Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Pituitary Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Somatotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells which produce GROWTH HORMONE.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Corticotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Lactotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Thyrotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.Median Eminence: Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Pituitary Irradiation: Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.Dwarfism, Pituitary: A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Thyrotropin, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.beta-Lipotropin: A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Adenoma, Chromophobe: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Metestrus: The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.Galanin: A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Spiperone: A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Endocrine Cells: Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type IRats, Transgenic: Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Iopanoic Acid: Radiopaque medium used as diagnostic aid.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Pituitary Gland, Intermediate: The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).Septo-Optic Dysplasia: A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Cyclic CMP: A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Butaclamol: A benzocycloheptapyridoisoquinolinol that has been used as an antipsychotic, especially in schizophrenia.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptors, Prolactin: Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide: A nonapeptide that is found in neurons, peripheral organs, and plasma. This neuropeptide induces mainly delta sleep in mammals. In addition to sleep, the peptide has been observed to affect electrophysiological activity, neurotransmitter levels in the brain, circadian and locomotor patterns, hormonal levels, psychological performance, and the activity of neuropharmacological drugs including their withdrawal.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Receptors, Estradiol: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Protein PrecursorsMagnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Lumicolchicines: Three, alpha, beta, and gamma isomers of ultraviolet degradation products of colchicine that lack many of the physiological actions of the parent; used as experimental control for colchicine actions.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Rough: A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Tissue Extracts: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Craniopharyngioma: A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
... where somatostatin is released from neurosecretory nerve endings into the hypothalamo-hypophysial system through neuron axons. ... In the anterior pituitary gland, the effects of somatostatin are: Inhibit the release of growth hormone (GH) (thus opposing the ... Somatostatin is then carried to the anterior pituitary gland, where it inhibits the secretion of growth hormone from ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-somatic axis GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157005 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89 ...
The portal system carries the CRH to the anterior lobe of the pituitary, where it stimulates corticotropes to secrete ... from neurosecretory terminals of these neurons into the primary capillary plexus of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. ... Its main function is the stimulation of the pituitary synthesis of ACTH, as part of the HPA Axis. Corticotropin-releasing ... Paul, William E. (September 1993). "Infectious Diseases and the Immune System". Scientific American. 269 (3): 112. Bibcode: ...
... release-inhibiting hormones-which are released to the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system and act on the anterior pituitary. ... In turn, the hypothalamus controls the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary by secreting a class of hypothalamic ... Most tropic hormones are produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary. The hypothalamus secretes tropic hormones that target ... Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary include: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) - stimulates the thyroid ...
... pituitary gland, posterior MeSH A06.407.900 --- thyroid gland MeSH A06.688.357 --- hypothalamo-hypophyseal system MeSH A06.688. ... pituitary-adrenal system MeSH A06.407.747 --- pituitary gland MeSH A06.407.747.608 --- pituitary gland, anterior MeSH A06.407. ... pituitary gland, anterior MeSH A06.688.357.750.734 --- pituitary gland, posterior MeSH A06.688.733 --- pineal gland. ... 357.500 --- median eminence MeSH A06.688.357.750 --- pituitary gland MeSH A06.688.357.750.700 --- ...
... and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary gland, where it stimulates growth hormone ... and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal circulation to the anterior pituitary where it inhibits GH secretion. ... GHRH stimulates GH production and release by binding to the GHRH Receptor (GHRHR) on cells in the anterior pituitary. The GHRHR ... 1-29-Albumin Bioconjugates Activate the GRF Receptor on the Anterior Pituitary in Rats: Identification of CJC-1295 as a Long- ...
This vascular relationship constitutes the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Diffusing out of the second capillary bed, ... Anterior[edit]. Main article: Anterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary arises from an invagination of the oral ectoderm and ... Anterior[edit]. The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes hormones. All releasing hormones (-RH) referred to, can also be ... The anterior pituitary is typically divided into two regions, a more anterior rostral portion and a posterior proximal portion ...
... hypothalamo-hypophyseal system MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.352.435.249 --- median eminence MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357. ... pituitary gland MeSH A08.713.357.750.700 --- pituitary gland, anterior MeSH A08.713.357.750.734 --- pituitary gland, posterior ... 352.435.500 --- pituitary gland MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.352.435.500.700 --- pituitary gland, anterior MeSH A08.186.211.730 ... anterior MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.063 --- anterior hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.400 --- ...
