial, were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MR imaging of compact white matter pathways. AU - Curnes, J. T.. AU - Burger, P. C.. AU - Djang, W. T.. AU - Boyko, Orest. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - A prominent decreased signal intensity can be seen in many of the heavily myelinated, compact fiber pathways of the brain on T2-weighted spin-echo MR images (TR = 2500 msec, TE = 80 msec). These areas include the anterior commissure, internal capsule, optic tract and radiations, fornix, mammillothalamic tract, superior frontooccipital fasciculus, cingulum, corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. All these pathways could be identified in normal subjects 3 years old and older when 1.5-T axial and coronal images of 50 adults and 17 children were reviewed. Correlation of the in vivo and postmortem MR appearance of two human brains with Perls and Luxol fast blue stains indicates that the short T2 reflects heavy myelination and fiber density, not iron deposition. This is in contrast to the short T2 ...
The symptoms of Parkinsons disease result from the loss of pigmented dopamine-secreting (dopaminergic) cells in the pars compacta region of the substantia nigra (literally "black substance"). These neurons project to the striatum and their loss leads to alterations in the activity of the neural circuits within the basal ganglia that regulate movement, in essence an inhibition of the direct pathway and excitation of the indirect pathway. The direct pathway facilitates movement and the indirect pathway inhibits movement, thus the loss of these cells leads to a hypokinetic movement disorder. The lack of dopamine results in increased inhibition of the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus, which sends excitatory projections to the motor cortex, thus leading to hypokinesia. There are four major dopamine pathways in the brain; the nigrostriatal pathway, referred to above, mediates movement and is the most conspicuously affected in early Parkinsons disease. The other pathways are the mesocortical, ...
Follicular development and ovulation are suppressed during lactation in various mammalian species, mainly due to the suppression of pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. Metastin (kisspeptin-54), a KiSS-1 gene product, is an endogenous ligand for GPR54, a G-protein-coupled receptor, and suggested to play a critical role in regulating the gonadal axis. The present study therefore aims to determine whether metastin (kisspeptin-54)-GPR54 signaling in discrete brain areas is inhibited by the suckling stimulus that causes suppression of LH secretion in lactating rats. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the KiSS-1 mRNA level was significantly lower in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)-median eminence region in lactating ovariectomized (OVX) and estrogen-treated OVX rats than in nonlactating controls. KiSS-1 mRNA in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was kept at a low level in both lactating and nonlactating rats despite estrogen treatment. GPR54mRNAlevels were significantly lower in lactating than nonlactating ...
Ovulation is triggered by neural circuits in the brain, which sense a rising tide of estradiol (E2) and-at the right time-generate a surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), causing ovulation. However, the cellular and molecular pathways in the brain that orchestrate this phenomenon are only partially understood. In rodent species, the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) comprises part of the circuitry necessary to produce the GnRH/LH surge; however, until recently, the phenotype of the neurons within the AVPV that serve this function were a mystery. Within the past 3 years, it has become widely accepted that a product of the Kiss1 gene, kisspeptin, provides an important- perhaps essential- signal to GnRH neurons. The overall goal of this proposal is to identify the role that Kiss1 neurons in the AVPV play in the generation of the GnRH/LH surge and to reveal the neural, hormonal, and molecular pathways involved in that process. The first specific aim ...
Kiss1 mRNA and its corresponding peptide products, kisspeptins, are expressed in two restricted brain areas of rodents, the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The concentration of mature kisspeptins may not directly correlate with Kiss1 mRNA levels, because mRNA translation and/or posttranslational modification, degradation, transportation and release of kisspeptins could be regulated independently of gene expression, and there may thus be differences in kisspeptin expression even in species with similar Kiss1 mRNA profiles. We measured and compared kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in both nuclei and both sexes of rats and mice and quantified kisspeptin-immunoreactive nerve fibers. We also determined Kiss1 mRNA levels and measured kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in colchicine pretreated rats. Overall, we find higher levels of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the mouse compared to the rat, independently of brain region and gender. In the female mouse AVPV high ...
Lieberman, D. (2000) Learning: Behavior and Cognition. Belmont: Wadsworth. (pp. 367-384) Roberts, W.A (1998) Principles of Animal Cognition. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Chapter 3. "Working Memory: Early Research and Contemporary Procedures and Findings. (1 copy on short loan at BK; 4 loan copies) Pearce J.M. (1997) Animal Learning and Cognition 2nd Edition. Hove: Psychology Press. Chapter 6 Part 2 "Memory: Short-term Retention". (156.315 PEA in new section at Birkbeck. 1 normal and 1 Short Loan copy). Other References (Not normally required for Further Reading). Aggleton, J. P., & Brown, M. W. (1999). Episodic memory, amnesia and the hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22(3), 425-489. Albright, T. D., Kandel, E. R., & Posner, M. I. (2000). Cognitive neuroscience. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10(5), 612-624. Alvarez, P, Zola-Morgan, S and Squire, L (1994) The animal-model of human amnesia - long-term-memory impaired and short-term-memory intact. Proceedings of the ...
To orient ourselves, we mainly need two pieces of information: where am I and in which direction am I heading? Experiments in the rat have shown that these types of information are directly accessible and independently coded in the brain. When the rat explores a new territory, so-called place cells and head direction cells form within only a few minutes. Place cells are active when the rat visits a particular area, no matter which direction it is facing. In contrast, head direction cells code the direction the rat is heading, independent of where it is. Also humans presumably have these and other types of cells which specifically instruct its sense of orientation. Scientists around Mathias Franzius and Laurenz Wiskott from the Humboldt-University and Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Berlin (Germany) have now developed a theoretical model that can explain the emergence of all orientation-specific cells that are known in rats and primates to date.. Now my personal experience is that ...
Screening brain MRI - normal - commensurate with age or demonstrate atrophy consistent with AD diagnosis (dx); reveal no more than mild white matter disease; up to 2 lacunar infarcts acceptable except in anterior thalamus, genu of internal capsule or basal forebrain; reveal no cortical infarcts; reveal no more than 4 microbleeds; reveal no focal asymmetric lobar atrophy or other findings suggesting primary cause of dementia is attributed to a cause other than AD; reveal no macrohemorrhages (,10 mm ...
The OP is inherently a less accurate plane to measure on account of the lack of precise landmarks. Zollikofer et al. (2005) and Brunet and Allemand (2005) did not provide details of how they measured the orientation of the OP, but judging from the illustrations it was obtained by drawing a vertical line in the middle of the orbit extending from the anterodorsal margin of the orbit to the antero-ventral edge of the orbit immediately beneath the former point. There are four main difficulties with this measurement, the first being that the left and right sides of the same skull may be different (in fact each orbit has its own OP). The second, and a more serious difficulty is that the upper and lower margins of the orbits are curved dorsoventrally (strongly) and mediolaterally (gently), and thus it is difficult to define precise points for consistent measurements between individuals or successive measurements in the same individual, and thus of obtaining reliable results for the orientation of the ...
2) CULTIVAREA FORMEI R CU ARN DIN TULPINI S 3) CULTIVAREA TULPINII R CU CAPSULA MUCOPOLIZAHARIDICA DIN TULPINA S 4) CULTIVAREA TULPINII R CU ADN EXTRAS SI PURIFICAT DIN FORMELE S - AU APARUT COLONII VIRULENTE CARE INJECTATE LA SOARECI AU PROVOCAT MOARTEA ACESTORA 5) CULTIVAREA FORMELOR VII R CU ADN -S DISTRUS IN PREALABIL CU ENZIME- DN-AZA- SE OBTIN FORME R NECAPSULATE SI NEVIRULENTE CONCLUZIE: ADN ESTE SUPORTUL EREDITATII The Big Bang Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (1952) DNA is genetic material. . Watson and Crick (1953) DNA is a double helix.. . INFORMATIA DETINUTA FIIND ACCESIBILA. ESTE SURSA DE VARIABILITATE MUTATIE.CARACTERE ADN . ARE CAPACITATE DE SINTEZA ( AUTOREPLICARE).IMPLICATIA IN EREDITATE ARE STRUCTURA SPECIFICA - SPECIFICITATE DE SPECIE PRIN ORDONAREA BAZELOR AZOTATE. INFORMATIA ADN POATE FI DECODIFICATA SI TRANSMISA ARN→ SINTEZA DE PROTEINE → CARACTERE (dogma centrală a geneticii moleculare). PRIN RECOMBINARE SI ARE O DISPUNERE LINIARA.. STRUCTURA ADN LOCALIZAREA CELULARA A ...
this may sound silly, but what is the difference between asn & adn? :wink2: when i registered they didnt have the option of choosing adn. i am going to start some online classes for my
Page 2 - No... I do not want to get into which one is better. I am in a BSN program, it was the best choice for me for a number of reasons and I am happy with that choice. I am simply curious why some
Reply: We thank Duprez et al for their attention and valuable comments concerning our article "Acute Korsakoff Syndrome Following Mammillothalamic Tract Infarction" (1) and also for presentation of their advanced work in neuroradiology and neuromodulation (2, 3). Their excellent depictions of the mammillothalamic tract (MTT) and implanted neuromodulation electrodes with MR imaging allow us the opportunity to further discuss amnesia-initiating lesion(s) in our case.. Korsakoff syndrome is defined as a disproportionate impairment in memory, relative to other aspects of cognitive function, resulting from a nutritional (thiamine) depletion (4). In our case, however, the patient developed acute amnesia with features of Korsakoff syndrome that were not attributable to malnutrition but were the result of a left MTT infarction. MR imaging studies revealed acute ischemic damage of the left MTT assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging and a previous contralateral right MTT infarct on T2-weighted and ...
Nucleus reuniens of the thalamus contains head direction cells | eLife. Maciej M Jankowski, Md Nurul Islam, Nicholas F Wright, Seralynne D Vann, Jonathan T Erichsen, John P Aggleton, Shane M OMara DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03075 Cite as eLife 2014;10.7554/eLife.03075 Abstract Discrete populations of brain cells signal heading direction, rather like a compass. These head direction cells…
The mammillary body, the remaining portion of the column of the fornix and mammillothalamic tract have been removed. The optic tract has now been partially exposed. Most of the thalamic tissue has been scraped away to expose the internal capsule. The continuity of the cerebral peduncle into the internal capsule is thus made clearly visible. Fibers of the ansa lenticularis (25) can be seen to loop around the medial border of the internal capsule in their course from the globus pallidus to the tegmentum of the subthalamic region. Numerous broken ends of fibers passing from the thalamus into the internal capsule are seen at (20) and at (6 ...
The role of the thalamus in high-level cognition-attention, working memory (WM), rule-based learning, and decision making-remains poorly understood, especially in comparison to that of cortical frontoparietal networks [1-3]. Studies of visual thalamus have revealed important roles for pulvinar and lateral geniculate nucleus in visuospatial perception and attention [4-10] and for mediodorsal thalamus in oculomotor control [11]. Ventrolateral thalamus contains subdivisions devoted to action control as part of a circuit involving the basal ganglia [12, 13] and motor, premotor, and prefrontal cortices [14], whereas anterior thalamus forms a memory network in connection with the hippocampus [15]. This connectivity profile suggests that ventrolateral and anterior thalamus may represent a nexus between mnemonic and control functions, such as action or attentional selection. Here, we characterize the role of thalamus in the interplay between memory and visual attention. We show that ventrolateral lesions impair
The laterodorsal nucleus (LDN) of the thalamus provides a prominent afferent projection to the postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum). To characterize synaptic transmission in this pathway, we placed stimulating electrodes in the LDN and recorded fEPSPs elicited in the postsubiculum of urethane-anesthetized rats. LDN stimulation elicited a source-sink dipole between the deep and superficial layers of the postsubiculum, respectively, consistent with anatomical evidence for the termination of thalamic afferents in the superficial layers of the structure, and the existence of deep layer neurons with apical dendrites extending into these layers. Postsubicular fEPSPs were typically 0.5-1.0 mV in amplitude, with a peak latency of approximately 6 ms. Consistent with anatomical observations, the short onset latency of fEPSPs elicited by LDN stimulation, and their ability to follow a 60-Hz train of stimulation, indicate that the projection is monosynaptic. Paired-pulse stimulation revealed pronounced ...
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Looking for online definition of Mammillary bodies in the Medical Dictionary? Mammillary bodies explanation free. What is Mammillary bodies? Meaning of Mammillary bodies medical term. What does Mammillary bodies mean?
A recent study organized by Stanford University researchers found patients with refractory partial and secondarily generalized seizures had a reduction in seizures after deep brain stimulation. This multi-center clinical trial determined that the benefits of stimulation of the anterior nuclei of thalamus for epilepsy (SANTE) persisted and by 2 years there was a 56% reduction in seizure frequency. Full findings of this study are available early online in Epilepsia, a journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the International League Against Epilepsy.. Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder, is characterized by recurrent seizures that can cause temporary loss of consciousness, convulsions, confusion or disturbances in sensations. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), epilepsy affects 50 million people worldwide. Past studies indicate that one-third of those with epilepsy do not respond adequately to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).. "Electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a ...
Ovulation requires preovulatory surges of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from preoptic hypothalamic neurons, initiated by elevated ovarian estradiol (E₂). Rising estradiol activates a subset of sexually dimorphic kisspeptin (Kiss-1) neurons in the female, located in the anteroventral periventricular nuclei (AVPV). Conversely, estradiol negative feedback on GnRH secretion is mediated by a neuroanatomically separate population of Kiss-1 neurons in the arcuate nuclei. Kisspeptin stimulates GnRH expression and secretion in vivo, and the development of this system is critical for the initiation of puberty. To elucidate how phenotypically similar Kiss-1 neuronal populations react differentially to estradiol exposure, we have generated two immortalized Kiss-1 cell lines from kiss1-GFP post-pubertal female mice. These cell models recapitulate in vivo differential responsiveness to estradiol, with KTaV-3 (AVPV-derived) demonstrating ~6-fold increases in kiss1 expression under higher estradiol ...
We aimed to test the hypothesis that lateral line placodes form both ampullary organs and neuromasts in cartilaginous fishes, by performing in vivo fate-mapping in the little skate. We used the fluorescent lipophilic dye DiI to label focally the anterodorsal lateral line placode alone, or the anterodorsal plus anteroventral lateral line placodes, in L. erinacea embryos at stage 25 (n=18). These placodes were selected because they are the largest cranial lateral line placodes, hence the easiest to target, and they give rise to both ampullary organs and neuromasts in the axolotl (Northcutt et al., 1995) and paddlefish (Modrell et al., 2011a). The anterodorsal and anteroventral lateral line placodes can both be recognized in skate embryos morphologically as thickenings of ectoderm caudal to the eye and dorsal to the mandibular and hyoid arches, respectively (Fig. 1D), and molecularly, by expression of the gene encoding the transcription co-factor Eya4 (Fig. 1E), an established marker of the ...
This study was designed to determine whether the sympathetic nervous system exerts a protective or enhancing effect in acoustic overstimulation. The compound action potential of the cochlea (CAP) was recorded in guinea pigs while the cervical sympathetic nervous system (SNS) was electrically stimulated or after it was surgically eliminated. The stimulation or the elimination of the cervical SNS has no effect on the threshold of CAP. The threshold shift in CAP after acoustic overstimulation (110, 115, or 130 dB SPL for 10 min) was measured in the cervical SNS stimulation group, in the cervical SNS elimination group, and in the control group. When the animal was under insufficient sedation, there was no difference among these three groups. However, the CAP threshold shift was significantly smaller in the cervical SNS stimulation group than in the other two groups when the animals were sufficiently sedated. The cervical SNS stimulation had some protective effect on the susceptibility to acoustic trauma