... the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels). Other Control Mechanisms Aside from hypothalamic control of the anterior pituitary ... A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the ... The anterior pituitary is the anterior, glandular lobe of the pituitary gland. Tropic hormones Pituitary adenoma Triple bolus ... glandular anterior pituitary is distinct from the neural composition of the posterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary is ...
These vessels, the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal vessels, carry the hypothalamic factors to the anterior pituitary, where they ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) Hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system The endocrine system consists of numerous ... the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary's hormone secretion by ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); the anterior pituitary ...
These vessels, the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal vessels, carry the hypothalamic factors to the anterior pituitary, where they ... Major neuroendocrine systemsEdit. *Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis[2] (HPA axis). *Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis[2] ( ... the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary's hormone secretion by ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); the anterior pituitary ...
... into the hypophyseal portal system, which carries them to the anterior pituitary where they exert their regulatory functions on ... the hypophysiotropic hormones travel through what is known as the hypothalamo-pituitary portal circulation. Once they reach ... anterior pituitary IN: infundibulum PP: posterior pituitary ME: median eminence AH: anterior hypothalamic nucleus SO: ... release from anterior pituitary Inhibit (moderately) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release from anterior pituitary ...
From there, they are transported to the anterior pituitary via hypophyseal portal veins to the secondary plexus. The secondary ... San Diego, CA Thliveris, James A.; Currie, R. William (1980-04-01). "Observations on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal ... The hypophyseal portal system also plays an important role in several diseases involving the pituitary and central nervous ... In several cases of hypophyseal and pituitary metastatic tumors, the portal system acts as the pathway for metastasis from the ...
... where they are transported and secreted into the hypophyseal portal system to stimulate the anterior pituitary. Thus they can ... "Gene regulation in the magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system". Physiol. Rev. 81 (3): 1197-267. PMID 11427695. Jones ... They are named for being secreted by the neurohypophysis, i.e. the posterior pituitary gland (hypophysis refers to the ... the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract by axoplasmic flow to axon terminals forming the pars nervosa of the posterior pituitary ...
... artery hypophyseal fossa hypophyseal portal system hypophysis hypophysis cerebri hypothalamic sulcus hypothalamohypophyseal ... anterior nucleus of the thalamus anterior perforated substance anterior pituitary anterior root anterior spinal artery anterior ... anterior cruciate ligament anterior ethmoidal foramen anterior ethmoidal nerve anterior funiculus anterior horn cells anterior ... ansa lenticularis anterior cerebral artery Anterior chamber of eyeball anterior choroidal artery anterior commissure anterior ...
... where they are stored and released into the hypophyseal portal system. They then rapidly reach the anterior pituitary where ... "Gene regulation in the magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system". Physiological Reviews. 81 (3): 1197-267. PMID ... Brown AG (2001). Nerve cells and nervous systems : an introduction to neuroscience. London: Springer. p. 200. ISBN 978-3-540- ... Haas HL, Sergeeva OA, Selbach O (July 2008). "Histamine in the nervous system". Physiological Reviews. 88 (3): 1183-241. doi: ...
... where their neurosecretory nerve terminals release peptides into blood vessels in the hypothalamo-pituitary portal system. The ... blood vessels carry the peptides to the anterior pituitary gland, where they regulate the secretion of hormones into the ... Horn, A. M.; Robinson, I. C. A. F.; Fink, G. (1 February 1985). "Oxytocin and vasopressin in rat hypophysial portal blood: ...
... the anterior pituitary undergoes cellular differentiation. At 20 weeks of gestation, the hypophyseal portal system has ... and hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96 (10): 1709-1718. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0454. PMC 3417283 . ... it gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. By seven weeks of gestation, the anterior pituitary vascular system begins to ... By seven weeks of gestation, the anterior pituitary is capable of secreting ACTH. Within eight weeks of gestation, somatotroph ...
CRH is transported to the anterior pituitary through the portal blood vessel system of the hypophyseal stalk and vasopressin is ... Douglas AJ (March 2005). "Central noradrenergic mechanisms underlying acute stress responses of the Hypothalamo-pituitary- ... including the metabolic system, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); the anterior pituitary ...