The study did not meet the primary effectiveness outcome. The mean IDS-C 30-item change from baseline over weeks 10, 14, 18, and 22 (the Acute Phase) was not statistically different between the high dose and the low dose groups (Low vs. High stimulation group: P=0.8027) as well as between the medium dose and the low dose groups (Low vs. Medium stimulation group: P=0.8131).. Although on average the score for all 3 groups showed an improved score over time, this was not set as the primary study outcome and could be due to response to other treatments as well as natural course of the disorders or statistical regression to the mean, and perhaps to a placebo effect since the study was blinded to dosage but not to VNS Therapy implant. No statistically significant differences were noted between treatment groups for any of the effectiveness outcomes, in either of the study periods (Acure Phase or Long-term Phase ...
Head Direction (HD) cells are neurons located primarily in the limbic system that fire as a function of directional heading in the horizontal, or yaw, plane in the freely moving animal. Our hypothesis is that the HD signal is the result of two ...
This thesis introduces a hierarchical model for unsupervised learning from naturalistic video sequences. The model is based on the principles of slowness and sparseness. Different approaches and implementations for these principles are discussed. A variety of neuron classes in the hippocampal formation of rodents and primates codes for different aspects of space surrounding the animal, including place cells, head direction cells, spatial view cells and grid cells. In the main part of this thesis, video sequences from a virtual reality environment are used for training the hierarchical model. The behavior of most known hippocampal neuron types coding for space are reproduced by this model. The type of representations generated by the model is mostly determined by the movement statistics of the simulated animal. The model approach is not limited to spatial coding. An application of the model to invariant object recognition is described, where artificial clusters of spheres or rendered fish are ...
In epigeic rodents, familiar landmarks exert primary control over a variety of spatial behaviors and related neural mechanisms (OKeefe and Nadel, 1978; Taube et al., 1990; Taube and Burton, 1995; Dudchenko et al., 1997; Sharp et al., 2001; Sharp, 2002). Nevertheless, a directional sense that is not linked to visual landmarks also appears to play a central role in many aspects of rodent spatial behavior and cognition (e.g. Knierim et al., 1995; Skinner et al., 2010; van der Meer et al., 2010). Species such as rats show a remarkable ability to place neural representations of different surroundings into register. When rats are transferred to an unfamiliar laboratory enclosure, directional properties of, for example, head direction cells and subicular place cells typically retain the same absolute alignment (Sharp and Green, 1994; Knierim et al., 1995; Taube and Burton, 1995; Dudchenko et al., 1997; Sharp, 1997; Sharp, 2002; Sharp et al., 2001), suggesting that these properties are transferred to ...
Montreal, QC. Introduction. An early symptom of Alzheimers disease is frequent disorientation in familiar settings, often resulting in patients getting lost on their routine commutes to work or home. What pathology in the brain causes this debilitating deficit in spatial cognition? Recent experiments have identified a neural circuit in the entorhinal cortex that is essential for spatial memory and navigation. This circuit contains three navigation-related neuronal types including `grid cells that track your movement through space (similar to a GPS), `head direction cells that act as the brains `internal compass, and `border cells that signal proximity to edges of the environment.. Objectives. We propose to test the hypothesis that a disruption of this entorhinal navigational circuit underlies the spatial memory and spatial cognition deficits reported in Alzheimers disease. The first objective is to identify whether the spatial firing patterns of neurons in this circuit undergo a ...
El ADN antiguo es aquel ADN aislado de especímenes arcaicos.[1]​ También puede ser descrito como cualquier ADN recuperado de muestras biológicas que no han sido preservadas específicamente para análisis de ADN futuros. Algunos ejemplos incluyen el análisis de ADN recuperado de material arqueológico e histórico de esqueletos, cultivos momificados, colecciones de archivos de muestras médicas no congelados, restos preservados de plantas, núcleos, plancton del Holoceno en los sedimentos marinos y lacustres, entre otros. A diferencia de los análisis genéticos modernos, los estudios de ADN antiguo están caracterizados por la baja calidad del ADN, esto limita los alcances de los análisis. Además, debido a la degradación de las moléculas de ADN, un proceso correlacionado con factores tales como el tiempo, la temperatura, y la presencia de agua libre, supera los límites más allá dentro de los cuales el ADN tiene probabilidades de sobrevivir. Allentoft et al. (2012) intentaron ...
BioAssay record AID 488397 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at human GPR54 receptor expressed in CHO cells assessed as inhibition of metastin(40-54)-induced intracellular calcium mobilization at 10 uM by FLIPR assay.
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Global Application Delivery Networks ADN Market was valued at USD XX(Bn/Mn) in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX(Bn/Mn) by 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2022
Triplet-repeat expansions cause several inherited human diseases. Expanded triplet-repeats are unstable in somatic cells, and tissue-specific somatic instability contributes to disease pathogenesis. In mammalian cells instability of triplet-repeats is dependent on the location of the origin of replication relative to the repeat tract, supporting the fork-shift model of repeat instability.. Role of transcript and interplay between transcription and replication in triplet-repeat instability in mammalian cells. ...
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Taxonomic Characterization: Male: Anterodorsal plate (AD) with a small frontal spine. In posterior portion of AD elevated ridges, arranged like an "H". Within these ridges, deep canaliculi piercing the integumental layers. Outside the ridges, slight paneling and small pores present. Posterodorsal plate with 2 elevated, longitudinal ridges, converging posteriorly but not meeting. Dorsal setae minute. Red-brown pigment is found beneath the AD near the anterior spine and beneath the OC between the corneae. All ventral plates finely porose; when focused on deeper integumental layers, a reticulation is discernible. Genitoanal plate short. Genital opening in the middle of the plate. Distance from GO to anterior margin of GA equals length of GO. Integument on base of gnathosoma pierced by canaliculi. Rostrum as long as base of gnathosoma. Integument of legs pierced by canaliculi, these especially prominent on telofermora and tibiae. Leg I stronger than following legs. The lateral claws on tarsus I are ...
UNLABELLED: The traditionally accepted form of training is direct supervision by an expert; however, modern trends in medicine have made this progressively more difficult to achieve. A 3-dimensional printer makes it possible to convert patients imaging data into accurate models, thus allowing the possibility to reproduce models with pathology. This enables a large number of trainees to be trained simultaneously using realistic models simulating actual neurosurgical procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of these models in training surgeons to perform standard procedures that require complex techniques and equipment. METHODS: Multiple models of the head of a patient with a deep-seated small thalamic lesion were created based on his computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. A workshop was conducted using these models of the head as a teaching tool. The surgical trainees were assessed for successful performance of the procedure as well as the duration of time and
List of causes of Autonomic hypoactivity and Ear bleeding and Energy symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
From a methodologic standpoint, the scholarly study was perfectly conducted, and the chance factor appealing, hemoglobin A1C, is available widely, while not measured in nondiabetic CKD sufferers consistently. Therefore, this research offers an exceptional possibility to review the interpretation of an applicant novel risk element in sufferers with CKD as well as the intellectual procedure that people must make use of to answer fully the question posed by our name. In traditional epidemiology, we evaluate organizations between characteristics appealing (predictors) and disease end factors (final results) to raised understand the condition procedure. Characteristics that may be associated with disease final results in epidemiologic research are known as risk elements; any suggested risk factor is certainly scrutinized by many follow-up questions. We will use the following four questions to evaluate the clinical effect of the paper by Trivin (1) and as a road map for where the literature on ...
First Kiss, Last Kiss, Best Kiss and Worst Kiss, from the edited h2g2, the Unconventional Guide to Life, the Universe and Everything
The Internets most complete directory of Kenosha, Wisconsin ADN Training Programs. Get the information you need - Easily contact multiple schools for free.
Nov. 26, 2014\Your entire existence...all matter, all life, all experiences--everything owes its existence in the physical world to frequency. Absolutely everything is frequency. You cannot have an ex...read more
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
Lately ive been goin thru this time where every guitar feels like crap to me. like i can pick up a guitar, any guitar, adn they all dont feel right t...
The relationship of thiamine deficiency to Wernickes encephalopathy has been well established. The biochemical bases and physiologic mechanisms responsible for the pathologic changes and their select
The purpose of this study was to explore the central mechanism of transauricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) to human by fMRI and to find a suitable taVNS site for potential tinnitus treatment. 24 healthy subjects aged between 28 and 38 years were enrolled in the experiment. 8 subjects were stimulated in the auricular acupoints Kindey (CO10), Yidan (CO11), Liver (CO12) and Shenmen (TF4) in the left ear, 8 subjects were stimulated at the anterior wall of the auditory canal and left lower limb as an anterior stimulation group; 8 persons who were arranged in a sham group received taVNS at the left ear lobe and tail of the helix ...
A noninvasive device that electrically stimulates the trigeminal nerve prevented migraines for patients whose episodes were not well controlled by medication alone, a trial showed.. The number of days with a migraine dropped significantly by about two per month in the supraorbital transcutaneous stimulation group, without a change in the sham control group, Jean Schoenen, MD, PhD, of Belgiums Liège University, and colleagues found.. While the difference between the two didnt reach statistical significance, the coprimary endpoint showed three times more responders with at least a 50% drop in migraine days with neurostimulation (38% versus 12%, P=0.023), the group reported in the Feb. 19 issue of Neurology.. "The therapeutic gain (26%) is within the range of those reported for other preventive drug and nondrug anti-migraine treatments," they wrote.. An accompanying editorial called for further study due to some issues with the trial, particularly whether blinding was good enough.. The 16 mA ...
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Figure 2: SEM micrographs of Paussus favieri: (a) anterodorsal view of head and thorax; (b) ventral view of head and thorax; (c) basal spur of the antennal club, dorsal view; (d) ventral antennal pockets with visible secretion; (e) elytra with modified sensilla chaetica; (f) modified sensilla chaetica on head with glandular pores ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The market report on the Application Delivery Networks ADN Market 2017 consists of all the important aspects of the market. The market size of the Application Delivery Networks ADN market is estimated in terms of US$ value in the market report. The global market segmentation of the Application Delivery Networks ADN market is included along with its regional segmentation. Data is collected and analyzed by using the Porters Five Forces model in order to understand the competitive landscape of the Application Delivery Networks ADN market in the global market. By this data, one comes to know about the value of the market and its position in the coming years.. The report contains the information about the factors that are driving the market in a positive way and the factors that are restraining the market growth. It also contains the opportunities that are provided by the Application Delivery Networks ADN market. The ...
Help failed kiss? I dated a guy and in the end we hugged and I think he tried to kiss me but I didnt realise. What should I do now? Should I be now the one to ask him put...... asked under Dating
Kissing is a crucial part of the sexual process. And yes, kissing is a form of sex. When humans kiss, it triggers a flurry of activity in the brain and...
Looking for online definition of mammillary process of lumbar vertebra in the Medical Dictionary? mammillary process of lumbar vertebra explanation free. What is mammillary process of lumbar vertebra? Meaning of mammillary process of lumbar vertebra medical term. What does mammillary process of lumbar vertebra mean?
Ocular flutter is a rare, horizontal eye movement disorder characterized by rapid saccadic oscillations. Previous reports have presented a relationship between ocular flutter syndrome and many conditions/diseases. However, it is surprising that there have been few reported cases in which there has been a clear anatomically localized lesion linked to ocular flutter. So the pathophysiological basis for ocular flutter syndrome is not understood yet. We have recently experienced a case of ocular flutter syndrome where the ocular flutter was associated with dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, kinetic predominant tremor, and ataxia. The prodromal symptoms, self-limited illness course and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis of our case suggest an infectious aetiology for this syndrome. Although most of the sequelae of infectious diseases represent more diffuse involvement of the nervous system, the predominant cerebellar symptoms and signs associated with ocular flutter imply that the single responsible ...
Despite decades of research, the neural mechanisms of spatial working memory remain poorly understood. Although the dorsal hippocampus is known to be critical for memory-guided behavior, experimental evidence suggests that spatial working memory depends not only on the hippocampus itself, but also on the circuit comprised of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Disruption of hippocampal-mPFC interactions may result in failed transfer of spatial and contextual information processed by the hippocampus to the circuitry in mPFC responsible for decision making and goal-directed behavior. Oscillatory synchrony between the hippocampus and mPFC has been shown to increase in tasks with high spatial working memory demand. However, the mechanisms and circuitry supporting hippocampal-mPFC interactions during these tasks is unknown. The midline thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE) is reciprocally connected to both the hippocampus and the mPFC and has been shown to be critical for a variety of working
Motivated by experimental observations of the head direction system, we study a three population network model that operates as a continuous attractor network. This network is able to store in a short-term memory an angular variable (the head direction) as a spatial prole of activity across neurons in the absence of selective external inputs, and to accurately update this variable on the basis of angular velocity inputs. The network is composed of one excitatory population and two inhibitory populations, with inter-connections between populations but no connections within the neurons of a same population. In particular, there are no excitatory-to-excitatory connections. Angular velocity signals are represented as inputs in one inhibitory population (clockwise turns) or the other (counterclockwise turns). The system is studied using a combination of analytical and numerical methods. Analysis of a simplied model composed of threshold-linear neurons gives the conditions on the connectivity for (i) ...
Complete information for ATN1 gene (Protein Coding), Atrophin 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Usando moléculas do ADN goste de um andaime arquitectónico, cientistas da Universidade Estadual do Arizona, em colaboração com colegas na Universidade Do Michigan, desenvolveram uma cascata artificial
Competency Levels: Graduate Nursing of ADN Vs MSN Cheryl L. McLean Grand Canyon University: NRS 430 August 5, 2012 Abstract: Nursing has been evolving
Hello Here is something Im very curious about : From what I understand, and correct me if Im wrong , gene therapy allows the introduction of a
Do cats kiss each other? What about people? The answer is sort of, and the cat kiss is much different from anything us humans do.
Do cats kiss each other? What about people? The answer is sort of, and the cat kiss is much different from anything us humans do.
Tropical Kiss von Coffey, Jan beim ZVAB.com - ISBN 10: 1499398638 - ISBN 13: 9781499398632 - CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform - 2014 - Softcover
Free GLAD Food Storage and Freezer Bags Fill out this form to receive a free* sample of Glad Storage Bags. *By mail. While supplies last. Limit (1) sample per household. Samples are only available to consumers in the United States. http://instoresnow.walmart.com/enhancedrendercontent_ektid56046.aspx ...