CRH is transported to the anterior pituitary through the portal blood vessel system of the hypophyseal stalk and vasopressin is ... Douglas AJ (March 2005). "Central noradrenergic mechanisms underlying acute stress responses of the Hypothalamo-pituitary- ... including the metabolic system, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); the anterior pituitary ...
... hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary gland, where it stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion by stimulating the ... and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal circulation to the anterior pituitary where it inhibits GH secretion. ... GHRH stimulates GH production and release by binding to the GHRH Receptor (GHRHR) on cells in the anterior pituitary. ... 1-29-Albumin Bioconjugates Activate the GRF Receptor on the Anterior Pituitary in Rats: Identification of CJC-1295 as a Long- ...
... release-inhibiting hormones-which are released to the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system and act on the anterior pituitary.[ ... Anterior pituitaryEdit. Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary include: *Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin ... Most tropic hormones are produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary.[1] The hypothalamus secretes tropic hormones that ... In turn, the hypothalamus controls the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary by secreting a class of hypothalamic ...
... in part by two hypothalamic peptides that reach the anterior pituitary via the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal blood system1. ... secretion is mediated in part by two hypothalamic peptides that reach the anterior pituitary via the hypothalamo-hypophysial ... secretion is mediated in part by two hypothalamic peptides that reach the anterior pituitary via the hypothalamo-hypophysial ... secretion is mediated in part by two hypothalamic peptides that reach the anterior pituitary via the hypothalamo-hypophysial ...
This vascular relationship constitutes the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Diffusing out of the second capillary bed, ... Anterior[edit]. Main article: Anterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary arises from an invagination of the oral ectoderm and ... Anterior[edit]. The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes hormones. All releasing hormones (-RH) referred to, can also be ... The anterior pituitary is typically divided into two regions, a more anterior rostral portion and a posterior proximal portion ...
... where somatostatin is released from neurosecretory nerve endings into the hypothalamo-hypophysial system through neuron axons. ... In the anterior pituitary gland, the effects of somatostatin are: Inhibit the release of growth hormone (GH) (thus opposing the ... Somatostatin is then carried to the anterior pituitary gland, where it inhibits the secretion of growth hormone from ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-somatic axis GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157005 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89 ...
... immunofluorescence was observed in the anterior pituitary. Stellate cells were ,svg style=vertical-align:-3.39069pt;width: ... hormones and release them into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system to act upon endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary ... W. F. Ganong, "Blood, pituitary, and brain renin-angiotensin systems and regulation of secretion of anterior pituitary gland," ... receptors is abundant in the anterior pituitary, while mRNA is much less abundant and AT2 mRNA is not observed in the anterior ...
small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain brain, the supervisory center of the nervous system in all ... It also serves as the... Explanation of Pituitary diseases ... Looking for Pituitary diseases? Find out information about ... The vascular link between the median eminence and the pituitary gland is known as the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system. ... is well endowed with blood vessels that drain down into the pituitary stalk and ultimately empty into the anterior pituitary. ...
... is a hypothalamic hormone which regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary. ... and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary gland, where it stimulates growth hormone ... is a hypothalamic hormone which regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary. ...
The pituitary gland synthesizes and releases gonadotropins which in turn act on the gonads to stimulate gametogenesis and sex ... Accordingly, complex interactions of various neuronal and hormonal systems need to be considered if we are to understand the ... The pituitary gland synthesizes and releases gonadotropins which in turn act on the gonads to stimulate gametogenesis and sex ... inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release directly by acting on the pituitary gland or indirectly by decreasing the activity ...
... transported to the anterior pituitary via the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system where it promotes the release of ... The increase in cortisol inhibits the thyroid system in two ways: (1) it decreases TSH secretion by the pituitary gland, and (2 ... Surgeon Uses New Method To Remove Pituitary Tumors - Doctors Guide, 1/30/03 (pituitary tumors is sometimes a cause of Cushings ... Triggering of the stress system can also lead to hair loss, skin aging, and other skin problems - I believe they are talking ...
small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain brain, the supervisory center of the nervous system in all ... The vascular link between the median eminence and the pituitary gland is known as the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system. ... is well endowed with blood vessels that drain down into the pituitary stalk and ultimately empty into the anterior pituitary. ... However, its blood is received indirectly via the median eminence and the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system. Most of the ...