Results At final review (mean 5.2 years) PTR was evident in 11 of the 18 upper limbs with tremor. PTR often rendered stimulation redundant. PTR could occur when limb strength was conserved and could arise remotely from the initial surgery. PTR was significant (and universal) in limbs that received long-term (,2 years) effective (tremor suppressing) stimulation. PTR was not a significant finding in limbs that had not received long-term, effective stimulation. Contralateral to a limb with PTR, MRI revealed a thalamic lesion adjacent to the electrode tract. Thalamic lesions were not identified contralateral to two limbs without PTR. ...
A 2007 review from Lancet Neurology cites an even wider variety of non-alcohol scenarios that can be associated with WE including fad diets and nutritional imbalances of various sorts, magnesium deficiency (it may induce refractoriness to administered thiamine) and various situations in cancer patients. The review makes the point which, though obvious, bears mention, that WE cannot reliably distinguished from drunkenness. The optimal route for thiamine administration is IV. Although deemed controversial in some of the other reviews this one makes more specific statements about dosing. 100 mg IV daily is common practice, and while this may be appropriate for prophylaxis in at risk patients, the review recommends 500 mg IV tid for patients with strongly suspected or established WE to prevent KS, other brain damage or death. (A banana bag may not be enough!). ...
The traditionally accepted form of training is direct supervision by an expert; however, modern trends in medicine have made this progressively more difficult to achieve. A 3-dimensional printer makes it possible to convert patients imaging data into accurate models, thus allowing the possibility to reproduce models with pathology. This enables a large number of trainees to be trained simultaneously using realistic models simulating actual neurosurgical procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of these models in training surgeons to perform standard procedures that require complex techniques and equipment. Methods Multiple models of the head of a patient with a deep-seated small thalamic lesion were created based on his computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. A workshop was conducted using these models of the head as a teaching tool. The surgical trainees were assessed for successful performance of the procedure as well as the duration of time and number of
praktikumderbakt01kiss.djvu 17-Aug-2008 20:19 5.8M praktikumderbakt01kiss.gif 25-Oct-2007 20:41 265.1K praktikumderbakt01kiss.pdf 19-Dec-2011 09:42 9.5M praktikumderbakt01kiss_abbyy.gz 17-Aug-2008 19:57 4.6M praktikumderbakt01kiss_archive.torrent 07-Jul-2017 19:55 8.4K praktikumderbakt01kiss_bhlmets.xml 27-Jan-2016 09:02 68.5K praktikumderbakt01kiss_bhlmets.xml_meta.txt 16-Jan-2013 10:38 276.0B praktikumderbakt01kiss_bw.pdf 17-Aug-2008 21:47 9.4M praktikumderbakt01kiss_dc.xml 23-Oct-2007 16:27 675.0B praktikumderbakt01kiss_djvu.txt 17-Aug-2008 21:48 315.0K praktikumderbakt01kiss_djvu.xml 17-Aug-2008 20:04 2.5M praktikumderbakt01kiss_files.xml 07-Jul-2017 19:55 7.2K praktikumderbakt01kiss_jp2.zip 25-Oct-2007 20:40 69.2M praktikumderbakt01kiss_marc.xml 23-Oct-2007 16:27 2.4K praktikumderbakt01kiss_meta.mrc 23-Oct-2007 16:27 802.0B praktikumderbakt01kiss_meta.sqlite 18-May-2016 23:05 6.0K praktikumderbakt01kiss_meta.xml 07-Jul-2017 19:55 2.0K praktikumderbakt01kiss_metasource.xml 23-Oct-2007 16:27 ...
The term forebrain refers to one ot three components of the brain as defined in the Classical Model by dissection. The other components are the midbrain and the hindbrain.The most anterior of the three, its caudal boundary is with the midbrain: a nominally coronal plane defined by the rostral margin of the superior colliculus dorsally and the caudal margin of the mammillary body ventrally. The forebrain is composed of two parts: the endbrain and the interbrain. Substructures of the forebrain are derived for the most part, but not entirely, from the embryonic Prosencephalon. It is found in the human, macaque, rat, and mouse ( NeuroNames ). ...
Randolph Community College, a member institution of the North Carolina Community College System, is a public, two-year, comprehensive community college established to serve the citizens of Randolph County.
The long-term effects of alcohol abuse include mental and physical health problems, neuropsychiatric disorders, and early Wernickes encephalopathy (WE). It is caused by thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency, but is commonly caused by alcoholic malnutrition. It causes confusion, unbalanced walking (ataxia), and eye movement problems (such as jerky eye movements or paralysis of eye movements). Untreated WE can become Korsakoffs Syndrome (KS), with permanent memory loss and imbalance.. Autopsy studies show that WE is underdiagnosed, with resultant increased risk of KS since some of those with undiagnosed WE dont get treated. Important to the diagnosis of WE are the following: (1) history of dietary deficiency, (2) eye movement abnormalities, (3) balance problems with walking, and (4) disturbed mental state and memory problems. The present research was done to see if these guidelines can be used in practice to find groups of patients at risk for WE.. The project studied 56 alcoholics and 38 ...
Disorientation and confusion develop rapidly, over a few days or weeks. It is the main symptom of this condition, and it can also feature lethargy, inability to pay attention, sleepiness, and indifference or other personality changes. Delirium can occur in extreme cases. When left untreated, Wernickes encephalopathy can lead to coma.. Ataxia changes how the person walks because they experience great difficulty controlling their muscles and other voluntary movements. This could also show up as twitching, especially in the legs. The person may walk slowly and unsteadily, and eventually, they will need assistance walking or lose the ability to walk. A secondary symptom of Wernickes encephalopathy is peripheral neuropathy, or the loss of sensation in the extremities, which can also affect walking and voluntary movements.. The symptoms of Wernickes encephalopathy may reduce or stop almost as soon as they have begun, although side effects will persist. After a few days or weeks, the individual will ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Our results show that patients diagnosed with the atypical parkinsonian disorders CBS and PSP exhibit not only global differences in thalamic volume but also localized alterations in shape and ADC within thalamic motor nuclear regions (ventral anterior, VLa, and VLp) compared with patients with PD and controls. These changes are spatially concordant, supporting the concept of disproportionate motor thalamus involvement in these 2 disorders. Furthermore, similar changes were not found in patients with PD; this finding suggests that the differences may be specific to tau neurodegeneration. These results provide imaging evidence for alterations in thalamic substructure in atypical parkinsonism and corroborate existing histopathologic data showing motor thalamus degeneration in postmortem-confirmed cases of these disorders.1⇓-3,6. In contrast to most prior studies that included the thalamus, we used fully automated analysis of images from a single 3T MR imaging scanner instead of manual ...
We have studied the regulation of somatostatin (SS) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene expression in the brain of the laboratory rat. We report that hypophysectomy in the adult male reduces SS mRNA in cells of the periventricular nucleus (PeN), while GH reverses this effect. We ...
Conduit for info to and from brain. PNS: Cranial and spinal nerves ... Septum (rage after lesions) Fornix. Mammillary Bodies. 3.13. Basal Ganglia ... - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 99f52-MGEzM
Human TLX recruits ATN1.Y2H screens using TLX-FL and TLX-LBD domain as baits against an adult brain cDNA library identified ATN1 as a TLX-interactor. (A) Schema
I do this probably a good 100 times a day with Cherry! We race to see who can kiss first. I can rarely sneak a kiss in before she licks me. It is hilarious when the hubby and I both kiss her at the same time. We call it the Cherry Sandwich. She goes crazy trying to kiss both of us at on ...
Lactating rats must continuously maintain a critical balance between caring for pups and aggressively responding to nest threats. We tested the neural response of lactating females to the presentation of their own pups and novel intruder males using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T. Dams were presented with a single sequence of a control stimulus, pups or a male intruder in one imaging session (n = 7-9). To further determine the selectivity of neural processing, dams were imaged for their response to a male intruder in both the absence and presence of their pups (n = 6). Several maternal cortical and limbic brain regions were significantly activated by intruder presentation but not by pups or a control stimulus. These included the nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal gray, anterior cingulate, anterior thalamus, basal nucleus of the amygdala, temporal cortex, prelimbic/orbital area and insula. The nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal gray, temporal cortex and

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... we cannot completely rule out the anterior thalamic nucleus disease, at least on the left side, because the anterior thalamic ... Harding A, Halliday G, Caine D, Kril J. Degeneration of anterior thalamic nuclei differentiates alcoholics with amnesia. Brain ... Harding A, Halliday G, Caine D, Kril J. Degeneration of anterior thalamic nuclei differentiates alcoholics with amnesia. Brain ... reported a case of amnesia after unilateral left anterior thalamic infarction in which unilateral left thalamic infarction ...
more infohttp://www.ajnr.org/content/26/1/195

Limbic System the Neurophysiology of EmotionsLimbic System the Neurophysiology of Emotions

Four interconnected modules: the hypothalamus, the anterior thalamic nucleus, the cingulate gyrus and the hippocampus ... You can begin with four interconnected modules: the hypothalamus, the anterior thalamic nucleus, the cingulate gyrus and the ... the medial thalamic nucleus, the septal area, basal nuclei and a few brainstem formations. The limbic system generates feeding ... The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the cortical part of the limbic system. The cingulate gyrus lies above the corpus ...
more infohttp://www.nutramed.com/persona.nutramed.com/emotions/LimbicSystem.htm

Thalamocortical radiations - WikipediaThalamocortical radiations - Wikipedia

... bilateral interruption or severing of the connection between thalamocortical radiations the medial and anterior thalamic nuclei ... Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... and somatosensory input in the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Thalamic nuclei project to cortical areas of distinct ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thalamocortical_radiations

Parafascicular Thalamic Nucleus Activity in a Rat Model of Parkinsons DiseaseParafascicular Thalamic Nucleus Activity in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