What is Respiratory systems? Meaning of Respiratory systems medical term. What does Respiratory systems mean? ... Looking for online definition of Respiratory systems in the Medical Dictionary? Respiratory systems explanation free. ... pituitary portal system hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system.. portal system an arrangement by which blood collected from one ... hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system) the venules connecting the hypothalamus with the sinusoidal capillaries of the anterior ...
... release of CRF into the primary capillary plexus of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vasculature induces anterior pituitary ... To this end, re-evaluation of the well-characterized renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the neuroendocrine systems ... anterior pituitary; pPit, posterior pituitary; NTS, nucleus of the solitary tract; VLM, ventral lateral medulla. ... Jankord, R., and Herman, J. P. (2008). Limbic regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical function during acute and ...
... and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary gland, where it stimulates growth hormone ...
... the olfactory system, the hypothalamo-hypophysial system, the hippocampus, the meso-diencephalic dopamine system, and the ... Within these systems, Sema7A and plexinC1 are often expressed in specific neuronal subsets. In general, Sema7A transcript ... Sema7A-plexinC1 interactions have also been implicated in immune system function, but the neuronal role of this ligand-receptor ... In situ hybridization revealed select expression of Sema7A and plexinC1 in multiple neuronal systems including: ...
... that regulate trophormone secretion in the anterior pituitary via the rete mirabile of the hypothalamohypophyseal portal ... Palkovits M (1984) Neuropeptides in the hypothalamohypophyseal system: lateral retrochiasmatic area as a common gate for ... Bargmann W (1969) The neurosecretory diencephalon‐hypophyseal system and its synaptic connections. J Neurovisc Relat 31(Suppl 9 ... which is normally driven by the activation of CRH receptors on secretory cells of the anterior pituitary (Wynn et al, 1983). ...
It is produced by the hypothalamus and secreted into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Growth hormone is also ... The anterior pituitary secretes growth hormone (also called somatotropin) in larger amounts than any other of its hormones. The ... The secretion of ACTH from the anterior pituitary occurs as part of the general adaption syndrome in response to stress. ... This hormone is unique among the anterior pituitary hormones because its secretion is controlled by both a releasing and ...
The hypophyseal portal system conveys the hypothalamic releasing factors that stimulate secretion of anterior pituitary ... The stalk contains the hypothalamohypophyseal tract (the neural connection between the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary ... or thinned pituitary stalk, an ectopic posterior pituitary gland, and a hypoplastic or normal anterior pituitary gland. ... This "new" pituitary gland could be supplied by the hypophyseal portal system because it is above the level of the stalk ...
... hypothalamo-hypophyseal vessels). The pars nervosa, neurohypophysis or posterior pituitary, has its cell bodies in the ... adenohypophysis or anterior pituitary, is the largest subdivision and it receives peptides from the hypothalamus through a ... They are transported to the adenohypophysis by the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system, where they interact with specific ... They are transported to the adenohypophysis by the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system, where they interact with specific ...
TRH is transported to the anterior pituitary by the hypothalamo- hypophysial portal system where it stimulates synthesis of TSH ... So the competing systems lower system getting a foothold in a higher system, counts as randomness. The assumption of ... The complex interaction of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal-Thyroid-Gonadal axis is a system that helps our body manage many ... A non-specific system is saturable," a nonspecific system isnt saturable. The idea of a cellular "receptor" is essentially ...
TRH is transported to the anterior pituitary by the hypothalamo- hypophysial portal system where it stimulates synthesis of TSH ... decreased carbon dioxide and an increased stress on the oxidative system, could potentially lead to glycolysis and an increase ...
This specialised system of blood vessels, the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system (the pituitary portal system), carries ... The Anterior lobe of the Pituitary Gland (Adenohypophysis). The anterior lobe of the pituitary receives blood that has already ... Key Words: Pituitary Portal System; Releasing Hormones; Posterior Pituitary. Image source:. Posterior lobe of the Pituitary ( ... Pituitary Portal System. In most parts of the body, blood passes from the arterial system to the venous system via a single ...
GnIH was named because it decreased gonadotropin release from cultured anterior pituitary, which was located in the hypothalamo ... which was located in the hypothalamo-hypophysial system. GnIH and GnIH precursor gene related peptides have a characteristic C- ... GnIH was named because it decreased gonadotropin release from cultured anterior pituitary, which was located in the hypothalamo ... GnIH was named because it decreased gonadotropin release from cultured anterior pituitary, which was located in the hypothalamo ...
... the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system binds on DA D2 receptors on PRL-producing lactotrophs within the anterior pituitary ... Pituitary prolactin, while being the main, but not only, source of PRL, is primarily under inhibitory control by hypothalamic ... the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system binds on DA D2 receptors on PRL-producing lactotrophs within the anterior pituitary ... The primary source of PRL is the lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland, which comprise approximately 15-25% of the cells ...
... the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system binds on DA D2 receptors on PRL-producing lactotrophs within the anterior pituitary ... Disorders of the Nervous System, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems. ... In contrast, the defense system that includes the cortex, hypothalamus, and limbic system evolved at a later time, and is ... Bidirectional interactions between the immune system and central nervous system have been acknowledged for centuries. Over the ...
... which means that it stimulates the pituitary gland to produce and secrete growth hormone. Also, Sermorelin Acetate and Modified ... The arcuate neurons do form part of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Their release from the neurosecretory terminals ... also called the anterior pituitary). The anterior pituitary secretes trophic hormones. Sermorelin has also been used in ... which means that it stimulates the pituitary gland to produce and secrete growth hormone. Also, Sermorelin Acetate and Modified ...
... of the hypothalamus release CRF into the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system. CRF then stimulates adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) ... medical release from the anterior pituitary into the systemic circulation, which in turn stimulates the adrenal cortex to ... Neuroendocrine systems The potential contribution of dysfunction of the endocrine system to the neurobiology of depression has ... Most research has focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical axis and, to a ...
  • In order to infer the evolutionary history of the GnIH-GnIH receptor system we investigate the structural similarities between GnIH and its receptor and well-studied nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) and their receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • 2012 ). More importantly, the activity of ePRL differs from pituitary PRL in that an additional 150 bp in the ePRL transcript present in primates drives the promoter even though both pituitary PRL and ePRL bind to the same PRL receptors. (oxfordre.com)
  • In depression, anterior pituitary CRH1 receptors are down-regulated and response to CRH infusion is blunted. (lenus.ie)
  • By contrast, vasopressin V3 receptors on the anterior pituitary show enhanced response to AVP stimulation and this enhancement plays a key role in maintaining HPA overactivity. (lenus.ie)
  • Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the related urocortin peptides mediate behavioral, cognitive, autonomic, neuroendocrine and immunologic responses to aversive stimuli by activating CRF(1) or CRF(2) receptors in the central nervous system and anterior pituitary. (nih.gov)
  • Whether these actions of E2BSA are restricted to the pituitary gland and whether the membrane-initiated pathway of E2BSA contributes to the up-regulation of the number of GnRH receptors during the positive feedback effect of E2 were evaluated here. (biomedcentral.com)
  • a) the rapid suppression of LH secretion induced by E2BSA is mediated only via a direct action on the pituitary gland, b) E2 acting via a membrane-initiated pathway contributes to increase the number of GnRH receptors and, c) administration of E 2 BSA near the beginning of the pre-ovulatory surge of LH delays and reduces the magnitude of the surge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the effects of Ang II on the adrenal are thought to arise primarily from blood-borne Ang II, it is clear that there is a local brain angiotensinergic system as illustrated by biochemical, immunohistochemical, behavioral, physiological, and receptor binding studies [ 4 - 8 ] and reviews [ 9 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Sema7A-plexinC1 interactions have also been implicated in immune system function, but the neuronal role of this ligand-receptor pair remains to be explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Siawrys G, Przala J, Kaminski T, Smolinska N, Gajewska A, Kochman K, Skowronski M, Staszkiewicz J. Long form leptin receptor mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and pituitary during early pregnancy in the pig. (nel.edu)
  • Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor signaling in the central nervous system: new molecular targets. (nih.gov)
  • RT-PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing of the PCR products identified human GnIH receptor (GPR147) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus as well as in the pituitary. (plos.org)
  • The cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for GnIH was also identified in the quail pituitary and GnIH was shown to act on the pituitary to suppress synthesis and release of gonadotropins . (plos.org)
  • Recognize the most common second messenger systems and be able to narrate the events of the classic examples, especially the G-protein coupled receptor system. (wikipremed.com)