Ilinsky IA, Kultas-Ilinsky K. Fine structure of the magnocellular subdivision of the ventral anterior thalamic nucleus (VAmc) ... The thalamic nuclei that receive input from basal ganglia output nuclei also receive diverse inputs from cortex, brainstem, ... The thalamic parafascicular nucleus (PFN) receives input from basal ganglia output nuclei and directly projects to the ... For thalamic nuclei that receive input from basal ganglia output nuclei, it has been suggested that cerebellar and layer V ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2727617/

Thalamic control of human attention driven by memory and learning. - Oxford NeuroscienceThalamic control of human attention driven by memory and learning. - Oxford Neuroscience

Responses in ventrolateral and anterior thalamic nuclei tracked learning of the predictiveness of these abstract associations ... A subsequent fMRI study in healthy volunteers demonstrates involvement of ventrolateral and, notably, anterior thalamus in ... whereas anterior thalamus forms a memory network in connection with the hippocampus [15]. This connectivity profile suggests ... Studies of visual thalamus have revealed important roles for pulvinar and lateral geniculate nucleus in visuospatial perception ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/463161

WOROI: 227 - Ventroanterior thalamic nucleusWOROI: 227 - Ventroanterior thalamic nucleus

Variation: Ventral anterior nucleus. Variation: Ventroanterior nucleus. Variation: Nucleus ventralis anterior. External ... The ventroanterior nucleus is not the same as the anteroventral nucleus (that appear in the anterior thalamic nuclear group).. ... WOROI: 227 - Ventroanterior thalamic nucleus. The ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. It is likely connected to frontal ... WOROI: 227 - Ventroanterior thalamic nucleus. Bib -, Asymmetry , Author , ICA , NMF , Novelty , Statistics , SVD , Title , ...
more infohttp://hendrix.imm.dtu.dk/services/jerne/brede/WOROI_227.html

Get PDF - Organization of thalamic projections to frontal motor areas m1, PMd, SMA and pre-SMA in relation to pallidothalamic...Get PDF - Organization of thalamic projections to frontal motor areas m1, PMd, SMA and pre-SMA in relation to pallidothalamic...

Organization of thalamic projections to frontal motor areas m1, PMd, SMA and pre-SMA in relation to pallidothalamic pathways a ... ventral lateral anterior (VLa), dorsal part of the ventral lateral posterior (VLpd) and ventral medial (VM) nuclei. However, ... Basal forebrain projections to the frontal pole of the thalamic reticular nucleus mediodorsal nucleus and frontal cortex ... Afferent projections to the thalamic lateral dorsal nucleus in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 265(2): 189-202, 1987 ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/035/437/035437252.php

Frontiers | Post-training Inactivation of the Anterior Thalamic Nuclei Impairs Spatial Performance on the Radial Arm Maze |...Frontiers | Post-training Inactivation of the Anterior Thalamic Nuclei Impairs Spatial Performance on the Radial Arm Maze |...

... specifically the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), contains brain signals including that of head direction cells, which fire as a ... specifically the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), contains brain signals including that of head direction cells, which fire as a ... Figure 1. (A) Left: The anterodorsal thalamic nuclei (AD), anteroventral thalamic nuclei (AV), and stria medullaris (SM) are ... Taube, J. S. (1995). Head direction cells recorded in the anterior thalamic nuclei of freely moving rats. J. Neurosci. 15, 70- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2017.00094/full

The Seizure and Cognitive Outcome of Anterior Thalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Patients with Intractable EpilepsyThe Seizure and Cognitive Outcome of Anterior Thalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Patients with Intractable Epilepsy

... , ... Meng DW, Liu HG, Yang AC, et al. Stimulation of Anterior Thalamic Nuclei Protects Against Seizures and Neuronal Apoptosis in ... The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anterior thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (ANT-DBS) for ... The Seizure and Cognitive Outcome of Anterior Thalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Patients with Intractable Epilepsy. ...
more infohttp://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/the-seizure-and-cognitive-outcome-of-anterior-thalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-for-patients-with-intractable-epilepsy-12085.html

anterior thalamic nucleus [Operative Neurosurgery]anterior thalamic nucleus [Operative Neurosurgery]

The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are a collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal ... anterior_thalamic_nucleus.txt. · Last modified: 2018/07/31 10:51 by administrador. ... can be detected reliably in the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN). Further studies are needed to validate these findings 1). ... Automated detection of mesial temporal and temporoperisylvian seizures in the anterior thalamic nucleus. Epilepsy Res. 2018 Jul ...
more infohttp://operativeneurosurgery.com/doku.php?id=anterior_thalamic_nucleus

Basal nucleus | definition of basal nucleus by Medical dictionaryBasal nucleus | definition of basal nucleus by Medical dictionary

... basal nucleus explanation free. What is basal nucleus? Meaning of basal nucleus medical term. What does basal nucleus mean? ... Looking for online definition of basal nucleus in the Medical Dictionary? ... anterior thalamic nucleus The most rostral of the thalamic nuclei. The anterior thalamic nucleus is the only thalamic nucleus ... Synonym: anterior interposed nucleus; nucleus interpositus anterior. external cuneate nucleus. A secondary sensory nucleus in ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/basal+nucleus

Touchscreen papers database - Google SheetsTouchscreen papers database - Google Sheets

NMDA lesion of anterior thalamic nuclei. -. -. -. -. -. No. Yes. 1: VDR, VMCL. 2: VMCL+R. Not stated. No effect. No effect. -. ... Effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of the ... NMDA lesion of mediodorsal thalamic nuclei. -. -. -. -. -. No. Yes. No effect. No effect. -. Impaired. No effect. Impaired. ... Quinolinic acid central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) lesion. -. -. -. -. -. Yes. n/a. No effect. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. - ...
more infohttps://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1k6aAXJPyJWclN6mE6aav4MukGQrg7EiiTJooh9BW7c4/edit

TamPub - Selaus tekijän mukaan Öhman, JuhaTamPub - Selaus tekijän mukaan "Öhman, Juha"

Human anterior thalamic nuclei are involved in emotion-attention interaction  Sun, Lihua; Peräkylä, Jari; Polvivaara, Markus; ... such as at the anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT). ... ...
more infohttp://tampub.uta.fi/handle/10024/59337/browse?value=%C3%96hman%2C+Juha&type=author

The Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei Contribute to Remote Spatial Memory | Journal of NeuroscienceThe Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei Contribute to Remote Spatial Memory | Journal of Neuroscience

A, Anterior thalamic nuclei group (ATN). B, Intralaminar nucleus/lateral thalamic lesion group (ILN/LT). Numbers (in mm) ... Recent studies have shown that the anterior (ATN) and lateral thalamic nuclei (including the intralaminar nuclei; ILN/LT) play ... and anterior central medial nuclei) and the adjacent lateral mediodorsal thalamic nuclei (ILN/LT lesions) impair performance in ... 2008) Anterior but not intralaminar thalamic nuclei support allocentric spatial memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem 90:71-80. ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/10/3302

Vision in toads - WikipediaVision in toads - Wikipedia

R, retina (contralateral eye); O, optic tectum; Pt, pretectal thalamus; Lt, lateral anterior thalamic nucleus; At, anterior ... The thalamic-pretectal region initiates avoidance behavior in the toad. More specifically, electrical triggering the thalamic- ... When the thalamic-pretectal region was removed, avoidance behavior was entirely absent while orienting behavior was enhanced ... Instead, he found that the optic tectum and the thalamic-pretectal region (in the diencephalon) play significant roles in the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vision_in_toads

Frontiers | Modeling the Cerebellar Microcircuit: New Strategies for a Long-Standing Issue | Cellular NeuroscienceFrontiers | Modeling the Cerebellar Microcircuit: New Strategies for a Long-Standing Issue | Cellular Neuroscience

aa, ascending axon; APN, anterior pontine nucleus; ATN, anterior thalamic nuclei; BC, basket cell; BG, basal ganglia; cf, ... through the DCN and the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) on the efferent pathway and through the anterior pontine nuclei (APN) on ... including the cuneate nucleus, vestibular nucleus, reticular nucleus, red nucleus and APN) and spinal cord (dorsal columns). ... deep cerebellar nuclei; GoC, Golgi cell; GrC, granule cell; IO, inferior olive; APN, anterior pontine nucleus; RN, reticular ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2016.00176/full

Degradation of head direction cell activity during inverted locomotion.Degradation of head direction cell activity during inverted locomotion.

Anterior Thalamic Nuclei / cytology. Behavior, Animal. Female. Head Movements / physiology*. Locomotion / physiology*. Motor ... In the present study, we recorded HD cell activity from the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus while the animal was locomoting in an ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Degradation-head-direction-cell-activity/15745969.html

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SNc, Substantia nigra pars compacta; VA, ventral anterior thalamic nucleus; VL, ventrolateral thalamic nucleus. E, ... Synaptic integration of functionally diverse pallidal information in the entopeduncular nucleus and subthalamic nucleus in the ... The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key component of basal ganglia circuitry that mediates a variety of motor functions. The STN ... The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a component in the basal ganglia circuitry that mediates a variety of motor functions ( ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/34/7743

ThalamusThalamus

Ventral Posteromedial Nucleus, Anterior Thalamic Nucleus, Ventral Lateral Nucleus, Ventral Thalamic Nucleus. ... Anterior nucleus of thalamus, Anterior Thalamic Nuclei, Nuclei, Anterior Thalamic, Thalamic Nuclei, Anterior, anterior nuclear ... Anterior thalamic nucleus, Anterior thalamic nucleus (body structure), Anterior nuclei of thalamus, Anterior thalamic nuclei, ... anterior thalamic nuclei, ANG, anterior thalamus, anterior thalamic nucleus, anterior nucleus of thalamus, anterior nuclei of ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/Neuro/Anatomy/Thlms.htm

The Flap about FoxP2 | The Scientist Magazine®The Flap about FoxP2 | The Scientist Magazine®

... medial dorsal thalamic nucleus; VA, ventral anterior thalamic nucleus; VL, ventral lateral thalamic nucleus. (From F. Vargha- ...
more infohttps://www.the-scientist.com/research/the-flap-about-foxp2-48234/amp

cerebral palsy Protocols and Video...'cerebral palsy' Protocols and Video...

Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus, ... Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus. ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/cerebral+palsy

surgical drapes Protocols and Video...'surgical drapes' Protocols and Video...

Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus, ... Murine Left Anterior Descending (LAD) Coronary Artery Ligation: An Improved and Simplified Model for Myocardial Infarction, A ... Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus. ... Murine Left Anterior Descending (LAD) Coronary Artery Ligation: An Improved and Simplified Model for Myocardial Infarction. ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/surgical+drapes

Limbic SystemLimbic System

Nuclei of the limbic system : 1. Limbic lobe : fo… ... Adel Abdel Aziz It is formed of groups of nuclei connected ... li,,/ul,,ul,,li,4. Thalamic nuclei : anterior and medial nuclei. ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,5. The prefrontal cortex (the personality ... li,,/ul,,ul,,li,3. Mamillothalamic tract : connects the mamillary body with the anterior thalamic nucleus. ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,4 ... Fibers pass to the anterior commissure to end in the anterior nuclei of thalamus . ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,3. Fibers pass to the ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/maynader/limbic-system

In vivo mapping of temporospatial changes in glucose utilization in rat brain during epileptogenesis: an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose...In vivo mapping of temporospatial changes in glucose utilization in rat brain during epileptogenesis: an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose...

Anterior thalamic nucleus stimulation modulates regional cerebral metabolism: an FDG-MicroPET study in rats.. *Feng Gao, Yi Guo ... Low-frequency stimulation of cerebellar fastigial nucleus inhibits amygdaloid kindling acquisition in Sprague-Dawley rats.. * ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/In-vivo-mapping-of-temporospatial-changes-in-in-rat-Guo-Gao/11700201fea20cbd87681aad33e7b6c75349ef94

Are the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus and thalamus involved in thinking? | Masarykova univerzitaAre the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus and thalamus involved in thinking? | Masarykova univerzita

Mismatch negativity; P300; Subthalamic nucleus; Internal globus pallidus; Anterior thalamic nucleus; Ventral intermediate ... in the subthalamic nucleus plus the internal globus pallidus and synchronisation in the anterior thalamic nucleus. When the ... The electrodes were implanted into the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus, then in the anterior and ventral ... Are the subthalamic nucleus, internal globus pallidus and thalamus involved in thinking?. Autoři. MINKS Eduard JURÁK Pavel ...
more infohttps://www.muni.cz/vyzkum/publikace/1484638
  • These nuclei extend to relay cells, which in turn innervate distinct areas of the cortex via thalamocortical fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some axons from the mitral cells in the olfactory bulb synapse on anterior olfactory neurons, and anterior olfactory neurons contribute axons to the olfactory tract. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Projections from thalamic core cells synapse on neurons in all cortical layers to some extent (Keller and White, 1989) but predominantly in deep layer III and in layer IV in granular cortex, as well as on the apical dendrites of layer VI neurons (Molinari et al. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The output structures of the basal ganglia, including the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), act as the interface of motor functions through their GABAergic inhibition of target brain regions. (jneurosci.org)
  • from the University of Alabama at Birmingham , United States demonstrates that seizure s in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and temporal-plus epilepsies (i.e., temporoperisylvian) can be detected reliably in the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN). (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Specifically, he identified two main regions of the brain, the tectum and the thalamic-pretectal region, that were responsible for discriminating prey from non-prey and revealed the neural pathways that connected them. (wikipedia.org)